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Loess Plateau

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Loess Plateau
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{{chinese
piccap=The Loess Plateau (shaded)l={{nowrap|The Yellow Earth Plateau}}}}The Loess Plateau, also known as the Huangtu Plateau ({{zh|t=黃土高原|p=Huángtǔ Gāoyuán|l=Yellow Earth Plateau}}), is a {{Convert|640000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} plateau located around the Wei River valley and the southern half of the Ordos Loop of the Yellow River in central China. It covers almost all of the provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi and extends into parts of Gansu, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia. It was enormously important to Chinese history, as it formed one of the early cradles of Chinese civilization and its eroded silt is responsible for the great fertility of the North China Plain, along with the repeated and massively destructive (:Category:Yellow River floods|floods) of the Yellow River. Its soil has been called "most highly erodible... on earth"John M. Laflen, Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming, 2000, CRC Press, 736 pages {{ISBN|0-8493-2349-5}} and conservation efforts and land management are a major focus of modern Chinese agriculture.{{anchor|Etymology|Names}}

Name

The area is named for its most distinctive feature, the highly friable "loess" (German for "loose"; {{zh|t=}}, huángtǔ, "yellow earth") soil that has been deposited by wind storms over the ages.BOOK, Natural Wonders of the World, Reader's Digest Association, Inc, 1980, 0-89577-087-3, Scheffel, Richard L., United States of America, 341, Wernet, Susan J.,

History

File:Loess landscape china.jpg|thumb|right|The Loess Plateau near Hunyuan in Datong, Shanxi ProvinceShanxi ProvinceFile:5768-Linxia-Wanshou-Guan-erosion.jpg|thumb|Erosion gradually deprives a corn farmer of his land in Linxia CityLinxia CityHistorically the Loess Plateau has provided simple, insulated shelter from the cold winter and hot summer in the region, as homes called yaodong (窰洞) were often carved into the loess soil. In medieval times people stayed here to grow rice; some families still live in this kind of shelter in modern times.In ancient times, this region was an important center of the Silk Road.Susan Whitfield, Life Along the Silk Road, 2001, University of California Press, 253 pages {{ISBN|0-520-23214-3}} Goods moving by caravan to the west included gold, rubies, jade, textiles, coral, ivory, and art works. In the opposite direction moved bronze weapons, furs, ceramics, and cinnamon bark.C. Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. BurnhamDuring the 1556 Shaanxi earthquake, 830,000 people were killed as a result of collapsing loess caves.The yaodongs that are best known to the world are perhaps those in Yan'an where the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong headquartered in 1930s. When Edgar Snow, the author of Red Star Over China, visited Mao and his party, he lived in a yaodong.

Climate

The plateau generally has a semi-arid climate ((Köppen climate classification#GROUP B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates|Köppen BS)), with extensive monsoonal influence. Winters are cold and dry, while summers are very warm and in many places hot. Rainfall tends to be heavily concentrated in summer, and the area receives extensive amounts of sunshine.

Agriculture and environment

File:5902-Linxia-County-Xihe-township-canyon.jpg|thumb|Land degradation results in canyons like this one that cuts the loess plateau in Linxia County, Gansu. Reduced moisture suction due to a degraded vegetation layer formed this creek flowing into the lower Daxia RiverDaxia RiverFile:5814-Linxia-City-north-plateau-Sichuan-pepper-along-the-gulch-edge.jpg|thumb|Sichuan pepper shrubs planted on terraced gulch slope, to slow down erosion and utilize the land (Linxia City, Gansu). Soil erosion and waterfloods swell up the rivers with brownish waters—a suspension of silts, clays and other soil particles]]The Loess Plateau was formed over long geologic times, and scientists have derived valuable information about global climate change from samples taken from the deep layer of its silty soil.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}} The plateau was highly fertile and easy to farm in ancient times, which contributed to the development of early Chinese civilization around the Loess Plateau,{{Ho, P. (1998). In Defense of Sinicization: A Rebuttal of Evelyn Rawski's "Reenvisioning the Qing". The Journal of Asian Studies, 57(1), 128}} but centuries of overgrazing, subsistence farming, deforestation for fuel wood gathering and cultivation of crops on slopes, exacerbated by China's population increase, have resulted in degenerated ecosystems, desertification, and poor local economies.WEB,weblink Restoring China's Loess Plateau, World Bank, 2007-03-15, 2019-07-25, To reverse this trend, the Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project was launched in 1994WEB,weblink Loess Plateau Watershed Rehabilitation Project, World Bank, 2019-07-25, to rehabilitate the land and improve the people's livelihoods. The project guided the people living on the plateau to change animal husbandry practices; encouraged natural regeneration of grasslands, tree and shrub cover on slope-lands previously used for farming; and land restoration through terracing and replanting. These efforts allowed the perennial vegetation cover to increase from 17 to 34 percent, and "[e]ven in the lifetime of the project, the ecological balance was restored in a vast area considered by many to be beyond help"; in addition, more than 2.5 million people were lifted out of poverty by doubled incomes.WEB,weblink Restoring China's Loess Plateau, World Bank, 2007-03-15, 2019-07-25, Restoration has occurred over an area of about 35,000 square kilometers (about 5% of the plateau's total area).Hope in a Changing Climate, documentary film by John D. Liu, (9:39) Results have reduced the massive silt loads to the Yellow River by about one percent.World Bank, Reengaging in Agricultural Water Management: Challenges and Options, 2006, 218 pages {{ISBN|0-8213-6498-7}}

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Plateaus of China}}{{Henan topics}}{{Gansu topics}}{{coord|36|53|N|108|43|E|source:cawiki_region:CN|display=title}}


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