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File:Living on the rainforest.jpg|thumb|250px|Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in 2014]]A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals). Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history.BOOK, Lee, Richard B., Daly, Richard Heywood, Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, 1999, Cambridge University Press, 978-0521609197, inside front cover,weblink Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world.Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism.BOOK, Why Forage? Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century, Greaves, Russell D., etal, School for Advanced Research, University of New Mexico Press, 2016, 978-0826356963, Santa Fe, Albuquerque, 241–262, Economic activities of twenty-first century foraging populations,

Archaeological evidence

{{Economic systems sidebar}}During the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans obtained food via scavenging, not hunting.JOURNAL, Binford, Louis, 1986, Human ancestors: Changing views of their behavior, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 3, 235–257, 10.1016/0278-4165(84)90003-5, Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs, nuts, and fruits besides scavenging. Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes.The Last Rain Forests: A World Conservation Atlas by David Attenborough, Mark Collins Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover.JOURNAL, Gavashelishvili, A., Tarkhnishvili, D., 2016, Biomes and human distribution during the last ice age, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25, 5, 563, 10.1111/geb.12437, According to the endurance running hypothesis, long-distance running as in persistence hunting, a method still practiced by some hunter-gatherer groups in modern times, was likely the driving evolutionary force leading to the evolution of certain human characteristics. This hypothesis does not necessarily contradict the scavenging hypothesis: both subsistence strategies could have been in use—sequentially, alternating or even simultaneously.Hunting and gathering was presumably the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, and from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens. Prehistoric hunter-gatherers lived in groups that consisted of several families resulting in a size of a few dozen people.WEB,weblink Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Societies, Groeneveld, Emma, 9 December 2016, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 9 April 2018, It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, and after this was replaced only gradually with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution.Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some 80,000 to 70,000 years ago, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of (often larger) game and gathering a smaller selection of food. This specialization of work also involved creating specialized tools such as fishing nets, hooks, and bone harpoons.Fagan, B. (1989). People of the Earth, pp. 169–181. Scott, Foresman. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, and also independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Andes.Forest gardening was also being used as a food production system in various parts of the world over this period. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions.{{Citation needed|date=May 2013}} In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified, protected and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens.{{Google books |title=The forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka |author=Douglas John McConnell |year=1992 |page=1 |id=G3QPo7lThXsC |isbn=978-9251028988}}Many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined, partly as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities. Many of them reside in the developing world, either in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were formerly available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for land use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods, particularly animal resources. In North and South America, for example, most large mammal species had gone extinct by the end of the Pleistocene—according to Diamond, because of overexploitation by humans,BOOK, Jared Diamond, Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel, London, Vintage, 1998, 0-09-930278-0, Guns, Germs and Steel, one of several explanations offered for the Quaternary extinction event there.As the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. This process of agriculture-driven expansion led to the development of the first forms of government in agricultural centers, such as the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Olmec, Sub-Saharan Africa and Norte Chico.As a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, the few contemporary hunter-gatherer cultures usually live in areas unsuitable for agricultural use.Archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility.JOURNAL, Blades, B, 2003, End scraper reduction and hunter-gatherer mobility, American Antiquity, 68, 1, 141–156, 10.2307/3557037, 3557037,

Common characteristics

File:San tribesman.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|right|A San man from NamibiaNamibia{{Further|Cultural universal}}

Habitat and population

Most hunter-gatherers are nomadic or semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available.Some hunter-gatherer cultures, such as the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Yakuts, lived in particularly rich environments that allowed them to be sedentary or semi-sedentary. One group, the Chumash, had the highest recorded population density of any known hunter and gatherer society with an estimated 21.6 persons per square mile.JOURNAL,weblink The Brine Revolution, Hakai Magazine, Heather, Pringle, 22 April 2015, 24 June 2019, Tula Foundation and Hakai Institute,

Social and economic structure

Hunter-gatherers tend to have an egalitarian social ethos,BOOK, Widlok, Thomas, Tadesse, Wolde Gossa, Property and Equality, 2006, Berghahn Books, 9781845452131, ix–x,weblink 6 July 2019, en, although settled hunter-gatherers (for example, those inhabiting the Northwest Coast of North America) are an exception to this rule.BOOK, Lourandos, Harry, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory, 1997, Cambridge University Press, 9780521359467, 24,weblink 6 July 2019, en, BOOK, Fitzhugh, Ben, The Evolution of Complex Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological Evidence from the North Pacific, 2003, Springer Science & Business Media, 9780306478536, 4–5,weblink en, Nearly all African hunter-gatherers are egalitarian, with women roughly as influential and powerful as men.Karen Endicott 1999. "Gender relations in hunter-gatherer societies". In R.B. Lee and R. Daly (eds), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 411–418. Karl Marx defined this socio-economic system as primitive communism.Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2007). A Dictionary of Sociology. US: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-19-860987-2}}.(File:Mbendjele meat sharing.jpg|thumb|left|Mbendjele meat sharing)The egalitarianism typical of human hunters and gatherers is never total, but is striking when viewed in an evolutionary context. One of humanity's two closest primate relatives, chimpanzees, are anything but egalitarian, forming themselves into hierarchies that are often dominated by an alpha male. So great is the contrast with human hunter-gatherers that it is widely argued by palaeoanthropologists that resistance to being dominated was a key factor driving the evolutionary emergence of human consciousness, language, kinship and social organization.JOURNAL, Erdal, D., Whiten, A., 1994, On human egalitarianism: an evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation?, Current Anthropology, 35, 2, 175–183, 10.1086/204255, Erdal, D. and A. Whiten 1996. Egalitarianism and Machiavellian intelligence in human evolution. In P. Mellars and K. Gibson (eds), Modelling the early human mind. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs.Christopher Boehm (2001). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Anthropologists maintain that hunter/gatherers don't have permanent leaders; instead, the person taking the initiative at any one time depends on the task being performed.BOOK, Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment, Gowdy, John M., 1998, Island Press, St Louis, 1-55963-555-X, 342, BOOK, Dahlberg, Frances,weblink Woman the Gatherer, London, Yale University Press, 1975, 0-300-02989-6, Erdal, D. & Whiten, A. (1996) "Egalitarianism and Machiavellian Intelligence in Human Evolution" in Mellars, P. & Gibadfson, K. (eds) Modelling the Early Human Mind. Cambridge MacDonald Monograph Series In addition to social and economic equality in hunter-gatherer societies, there is often, though not always, sexual parity as well. Hunter-gatherers are often grouped together based on kinship and band (or tribe) membership.WEB,weblink Anthropology E-20, 2008-03-11, Thomas M. Kiefer, Spring 2002, Lecture 8 Subsistence, Ecology and Food production, Harvard University, Postmarital residence among hunter-gatherers tends to be matrilocal, at least initially.JOURNAL, Marlowe, Frank W., 2004, Marital residence among foragers, Current Anthropology, 45, 2, 277–284, 10.1086/382256, Young mothers can enjoy childcare support from their own mothers, who continue living nearby in the same camp.JOURNAL, Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F., Jones, N. G. Blurton, Alvarez, H. P., Charnov, E. L., 1998, Grandmothering, Menopause, and the Evolution of Human Life-Histories,weblink Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 3, 1336–1339, 10.1073/pnas.95.3.1336, 9448332, 18762, The systems of kinship and descent among human hunter-gatherers were relatively flexible, although there is evidence that early human kinship in general tended to be matrilineal.Knight, C. 2008. "Early human kinship was matrilineal". In N. J. Allen, H. Callan, R. Dunbar and W. James (eds.), Early Human Kinship. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 61–82.One common arrangement is the sexual division of labour, with women doing most of the gathering, while men concentrate on big game hunting. In all hunter-gatherer societies, women appreciate the meat brought back to camp by men. An illustrative account is Megan Biesele's study of the southern African Ju/'hoan, 'Women Like Meat'.Biesele, M. 1993. Women Like Meat. The folklore and foraging ideology of the Kalahari Ju/'hoan. Witwatersrand: University Press. Recent archaeological research suggests that the sexual division of labor was the fundamental organisational innovation that gave Homo sapiens the edge over the Neanderthals, allowing our ancestors to migrate from Africa and spread across the globe.NEWS,weblink Sex-Based Roles Gave Modern Humans an Edge, Study Says, National Geographic News, Stefan Lovgren, December 7, 2006, A 1986 study found most hunter-gatherers have a symbolically structured sexual division of labour.Testart, A. 1986. Essai sur les fondements de la division sexuelle du travail chez les chasseurs-cueilleurs. Paris: Éditions de l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. However, it is true that in a small minority of cases, women hunt the same kind of quarry as men, sometimes doing so alongside men. {{failed verification span|text=The best-known example are the Aeta people of the Philippines. According to one study, "About 85% of Philippine Aeta women hunt, and they hunt the same quarry as men. Aeta women hunt in groups and with dogs, and have a 31% success rate as opposed to 17% for men. Their rates are even better when theycombine forces with men: mixed hunting groups have a full 41% success rate among the Aeta."|date=August 2017}} Among the Ju'/hoansi people of Namibia, women help men track down quarry.JOURNAL
, Megan
, Biesele
, Steve
, Barclay
, Ju/'Hoan Women's Tracking Knowledge And Its Contribution To Their Husbands' Hunting Success
, African Study Monographs
, Suppl.26
, 67–84
, March 2001
, Women in the Australian Martu also primarily hunt small animals like lizards to feed their children and maintain relations with other women.JOURNAL, Why women hunt: risk and contemporary foraging in a Western Desert aboriginal community, Current Anthropology, 2008-08-01, 0011-3204, 19230267, 655–693, 49, 4, Rebecca Bliege, Bird, Douglas W., Bird, 10.1086/587700,
File:Native Encampment by Skinner Prout, from Australia (1876, vol II).jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment.]]At the 1966 "Man the Hunter" conference, anthropologists Richard Borshay Lee and Irven DeVore suggested that egalitarianism was one of several central characteristics of nomadic hunting and gathering societies because mobility requires minimization of material possessions throughout a population. Therefore, no surplus of resources can be accumulated by any single member. Other characteristics Lee and DeVore proposed were flux in territorial boundaries as well as in demographic composition.At the same conference, Marshall Sahlins presented a paper entitled, "Notes on the Original Affluent Society", in which he challenged the popular view of hunter-gatherers lives as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short", as Thomas Hobbes had put it in 1651.According to Sahlins, ethnographic data indicated that hunter-gatherers worked far fewer hours and enjoyed more leisure than typical members of industrial society, and they still ate well. Their "affluence" came from the idea that they were satisfied with very little in the material sense.Sahlins, M. (1968). "Notes on the Original Affluent Society", Man the Hunter. R.B. Lee and I. DeVore (New York: Aldine Publishing Company) pp. 85–89. {{ISBN|0-202-33032-X}}. See also: Jerome Lewis, "Managing abundance, not chasing scarcity" {{webarchive |url= |date=May 13, 2013 }}, Radical Anthropology, No.2, 2008, and John Gowdy, '"Hunter-Gatherers and the Mythology of the Market", in Lee, Richard B (2005). Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Later, in 1996, Ross Sackett performed two distinct meta-analyses to empirically test Sahlin's view. The first of these studies looked at 102 time-allocation studies, and the second one analyzed 207 energy-expenditure studies. Sackett found that adults in foraging and horticultural societies work, on average, about 6.5 hours a day, whereas people in agricultural and industrial societies work on average 8.8 hours a day.Sackett, R. 1996. "Time, energy, and the indolent savage. A quantitative cross-cultural test of the primitive affluence hypothesis". Ph.D. diss., University of California, Angles.Researchers Gurven and Kaplan have estimated that around 57% of hunter-gatherers reach the age of 15. Of those that reach 15 years of age, 64% continue to live to or past the age of 45. This places the life expectancy between 21 and 37 years.JOURNAL, Guenevere, Michael, Kaplan, Hillard, Longevity amongst Hunter-gatherers, Population and Development Review, 2007, 33, 2, 326,weblink 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00171.x, They further estimate that 70% of deaths are due to diseases of some kind, 20% of deaths come from violence or accidents and 10% are due to degenerative diseases.Mutual exchange and sharing of resources (i.e., meat gained from hunting) are important in the economic systems of hunter-gatherer societies. Therefore, these societies can be described as based on a "gift economy."A 2010 paper argued that while hunter-gatherers may have lower levels of inequality than modern, industrialised societies, that does not mean inequality does not exist. The researchers estimated that the average Gini coefficient amongst hunter-gatherers was 0.25, equivalent to the country of Denmark in 2007. In addition, wealth transmission across generations was also a feature of hunter-gatherers, meaning that "wealthy" hunter-gatherers, within the context of their communities, were more likely to have children as wealthy as them than poorer members of their community and indeed hunter-gatherer societies demonstrate an understanding of social stratification. Thus while the researchers agreed that hunter-gatherers were more egalitarian than modern societies, prior characterisations of them living in a state of egalitarian primitive communism were inaccurate and misleading.Smith, Eric Alden, Kim Hill, Frank W. Marlowe, David Nolin, Polly Wiessner, Michael Gurven, Samuel Bowles, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Tom Hertz, and Adrian Bell. "Wealth transmission and inequality among hunter-gatherers." Current Anthropology 51, no. 1 (2010): 19-34.


(File:Pume 1b.tif|thumb|Savanna Pumé couple on a hunting and gathering trip in the llanos of Venezuela. The man carries a bow, three steel-tipped arrows, and a hat that resembles the head of a jabiru stork as camouflage to approach near enough to deer for a shot. The woman carries a steel-tipped digging stick and a carrying basket for collecting wild tubers. (Photo by Russell D. Greaves))Hunter-gatherer societies manifest significant variability, depending on climate zone/life zone, available technology, and societal structure. Archaeologists examine hunter-gatherer tool kits to measure variability across different groups. Collard et al. (2005) found temperature to be the only statistically significant factor to impact hunter-gatherer tool kits.JOURNAL, Collard, Mark, Kemery, Michael, Banks, Samantha, 2005, Causes of Toolkit Variation Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Test of Four Competing Hypotheses, Canadian Journal of Archaeology, 29, 1–19, Using temperature as a proxy for risk, Collard et al.'s results suggest that environments with extreme temperatures pose a threat to hunter-gatherer systems significant enough to warrant increased variability of tools. These results support Torrence's (1989) theory that risk of failure is indeed the most important factor in determining the structure of hunter-gatherer toolkits.BOOK, Torrence, Robin, Retooling: Towards a behavioral theory of stone tools, 57–66, Torrence, Robin, Time, Energy and Stone Tools, 1989, Cambridge University Press, 978-0521253505,weblink One way to divide hunter-gatherer groups is by their return systems.James Woodburn uses the categories "immediate return" hunter-gatherers for egalitarian and "delayed return" for nonegalitarian.Immediate return foragers consume their food within a day or two after they procure it.Delayed return foragers store the surplus food (Kelly,BOOK, Kelly, Robert L., The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Life ways, Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1995, 1-56098-465-1, 31).Hunting-gathering was the common human mode of subsistence throughout the Paleolithic, but the observation of current-day hunters and gatherers does not necessarily reflect Paleolithic societies; the hunter-gatherer cultures examined today have had much contact with modern civilization and do not represent "pristine" conditions found in uncontacted peoples.JOURNAL, Portera, Claire C., Marlowe, Frank W., How marginal are forager habitats?, Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 1, 59–68, January 2007, 10.1016/j.jas.2006.03.014,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2008, The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture is not necessarily a one way process.It has been argued that hunting and gathering represents an adaptive strategy, which may still be exploited, if necessary, when environmental change causes extreme food stress for agriculturalists.BOOK, Lee, Richard B., Daly, Richard, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, 1999, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-60919-4, In fact, it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies, especially since the widespread adoption of agriculture and resulting cultural diffusion that has occurred in the last 10,000 years.JOURNAL, Hayes-Bohanan, Pamela, 2010, Birx, H. James, 42: Prehistoric Cultures,weblink 21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook, 1, 409–418, Gale Virtual Reference Library, 978-1452266305, 10.4135/9781412979283.n42, This anthropological view has remained unchanged since the 1960s.{{Clarify|date=July 2011}}{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}Nowadays, some scholars speak about the existence within cultural evolution of the so-called mixed-economies or dual economies which imply a combination of food procurement (gathering and hunting) and food production or when foragers have trade relations with farmers.Svizzero, S.; Tisdell, C. The Persistence of Hunting and Gathering Economies Social Evolution & History. Volume 14, Number 2 / September 2015 []

Modern and revisionist perspectives

File:Shoshoni tipis.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|right|A Shoshone encampment in the Wind River MountainsWind River MountainsIn the early 1980s, a small but vocal segment of anthropologists and archaeologists attempted to demonstrate that contemporary groups usually identified as hunter-gatherers do not, in most cases, have a continuous history of hunting and gathering, and that in many cases their ancestors were agriculturalists or pastoralists{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} who were pushed into marginal areas as a result of migrations, economic exploitation, or violent conflict (see, for example, the Kalahari Debate). The result of their effort has been the general acknowledgement that there has been complex interaction between hunter-gatherers and non-hunter-gatherers for millennia.{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}}Some of the theorists who advocate this "revisionist" critique imply that, because the "pure hunter-gatherer" disappeared not long after colonial (or even agricultural) contact began, nothing meaningful can be learned about prehistoric hunter-gatherers from studies of modern ones (Kelly,JOURNAL, Kelly, Raymond, The evolution of lethal intergroup violence, 10.1073/pnas.0505955102, PNAS, 102, October 2005, 15294–15298, 16129826, 43, 1266108, 24-29; see WilmsenBOOK, Wilmsen, Edwin, Land Filled With Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahari, University of Chicago Press, 1989, 0-226-90015-0, )Lee and Guenther have rejected most of the arguments put forward by Wilmsen.JOURNAL, Lee, Richard B., Guenther, Mathias, 1995, Errors Corrected or Compounded? A Reply to Wilmsen, Current Anthropology, 36, 2, 298–305, 10.1086/204361, JOURNAL, Lee, Richard B., 1992, Art, Science, or Politics? The Crisis in Hunter-Gatherer Studies, American Anthropologist, 94, 31–54, 10.1525/aa.1992.94.1.02a00030, 1807/17933, BOOK, Marlowe, Frank W., Ethnicity, Hunter-Gatherers and the 'Other', 2002, Smithsonian Institution Press, 247,weblink Doron Shultziner and others have argued that we can learn a lot about the life-styles of prehistoric hunter-gatherers from studies of contemporary hunter-gatherers—especially their impressive levels of egalitarianism.JOURNAL, Shultziner, Doron, The causes and scope of political egalitarianism during the Last Glacial: A multi-disciplinary perspective, Biology and Philosophy, 2010, 25, 3, 319–346,weblink 10.1007/s10539-010-9196-4, Many hunter-gatherers consciously manipulate the landscape through cutting or burning undesirable plants while encouraging desirable ones, some even going to the extent of slash-and-burn to create habitat for game animals. These activities are on an entirely different scale to those associated with agriculture, but they are nevertheless domestication on some level. Today, almost all hunter-gatherers depend to some extent upon domesticated food sources either produced part-time or traded for products acquired in the wild.Some agriculturalists also regularly hunt and gather (e.g., farming during the frost-free season and hunting during the winter). Still others in developed countries go hunting, primarily for leisure. In the Brazilian rainforest, those groups that recently did, or even continue to, rely on hunting and gathering techniques seem to have adopted this lifestyle, abandoning most agriculture, as a way to escape colonial control and as a result of the introduction of European diseases reducing their populations to levels where agriculture became difficult.{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}}{{dubious|date=June 2015}}File:Bathurst Island men.jpg|upright=1.15|right|thumb|Three Indigenous Australians on Bathurst Island in 1939. According to Peterson (1998), the island was a population isolated for 6,000 years until the eighteenth century. In 1929, three-quarters of the population supported themselves (bushfood|off the bush]].JOURNAL, Demographic transition in a hunter-gatherer population: the Tiwi case, 1929–1996, Peterson, Nicolas, Taylor, John, 1998, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies,weblink Australian Aboriginal Studies, 1998, )There are nevertheless a number of contemporary hunter-gatherer peoples who, after contact with other societies, continue their ways of life with very little external influence or with modifications that perpetuate the viability of hunting and gathering in the 21st century.BOOK, Why Forage? Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-first Century, Codding, Brian F., Kramer, Karen L., School for Advanced Research, University of New Mexico Press, 2016, 978-0826356963, Santa Fe; Albuquerque, One such group is the Pila Nguru (Spinifex people) of Western Australia, whose habitat in the Great Victoria Desert has proved unsuitable for European agriculture (and even pastoralism).{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}} Another are the Sentinelese of the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean, who live on North Sentinel Island and to date have maintained their independent existence, repelling attempts to engage with and contact them.BOOK,weblink In the Forest: Visual and Material Worlds of Andamanese History (1858–2006), Pandya, Vishvajit, 2009, University Press of America, 978-0-7618-4272-9, 357, 673383888, WEB,weblink North Sentinel Island: A Glimpse Into Prehistory, YouTube, 30 May 2017, The Savanna Pumé of Venezuela also live in an area that is inhospitable to large scale economic exploitation and maintain their subsistence based on hunting and gathering, as well as incorporating a small amount of manioc horticulture that supplements, but is not replacing, reliance on foraged foods.BOOK, Why Forage? Hunters and Gatherers in the Twenty-First Century, Kramer, Karen L., Greaves, Russell D., School for Advanced Research Press and University of New Mexico Press, 2016, 978-0826356963, Codding, Brian F., Santa Fe; Albuquerque, 15–42, Diversify or replace: what happens when cultigens are introduced into hunter-gatherer diets., Kramer, Karen L.,


Evidence suggests big-game hunter-gatherers crossed the Bering Strait from Asia (Eurasia) into North America over a land bridge (Beringia), that existed between 47,000–14,000 years ago.WEB
, Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project
, National Geographic Society.
, 1996–2008
, 2009-10-06
, yes
, 2011-05-01
, Around 18,500–15,500 years ago, these hunter-gatherers are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.WEB,weblink The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health, Scientific American, 2009-11-17, Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America.JOURNAL, Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America, American Antiquity, 44, 1, 55–69, 1, January 1979, 279189, Fladmark, K. R., 10.2307/279189, JOURNAL, Eshleman, Jason A., Malhi, Ripan S., Smith, David Glenn, Mitochondrial DNA Studies of Native Americans: Conceptions and Misconceptions of the Population Prehistory of the Americas, Evolutionary Anthropology,weblink University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 7–18, 2003, 2009-11-17, 10.1002/evan.10048, 12, Hunter-gatherers would eventually flourish all over the Americas, primarily based in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada, with offshoots as far east as the Gaspé Peninsula on the Atlantic coast, and as far south as Chile, Monte Verde.{{citation needed |reason=Removed previous citation to a non-expert's personal website; a reliable source should be cited in its place. |date=March 2014}} American hunter-gatherers were spread over a wide geographical area, thus there were regional variations in lifestyles. However, all the individual groups shared a common style of stone tool production, making knapping styles and progress identifiable. This early Paleo-Indian period lithic reduction tool adaptations have been found across the Americas, utilized by highly mobile bands consisting of approximately 25 to 50 members of an extended family.WEB, Paleoindians in Tennessee, John, Broster,weblink Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Tennessee Historical Society. Online Edition provided by: The University of Tennessee Press, 2002, 2009-11-21, The Archaic period in the Americas saw a changing environment featuring a warmer more arid climate and the disappearance of the last megafauna.WEB, Blame North America Megafauna Extinction On Climate Change, Not Human Ancestors,weblink ScienceDaily, 2001, 2010-04-10, The majority of population groups at this time were still highly mobile hunter-gatherers. Individual groups started to focus on resources available to them locally, however, and thus archaeologists have identified a pattern of increasing regional generalization, as seen with the Southwest, Arctic, Poverty Point, Dalton and Plano traditions. These regional adaptations would become the norm, with reliance less on hunting and gathering, with a more mixed economy of small game, fish, seasonally wild vegetables and harvested plant foods.BOOK, Prehistory of the Americas,weblink Stuart J., Fiedel, 151, Cambridge University Press, 1992, 978-0-521-42544-5, 2009-11-18, BOOK, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Frank Salomon, Stuart B. Schwartz,weblink Cambridge University Press, 2009-11-17, 978-0-521-63075-7, 1999,

See also

File:Negritos.png|thumb|NegritoNegrito{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Modern hunter-gatherer groups

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}Contrary to common misconception, hunters and gatherers are mostly well fed, rather than starving.Visualizing Human Geography, Second edition, Alyson L. Greiner{{ISBN?}}

Social movements

  • Anarcho-primitivism, which strives for the abolishment of civilization and the return to a life in the wild.
  • Freeganism involves gathering of food (and sometimes other materials) in the context of an urban or suburban environment.
  • Gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields.
  • Paleolithic diet, which strives to achieve a diet similar to that of ancient hunter-gatherer groups.
  • Paleolithic lifestyle, which extends the paleolithic diet to other elements of the hunter-gatherer way of life, such as movement and contact with nature



Further reading

  • BOOK,weblink Hunter-gatherers in history, archaeology and anthropology, Berg, 2004, 1-85973-825-7, Barnard, A. J.,
  • BOOK,weblink Hunter-gatherers: archaeological and evolutionary theory, Plenum Press, 1991, 0-306-43650-7, Bettinger, R. L.,
  • BOOK,weblink A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution, Gintis, Herbert, Princeton University Press, 2011, 978-0-691-15125-0, Bowles, Samuel, (Reviewed in The Montreal Review)
  • BOOK, The Other Side Of Eden: hunter-gatherers, farmers and the shaping of the world, Brody, Hugh, North Point Press, 2001, 0-571-20502-X,
  • BOOK, Why forage?: hunters and gatherers in the twenty-first century, Codding, Brian F., Kramer, Karen L., School for Advanced Research Press, University of New Mexico Press, 2016, 978-0826356963, Santa Fe, Albuquerque,
  • BOOK,weblink Man the hunter, Aldine de Gruyter, 1968, 0-202-33032-X, Lee, Richard B., Irven, DeVore,
  • BOOK

,weblink First peoples in a new world: colonizing ice age America
, Meltzer
, David J., University of California
, 2009
, 978-0-520-25052-9
, Berkeley
  • BOOK,weblink Forager-traders in South and Southeast Asia: long term histories, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 0-521-01636-3, Morrison, K. D., L. L. Junker,
  • BOOK,weblink Hunter-gatherers: an interdisciplinary perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2001, 0-521-77672-4, Catherine Panter-Brick, Panter-Brick, C., R. H. Layton, P. Rowley-Conwy,
  • BOOK, The Forest People, Touchstone, 1987, 978-0-671-64099-6, Turnbull, Colin,

  • JOURNAL, Mudar, Karen, Anderson, Douglas D., Fall 2007, New evidence for Southeast Asian Pleistocene foraging economies: faunal remains from the early levels of Lang Rongrien rockshelter, Krabi, Thailand, Asian Perspectives, 46, 2, 298–334, 10.1353/asi.2007.0013, {{subscription}}
  • JOURNAL, Nakao, Hisashi, Tamura, Kohei, Yui, Arimatsu, Tomomi, Nakagawa, Naoko, Matsumoto, Takehiko, Matsugi, 30 March 2016, Violence in the prehistoric period of Japan: the spatio-temporal pattern of skeletal evidence for violence in the Jomon period, Biology Letters, The Royal Society publishing, 12, 3, 20160028, 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0028, Our results suggest that the mortality due to violence was low and spatio-temporally highly restricted in the Jomon period, which implies that violence including warfare in prehistoric Japan was not common., 4843228,
  • WEB, Ember, Carol R., Hunter Gatherers (Foragers),weblink Explaining Human Culture, Human Relations Area Files, 22 February 2018, Most cross-cultural research aims to understand shared traits among hunter-gatherers and how and why they vary. Here we look at the conclusions of cross-cultural studies that ask: What are recent hunter-gatherers generally like? How do they differ from food producers? How and why do hunter-gatherers vary?,

External links

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