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satellite
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{{short description|Human-made object put into an orbit}}{{about|artificial satellites|natural satellites, also known as moons|Natural satellite|other uses|Satellite (disambiguation)}}{{redirects here|Artificial moon|the electric light used to simulate moonlight|moonlight tower}}{{Spaceflight sidebar}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}File:NASA Earth-observing Fleet June 2012.ogv|thumb|upright=1.35|NASANASAFile:ERS 2.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.1|A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2ERS 2In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon.On 4 October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 8,900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2018 estimate, some 5,000 remain in orbit. Of those about 1,900 were operational, while the rest have lived out their useful lives and become space debris. Approximately 63% of operational satellites are in low-Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit (at 20,000 km), 29% are in geostationary orbit (at 36,000 km) and the remaining 2% are in elliptic orbit.WEB,weblink Pixalytics, How many satellites are orbiting earth in 2018, 27 September 2018, 22 August 2018, A few large space stations have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids,WEB,weblink NASA Spacecraft Becomes First to Orbit a Dwarf Planet, NASA, 2015-03-06, a comet and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Among several other applications, they can be used to make star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, and also take pictures of planets they are launched into. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.A launch vehicle is a rocket that places a satellite into orbit. Usually, it lifts off from a launch pad on land. Some are launched at sea from a submarine or a mobile maritime platform, or aboard a plane (see air launch to orbit).Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude

History

(File:1986 CPA 5712.jpg|thumb|Konstantin Tsiolkovsky)File:Popular_Science_May_1949.jpg|thumb|A 1949 issue of Popular SciencePopular ScienceFile:ConstellationGPS.gif|thumb|right|upright=1.1|Animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium Earth orbitmedium Earth orbitFile:Sputnik asm.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|(Sputnik 1]]: The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.)File:ESTCube-1 illustration.jpg|thumb|1U CubeSat ESTCube-1, developed mainly by the students from the University of Tartu, carries out a tether deployment experiment in low Earth orbitlow Earth orbitThe first published mathematical study of the possibility of an artificial satellite was Newton's cannonball, a thought experiment in A Treatise of the System of the World by Isaac Newton (1687). The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit was a short story by Edward Everett Hale, The Brick Moon.WEB
, Rockets in Science Fiction (Late 19th Century)
,weblink
, Marshall Space Flight Center
,
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000901224414weblink">weblink
, 2000-09-01
, 2008-11-21
,
, BOOK, Science-fiction, the Early Years
, Everett Franklin, Bleiler, Richard, Bleiler, 325
, 978-0-87338-416-2, Kent State University Press, 1991, The idea surfaced again in Jules Verne's The Begum's Fortune (1879).
In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935) published Exploring Space Using Jet Propulsion Devices, which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft. He calculated the orbital speed required for a minimal orbit, and that a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid propellants could achieve this.In 1928, Herman Potočnik (1892–1929) published his sole book, The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket Motor. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for observation of the ground and described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments.In a 1945 Wireless World article, the English science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke described in detail the possible use of communications satellites for mass communications.BOOK, Visions of Technology
, Richard, Rhodes, 160, Simon & Schuster, 2000
, 978-0-684-86311-5, He suggested that three geostationary satellites would provide coverage over the entire planet.
In May 1946, the United States Air Force's Project RAND released the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, which stated that "A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century."WEB,weblink Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, RAND, 6 March 2008, The United States had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. Project RAND eventually released the report, but considered the satellite to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda, rather than a potential military weapon.BOOK, Venture into Space: Early Years of Goddard Space Flight Center
, Alfred, Rosenthal, NASA, 1968, 15, In February 1954 Project RAND released "Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle," written by R.R. Carhart.R.R. Carhart, Scientific Uses for a Satellite Vehicle, Project RAND Research Memorandum. (Rand Corporation, Santa Monica) 12 February 1954. This expanded on potential scientific uses for satellite vehicles and was followed in June 1955 with "The Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite," by H.K. Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg.2. H.K Kallmann and W.W. Kellogg, Scientific Use of an Artificial Satellite, Project RAND Research Memorandum. (Rand Corporation, Santa Monica) 8 June 1955.
In the context of activities planned for the International Geophysical Year (1957–58), the White House announced on 29 July 1955 that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On 31 July, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957.The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957 under the Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War.Sputnik 2 was launched on 3 November 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.WEB, A Brief History of Animals in Space,weblink Tara, Gray, Steve, Garber, NASA, 2 August 2004, In early 1955, following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, the Army and Navy were working on Project Orbiter with two competing programs. The army used the Jupiter C rocket, while the civilian/Navy program used the Vanguard rocket to launch a satellite. Explorer 1 became the United States' first artificial satellite on 31 January 1958.NEWS, 50th anniversary of first U.S. satellite launch celebrated,weblink Associated Press, Alicia, Chang, SFGate, 30 January 2008, dead, 1 February 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080201193510weblink">weblink In June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of Sputnik 1, the United States Space Surveillance Network cataloged 115 Earth-orbiting satellites.WEB, David S. F., Portree, Joseph P., Loftus, Jr,weblink Orbital Debris: A Chronology, 18, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 1999, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000901071135weblink">weblink 2000-09-01, 2008-11-21, Early satellites were constructed to unique designs. With advancements in technology, multiple satellites began to be built on single model platforms called satellite buses. The first standardized satellite bus design was the HS-333 geosynchronous (GEO) communication satellite launched in 1972.Currently the largest artificial satellite ever is the International Space Station.

Space Surveillance Network

The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN), a division of the United States Strategic Command, has been tracking objects in Earth's orbit since 1957 when the Soviet Union opened the Space Age with the launch of Sputnik I. Since then, the SSN has tracked more than 26,000 objects. The SSN currently tracks more than 8,000-artificial orbiting objects. The rest have re-entered Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated, or survived re-entry and impacted the Earth. The SSN tracks objects that are 10 centimeters in diameter or larger; those now orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing several tons to pieces of spent rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds. About seven percent are operational satellites (i.e. ~560 satellites), the rest are space debris.WEB, Orbital Debris Education Package,weblink Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408183946weblink">weblink 8 April 2008, 6 March 2008, The United States Strategic Command is primarily interested in the active satellites, but also tracks space debris which upon reentry might otherwise be mistaken for incoming missiles.

Non-military satellite services

There are three basic categories of non-military satellite services:BOOK, Grant, A., Meadows, J., 2004, Communication Technology Update, ninth, 284, Focal Press, 978-0-240-80640-2, registration,weblink

Fixed satellite services

Fixed satellite services handle hundreds of billions of voice, data, and video transmission tasks across all countries and continents between certain points on the Earth's surface.

Mobile satellite systems

Mobile satellite systems help connect remote regions, vehicles, ships, people and aircraft to other parts of the world and/or other mobile or stationary communications units, in addition to serving as navigation systems.

{{anchor|Research satellites}} Scientific research satellites (commercial and noncommercial)

Scientific research satellites provide meteorological information, land survey data (e.g. remote sensing), Amateur (HAM) Radio, and other different scientific research applications such as earth science, marine science, and atmospheric research.

Types

(File:International Space Station after undocking of STS-132.jpg|thumb|International Space Station)
  • Space-based solar power satellites are proposed satellites that would collect energy from sunlight and transmit it for use on Earth or other places.
  • Space stations are artificial orbital structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other crewed spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.
  • Tether satellites are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin cable called a tether.
  • Weather satellites are primarily used to monitor Earth's weather and climate.WEB, Earth Observations from Space,weblink National Academy of Science, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071112000950weblink">weblink 2007-11-12,

Orbit types

File:Orbits around earth scale diagram.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space StationInternational Space StationThe first satellite, Sputnik 1, was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit. By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 1,886WEB, UCS Satellite Database,weblink Union of Concerned Scientists, 27 September 2018, 10 August 2018, artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity.The commonly used altitude classifications of geocentric orbit are Low Earth orbit (LEO), Medium Earth orbit (MEO) and High Earth orbit (HEO). Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2,000 km. Medium Earth orbit is any orbit between 2,000 and 35,786 km. High Earth orbit is any orbit higher than 35,786 km.

Centric classifications

The general structure of a satellite is that it is connected to the earth stations that are present on the ground and connected through terrestrial links.

Altitude classifications

  • Low Earth orbit (LEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 180 km – {{convert|2000|km|mi|abbr=on}}
  • Medium Earth orbit (MEO): Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from {{convert|2000|km|mi|abbr=on}} – {{convert|35786|km|mi|abbr=on}}. Also known as an intermediate circular orbit.
  • Geosynchronous orbit (GEO): Geocentric circular orbit with an altitude of {{convert|35786|km|mi}}. The period of the orbit equals one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. The speed is approximately {{convert|3000|m/s|ft/s}}.
  • High Earth orbit (HEO): Geocentric orbits above the altitude of geosynchronous orbit {{convert|35786|km|mi|abbr=on}}.
(File:Orbitalaltitudes.jpg|thumb|upright=1.45|Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.)

Inclination classifications

  • Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees.
    • Polar orbit: An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution. Therefore, it has an inclination of (or very close to) 90 degrees.
    • Polar sun synchronous orbit: A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local time on every pass. Useful for image taking satellites because shadows will be nearly the same on every pass.

Eccentricity classifications

  • Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle.
    • Hohmann transfer orbit: An orbit that moves a spacecraft from one approximately circular orbit, usually the orbit of a planet, to another, using two engine impulses. The perihelion of the transfer orbit is at the same distance from the Sun as the radius of one planet's orbit, and the aphelion is at the other. The two rocket burns change the spacecraft's path from one circular orbit to the transfer orbit, and later to the other circular orbit. This maneuver was named after Walter Hohmann.
  • Elliptic orbit: An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse.
    • Geosynchronous transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit (LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geosynchronous orbit.
    • Geostationary transfer orbit: An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit (LEO) and the apogee at the altitude of a geostationary orbit.
    • Molniya orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of half of a sidereal day (roughly 12 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet (specifically Russia and the United States).
    • Tundra orbit: A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of 63.4° and orbital period of one sidereal day (roughly 24 hours). Such a satellite spends most of its time over a single designated area of the planet.

Synchronous classifications

  • Synchronous orbit: An orbit where the satellite has an orbital period equal to the average rotational period (earth's is: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.091 seconds) of the body being orbited and in the same direction of rotation as that body. To a ground observer such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky.
  • Semi-synchronous orbit (SSO): An orbit with an altitude of approximately {{convert|20200|km|mi|abbr=on}} and an orbital period equal to one-half of the average rotational period (Earth's is approximately 12 hours) of the body being orbited
  • Geosynchronous orbit (GSO): Orbits with an altitude of approximately {{convert|35786|km|mi|abbr=on}}. Such a satellite would trace an analemma (figure 8) in the sky.
  • Areosynchronous orbit: A synchronous orbit around the planet Mars with an orbital period equal in length to Mars' sidereal day, 24.6229 hours.
  • Areostationary orbit (ASO): A circular areosynchronous orbit on the equatorial plane and about 17000 km (10557 miles) above the surface. To an observer on the ground this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky.
  • Heliosynchronous orbit: A heliocentric orbit about the Sun where the satellite's orbital period matches the Sun's period of rotation. These orbits occur at a radius of 24,360 Gm (0.1628 AU) around the Sun, a little less than half of the orbital radius of Mercury.

Special classifications

Pseudo-orbit classifications

  • Horseshoe orbit: An orbit that appears to a ground observer to be orbiting a certain planet but is actually in co-orbit with the planet. See asteroids 3753 (Cruithne) and 2002 AA29.
  • Suborbital spaceflight: A maneuver where a spacecraft approaches the height of orbit but lacks the velocity to sustain it.
  • Lunar transfer orbit (LTO)
  • Prograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of less than 90°. Or rather, an orbit that is in the same direction as the rotation of the primary.
  • Retrograde orbit: An orbit with an inclination of more than 90°. Or rather, an orbit counter to the direction of rotation of the planet. Apart from those in sun-synchronous orbit, few satellites are launched into retrograde orbit because the quantity of fuel required to launch them is much greater than for a prograde orbit. This is because when the rocket starts out on the ground, it already has an eastward component of velocity equal to the rotational velocity of the planet at its launch latitude.
  • Halo orbit and Lissajous orbit: Orbits "around" Lagrangian points.

Satellite subsystems

The satellite's functional versatility is imbedded within its technical components and its operations characteristics. Looking at the "anatomy" of a typical satellite, one discovers two modules. Note that some novel architectural concepts such as Fractionated spacecraft somewhat upset this taxonomy.

Spacecraft bus or service module

The bus module consists of the following subsystems:

Structural subsystem

The structural subsystem provides the mechanical base structure with adequate stiffness to withstand stress and vibrations experienced during launch, maintain structural integrity and stability while on station in orbit, and shields the satellite from extreme temperature changes and micro-meteorite damage.

Telemetry subsystem

The telemetry subsystem (aka Command and Data Handling, C&DH) monitors the on-board equipment operations, transmits equipment operation data to the earth control station, and receives the earth control station's commands to perform equipment operation adjustments.

Power subsystem

The power subsystem consists of solar panels to convert solar energy into electrical power, regulation and distribution functions, and batteries that store power and supply the satellite when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Nuclear power sources (Radioisotope thermoelectric generator) have also been used in several successful satellite programs including the Nimbus program (1964–1978).JOURNAL, Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development, 813, 334–339,weblink George, Schmidt, Mike, Houts, STAIF Nuclear Symposium, 16 February 2006, 2006AIPC..813..334S, 10.1063/1.2169210,

Thermal control subsystem

The thermal control subsystem helps protect electronic equipment from extreme temperatures due to intense sunlight or the lack of sun exposure on different sides of the satellite's body (e.g. optical solar reflector)

Attitude and orbit control subsystem

The attitude and orbit control subsystem consists of sensors to measure vehicle orientation, control laws embedded in the flight software, and actuators (reaction wheels, thrusters). These apply the torques and forces needed to re-orient the vehicle to a desired attitude, keep the satellite in the correct orbital position, and keep antennas pointed in the right directions.

Communication payload

The second major module is the communication payload, which is made up of transponders. A transponder is capable of :
  • Receiving uplinked radio signals from earth satellite transmission stations (antennas).
  • Amplifying received radio signals
  • Sorting the input signals and directing the output signals through input/output signal multiplexers to the proper downlink antennas for retransmission to earth satellite receiving stations (antennas).

End of life

When satellites reach the end of their mission (this normally occurs within 3 or 4 years after launch), satellite operators have the option of de-orbiting the satellite, leaving the satellite in its current orbit or moving the satellite to a graveyard orbit. Historically, due to budgetary constraints at the beginning of satellite missions, satellites were rarely designed to be de-orbited. One example of this practice is the satellite Vanguard 1. Launched in 1958, Vanguard 1, the 4th artificial satellite put in Geocentric orbit, was still in orbit {{as of|lc=y|2015|03}}, as well as the upper stage of its launch rocket.WEB, Vanguard 1 – Satellite Information,weblink Satellite database, Heavens-Above, 2015-03-07, WEB, Vanguard 1 Rocket – Satellite Information,weblink Satellite database, Heavens-Above, 2015-03-07, Instead of being de-orbited, most satellites are either left in their current orbit or moved to a graveyard orbit.WEB,weblink style="background:#efefef;"!Order! Country || Date of first launch || Rocket || Satellite(s)
website= date=, As of 2002, the FCC requires all geostationary satellites to commit to moving to a graveyard orbit at the end of their operational life prior to launch.HTTP://WWW.SPACE.COM/SPACENEWS/BUSINESSMONDAY_040628.HTML >TITLE=FCC ENTERS ORBITAL DEBRIS DEBATE PUBLISHER=SPACE.COM URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=2009-07-24, In cases of uncontrolled de-orbiting, the major variable is the solar flux, and the minor variables the components and form factors of the satellite itself, and the gravitational perturbations generated by the Sun and the Moon (as well as those exercised by large mountain ranges, whether above or below sea level). The nominal breakup altitude due to aerodynamic forces and temperatures is 78 km, with a range between 72 and 84 km. Solar panels, however, are destroyed before any other component at altitudes between 90 and 95 km.HTTP://WWW.SATVIEW.ORG/SPACEJUNK.PHP?SAT_ID=34602U > TITLE=OBJECT SL-8 R/B – 29659U – 06060B PUBLISHER=SATVIEW, 11 March 2014,

Launch-capable countries

This list includes countries with an independent capability to place satellites in orbit, including production of the necessary launch vehicle. Note: many more countries have the capability to design and build satellites but are unable to launch them, instead relying on foreign launch services. This list does not consider those numerous countries, but only lists those capable of launching satellites indigenously, and the date this capability was first demonstrated. The list does not include the European Space Agency, a multi-national state organization, nor private consortiums.{| class="sortable wikitable"|+ First launch by country
1 Soviet Union 4 October 1957 Sputnik (rocket) >| Sputnik 1
2 United States 1 February 1958 Juno I Explorer 1
3 France 26 November 1965 Diamant >Astérix (satellite)>Astérix
4 Japan 11 February 1970 Lambda (rocket) >Ohsumi (satellite)>Ohsumi
5 China 24 April 1970 Long March 1 Dong Fang Hong I
6 United Kingdom 28 October 1971 Black ArrowProspero
7 India 18 July 1980 Satellite Launch Vehicle>Rohini (satellite)>Rohini D1
8 Israel 19 September 1988 ShavitOfeq 1
– {{Ref label1|}} Russia 21 January 1992 Soyuz-UKosmos 2175
– {{Ref label1|}} Ukraine 13 July 1992 Tsyklon-3Strela
9 Iran 2 February 2009 Safir (rocket)>Omid (satellite)>Omid
10 North Korea 12 December 2012 Unha-3Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2
11 South Korea 30 January 2013 Naro-1STSAT-2C
12 New Zealand 12 November 2018 Electron (rocket)>|CubeSat

Attempted first launches

{{Expand section|date=May 2012}}
  • The United States tried in 1957 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1958.
  • Japan tried four times in 1966–1969 to launch a satellite with its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970.
  • China tried in 1969 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before successfully completing a launch in 1970.
  • India, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1975, tried in 1979 to launch the first satellite using its own launcher before succeeding in 1980.
  • Iraq have claimed an orbital launch of a warhead in 1989, but this claim was later disproved.{{tag:ref|The video tape of a partial launch attempt which was retrieved by UN weapons inspectors later surfaced showing that the rocket prematurely exploded 45 seconds after its launch.WEB,weblink UNMOVIC report, United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, 434 ff, WEB,weblink Deception Activities – Iraq Special Weapons, FAS, dead,weblink 22 April 1999, WEB,weblink Al-Abid LV, }}
  • Brazil, after launching its first national satellite using a foreign launcher in 1985, tried to launch a satellite using its own VLS 1 launcher three times in 1997, 1999, and 2003, but all attempts were unsuccessful.
  • North Korea claimed a launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 satellites in 1998 and 2009, but U.S., Russian and other officials and weapons experts later reported that the rockets failed to send a satellite into orbit, if that was the goal. The United States, Japan and South Korea believe this was actually a ballistic missile test, which was a claim also made after North Korea's 1998 satellite launch, and later rejected.NEWS, Myers, Steven Lee, U.S. Calls North Korean Rocket a Failed Satellite,weblink 9 September 2019, The New York Times, 15 September 1998,weblink 9 December 2018, The first (April 2012) launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 was unsuccessful, a fact publicly recognized by the DPRK. However, the December 2012 launch of the "second version" of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 was successful, putting the DPRK's first confirmed satellite into orbit.
  • South Korea (Korea Aerospace Research Institute), after launching their first national satellite by foreign launcher in 1992, unsuccessfully tried to launch its own launcher, the KSLV (Naro)-1, (created with the assistance of Russia) in 2009 and 2010 until success was achieved in 2013 by Naro-3.
  • The First European multi-national state organization ELDO tried to make the orbital launches at Europa I and Europa II rockets in 1968–1970 and 1971 but stopped operation after failures.

Other notes

  • {{note|RUS-UKR}} Russia and the Ukraine were parts of the Soviet Union and thus inherited their launch capability without the need to develop it indigenously. Through the Soviet Union they are also on the number one position in this list of accomplishments.
  • France, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine launched their first satellites by own launchers from foreign spaceports.
  • Some countries such as South Africa, Spain, Italy, Germany, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Egypt and private companies such as OTRAG, have developed their own launchers, but have not had a successful launch.
  • Only twelve, countries from the list below (USSR, USA, France, Japan, China, UK, India, Russia, Ukraine, Israel, Iran and North Korea) and one regional organization (the European Space Agency, ESA) have independently launched satellites on their own indigenously developed launch vehicles.
  • Several other countries, including Brazil, Argentina, Pakistan, Romania, Taiwan, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Turkey and Switzerland are at various stages of development of their own small-scale launcher capabilities.

Launch capable private entities

Orbital Sciences Corporation launched a satellite into orbit on the Pegasus in 1990. SpaceX launched a satellite into orbit on the Falcon 1 in 2008. Rocket Lab launched three cubesats into orbit on the Electron in 2018.

First satellites of countries

{| class="sortable wikitable"weblink The Satellite Encyclopedia, 6 March 2008, style="background:#efefef;"! Country || Year of first launch || First satellite || Operational payloads in orbit as of July 2018 Soviet Union (Russia) 1957 (1992) Sputnik 1 (Kosmos 2175) 1507 United States 1958 Explorer 1 1619 China 1970 Dong Fang Hong I 0312 Japan 1970 Ohsumi (satellite) >| 0173 India 1975 Aryabhata (satellite) >| 0088 France 1965 Astérix (satellite) >| 0068 Germany 1969 Azur (satellite) >| 0054 Canada 1962 Alouette 1 0048 United Kingdom 1962 Ariel 1 0043 Italy 1964 San Marco 1 0027 South Korea 1992 Kitsat A 24 Spain 1974 Intasat 00024 Australia 1967 WRESAT 0021 Brazil 1985 Brasilsat-A1 0020 Argentina 1990 LusatThe first satellite built by Argentina, Arsat 1, was launched later in 2014 19 Israel 1988 Ofeq >| 00017 Indonesia 1976 Palapa#Series A >| 16 Turkey 1994 Turksat 1B 15 Saudi Arabia 1985 Arabsat-1A 0013 Mexico 1985 Morelos 1 12 Sweden 1986 Viking (satellite) >| 0012 Singapore 1998 ST-1The first satellite built by Singapore, X-Sat, was launched aboard a PSLV rocket later on 20 April 2011T.S. > FIRST=SUBRAMANIAN URL=HTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/NATIONAL/ARTICLE1711767.ECE DATE=20 APRIL 2011 | 10 Netherlands 1974 Astronomical Netherlands Satellite >| 0006 Czechoslovakia 1978 Magion (satellites) Magion 1>1 2 Bulgaria 1981 Bulgaria 1300 >| 0001 Luxembourg 1988 Astra 1A 4 Pakistan 1990 Badr-1 6 Portugal 1993 PoSAT-1 2 Thailand 1993 Thaicom >| 9 Czech Republic 1995 Magion (satellites) Magion 4>4 3 Ukraine 1995 Sich-1 0006 Malaysia 1996 MEASAT 7 Norway 1997 Thor (satellite) >| 9 Philippines 1997 Agila 2 >| 0002 Egypt 1998 Nilesat 101 5 Chile 1998 FASat-Alfa >| 3 Denmark 1999 Ørsted (satellite) >| 9 South Africa 1999 SUNSAT 6 United Arab Emirates 2000Thuraya >| 9 Morocco 2001 Maroc-Tubsat 0001 Belgium 2001 PROBA-1 0 TongaEsiafi 1 satellite was transferred to Tonga being at orbit after launch in 1981 >Esiafi 1>Esiafi 1 (former Comstar D4) 0 Algeria 2002 Alsat 1 6 Greece 2003 Hellas Sat 2 4 Cyprus 2003 Hellas Sat 2 0 Nigeria 2003 Nigeriasat 1 6 Iran 2005 Sina-1 0001 Kazakhstan 2006 KazSat >| 6 Colombia 2007 Libertad 1 0 Mauritius 2007 Rascom-QAF 1 0 Vietnam 2008 Vinasat-1 0003 Venezuela 2008 Venesat-1 3 Switzerland 2009 SwissCube-1HTTP://WWW.SWISSINFO.CH/ENG/FRONT/INDIA_LAUNCHES_SWITZERLAND_S_FIRST_SATELLITE.HTML?SITESECT=105&SID=11253287&RSS=TRUE&TY=ST&REF=TI_SPA > TITLE=INDIA LAUNCHES SWITZERLAND'S FIRST SATELLITE FIRST= PUBLISHER=SWISS INFO | 0 Isle of Man 2011 ViaSat-1 0001 PolandIn a difference of first full Bulgarian Intercosmos Bulgaria 1300 satellite, Poland's near first satellite, Intercosmos Copernicus 500 in 1973, were constructed and owned in cooperation with Soviet Union under the same Interkosmos program. 2012 PW-Sat 00004 Hungary 2012 MaSat-1 0000 Sri Lanka 2012 SupremeSAT-I 1 Romania 2012 GoliatHTTP://ENGLISH.HOTNEWS.RO/STIRI-TOP_NEWS-11498074-VIDEO-ROMANIA-39-FIRST-SATELLITE-GOLIAT-SUCCESSFULLY-LAUNCH-FROM-KOUROU-BASE-FRENCH-GUYANA.HTM > TITLE=FIRST ROMANIAN SATELLITE GOLIAT SUCCESSFULLY LAUNCHED PUBLISHER= | 0 Belarus 2012 BelKA-2HTTP://SPACE.SKYROCKET.DE/DOC_SDAT/BELKA-2.HTMWORK=SKYROCKET.DE, 2 North Korea 2012 Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 2 Azerbaijan 2013 AzerspaceHTTP://EN.APA.AZ/NEWS_AZERBAIJAN_S_FIRST_TELECOMMUNICATIONS_SA_187459.HTML > TITLE=AZERBAIJAN'S FIRST TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE LAUNCHED TO ORBIT PUBLISHER=APA | 1 Austria 2013 TUGSAT-1/UniBRITEAustria's first two satellites, TUGSAT-1 and UniBRITE, were launched together aboard the same carrier rocket in 2013. Both were based on the Canadian Generic Nanosatellite Bus design, however TUGSAT was assembled by Austrian engineers at Graz University of Technology while UniBRITE was built by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies for the University of Vienna.HTTPS://WWW.UTIAS-SFL.NET/SPECIALPROJECTS/LAUNCHINDEX.HTML >TITLE=NANOSATELLITE LAUNCH SERVICE PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO INSTITUTE FOR AEROSPACE STUDIES URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=10 MARCH 2013 | 0 BermudaEchoStar VI satellite was transferred to Bermuda being at orbit after launch in 2000 >EchoStar VI>Bermudasat 1 (former EchoStar VI) 0 Ecuador 2013 NEE-01 Pegaso 2 Estonia 2013 ESTCube-1 1 Jersey 2013 O3b (satellite) >| 0 Qatar 2013 Es'hailSat1 0 Peru 2013 PUCPSAT-1PUCP-SAT-1 DEPLOYS POCKET-PUCP FEMTOSATELLITE > URL=HTTP://AMSAT-UK.ORG/2013/12/14/PUCP-SAT-1-DEPLOYS-POCKET-PUCP-FEMTOSATELLITE/ PUBLISHER=AMSAT-UK ACCESSDATE=2013-12-20, 2 Bolivia 2013 TKSat-1 1 Lithuania 2014 LituanicaSAT-1 and LitSat-1 1 Uruguay 2014 Antelsat 1 Iraq 2014 TigrisatItalian built (by Sapienza University of Rome) first Iraqi small experimental Earth observation cubesat-satellite Tigrisat Iraq to launch its first satellite before the end of 2013 launched in 2014 weblink Iraq launches its first satellite – TigriSat prior to ordered abroad also for $50 million the first national large communication satellite near 2015.Iraq launching the first satellite into space at a cost of $ 50 million Iraqi first satellite into space in 2015 {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120915083859weblink| 0 Turkmenistan 2015 TurkmenAlem52E/MonacoSAT 1 Laos 2015 Laosat-1 1 Finland 2017 Aalto-2 1 Bangladesh 2017 BRAC Onnesha and Bangabandhu-1 2 Ghana 2017 GhanaSat-1GHANA LAUNCHES ITS FIRST SATELLITE INTO SPACE >URL=HTTPS://WWW.BBC.COM/NEWS/WORLD-AFRICA-40538471 PUBLISHER=BBC ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170708075730/HTTP://WWW.BBC.COM/NEWS/WORLD-AFRICA-40538471 URL-STATUS=LIVE DATE=2017-07-07, 1 Mongolia 2017 Mazaalai (satellite) >| 1 Latvia 2017 Venta-1 1 Slovakia 2017 skCUBE 1 Asgardia (nation) >Asgardia-1 >| 1 Angola 2017 AngoSat 1 1 New Zealand 2018 Humanity Star 1 Costa Rica 2018 Proyecto Irazú 1 Kenya 2018 1KUNS-PF 1 Bhutan 2018 CubeSat Bhutan-1HTTP://WWW.BBS.BT/NEWS/?P=98870 > TITLE=BHUTAN'S MAIDEN SATELLITE ON ITS WAY TO SPACE| 1 Jordan 2018 JY1-SAT 1|Nepal|2019|Nepal SAT 1|1File:Space capabilities - launch and satellite.png|thumb|upright=1.35|{{legend|#007F00|orbital launch and satellite operation}}{{legend|#00FF00|satellite operation, launched by foreign supplier}}{{legend|#FF8040|satellite in development}}{{legend|#FF0000|orbital launch project at advanced stage or indigenous ballistic missileballistic missileWhile Canada was the third country to build a satellite which was launched into space,BOOK, Space Programs Outside the United States, Daphne, Burleson, McFarland & Company, 43, 2005, 978-0-7864-1852-7, it was launched aboard an American rocket from an American spaceport. The same goes for Australia, who launched first satellite involved a donated U.S. Redstone rocket and American support staff as well as a joint launch facility with the United Kingdom.BOOK, Blazing the Trail, Mike Gruntman, 426, 978-1-56347-705-8, 2004, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mike Gruntman, The first Italian satellite San Marco 1 launched on 15 December 1964 on a U.S. Scout rocket from Wallops Island (Virginia, United States) with an Italian launch team trained by NASA.BOOK, Europe's Space Programme, 114, Brian, Harvey, 2003, Springer Science+Business Media, 978-1-85233-722-3, By similar occasions, almost all further first national satellites was launched by foreign rockets.

Attempted first satellites

  • United States tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1957; they were successful in 1958.
  • China tried unsuccessfully to launch its first satellite in 1969; they were successful in 1970.
  • Iraq under Saddam Hussein fulfilled in 1989 an unconfirmed launch of warhead on orbit by developed Iraqi vehicle that intended to put later the 75 kg first national satellite Al-Ta’ir, also developed.WEB,weblink Iraqi bird: Beyond Saddam's space program, Dwayne A., Day, The Space Review, 9 May 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130416030817weblink">weblink dead, 16 April 2013, Iraq: Whether it is legal to purchase and own satellite dishes in Iraq, and the sanction for owning satellite dishes if it is illegal, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,
  • Chile tried unsuccessfully in 1995 to launch its first satellite FASat-Alfa by foreign rocket; in 1998 they were successful.†
  • North Korea has tried in 1998, 2009, 2012 to launch satellites, first successful launch on 12 December 2012.NEWS,weblink North Korea says it successfully launched controversial satellite into orbit, MSNBC, 12 December 2012,
  • Libya since 1996 developed its own national Libsat satellite project with the goal of providing telecommunication and remote sensing servicesWEB,weblink Libsat – Libyan Satellite Project, Wissam Said Idrissi, libsat.ly, that was postponed after the fall of Gaddafi.
  • Belarus tried unsuccessfully in 2006 to launch its first satellite BelKA by foreign rocket.†
†-note: Both Chile and Belarus used Russian companies as principal contractors to build their satellites, they used Russian-Ukrainian manufactured rockets and launched either from Russia or Kazakhstan.{{Expand section|date=January 2015}}

Planned first satellites

  • Afghanistan announced in April 2012 that it is planning to launch its first communications satellite to the orbital slot it has been awarded. The satellite Afghansat 1 was expected to be obtained by a Eutelsat commercial company in 2014.NEWS,weblink Afghanistan announces satellite tender, Graham-Harrison, Emma, The Guardian, 9 April 2012, London, WEB,weblink Afghanistan deploys its first satellite into orbit by February, khaama.com, 2014-01-29,
  • Armenia in 2012 founded Armcosmos companyWEB,weblink Satellite department to be set up in Armenia's national telecommunication center, arka.am, and announced an intention to have the first telecommunication satellite ArmSat. The investments estimates as $250 million and country selecting the contractor for building within 4 years the satellite amongst Russia, China and CanadaWEB,weblink Canada's MDA Ready to Help Armenia Launch First Comsat, Asbarez News, 2013-08-09, WEB,weblink Armenia to Launch Its First Satellite, 22 June 2013, sputniknews.com, WEB,weblink China keen on Armenian satellite launch project, arka.am,
  • Cambodia's Royal Group plans to purchase for $250–350 million and launch in the beginning of 2013 the telecommunication satellite.WEB,weblink Royal Group receives right to launch first Cambodia satellite, 19 April 2011,
  • Cayman Islands's Global IP Cayman private company plans to launch GiSAT-1 geostationary communications satellite in 2018.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo ordered at November 2012 in China (Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC)) the first telecommunication satellite CongoSat-1 which will be built on DFH-4 satellite bus platform and will be launched in China till the end of 2015.WEB,weblink China to launch second African satellite-Science-Tech-chinadaily.com.cn, chinadaily.com.cn,
  • Croatia has a goal to construct a satellite by 2013–2014. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.WEB,weblink Vremenik, Astronautica,
  • Ethiopian Space Science SocietyWEB,weblink ESSS, ethiosss.org.et, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150103052723weblink">weblink 3 January 2015, planning the QB50-family research CubeSat ET-SAT by help of Belgian Von Karman Institute till 2015WEB,weblink Ethiopia to design and construct first Satellite, ethioabay.com, and the small (20–25 kg) Earth observation and remote sensing satellite Ethosat 1 by help of Finnish Space Technology and Science Group till 2019.WEB,weblink Space Technology and Science Group Oy – Finland (STSG Oy) to design, develop and launch first Ethiopian research satellite – ETHOSAT1, Kasia Augustyniak, spacetsg.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403115213weblink">weblink 3 April 2015,
  • Ireland's team of Dublin Institute of Technology intends to launch the first Irish satellite within European University program CubeSat QB50.NEWS,weblink Students hope to launch first ever Irish satellite, Allison, Bray, The Independent, Ireland, 1 December 2012,
  • Jordan's first satellite to be the private amateur pocketqube SunewnewSat.WEB,weblink Behance, 25 June 2015, WEB,weblink Meet the PocketQube team: Sunewnewsat, PocketQube Shop, Team Interview {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140819083716weblink |date=19 August 2014}}
  • Republic of Moldova's first remote sensing satellite plans to start in 2013 by Space centre at national Technical University.WEB,weblink Наши публикации, ComelPro,
  • Myanmar plans to purchase for $200 million their own telecommunication satellite.WEB,weblink Burma to launch first state-owned satellite, expand communications, News, Mizzima, 14 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110617071634weblink">weblink 17 June 2011,
  • Nepal stated that planning to launch of own telecommunication satellite before 2015 by help of India or China.WEB,weblink A step for Nepal own Satellite, Nabin Chaudhary, 2013-06-03, WEB,weblink Nepal: No satellite launching plan so far, 张军棉, china.org.cn, NEWS,weblink Nepal may turn to China for satellite plan, Ananth Krishnan, The Hindu, 25 June 2015, 2013-05-05,
  • Nicaragua ordered for $254 million at November 2013 in China the first telecommunication satellite Nicasat-1 (to be built at DFH-4 satellite bus platform by CAST and CGWIC), that planning to launch in China at 2016.WEB,weblink Nicaragua says Nicasat-1 satellite still set for 2016 launch, telecompaper.com,
  • Paraguay under new Agencia Espacial del Paraguay –- AEP airspace agency plans first Eart observation satellite.WEB,weblink Paraguay to vote on aerospace agency bill in 2014, Zachary Volkert, BNamericas, 2015-06-25, 2013-12-26, WEB,weblink Why a little country like Paraguay is launching a space program, GlobalPost,
  • Serbia's first satellite Tesla-1 was designed, developed and assembled by nongovernmental organisations in 2009 but still remains unlaunched.
  • Slovenia's Earth observation microsatellite for the Slovenian Centre of Excellence for Space Sciences and Technologies (Space-SI) now under development for $2 million since 2010 by University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies – Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS – SFL) and planned to launch in 2015–2016.WEB,weblink NEMO-HD – UTIAS Space Flight Laboratory, utias-sfl.net, WEB,weblink Slovenia will soon get its first satellite, rtvslo.si,
  • Sri Lanka has a goal to construct two satellites beside of rent the national SupremeSAT payload in Chinese satellites. Sri Lankan Telecommunications Regulatory Commission has signed an agreement with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to get relevant help and resources. Launch into Earth orbit would be done by a foreign provider.WEB,weblink SSTL Contracted to Establish Sri Lanka Space Agency, Satellite Today, 2009-11-28, WEB,weblink SSTL contracted to establish Sri Lanka Space Agency, Adaderana, 2009-11-28,
  • Syrian Space Research Center developing CubeSat-like small first national satellite since 2008.WEB,weblink Syria on the Internet, souria.com, dead,weblink 3 April 2015,
  • Tunisia is developing its first satellite, ERPSat01. Consisting of a CubeSat of 1 kg mass, it will be developed by the Sfax School of Engineering. ERPSat satellite is planned to be launched into orbit in 2013.BOOK, Explore, IEEE, 10.1109/RAST.2009.5158292, 2009 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, 750–755, 2009, Hamrouni, C., Neji, B., Alimi, A. M., Schilling, K., 978-1-4244-3626-2,
  • Uzbekistan's State Space Research Agency (UzbekCosmos) announced in 2001 about intention of launch in 2002 first remote sensing satellite.WEB,weblink Uzbekistan Planning First Satellite, Sat News, 18 May 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010713173220weblink">weblink 2001-07-13, Later in 2004 was stated that two satellites (remote sensing and telecommunication) will be built by Russia for $60–70 million eachWEB,weblink Uzbekistan Planning to Launch Two Satellites With Russian Help, Red Orbit, 8 June 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112110319weblink">weblink 12 January 2012,
{{Expand section|date=January 2015}}

Attacks on satellites

{{Details|Anti-satellite weapon}}Since the mid-2000's, satellites have been hacked by militant organizations to broadcast propaganda and to pilfer classified information from military communication networks.WEB, Hack a Satellite while it is in orbit,weblink Dan, Morrill, ITtoolbox, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080320084037weblink">weblink 20 March 2008, 25 March 2008, NEWS, AsiaSat accuses Falungong of hacking satellite signals,weblink Press Trust of India, 22 November 2004, For testing purposes, satellites in low earth orbit have been destroyed by ballistic missiles launched from earth. Russia, the United States, China and India have demonstrated the ability to eliminate satellites.NEWS, William J., Broad, David E., Sanger, China Tests Anti-Satellite Weapon, Unnerving U.S.,weblink The New York Times, 18 January 2007, In 2007 the Chinese military shot down an aging weather satellite, followed by the US Navy shooting down a defunct spy satellite in February 2008.WEB, Navy Missile Successful as Spy Satellite Is Shot Down,weblink Popular Mechanics, 2008, 25 March 2008, On 27 March 2019 the India shot down a live test satellite at 300 km altitude in 3 minutes. India became the fourth country to having capability to destroy live satellite.WEB,weblink India successfully tests anti-satellite weapon: Modi, The Week, en, 2019-03-27, WEB,weblink India's Anti-Satellite Weapons, Diplomat, Harsh Vasani, The, The Diplomat, en-US, 2019-03-27,

Jamming

{{See also|Radio jamming}}Due to the low received signal strength of satellite transmissions, they are prone to jamming by land-based transmitters. Such jamming is limited to the geographical area within the transmitter's range. GPS satellites are potential targets for jamming,WEB, Jeremy, Singer, U.S.-Led Forces Destroy GPS Jamming Systems in Iraq,weblink Space.com, 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080526204956weblink">weblink 26 May 2008, 25 March 2008, WEB, Bob, Brewin, Homemade GPS jammers raise concerns,weblink Computerworld, 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080422164053weblink">weblink 22 April 2008, 25 March 2008, but satellite phone and television signals have also been subjected to jamming.WEB, Iran government jamming exile satellite TV,weblink Iran Focus, 2008, 25 March 2008, WEB, Libya Pinpointed as Source of Months-Long Satellite Jamming in 2006,weblink Peter de, Selding, 2007, Space.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080429193429weblink">weblink 29 April 2008, live, Also, it is very easy to transmit a carrier radio signal to a geostationary satellite and thus interfere with the legitimate uses of the satellite's transponder. It is common for Earth stations to transmit at the wrong time or on the wrong frequency in commercial satellite space, and dual-illuminate the transponder, rendering the frequency unusable. Satellite operators now have sophisticated monitoring that enables them to pinpoint the source of any carrier and manage the transponder space effectively. {{Citation needed|date=September 2011}}

Earth observation using satellites

During the last five decades, space agencies have sent thousands of space crafts, space capsules, or satellites to the universe. In fact, weather forecasters make predictions on the weather and natural calamities based on observations from these satellites.WEB,weblink Earth Observations from Space " Earth Observations from Space, nas-sites.org, en-US, 2018-11-28, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)WEB,weblink Home {{!, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine {{!}} National-Academies.org {{!}} Where the Nation Turns for Independent, Expert Advice|website=www.nationalacademies.org|access-date=2018-11-28}} requested the National Academies to publish a report entitled, Earth Observations from Space; The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements in 2008. It described how the capability to view the whole globe simultaneously from satellite observations revolutionized studies about the planet Earth. This development brought about a new age of combined Earth sciences. The National Academies report concluded that continuing Earth observations from the galaxy are necessary to resolve scientific and social challenges in the future.BOOK, Council, National Research, 2008-12-17, Earth Observations from Space,weblink en, 10.17226/11991, 978-0-309-11095-2,

NASA

{{See also|Earth Observing System}}The NASA introduced an Earth Observing System (EOS)WEB,weblink About EOSDIS {{!, Earthdata|website=earthdata.nasa.gov|language=en|access-date=2018-11-28}} composed of several satellites, science component, and data system described as the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). It disseminates numerous science data products as well as services designed for interdisciplinary education. EOSDIS data can be accessed online and accessed through File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS).WEB,weblink Earth Observation Data {{!, Earthdata|website=earthdata.nasa.gov|language=en|access-date=2018-11-28}} Scientists and researchers perform EOSDIS science operations within a distributed platform of multiple interconnected nodes or Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) and discipline-specific Distributed Active Archive Centers (DACCs).WEB,weblink EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) {{!, Earthdata|website=earthdata.nasa.gov|language=en|access-date=2018-11-28}}

ESA

The European Space AgencyWEB,weblink ESA, esa, European Space Agency, en-GB, 2018-11-28, have been operating Earth Observation satellites since the launch of Meteosat 1 in November 1977WEB,weblink {{!, ESA|website=esa.int|language=en|access-date=2019-08-21}}. ESA currently has plans to launch a satellite equipped with an artificial intelligence (AI) processor that will allow the spacecraft to make decisions on images to capture and data to transmit to the Earth.NEWS,weblink ESA preps Earth observation satellite with onboard AI processor - SpaceNews.com, 2018-11-13, SpaceNews.com, 2018-11-28, en-US, BrainSat will use the Intel Myriad X vision processing unit (VPU). The launching will be scheduled in 2019. ESA director for Earth Observation Programs Josef Aschbacher made the announcement during the PhiWeek in November 2018.NEWS,weblink Movidius Myriad X VPU {{!, Intel Newsroom|work=Intel Newsroom|access-date=2018-11-28|language=en-US}} This is the five-day meet that focused on the future of Earth observation. The conference was held at the ESA Center for Earth Observation in Frascati, Italy. ESA also launched the PhiLab, referring to the future-focused team that works to harness the potentials of AI and other disruptive innovations.WEB,weblink The ESA Earth Observation Φ-week EO Open Science and FutureEO, phiweek.esa.int, en, 2018-11-28, Meanwhile, the ESA also announced that it expects to commence the qualification flight of the Space Rider space plane in 2021. This will come after several demonstration missions.NEWS,weblink ESA targets 2021 for Space Rider demo flight - SpaceNews.com, 2018-11-13, SpaceNews.com, 2018-11-28, en-US, Space Rider is the sequel of the Agency's Intermediate Experimental vehicle (IXV) which was launched in 2015. It has the capacity payload of 800 kilograms for orbital missions that will last a maximum of two months.WEB,weblink IXV, esa, European Space Agency, en-GB, 2018-11-28,

SpaceX

SpaceX was scheduled to launch a multiple satellite mission on 28 November 2018 from the United States Vandenberg Air Force Base after an initial 19 November schedule. The launch is expected to be visible once the rocket heads toward the south into an Earth observation trajectory traveling over the opposites.NEWS,weblink SpaceX launch set for Wednesday, Nov. 28, from Vandenberg after delay, 2018-11-26, Daily Breeze, 2018-11-28, en-US, However, the second supposed launched was delayed again because of poor weather conditions and the actual launch occurred on December 3, 2018weblink The mission is known as the SSO-A Smallsat Express was executed by Spaceflight, a rideshare and mission management provider based in Seattle, Wash.weblink The launch was a landmark for Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX which had 19 rocket launches in 2018 alone. The estimated cost of this Falcon 9 rocket is approximately $62 million. The rocket has 64 satellites with each one going separate ways.NEWS,weblink SpaceX Delays Historic Third Launch of Used Rocket (and Its Flock of Satellites), Space.com, 2018-11-28,

Amazon and Lockheed

Amazon Web Services (AWS)NEWS,weblink Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service, Sheetz, Michael, 2018-11-27, CNBC, 2018-11-28, and Lockheed MartinWEB,weblink Verge, Lockheed Martin, 2018-11-28, entered into a strategic partnership for the purpose of integrating the AWS ground station service with Lockheed's verge antenna network. These two corporations aim to merge these highly-capable systems that will provide clients with robust satellite uplinks and downlinks. Through these systems, users can incorporate satellite data with various AWS services which include computing, storage, analytics, and machine-learning.NEWS,weblink Amazon Web Services and Lockheed Martin Team to Make Downlinking Satellite Data Easier and Less Expensive, 2018-11-27, AP NEWS, 2018-11-28,

Satellite services

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See also

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References

{{Reflist}}

External links

  • weblink – showing orbitinf Satellites at real time
{{commons category|Satellites}} {{Spaceflight}}{{Authority control}}

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