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desertification
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{{distinguish|Decertification|Desertion}}(File:Desertification map.png|thumb|upright=1.75|Global desertification vulnerability map)File:ShrinkingLakeChad-1973-1997-EO.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Lake ChadLake ChadDesertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes a desert, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.Geist (2005), p. 2 It is caused by a variety of factors, such as through climate change (particularly the current global warming)JOURNAL, Zeng, Ning, Yoon, Jinho, 1 September 2009, Expansion of the world's deserts due to vegetation-albedo feedback under global warming, Geophysical Research Letters, en, 36, 17, L17401, 10.1029/2009GL039699, 1944-8007, 2009GeoRL..3617401Z, and through the overexploitation of soil through human activity.WEB,weblink Sustainable development of drylands and combating desertification, 21 June 2016, When deserts appear automatically over the natural course of a planet's life cycle, then it can be called a natural phenomenon; however, when deserts emerge due to the rampant and unchecked depletion of nutrients in soil that are essential for it to remain arable, then a virtual "soil death" can be spoken of,WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170102180358weblink">weblink The Desert Will Win, FIGU-Landesgruppe Canada, 2017-01-02, which traces its cause back to human overexploitation. Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem with far reaching consequences on socio-economic and political conditions.Geist (2005), p. 4

Definitions of words

Considerable controversy exists over the proper definition of the term "desertification" for which Helmut Geist (2005) has identified more than 100 formal definitions. The most widely accepted of these is that of the Princeton University Dictionary which defines it as "the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture".WEB,weblink define:desertification – Google Search, 21 June 2016, Desertification has been neatly defined in the text of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities."WEB,weblink Part I, 21 June 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160607231107weblink">weblink 7 June 2016, dead, Another major contribution to the controversy comes from the sub-grouping of types of desertification. Spanning from the very vague yet shortsighted view as the "man-made-desert" to the broader yet less focused type as the "Non-pattern-Desert".Helmut J. Geist, and Eric F. Lambin. "Dynamic Causal Patterns of Desertification." BioScience 54.9 (2004): 817 . Web.The earliest known discussion of the topic arose soon after the French colonization of West Africa, when the Comité d'Etudes commissioned a study on desséchement progressif to explore the prehistoric expansion of the Sahara Desert.BOOK, Mortimore, Michael, Adapting to drought: farmers, famines, and desertification in West Africa, Cambridge University Press, 1989, 978-0-521-32312-3, 12,weblink

History

The world's most noted deserts have been formed by natural processes interacting over long intervals of time. During most of these times, deserts have grown and shrunk independent of human activities. Paleodeserts are large sand seas now inactive because they are stabilized by vegetation, some extending beyond the present margins of core deserts, such as the Sahara, the largest hot desert.United States Geological Survey, "Desertification", 1997Desertification has played a significant role in human history, contributing to the collapse of several large empires, such as Carthage, Greece, and the Roman Empire, as well as causing displacement of local populations.WEB, LOWDERMILK, W C, CONQUEST OF THE LAND THROUGH SEVEN THOUSAND YEARS,weblink Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 9 April 2014, BOOK, Whitford, Walter G., Ecology of desert systems, Academic Press, 2002, 978-0-12-747261-4, 277,weblink Bogumil Terminski (2011), Towards Recognition and Protection of Forced Environmental Migrants in the Public International Law: Refugee or IDPs Umbrella, Policy Studies Organization (PSO), Washington.BOOK, Geist, Helmut, The causes and progression of desertification,weblink Antony Rowe Ltd, Ashgate publishing limited, 6 July 2013, 9780754643234, 2005, Historical evidence shows that the serious and extensive land deterioration occurring several centuries ago in arid regions had three epicenters: the Mediterranean, the Mesopotamian Valley, and the Loess Plateau of China, where population was dense.WEB, Dregne, H.E., Desertification of Arid Lands,weblink Columbia University, 3 December 2013,

Areas affected

File:Sun, Moon and Telescopes above the Desert (ESO).jpg|thumb|upright=1.4|Sun, moon, and large telescopes above Chile’s Atacama DesertAtacama DesertDrylands occupy approximately 40–41% of Earth’s land areaBauer (2007), p. 78Johnson et al (2006), p. 1 and are home to more than 2 billion people. It has been estimated that some 10–20% of drylands are already degraded, the total area affected by desertification being between 6 and 12 million square kilometres, that about 1–6% of the inhabitants of drylands live in desertified areas, and that a billion people are under threat from further desertification.WEB,weblink UNCCD – Error 404 – Page Not Found, 21 June 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160509022901weblink">weblink 9 May 2016, dead, BOOK, World Bank, Gender in agriculture sourcebook, World Bank Publications, 2009, 978-0-8213-7587-7, 454,weblink As of 1998, the then-current degree of southward expansion of the Sahara was not well known, due to a lack of recent, measurable expansion of the desert into the Sahel at the time.WEB,weblink IRI – International Research Institute for Climate and Society, The impact of global warming and human activities are presented in the Sahel. In this area, the level of desertification is very high compared to other areas in the world. All areas situated in the eastern part of Africa (i.e. in the Sahel region) are characterized by a dry climate, hot temperatures, and low rainfall (300–750 mm rainfall per year). So, droughts are the rule in the Sahel region.WEB,weblink Defining Desertification : Feature Articles, Riebeek, Holli, 2007-01-03, earthobservatory.nasa.gov, en, 2016-11-30, Some studies have shown that Africa has lost approximately 650,000 km² of its productive agricultural land over the past 50 years. The propagation of desertification in this area is considerable.WEB,weblink La progression du désert du Sahara augmente chaque année ?, Savezvousque.fr, 2016-11-30, File:Village Telly in Mali.jpg|thumb|SahelSahelSome statistics have shown that since 1900 the Sahara has expanded by 250 km to the south over a stretch of land from west to east 6,000 km long.BOOK, Hecke, Geoffrey Van, Humanum 3, le secret d'Épidaure: suivi de Amazone City,weblink 2012, Mon Petit Éditeur, 978-2-7483-9214-2, 192, D'après Monique Mainguet, depuis 1900, le Sahara a progressé vers le sud de 250 kilomètres et ce sur un front qui en fait plus de 6000 km., WEB, Christian Bouquet, Le Sahara entre ses deux rives. Éléments de délimitation par la géohistoire d'un espace de contraintes, Géoconfluences, December 2017,weblink Mais il aurait progressé de 250 km vers le sud depuis 1900 (Mainguet, 2003), et dépasserait donc 9 millions de km² soit 30 % de la superficie totale du continent africain., BOOK, Mainguet, Monique, Les pays secs: environnement et développement, 2003, Ellipses, The survey, done by the research institute for development, had demonstrated that this means dryness is spreading fast in the Sahelian countries. 70% of the arid area has deteriorated and water resources have disappeared, leading to soil degradation. The loss of topsoil means that plants cannot take root firmly and can be uprooted by torrential water or strong winds.WEB,weblink United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: Issues and Challenges, E-International Relations, 2016-11-30, The United Nations Convention (UNC) says that about six million Sahelian citizens would have to give up the desertified zones of sub-Saharan Africa for North Africa and Europe between 1997 and 2020.Another major area that is being impacted by desertification is the Gobi Desert. Currently, the Gobi desert is the fastest moving desert on Earth; according to some researchers, the Gobi Desert swallows up over 1,300 square miles (3,370 km²) of land annually. This has destroyed many villages in its path. Currently, photos show that the Gobi Desert has expanded to the point the entire nation of Croatia could fit inside its area.NEWS,weblink Living in China's Expanding Deserts, The New York Times, 2016-10-24, This is causing a major problem for the people of China. They will soon have to deal with the desert as it creeps closer. Although the Gobi Desert itself is still a distance away from Beijing, reports from field studies state there are large sand dunes forming only 70 km (43.5 mi) outside the cityweblink

Vegetation patterning

As the desertification takes place, the landscape may progress through different stages and continuously transform in appearance. On gradually sloped terrain, desertification can create increasingly larger empty spaces over a large strip of land, a phenomenon known as "Brousse tigrée". A mathematical model of this phenomenon proposed by C. Klausmeier attributes this patterning to dynamics in plant-water interaction.JOURNAL, Klausmeier, Christopher, Regular and irregular patterns in semiarid vegetation, Science, 1999, 284, 5421, 1826–1828, 10.1126/science.284.5421.1826, One outcome of this observation suggests an optimal planting strategy for agriculture in arid environments.WEB,weblink Grid of straw squares turns Chinese sand to soil – Environment – DW.COM – 23.06.2011, Deutsche Welle, (www.dw.com), 21 June 2016,

Causes by loss

{{Multiple image| direction = horizontal| align = top| header = Preventing man-made overgrazing| width1 = 195| image1 = Cabrasnortechico.JPG| caption1 = Goats inside of a pen in Norte Chico, Chile. Overgrazing of drylands by poorly managed traditional herding is one of the primary causes of desertification.| width2 = 295| image2 = Wildebeest-during-Great-Migration.JPG
grazing>grazers in huge populations of travel herds,LADUKE >FIRST=WINONA TITLE=ALL OUR RELATIONS: NATIVE STRUGGLES FOR LAND AND LIFE LOCATION=CAMBRIDGE, MA PAGE=146 ACCESS-DATE=30 MARCH 2015 URL-ACCESS=REGISTRATION, HTTPS://TWP.DUKE.EDU/UPLOADS/ASSETS/DUVAL.PDF >TITLE=BISON CONSERVATION: SAVING AN ECOLOGICALLY AND CULTURALLY KEYSTONE SPECIES FIRST1=CLAY ACCESS-DATE=APRIL 13, 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120308011257/HTTP://TWP.DUKE.EDU/UPLOADS/ASSETS/DUVAL.PDF Holistic management (agriculture)>holistic planned grazing."Holistic Land Management: Key to Global Stability" by Terry Waghorn. Forbes. 20 December 2012.}}The immediate cause is the loss of most vegetation. This is driven by a number of factors, alone or in combination, such as drought, climatic shifts, tillage for agriculture, overgrazing and deforestation for fuel or construction materials. Vegetation plays a major role in determining the biological composition of the soil. Studies have shown that, in many environments, the rate of erosion and runoff decreases exponentially with increased vegetation cover.BOOK, Geeson, Nichola, Mediterranean desertification: a mosaic of processes and responses, John Wiley & Sons, 2002, 978-0-470-84448-9, 58,weblink etal, Unprotected, dry soil surfaces blow away with the wind or are washed away by flash floods, leaving infertile lower soil layers that bake in the sun and become an unproductive hardpan.Many scientists think that one of the most common causes is overgrazing, too much consumption of vegetation by cattle. Controversially, Allan Savory has claimed that the controlled movement of herds of livestock, mimicking herds of grazing wildlife, can reverse desertification.WEB, Savory, Allan, Allan Savory: How to green the world's deserts and reverse climate change,weblink WEB, Savory, Allan, Holistic resource management: a conceptual framework for ecologically sound economic modelling,weblink Ecological Economics, Elsevier Science Publishers, 10 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130523200348weblink">weblink 23 May 2013, BOOK, Butterfield, Jody, Holistic Management Handbook: Healthy Land, Healthy Profits, Second Edition, 2006, Island Press, 978-1559638852, WEB, Savory, Allan, Response to request for information on the "science" and "methodology" underpinning Holistic Management and holistic planned grazing,weblink Savory Institute, 10 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130523074713weblink">weblink 23 May 2013, WEB, Drury, Steve, Large-animal extinction in Australia linked to human hunters,weblink Earth-Pages, 9 June 2014, 2012-04-13, File:Morroco-arid-climate.jpg|thumb|A shepherd guiding his sheep through the high desert outside Marrakech, MoroccoMoroccoScientists agree that the existence of a desert in the place where the Sahara desert is now located is due to a natural climate cycle; this cycle often causes a lack of water in the area from time to time. There is a suggestion that the last time that the Sahara was converted from savanna to desert it was partially due to overgrazing by the cattle of the local population.JOURNAL, K. Wright, David, Rull, Valenti, Roberts, Richard, Marchant, Rob, Gil-Romera, Graciela, Humans as Agents in the Termination of the African Humid Period, Frontiers of Earth Science, 5, 26 January 2017, Quaternary Science, Geomorfology and Paleoenvironment, 10.3389/feart.2017.00004, One of the major causes of desertification in the 20th-21st centuries is probably climate change

Poverty

At least 90% of the inhabitants of drylands live in developing countries, where they also suffer from poor economic and social conditions. This situation is exacerbated by land degradation because of the reduction in productivity, the precariousness of living conditions and the difficulty of access to resources and opportunities.Dobie, Ph. 2001. “Poverty and the drylands”, in Global Drylands Imperative, Challenge paper, Undp, Nairobi (Kenya) 16 p.A downward spiral is created in many underdeveloped countries by overgrazing, land exhaustion and overdrafting of groundwater in many of the marginally productive world regions due to overpopulation pressures to exploit marginal drylands for farming. Decision-makers are understandably averse to invest in arid zones with low potential. This absence of investment contributes to the marginalisation of these zones. When unfavourable agro-climatic conditions are combined with an absence of infrastructure and access to markets, as well as poorly adapted production techniques and an underfed and undereducated population, most such zones are excluded from development.Cornet A., 2002. Desertification and its relationship to the environment and development: a problem that affects us all. In: Ministère des Affaires étrangères/adpf, Johannesburg. World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002. What is at stake? The contribution of scientists to the debate: 91–125.. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090809142606weblink |date=2009-08-09 }}Desertification often causes rural lands to become unable to support the same sized populations that previously lived there. This results in mass migrations out of rural areas and into urban areas, particularly in Africa. These migrations into the cities often cause large numbers of unemployed people, who end up living in slums.BOOK, Pasternak, Dov, Schlissel, Arnold, Combating desertification with plants, Springer, 2001, 978-0-306-46632-8, 20,weblink BOOK, Briassoulis, Helen, Policy integration for complex environmental problems: the example of Mediterranean desertification, Ashgate Publishing, 2005, 978-0-7546-4243-5, 161,weblink Agriculture is a main source of income for many desert communities. The increase in desertification in theses regions has degraded the land enough where people can no longer productively farm and make a profit. This has negatively impacted the economy and increased poverty rates.JOURNAL, Stringer, Lindsay C., Dyer, Jen C., Reed, Mark S., Dougill, Andrew J., Twyman, Chasca, Mkwambisi, David, Adaptations to climate change, drought and desertification: local insights to enhance policy in southern Africa, Environmental Science & Policy, 12, 7, 748–765, 10.1016/j.envsci.2009.04.002, 2009,

Countermeasures

File:North Sahara. Anti-sand shields.jpg|thumb|Anti-sand shields in north Sahara, TunisiaTunisiaFile:GreeningdesertTharIndia.jpg|thumb|Jojoba plantations, such as those shown, have played a role in combating edge effects of desertification in the Thar Desert, IndiaIndiaTechniques and countermeasures exist for mitigating or reversing the effects of desertification, and some possess varying levels of difficulty. For some, there are numerous barriers to their implementation. Yet for others, the solution simply requires the exercise of human reason.One proposed barrier is that the costs of adopting sustainable agricultural practices sometimes exceed the benefits for individual farmers, even while they are socially and environmentally beneficial.JOURNAL, Drost, Daniel, Long, Gilbert, Wilson, David, Miller, Bruce, Campbell, William, Barriers to Adopting Sustainable Agricultural Practices, 6,weblink Journal of Extension, 34, 1 December 1996, Another issue is a lack of political will, and lack of funding to support land reclamation and anti-desertification programs.BOOK, Briassoulis, Helen, Policy integration for complex environmental problems: the example of Mediterranean desertification, Ashgate Publishing, 2005, 978-0-7546-4243-5, 237,weblink Desertification is recognized as a major threat to biodiversity. Some countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, particularly in relation to the protection of endangered flora and fauna.Techniques for Desert Reclamation by Andrew S. GoudieDesert reclamation projects {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090103172821weblink |date=2009-01-03 }}Reforestation gets at one of the root causes of desertification and is not just a treatment of the symptoms. Environmental organizationsFor example, Eden Reforestation Projects website, on Vimeo, on {{YouTube|id=edenreforest|title=Eden Reforestation Projects}}. work in places where deforestation and desertification are contributing to extreme poverty. There they focus primarily on educating the local population about the dangers of deforestation and sometimes employ them to grow seedlings, which they transfer to severely deforested areas during the rainy season.{{USGovernment|sourceURL=http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/desertification/}} The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations launched the FAO Drylands Restoration Initiative in 2012 to draw together knowledge and experience on dryland restoration.WEB, Drylands Restoration Initiative,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 14 April 2016, In 2015, FAO published global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands, in collaboration with the Turkish Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs and the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency.BOOK, Global guidelines for the restoration of degraded forests and landscapes in drylands, June 2015, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 978-92-5-108912-5,weblink The Green Wall of China is a high-profile example of one method that has been finding success in this battle with desertification.{{According to whom|date=April 2018}}. This wall is a much larger-scale version of what American farmers did in the 1930s to stop the great Midwest dust bowl. This plan was proposed in the late 1970s, and has become a major ecological engineering project that is not predicted to end until the year 2055. According to Chinese reports, there have been nearly 66 billion trees planted in China's great green wall.WEB,weblink China's 'Great Green Wall' Fights Expanding Desert, 2017-04-21, Due to the success that China has been finding in stopping the spread of desertification, plans are currently be made in Africa to start a "wall" along the borders of the Sahara desert as well to be financed by the United Nations Global Environment Facility trust.JOURNAL, Gadzama, Njidda Mamadu, 2017, Attenuation of the effects of desertification through sustainable development of Great Green Wall in the Sahel of Africa, World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 14, 279–289, Techniques focus on two aspects: provisioning of water, and fixation and hyper-fertilizing soil. Fixating the soil is often done through the use of shelter belts, woodlots and windbreaks. Windbreaks are made from trees and bushes and are used to reduce soil erosion and evapotranspiration. They were widely encouraged by development agencies from the middle of the 1980s in the Sahel area of Africa.Some soils (for example, clay), due to lack of water can become consolidated rather than porous (as in the case of sandy soils). Some techniques as zaï or tillage are then used to still allow the planting of crops.WEB,weblink Our Good Earth – National Geographic Magazine, 21 June 2016, Waffle gardens can also help as they can provide protection of the plants against wind/sandblasting, and increase the hours of shade falling on the plant.Grow Vegetables in the Desert With a 'Waffle Garden'Another technique that is useful is contour trenching. This involves the digging of 150 m long, 1 m deep trenches in the soil. The trenches are made parallel to the height lines of the landscape, preventing the water from flowing within the trenches and causing erosion. Stone walls are placed around the trenches to prevent the trenches from closing up again. The method was invented by Peter Westerveld.WEB,weblink Home – Justdiggit, 21 June 2016,weblink 2 April 2016, dead, Enriching of the soil and restoration of its fertility is often done by plants. Of these, leguminous plants which extract nitrogen from the air and fix it in the soil, and food crops/trees as grains, barley, beans and dates are the most important. Sand fences can also be used to control drifting of soil and sand erosion.List of plants to halt desertification; some of which may be soil-fixating {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110201080944weblink |date=2011-02-01 }}Some research centra (such as Bel-Air Research Center IRD/ISRA/UCAD) are also experimenting with the inoculation of tree species with mycorrhiza in arid zones. The mycorrhiza are basically fungi attaching themselves to the roots of the plants. They hereby create a symbiotic relation with the trees, increasing the surface area of the tree's roots greatly (allowing the tree to gather much more nutrient from the soil).WEB,weblink Département Biologie Végétale – Laboratoire Commun de Microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, 21 June 2016, As there are many different types of deserts, there are also different types of desert reclamation methodologies. An example for this is the salt flats in the Rub' al Khali desert in Saudi Arabia. These salt flats are one of the most promising desert areas for seawater agriculture and could be revitalized without the use of freshwater or much energy.Rethinking landscapes, Nicol-André Berdellé July 2011 H2O magazineFarmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR) is another technique that has produced successful results for desert reclamation. Since 1980, this method to reforest degraded landscape has been applied with some success in Niger. This simple and low-cost method has enabled farmers to regenerate some 30,000 square kilometers in Niger. The process involves enabling native sprouting tree growth through selective pruning of shrub shoots. The residue from pruned trees can be used to provide mulching for fields thus increasing soil water retention and reducing evaporation. Additionally, properly spaced and pruned trees can increase crop yields. The Humbo Assisted Regeneration Project which uses FMNR techniques in Ethiopia has received money from The World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund, which supports projects that sequester or conserve carbon in forests or agricultural ecosystems.WEB,weblink Sprouting Trees From the Underground Forest — A Simple Way to Fight Desertification and Climate Change – Water Matters – State of the Planet, Blogs.ei.columbia.edu, 2011-10-18, 2012-08-11,

Managed grazing

Restoring grasslands store CO2 from the air as plant material. Grazing livestock, usually not left to wander, would eat the grass and would minimize any grass growth while grass left alone would eventually grow to cover its own growing buds, preventing them from photosynthesizing and killing the plant.NEWS,weblink How fences could save the planet, newstatesman.com, May 5, 2013, January 13, 2011, A method proposed to restore grasslands uses fences with many small paddocks and moving herds from one paddock to another after a day or two in order to mimic natural grazers and allowing the grass to grow optimally.NEWS,weblink Restoring soil carbon can reverse global warming, desertification and biodiversity, mongabay.com, May 5, 2013, February 21, 2008, dead,weblink" title="archive.is/20130625040133weblink">weblink June 25, 2013, NEWS,weblink How eating grass-fed beef could help fight climate change, time.com, May 11, 2013, January 25, 2010, Lisa, Abend, It is estimated that increasing the carbon content of the soils in the world’s 3.5 billion hectares of agricultural grassland would offset nearly 12 years of CO2 emissions. Allan Savory, as part of holistic management, claims that while large herds are often blamed for desertification, prehistoric lands used to support herds as large or larger and areas where herds were removed in the United States are still desertifying;NEWS,weblink How cows could repair the world, nationalgeographic.com, May 5, 2013, March 6, 2013, range scientists have however not been able to experimentally confirm his claims.WEB, Briske, D. D., Origin, Persistence, and Resolution of the Rotational Grazing Debate: Integrating Human Dimensions Into Rangeland Research,weblink Rangeland Ecol Manage 64:325–334, 6 April 2013, D. D. Briske, J. D. Derner, J. R. Brown, S. D. Fuhlendorf, W. R. Teague, K. M. Havstad, R. L. Gillen, A. J. Ash, W. D. Willms, (2008) Rotational Grazing on Rangelands: Reconciliation of Perception and Experimental Evidence. Rangeland Ecology & Management: January 2008, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 3-17.{{clear}}File:Soil erosion, Southfield - geograph.org.uk - 367917.jpg|thumb|Wind erosion outside LeucharsLeuchars

See also

Mitigation: Other related portals:

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Arnalds, Ólafur, Archer, Steve, Rangeland Desertification, Springer, 2000, 978-0-7923-6071-1,weblink
  • Barbault R., Cornet A., Jouzel J., Mégie G., Sachs I., Weber J. (2002). Johannesburg. World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002. What is at stake? The contribution of scientists to the debate. Ministère des Affaires étrangères/adpf.
  • BOOK, Bauer, Steffan, Desertification, Thai, Khi V., etal, Handbook of globalization and the environment, CRC Press, 2007, 978-1-57444-553-4,weblink
  • Batterbury, S.P.J. & A.Warren (2001) Desertification. in N. Smelser & P. Baltes (eds.) International Encyclopædia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier Press. pp. 3526–3529
  • D’Odorico P., A. Bhattachan, K.F. Davis, S. Ravi, C.W. Runyan, (2013). Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks, Adv. Water Res., 51, 326-344.
  • BOOK, Geist, Helmut, The causes and progression of desertification, 2005, Ashgate Publishing, 978-0-7546-4323-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Hartman, Ingrid, Desertification, Philander, S. George, Encyclopedia of global warming and climate change, Volume 1, SAGE, 2008, 978-1-4129-5878-3,weblink
  • BOOK, Hinman, C. Wiley, Hinman, Jack W., The plight and promise of arid land agriculture, Columbia University Press, 1992, 978-0-231-06612-9,weblink
  • Holtz, Uwe (2007). Implementing the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification from a parliamentary point of view – Critical assessment and challenges ahead. Online at weblink
  • Holtz, Uwe (2013). Role of parliamentarians in the implementation process of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. A guide to Parliamentary Action, ed. Secretariat of the UNCCD, Bonn {{ISBN|978-92-95043-69-5}}. Online at weblink
  • BOOK, Johnson, Pierre Marc, etal, Governing global desertification: linking environmental degradation, poverty and participation, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 978-0-7546-4359-3,weblink
  • Lucke, Bernhard (2007): Demise of the Decapolis. Past and Present Desertification in the Context of Soil Development, Land Use, and Climate. Online at weblink
  • BOOK, Mensah, Joseph, Desertification, Leonard, Thomas M., Encyclopedia of the developing world, Volume 1, Taylor & Francis, 2006, 978-0-415-97662-6,weblink
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614063156weblink">Desertification Synthesis Report
  • Moseley, W.G. and E. Jerme 2010. “Desertification.” In: Warf, B. (ed). Encyclopedia of Geography. Sage Publications. Volume 2, pp. 715–719.
  • BOOK, Oliver, John E., Desertification, Encyclopedia of world climatology, Springer, 2005, 978-1-4020-3264-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Parrillo, Vincent N., Desertification, Encyclopedia of social problems, Volume 2, SAGE, 2008, 978-1-4129-4165-5,weblink Vincent N. Parrillo,
  • Reynolds, James F., and D. Mark Stafford Smith (ed.) (2002) Global Desertification – Do Humans Cause Deserts? Dahlem Workshop Report 88, Berlin: Dahlem University Press
  • Stelt, Sjors van der (2012) Rise and Fall of Periodic Patterns for a Generalized Klausmeier-Gray-Scott Model, PhD Thesis University of Amsterdam
  • UNCCD (1994) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110124002610weblink">United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
  • The End of Eden a 90-minute documentary by South African filmmaker Rick Lomba in 1984 on African desertification


Attribution
  • {{USGovernment|sourceURL=http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/desertification/}}

External links

{{Deforestation and desertification}}{{Human impact on the environment}}{{Authority control}}


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