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Peshawar
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{{About|the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan}}{{pp-pc1}}{{Use Pakistani English|date=August 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2014}}







factoids
>}}>}}}}City Districts of Pakistan>City district| image_skyline = File:PeshawarCollage.jpgIslamia College University>Islamia College, Cunningham clock tower, Sunehri Mosque, Bala Hissar Fortress, Bab-e-Khyber, Mahabat Khan Mosque| image_size = 300px| image_flag = | image_seal = | image_shield = | nickname = City of Flowers| motto = | image_map = | map_caption = | pushpin_map = Khyber Pakhtunkhwa#Pakistan#Asia| pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_map_caption = Location within Pakistan34N35region:PK|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = CountryPakistan}}| subdivision_type1 = Province| subdivision_type2 = DistrictKhyber Pakhtunkhwa}}| subdivision_name2 = Peshawar District| established_title = | established_date = | seat_type = | seat = Union Councils of Pakistan>Union Councils| parts = 92 | government_footnotes = | government_type = Metropolitan cityMayor of Peshawar>Mayor| leader_name = Arbab Asim| leader_title1 = Deputy Mayor| leader_name1 = Syed Qasim Ali Shah| unit_pref = | area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 1257 | area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_percent = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 331| elevation_max_m = 450| elevation_min_m = | population_total = 1,970,0422017 Census of Pakistan>2017List of most populous cities in Pakistan>6th, PakistanDATE=2018-01-03PUBLISHER=PAKISTAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS, | population_density_km2 = auto| population_metro = 4,269,079| population_note = Peshawar Municipal Corporation: 1,893,361Peshawar University Town Council: 5,940Peshawar Cantonment: 70,741| postal_code_type = | postal_code = 25000| area_code = 092| unemployment_rate = | blank_name_sec1 = Languages| blank_info_sec1 = Pashto, Hindko, UrduList of districts of Pakistan by Human Development Index>HDIDATE=2016ACCESSDATE=26 MARCH 2017, | blank2_name_sec1 = HDI Category| blank2_info_sec1 = Medium| website = City District Government of Peshawar| footnotes = | title = | leader_title2 = Deputy CommissionerWEBSITE=DAWNACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2017DATE=1 MARCH 2017, | leader_title3 = Assistant Commissioner PeshawarWEBSITE=PAKISTAN TODAY, 1 June 2017, Pakistan Standard Time>PKT| utc_offset = +5| timezone_DST = | utc_offset_DST = }}Peshawar (}} PÄ“khawar {{audio|PK_Peshawar.ogg|pronunciation}}; }}; }} {{audio|Peshawar.ogg|pronunciation}}) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.WEB,weblink NWFP Introduction, Government of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, 12 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071030055502weblink">weblink 30 October 2007, no, dmy, Situated in the broad Valley of Peshawar near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 BCE, making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest cities in the world.Peshawar: Oldest continuously inhabited City in South Asia. DAWN.com. Retrieved 17 October 2014. Peshawar was the capital of the ancient Kushan Empire, and was home to what may have been the tallest building in the ancient world, the Kanishka stupa.BOOK, Le, Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, 2010, Grafikol, 9780984404308,weblink 2 October 2017, Peshawar was then sacked by the White Huns, before the arrival of Muslim empires. The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikh Empire in 1818, who were then followed by the British in 1849.The city of Peshawar has a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, making it the largest city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan,WEB,weblink Pakistan's 10 most populous cities revealed, Samaa TV, while Peshawar District has a population of 4,269,079.WEB,weblink DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017, www.pbscensus.gov.pk, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170829164748weblink">weblink 29 August 2017, dmy-all,

Etymology

The current name "Peshawar" is popularly believed to be derived from the Sanskrit Purushapura (IAST: Puruṣapura, meaning "City of Men " or “City of Purusha").BOOK, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland,weblink 13 December 2012, 1834, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland., 114–, Sanskrit, written in the Kharosthi script, was the literary language employed by the Buddhist kingdoms which ruled over the area during its earliest recorded period.BOOK,weblink Gandharan Buddhism: Archaeology, Art, and Texts, Behrendt, Kurt, Brancaccio, Pia, 2011-11-01, UBC Press, 9780774841283, en, The association of Peshawar to the name Purushapura dates to the early British colonial period based on Hsuan Tsang’s 7th century account of a city in Gandhara which he called Pu-sha-pu-lo, although an earlier 5th century account by Fa-Hien records the city’s name as Fou-lou-sha.BOOK,weblink A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-Yang, Yang, Hsüan-chih, 2014-07-14, Princeton University Press, 9781400857548, en, Another theory based on the name Purushapura suggests the city was named in honour of an ancient king named Purusha - although no evidence of such a king has been found.WEB,weblink Ancient Peshawar:Historical Review of Some of its Socio-Religious and Cultural Aspects, www.asc-centralasia.edu.pk, 2019-07-19, A 1915 book by Alfred Foucher noted that the Purushapura name explanation had been "taken for granted" even though the name Purushapura does not appear in any ancient literary sources.BOOK,weblink Analecta Orientalia Posthumous Writings and Selected Minor Workds, Brill Archive, en, The Persian Sasanian king Shapur is credited with rebuilding ancient Peshawar, leading to the theory that one of Peshawar’s recorded names, Pashapur, meaning "city of the King," is a reference to him. An ancient inscription from the Shapur era identifies a city in the Gandhara valley by the name pskbvr, which may be a reference to Peshawar.BOOK,weblink Analecta Orientalia Posthumous Writings and Selected Minor Workds, Brill Archive, en, Another theory suggests the city’s name is derived from the Sanskrit name for "city of flowers," Poshapura, a name found in an ancient Kharosthi inscription that may refer to Peshawar.BOOK,weblink Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, 1969, Khyber Mail Press, en, An additional theory suggests that the city’s name is derived from the ancient Persian name "Pesh Awardan", meaning "place of first arrival" or "frontier city," as Peshawar was the first city in after the Khyber Pass encountered by Persians.BOOK,weblink Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, 1995, Sang-e-Meel Publications, en, BOOK,weblink Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Pakistan, Research Society of, 1965, en, The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city was known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni. The city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar. The current name is said by some to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town"BOOK, Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, Historic Cities of the Islamic World, 2007, BRILL, 9789004153882,weblink 24 March 2017, or, more literally, "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشَاوَر,BOOK, Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, Volume 2, Issue 1 – Volume 3, Issue 2, 1965, Research Society of Pakistan,weblink and Peshāwar (پشاور).JOURNAL, Journal of Central Asia, Journal of Central Asia, 1996, 19,

History

Ancient

Founding

Peshawar was founded on the Gandhara Plains in the broad Valley of Peshawar. The city likely first existed as a small village in the 5th century BCE,BOOK, Samad, Rafi U., The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys, 2011, Algora Publishing, 9780875868592,weblink within the cultural sphere of eastern ancient Persia. Peshawar was founded near the ancient Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati, near present-day Charsadda.WEB,weblink NWFP in search of a name, pakhtunkhwa.com, 24 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160131042427weblink">weblink 31 January 2016, dmy-all,

Greek

In the winter of 327–26 BCE, Alexander the Great subdued the Valley of Peshawar during his invasion of ancient India,BOOK, Fuller, J.F.C., The Generalship Of Alexander The Great, 2004, Da Capo Press, 9780306813306,weblink as well as the nearby Swat and Buner valleys.BOOK, Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram, Life and Culture in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to 1000 AD, 1978, Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, 78907043, harv, Following Alexander's conquest, the Valley of Peshawar came under suzerainty of Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Empire. A locally-made vase fragment that was found in Peshawar depicts a scene from Sophocles' play Antigone.BOOK, Tarn, William Woodthorpe, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 2010, Cambridge University Press, 9781108009416,weblink 28 March 2017,

Mauryan

File:Takht-e-bahi.jpg|thumb|The nearby Takht-i-BahiTakht-i-BahiFollowing the Seleucid–Mauryan war, the region was ceded to the Mauryan Empire in 303 BCE.BOOK, Schmidt, Karl J., An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History, 2015, Routledge, 9781317476818,weblink 28 March 2017, Around 300 BCE, the Greek diplomat and historian Megasthenes noted that ancient Peshawar was the western terminus of a Mauryan road that connected the city to the empire's capital at Pataliputra,BOOK, Elisseeff, Vadime, The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce, 1998, Berghahn Books, 9781571812223, near the city of Patna in the modern-day Indian state of Bihar.As Mauryan power declined, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom based in modern Afghanistan declared its independence from the Seleucid Empire, and quickly seized ancient Peshawar around 190 BCE. The city was then ruled by several Iranic Parthian kingdoms. The city was then captured by Gondophares, founder of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. Gondophares established the nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery in 46 CE.

Kushan

File:KanishkaCasket.JPG|thumb|left|150px|Perhaps the tallest building in the ancient world, Peshawar's Kanishka stupa once kept sacred Buddhist relics in the Kanishka casketKanishka casketIn the first century of the Common era, ancient Peshawar came under control of Kujula Kadphises, founder of the Kushan Empire. The city was made the empire's winter capital. The Kushan's summer capital at Kapisi (modern Bagram, AfghanistanBOOK,weblink Trade And Trade Routes In Ancient India, Chandra, Moti, Abhinav Publications, 1977, 9788170170556, 24 March 2017, ) was seen as the secondary capital of the empire, while Puruṣapura was considered to be the empire's primary capital.BOOK, Le, Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, 2010, Grafikol, 9780984404308,weblink 24 March 2017, Ancient Peshawar's population was estimated to be 120,000, which would make it the seventh-most populous city in the world at the time.WEB, Top 10 Cities of the Year 100,weblink Education > Geography (sourced from Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press), About.com, 13 December 2012, Matt, Rosenberg, Tertius Chandler, 2012, Around 128 CE, ancient Peshawar was made sole capital of the Kushan Empire under the rule of Kanishka. As a devout Buddhist, the emperor built the grand Kanishka Mahavihara monastery.BOOK, Wink, Andre, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries, 2002, Brill, 9780391041738, After his death the magnificent Kanishka stupa was built in Peshawar to house Buddhist relics. The golden age of the Kushan empire in Peshawar ended in 232 CE with the death of the last great Kushan king, Vasudeva I.Around 260 CE, the armies of the Sasanid Emperor Shapur I launched an attack against Peshawar,BOOK, Puri, Baij Nath, Buddhism in Central Asia, 1987, Motilal Banarsidass, 9788120803725, and severely damage Buddhist monuments and monasteries throughout the Valley of Peshawar. Shapur's campaign also resulted in damage to the city's monumental stupa and monastery. The Kushans were made subordinate to the Sasanids, and their power rapidly dwindled,BOOK, Wink, Andre, Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th–13th centuries, 2002, BRILL, 9780391041745, as the Sasanids blocked lucrative trade routes westward out of the city.Kushan Emperor Kanishka III was able to temporarily reestablish control over the entire Valley of Peshawar after Shapur's invasion, but the city was then captured by the Central Asian Kidarite kingdom in the early 400s CE.BOOK, Ahmad, Hasan Dani, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, 1999, Motilal Banarsidass Publ, 9788120815407,weblink 29 March 2017,

White Huns

The White Huns devastated ancient Peshawar in the 460s CE,BOOK, Saletore, Bhasker Anand, India's Diplomatic Relations with the East, 1960, Popular Book Depot, and ravaged the entire region of Gandhara, destroying its numerous monasteries.BOOK, Wriggins, Sally, The Silk Road Journey With Xuanzang, 2008, Basic Books, 978-0-7867-2544-1,weblink 29 March 2017, The Kanishka stupa was rebuilt during the White Hun era with the construction of a tall wooden superstructure, built atop a stone base, and crowned with a 13-layer copper-gilded chatra. In the 400s CE, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the structure and described it as "the highest of all the towers" in the "terrestrial world", which ancient travelers claimed was up to {{convert|560|ft|m}} tall, though modern estimates suggest a height of {{convert|400|ft|m}}.In 520 CE the Chinese monk Song Yun visited Gandhara and ancient Peshawar during the White Hun era, and noted that it was in conflict with nearby Kapisa.BOOK, Cotton, James, Imperial Gazetteer of India:Gazetteers of British India, 1833–1962 Volume 20 of Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1908, Clarendon, BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier, 1995, Sang-e-Meel Publications, The Chinese monk and traveler Xuanzang visited ancient Peshawar around 630 CE,BOOK, hastings, captain e. g. g., report of the regular settlement of the peshawar district of the punjab, 1878, Oxford University,weblink 29 March 2017, after Kapisa victory, and expressed lament that the city and its great Buddhist monuments had decayed to ruinBOOK, Zhang, Guiyong, Chinese History: Middle ages, 1978, China Academy,weblink 24 March 2017, —although some monks studying Hinayana Buddhism continued to study at the monastery's ruins.BOOK, Heirman, Ann, Bumbacher, Stephan Peter, The Spread of Buddhism, 2007, BRILL, 9789047420064, Xuanzang estimated that only about 1,000 families continued in a small quarter among the ruins of the former grand capital.

Early Islamic

(File:ClockTower-peshawar.jpg|thumb|Clock Tower Peshawar)Until the mid 7th century, the residents of ancient Peshawar had a ruling elite of Central Asian Scythian descent, who were then displaced by the Hindu Shahis of Kabul.Islam is believed to have been first introduced to the Buddhist and Zoroastrian inhabitants of Puruṣapura in the later 7th century.It is speculated that Islam first entered the North West of modern Pakistan, sometime around 670–680 AD, at least 40 years or so before the invasion of Sindh by Muhammad ibn Qasim. See Prof AH Dani, monograph on 'Early Islam in NWFP' in Journal of Central Asia, University of Peshawar, Vol 12, No 24, 1999, pp 11–24; and AQ Mohmand Early Buddhist Conversions to Islam on the North-West Frontier in Nation daily, 21 June 1988, npAs the first Pashtun tribe to settle the region, the Dilazak Pashtuns began settling in the Valley of Peshawar,"Taareekh-e-Hazara" (Urdu) by Dr. Sher Bahadur Khan Panni_first edition_1969 p 295-313,"Taareekh-e-Wadi-e-Chhachh and Aqwaam-e-Chhachh" (Urdu) by Manzoor Awan p 175-182, "Afghanistan and its inhabitants" translation of Muhammad Hayat Khan's book by Henry B Priestley_1874 (reproduced by Sang-e-Meel Publications_Pakistan_1981 p-55/56, p- 197/198, "Da Pasto Qabeelo Shajre o Mene" (Pashto) by Muhammad Umar Rond Miakhel_2001 p 346-347 and are believed to have settled regions up to the Indus River by the 11th century. The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar.In 986–87 CE, Peshawar's first encounter with Muslim armies occurred when Sabuktigin invaded the area and fought the Hindu Shahis under their king, Anandpal.

Medieval

{{Further|Battle of Peshawar (1001)}}On 28 November 1001, Sabuktigin's son Mahmud Ghazni decisively defeated the army of Raja Jayapala, son of Anandpal, at the Battle of Peshawar,BOOK, Bosworth, C.E., The Ghaznavids 994–1040, Edinburgh University Press, 1963, harv, and established rule of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Peshawar region.During the Ghaznavid era, Peshawar served as an important stop between the Afghan plateau, and the Ghaznavid garrison city of Lahore. During the 10th–12th century, Peshawar served as a headquarters for Hindu Nath Panthi Yogis, who in turn are believed to have extensively interacted with Muslim Sufi mystics.In 1179–80, Muhammad Ghori captured Peshawar, though the city was then destroyed in the early 1200s at the hands of the Mongols. Peshawar was an important regional centre under the Lodi Empire.The Khashi Khel Pashtuns, ancestors of modern-day Yusufzai and Gigyani Pashtuns, began settling rural regions around Peshawar in the late 1400s."The Kingdom of Afghanistan – A Historical Sketch" by G.P.Tate (1911), Reproduced by 'Indus Publications' (1973) Page 12 (Foot Note) The Khashi Khel tribe pushed the Dilazak Pashtun tribes east of the Indus River following a battle in 1515 near the city of Mardan.

Mughal

File:MKmosque.jpg|thumb|Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan MosqueMohabbat Khan MosqueFile:PeshawarMahabKhanMosch.jpg|thumb|The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is elaborately frescofrescoPeshawar remained an important centre on trade routes between India and Central Asia. The Peshawar region was a cosmopolitan region in which goods, peoples, and ideas would pass along trade routes. Its importance as a trade centre is highlighted by the destruction of over one thousand camel-loads of merchandise following an accidental fire at Bala Hissar fort in 1586.BOOK, Richards, John F., The Mughal Empire, 1995, Cambridge University Press, 9780521566032,weblink 24 March 2017, Mughal rule in the area was tenuous, as Mughal suzerainty was only firmly exercised in the Peshawar valley, while the neighbouring valley of Swat was under Mughal rule only during the reign of Akbar.Akbar Nama, trans. H. Beveridge, vol. 3, p. 715 quoted in Dani, Peshawar. p. 102. Whereas according to Nizam ai-Din Ahmad it was "on the [next day]" that Akbar sent Zain Khan Kukah "with a well equipped army against the Afghans of Sawad (Swat) and Bajaur, for the extirpation of those turbulent tubes," Khwajah Nizam al-Din Ahmad, The Tabaqat-i-Akbari: (A History of India from the early Musalman Invasions to the thirty-eight year of the reign of Akbar), vol. 2, trans, Brajendra Nath De. rev. and ed, Baini Prashad, low Price Publications, Delhi, 1992, p, 607.In July 1526, Emperor Babur captured Peshawar from Daulat Khan Lodi.BOOK, Henry Miers, Elliot, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, 1867, 2013, Cambridge University Press, 9781108055871,weblink 2013-03-21, During Babur's rule, the city was known as Begram, and he rebuilt the city's fort.BOOK, Aykroyd, Clarissa, Pakistan, 2005, Mason Crest Publishers, 9781590848395, Babur used the city as a base for expeditions to other nearby towns in Pashtunistan.Under the reign of Babur's son, Humayun, direct Mughal rule over the city was briefly challenged with the rise of the Pashtun king, Sher Shah Suri, who began construction of the famous Grand Trunk Road in the 16th century. Peshawar was an important trading centre on Sher Shah Suri's Grand Trunk Road. During Akbar's rule, the name of the city changed from Begram to Peshawar. In 1586, Pashtuns rose against Mughal rule during the Roshani Revolt under the leadership of Bayazid Pir Roshan,BOOK, The Cambridge History of India, Volume 3, 1928, CUP Archive, founder of the egalitarian Roshani movement, who assembled Pashtun armies in an attempted rebellion against the Mughals. The Roshani followers laid siege to the city until 1587.Peshawar was bestowed with its own set of Shalimar Gardens during the reign of Shah Jahan,Ahmad, Hasan Dani (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. {{ISBN|9788120815407}}. Retrieved 29 March 2017 which no longer exist.(File:Sunehri maseet da booa.JPG|thumb|Peshawar's Sunehri Mosque dates from the Mughal era.)Emperor Aurangzeb's Governor of Kabul, Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan used Peshawar as his winter capital during the 17th century, and bestowed the city with its famous Mohabbat Khan Mosque in 1630.Yusufzai tribes rose against Mughal rule during the Yusufzai Revolt of 1667, and engaged in pitched-battles with Mughal battalions nearby Attock. Afridi tribes resisted Mughal rule during the Afridi Revolt of the 1670s. The Afridis massacred a Mughal battalion in the nearby Khyber Pass in 1672 and shut the pass to lucrative trade routes.{{citation |title= The Mughal Empire |chapter= Imperial expansion under Aurangzeb 1658–1869. Testing the limits of the empire: the Northwest. |volume= 5 |series= New Cambridge history of India: The Mughals and their contemporaries |first=John F. |last=Richards |authorlink= John F. Richards |edition= illustrated, reprint |publisher= Cambridge University Press |year= 1996 |isbn= 978-0-521-56603-2 |pages= 170–171 |chapter-url=weblink }} Mughal armies led by Emperor Aurangzeb himself regained control of the entire area in 1674.Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, his son Bahadur Shah I, former Governor of Peshawar and Kabul, was selected to be the Mughal Emperor. As Mughal power declined following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb, the empire's defenses were weakened.BOOK, Wynbrandt, James, A Brief History of Pakistan, 2009, Infobase, 9780816061846,

Persian

On 18 November 1738, Peshawar was captured from the Mughal governor Nawab Nasir Khan by the Afsharid armies during the Persian invasion of the Mughal Empire under Nader Shah.BOOK, Sharma, S.R., Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material, Volume 3, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 9788171568192,weblink 24 March 2017, 1999, BOOK, Nadiem, Ihsan H., Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments, 2007, Sang-e-Meel, 9789693519716,

Durranis

File:Bala_Hisar_Fort.jpg|thumb|220px|Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani Afghan kings.]]In 1747, Peshawar was taken by Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Durrani Empire.BOOK,weblink A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, Volume 14, 29 December 2014, 9781490714417, Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed, October 2013, Under the reign of his son Timur Shah, the Mughal practice of using Kabul as a summer capital and Peshawar as a winter capital was reintroduced,BOOK, Shah, Hanifi, Connecting Histories in Afghanistan: Market Relations and State Formation on a Colonial Frontier,weblink 13 December 2012, 11 February 2011, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-7777-3, Timur Shah transferred the Durrani capital from Qandahar during the period of 1775 and 1776. Kabul and Peshawar then shared time as the dual capital cities of Durrani, the former during the summer and the latter during the winter season., with the practice maintained until the Sikh invasion.Caroe, Olaf (1957) The Pathans. Peshawar's Bala Hissar Fort served as the residence of Afghan kings during their winter stay in Peshawar. Peshawar was attacked and briefly held by the Marathas, which conquered the city in the Battle of Peshawar in May 1758. A large force of Pashtuns under the Durrani then re-conquered Peshawar in early 1759.Schofield, Victoria, "Afghan Frontier: Feuding and Fighting in Central Asia", London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks (2003), page 47 Peshawar was noted to be the main centre of trade between Bukhara and India by British explorer William Moorcroft during the late 1700s.BOOK, Hopkins, B., The Making of Modern Afghanistan, 2008, Springer, 9780230228764, Peshawar was at the centre of a productive agricultural region that provided much of north India's dried fruit.Timur Shah's grandson, Mahmud Shah Durrani, became king, and quickly seized Peshawar from his half-brother, Shah Shujah Durrani. Shah Shujah was then himself proclaimed king in 1803, and recaptured Peshawar while Mahmud Shah was imprisoned at Bala Hissar fort until his eventual escape. In 1809, the British sent an emissary to the court of Shah Shujah in Peshawar, marking the first diplomatic meeting between the British and Afghans. His half-brother Mahmud Shah then allied himself with the Barakzai Pashtuns, and captured Peshawar once again and reigned until 1818.

Sikh

Ranjit Singh invaded Peshawar in 1818 and captured it from the Durranis.BOOK, Rai, Jyoti, Singh, Patwant, Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 2008, Peter Owen Publishers, 978-0-7206-1371-1, The Sikhs soon lost control, and so in 1823, Ranjit Singh returned to battle the armies of Azim Khan at Nowshera. Following the Sikh victory at the Battle of Nowshera, Ranjit Singh re-captured Peshawar. By 1830, Peshawar's economy was noted by Scottish explorer Alexander Burnes to have sharply declined, with Ranjit Singh's forces having destroyed the city's palace and agricultural fields.Much of Peshawar's caravan trade from Kabul ceased on account of skirmishes between Afghan and Sikh forces, as well as a punitive tax levied on merchants by Ranjit Singh's forces. Singh's government also required Peshawar to forfeit much of its leftover agricultural output to the Sikhs as tribute, while agriculture was further decimated by a collapse of the dried fruit market in north India. Singh appointed Neapolitan mercenary Paolo Avitabile as administrator of Peshawar, who is remembered for having unleashed a reign of terror. His time in Peshawar is known as a time of "gallows and gibbets." The city's famous Mahabat Khan, built in 1630 in the Jeweler's Bazaar, was badly damaged and desecrated by the Sikh conquerors.WEB, History of Peshawar,weblink National Fund for Cultural Heritage, 13 December 2012, Asghar, Javed, 1999–2004, The Sikh Empire formally annexed Peshawar in 1834 following advances from the armies of Hari Singh Nalwa—bringing the city under direct control of the Sikh Empire's Lahore Durbar. An 1835 attempt by Dost Muhammad Khan to re-occupy the city failed when his army refused to engage in combat with the Dal Khalsa. Sikh settlers from Punjab were settled in the city during Sikh rule. The city's only remaining Gurdwaras were built by Hari Singh Nalwa to accommodate the newly-settle Sikhs.WEB, Gurudwara Bhai Joga Singh at Peshawar,weblink All About Sikhs – your Gateway to Sikhism, Gateway to Sikhism, 13 December 2012, Iqbal, Qaiser, 2012, The Sikhs also rebuilt the Bala Hissar fort during their occupation of the city.BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century, 2003, UNESCO, 9789231038761,

British Raj

File:Islamia College Peshawar 2.jpg|thumb|The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style.]]File:Sethi_House_1.jpg|thumb|Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi MohallahSethi MohallahFollowing the defeat of the Sikhs in the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, territories in the Punjab were also captured by the British East India Company. The British re-established stability in the wake of ruinous Sikh rule. During the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the 4,000 members of the native garrison were disarmed without bloodshed;WEB, Peshawar Cantonment,weblink GlobalSecurity.org, GlobalSecurity.org, 13 December 2012, John, Pike, 2000–2012, the absence of brutality meant that Peshawar was not affected by the widespread devastation that was experienced throughout the rest of British India and local chieftains sided with the British after the incident.Charles Allen, Soldier Sahibs, p.276The British laid out the vast Peshawar Cantonment to the west of the city in 1868, and made the city its frontier headquarters. Additionally, several projects were initiated in Peshawar, including linkage of the city by railway to the rest of British India and renovation of the Mohabbat Khan mosque that had been desecrated by the Sikhs. British suzerainty over regions west of Peshawar was cemented in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand, foreign secretary of the British Indian government, who collaboratively demarcated the border between British controlled territories in India and Afghanistan.The British built Cunningham clock tower in celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and in 1906 built the Victoria Hall (now home of the Peshawar Museum) in memory of Queen Victoria. The British introduced Western-style education ito Peshawar with the establishment of Edwardes College and Islamia College in 1901 and 1913, along with several schools run by the Anglican Church. For better administration of the region, Peshawar and the adjoining districts were separated from the Punjab Province in 1901,Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan weblink The North-West Frontier Province was separated from Punjab Province in 1901, after which Peshawar became capital of the new province.File:Edwardes College Side View.JPG|thumb|Edwardes CollegeEdwardes CollegePeshawar emerged as a centre for both Hindko and Pashtun intellectuals during the British era. Hindko speakers, also referred to as Khaarian ("city dwellers" in Pashto), were responsible for the dominant culture for most of the time that Peshawar was under British rule.The Frontier Town of Peshawar. A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain. Peshawar was also home to a non-violent resistance movement led by Ghaffar Khan, a disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In April 1930, Khan led a large group of Khan's followers protested in Qissa Khawani Bazaar against discriminatory laws that had been enacted by the British rulers—hundreds were killed when British troops opened fire on the demonstrators.WEB, PESHAWAR: Qissa Khwani martyrs remembered,weblink DAWN The Internet Edition, DAWN Media Group, 13 December 2012, APP, 24 April 2008,

Modern era

In 1947, Peshawar became part of the newly created state of Pakistan, and emerged as a cultural centre in the country's northwest. The University of Peshawar was established in the city in 1950, and augmented by the amalgamation of nearby British-era institutions into the university.BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier, 1995, Sang-e-Meel Publications,weblink 14 June 2017, Until the mid-1950s, Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. In the 1960s, Peshawar was a base for a CIA operation to spy on the Soviet Union, with the 1960 U-2 incident resulting aircraft an aircraft flown from Peshawar was shot down by the Soviets. From the 1960s until the late 1970s, Peshawar was a major stop on the famous Hippie trail.NEWS, The Lonely Planet Journey: The Hippie Trail,weblink 14 June 2017, The Independent, 5 Nov 2011, During the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s, Peshawar served as a political centre for the CIA and the Inter-Services Intelligence-trained mujahideen groups based in the camps of Afghan refugees. It also served as the primary destination for large numbers of Afghan refugees. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province, with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar district in 1981. The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees strained Peshawar's infrastructure, and drastically altered the city's demography.NEWS, HAIDER, MURTAZA, Of refugees, cities and cultures,weblink 5 April 2017, Dawn, 20 June 2012, Like much of northwest Pakistan, Peshawar has been severely affected by violence from the attacks of the extremist Taliban. Local poets' shrines have been targeted by the Pakistani Taliban,NEWS, Sufi shrine bombed, in push to "Talibanize" Pakistan,weblink 13 December 2012, AsiaNews.it, 3 June 2009, Qaiser, Felix, AsiaNews CF, a suicide bomb attack targeted the historic All Saints Church, and most notably the 2014 Peshawar school massacre in which Taliban militants killed 132 school children.Peshawar suffered 111 acts of terror in 2010, which had declined to 18 in 2014, before the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb which has further reduced acts of violence throughout Pakistan. More civilians died in acts of violence in 2014 compared to 2010 – largely a result of the Peshawar school massacre.

Geography

File:Pakistan Khyber Pass IMG 9928.jpg|thumb|right|The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber PassKhyber Pass

Topography

File:KhyberPassPakistan_enh2.jpg|thumb|Peshawar sits at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, which has been used as a trade route since the KushanKushanPeshawar is located in the broad Valley of Peshawar, which is surrounded by mountain ranges on three sides, with the fourth opening to the Punjab plains. The city is located in the generally level base of the valley, known as the Gandhara Plains.

Climate

With an influence from the local steppe climate, Peshawar features a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh), with hot summers and cool winters. Winter in Peshawar starts in November and ends in late March, though it sometimes extends into mid-April, while the summer months are from mid-May to mid-September. The mean maximum summer temperature surpasses {{convert|40|C|F}} during the hottest month, and the mean minimum temperature is {{convert|25|C|F}}. The mean minimum temperature during the coolest month is {{convert|4|C|F}}, while the maximum is {{convert|18.3|C|F}}.Peshawar is not a monsoon region, unlike other parts of Pakistan; however, rainfall occurs in both winter and summer. Due to western disturbances, the winter rainfall shows a higher record between the months of February and April. The highest amount of winter rainfall, measuring {{convert|236|mm|in}}, was recorded in February 2007,WEB, Peshawar Climate Data,weblink PakMet, Climate Data Processing Centre (CDPC), Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi., 26 June 2016, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100613053333weblink">weblink 13 June 2010, while the highest summer rainfall of {{convert|402|mm|in}} was recorded in July 2010;WEB, RAINFALL STATEMENT JULY-2010,weblink PakMet, Climate data Processing Centre (CDPC), Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi, 26 June 2016, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100820185911weblink">weblink 20 August 2010, during this month, a record-breaking rainfall level of {{convert|274|mm|in}} fell within a 24-hour period on 29 July 2010 — the previous record was {{convert|187|mm|in}} of rain, recorded in April 2009. The average winter rainfall levels are higher than those of summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average annual precipitation level was recorded as {{convert|400|mm|in}} and the highest annual rainfall level of {{convert|904.5|mm|in}} was recorded in 2003. Wind speeds vary during the year, from {{convert|5|kn|mph km/h|lk=in}} in December to {{convert|24|kn|mph km/h}} in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August. The highest temperature of {{convert|50|C|F}} was recorded on 18 June 1995, while the lowest {{convert|-3.9|C|F}} occurred on 7 January 1970.{{Peshawar weatherbox}}

Cityscape

File:Flickr - boellstiftung - Altstadt Peshawar.jpg|thumb|Peshawar's Jeweler's Bazaar is adjacent to the Mohabbat Khan MosqueMohabbat Khan MosqueFile:Peshawarbazaar.jpg|thumb|A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani BazaarQissa Khawani Bazaar(File:Oldpeshawarcity.jpg|thumb|Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture.)(File:Qissa_Khwani_Bazaar,_Peshawar,_Pakistan_-_panoramio_-_franek2.jpg|thumb|Some buildings in the old city feature carved wooden balconies.)Historically, the old city of Peshawar was a heavily guarded citadel that consisted of high walls. In the 21st century, only remnants of the walls remain, but the houses and havelis continue to be structures of significance. Most of the houses are constructed of unbaked bricks, with the incorporation of wooden structures for protection against earthquakes, with many composed of wooden doors and latticed wooden balconies. Numerous examples of the city's old architecture can still be seen in areas such as Sethi Mohallah. In the old city, located in inner-Peshawar, many historic monuments and bazaars exist in the 21st century, including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, Kotla Mohsin Khan, Chowk Yadgar and the Qissa Khawani Bazaar. Due to the damage caused by rapid growth and development, the old walled city has been identified as an area that urgently requires restoration and protection.The walled city was surrounded by several main gates that served as the main entry points into the city — in January 2012, an announcement was made that the government plans to address the damage that has left the gates largely non-existent over time, with all of the gates targeted for restoration.NEWS, Restoring heritage: Kabuli Gate being rebuilt in old city,weblink 13 December 2012, The Express Tribune, 29 January 2012, Manzoor Ali, The Express Tribune News Network,

Demographics

{{Historical populations|title = |type = |align = |direction = |width = |state = |shading = |pop_name = |percentages = |footnote = YEAR=2006CHAPTER-URL=HTTP://WWW.PBS.GOV.PK/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/OTHER/POCKET_BOOK2006/2.PDFTITLE=PAKISTAN STATISTICAL POCKET BOOK 2006PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN: STATISTICS DIVISIONPUBLICATION-DATE=2006ACCESS-DATE=2018-03-29, 2017>TITLE=DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170829164748/HTTP://WWW.PBSCENSUS.GOV.PK/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/DISTRICT_WISE_CENSUS_RESULTS_CENSUS_2017.PDFPUBLISHER=PAKISTAN BUREAU OF STATISTICSACCESS-DATE=2018-03-29, PDF, 1730001520002180002730005660009828161970042}}

Population

The population of Peshawar district in 1998 was 2,026,851.WEB, Peshawar District Demographics,weblink Govt of KPK, 4 April 2017, The city's annual growth rate is estimated at 3.29% per year,WEB, About Peshawar: Demographics,weblink epeshawar.com, epeshawar.com, 13 December 2012, 2012, and the 2016 population of Peshawar district is estimated to be 3,405,414.WEB, Development Statistics of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,weblink Bureau of Statistics Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 4 April 2017, 159, With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the sixth-largest city of Pakistan.

Language

The primary native languages spoken in Peshawar are Pashto and Hindko,JOURNAL, Shackle, Christopher, Christopher Shackle, 1980, 10.1017/S0041977X00137401, 0041-977X, 43, 3, Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies,weblink 496–97, though English is used in the city's educational institutions,BOOK, Mills, Margaret Ann, Gender, Genre, and Power in South Asian Expressive Traditions, 1994, Motilal Banarsidass, 9788120811782, 307,weblink while Urdu is understood throughout the city.The district of Peshawar is overwhelmingly Pashto-speaking, though the Hindko-speaking minority is concentrated in Peshawar's old city,BOOK, Cohen, Stephen, The Idea of Pakistan, 21 September 2004, Brookings Institution Press, 9780815797616, 202,weblink 5 April 2017, Hindko speakers in Peshawar increasingly assimilate elements of Pashto and Urdu into their speech.BOOK, Bashir, Elena, Hock, Hans Henrich, The Languages and Linguistics of South Asia: A Comprehensive Guide, 24 May 2016, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 9783110423303,weblink 5 April 2017,

Religion

Peshawar is overwhelmingly Muslim, with Muslims making up 98.5% of the city's population in the 1998 census.BOOK, Peshawar District: Socio-political Profile, 2006, Pattan Development Organization, Christians make up the second largest religious group with around 20,000 adherents, while over 7,000 members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community live in Peshawar. Hindus and Sikhs are also found in the city − though most of the city's Hindu and Sikh community migrated en masse to India following the Partition of British India in 1947.Though the city's Sikh population drastically declined after Partition, the Sikh community has been bolstered in Peshawar by the arrival of appximately 4,000 Sikh refugees from conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas;WEB, Historic Gurdwara in Peshawar to Reopen for Worship,weblink Outlook India.com, The Outlook Group, 13 December 2012, M, Zulqernain, 10 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130425183548weblink">weblink 25 April 2013, dmy-all, In 2008, the largest Sikh population in Pakistan was located in Peshawar.NEWS, Pakistan: The Embattled Sikhs in Taliban Territory,weblink 13 December 2012, Time World, 22 November 2010, Rania, Abouzeid, Time Inc, Sikhs in Peshawar self-identify as Pashtuns and speak Pashto as their mother tongue.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2014-08-17, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130411112422weblink">weblink 11 April 2013, dmy-all, There was a small, but, thriving Jewish community until the late 1940s. After the partition and the emergence of the State of Israel, Jews left for Israel.Jewish ghosts in Pakistan

Afghan refugees

Peshawar has hosted Afghan refugees since the start of the Afghan civil war in 1978, though the rate of migration drastically increased following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. By 1980, 100,000 refugees a month were entering the province, with 25% of all refugees living in Peshawar district in 1981. The arrival of large numbers of Afghan refugees strained Peshawar's infrastructure, and drastically altered the city's demography. During the 1988 national elections, an estimated 100,000 Afghans refugees were illegally registered to vote in Peshawar.NEWS, Pakistan Restricts Afghan. Refugees,weblink 13 December 2012, The New York Times, 16 November 1988, Donatella, Lorch, The New York Times Company, With the influx of Afghan refugees into Peshawar, the city became a hub for Afghan musicians and artists.NEWS, PESHAWAR: Refugee musicians keep Afghan music alive,weblink 13 December 2012, DAWN The Internet Edition, 24 December 2001, Intikhab, Amir, DAWN Group of Newspapers, Some Afghan refugees have established successful businesses in Peshawar, and play an important role in the city's economy.NEWS, Fragile economy of Peshawar and policy failure,weblink 7 April 2017, The Tribune, 20 July 2016, In recent years, Peshawar district hosts up to 20% of all Afghan refugees in Pakistan. In 2005, Peshawar district was home to 611,501 Afghan refugees — who constituted 19.7% of the district's total population.WEB, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, AFGHANS IN PESHAWAR Migration, Settlements and Social Networks,weblink Collective for Social Science Research, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 5 April 2017, January 2006, Peshawar's immediate environs were home to large Afghan refugee camps, with Jalozai camp hosting up to 300,000 refugees in 2001NEWS, Fearing and fleeing in Pakistan,weblink 5 April 2017, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2014, – making it the largest refugee camp in Asia at the time.Afghan refugees began to be frequently accused of involvement with terrorist attacks that occurred during Pakistan's war against radical Islamists. By 2015 the Pakistani government adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees, including many who had spent their entire life in Pakistan.NEWS, Pakistan wants millions of Afghan refugees gone. It's a humanitarian crisis waiting to happen.,weblink 5 April 2017, Reuters, Public Radio International, 30 March 2017, The policy of repatriation was also encouraged by the government of Afghanistan,NEWS, Constable, Pamela, c ‘There is nothing here but dust’: What Afghan deportees face after years as refugees in Pakistan,weblink 5 April 2017, Washington Post, 19 March 2017, though many refugees had not registered themselves in Pakistan. Unregistered refugees returning to Afghanistan without their old Afghan identification documents now have no official status in Afghanistan either.

Economy

Peshawar's economic importance has historically been linked to its privileged position at the entrance to the Khyber Pass – the ancient travel route by which most trade between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent passed. Peshawar's economy also benefited from tourism in the mid-20th century, as the city formed a crucial part of the Hippie trail.Peshawar's estimated monthly per capita income was ₨55,246 in 2015, compared to ₨117,924 in Islamabad, and ₨66,359 in Karachi. Peshawar's surrounding region is also relatively poor − Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's cities on average have an urban per capita income that is 20% less than Pakistan's national average for urban residents.WEB,weblink SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN ANNUAL REVIEW 2014–15, 2016, SOCIAL POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE, 8 April 2017, Peshawar was noted by the World Bank in 2014 to be at the helm of a nationwide movement to create an ecosystem for entrepreneurship, freelance jobs, and technology.NEWS, Putting Peshawar at the Helm of Digital Change: Youth, Technology, and Innovation,weblink 7 April 2017, World Bank, 23 May 2014, The city has been host to the World Bank assisted Digital Youth Summit — an annual event to connect the city and province's youths to opportunities in the digital economy. The 2017 event hosted 100 speakers including several international speakers, and approximately 3,000 delegates in attendance.WEB, Digital Youth Summit,weblink 7 April 2017,

Industry

Peshawar's Industrial Estate on Jamrud Road is an industrial zone established in the 1960s on 868 acres. The industrial estate hosts furniture, marble industries, and food processing industries, though many of its plots remain underutilized.BOOK, IBP, Inc., Pakistan: Doing Business and Investing in Pakistan: Strategic, Practical Information, Regulations, Contacts, 1 June 2015, Lulu, 9781514527474, The Hayatabad Industrial Estate hosts 646 industrial units in Peshawar's western suburbs, though several of the units are no longer in use.NEWS, CPEC-inspired economic zones,weblink 7 April 2017, Dawn, 28 December 2015, As part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, 4 special economic zones are to be established in the province, with roads, electricity, gas, water, and security to be provided by the government. The nearby Hattar SEZ is envisioned to provide employment to 30,000 people, and is being developed at a cost of approximately $200 million with completion expected in 2017.

Employment

As a result of large numbers of displaced persons in the city, only 12% of Peshawar's residents were employed in the formalized economy in 2012. Approximately 41% of residents in 2012 were employed in personal services, while 55% of Afghan refugees in the city in 2012 were daily wage earners. By 2016, Pakistan adopted a policy to repatriate Afghan refugees.Wages for unskilled workers in Peshawar grew on average 9.1% per year between 2002 and 2008. Following the outbreak of widespread Islamist violence in 2007, wages rose only 1.5% between 2008 and 2014. Real wages dropped for some skilled craftsmen during the period between 2008 and 2014.

Constraints

Peshawar's economy has been negatively impacted by political instability since 1979 resulting from the War in Afghanistan and subsequent strain on Peshawar's infrastructure from the influx of refugees. The poor security environment resulting from Islamist violence also impacted the city's economy. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014, the country's security environment has drastically improved.NEWS, ‘Violence-related fatalities in Balochistan, Punjab increased in 2016’,weblink 9 February 2017, Dawn, 4 January 2017, The metropolitan economy suffers from poor infrastructure. The city's economy has also been adversely impacted by shortages of electricity and natural gas.NEWS, Pakistan's Peshawar hopes for economic boost,weblink 7 April 2017, Al Jazeera, 4 January 2015, The $54 billion China Pakistan Economic Corridor will generate over 10,000 MW by 2018NEWS, Parliamentary body on CPEC expresses concern over coal import,weblink 11 December 2015, Daily Time, 19 November 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222105640weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, dmy-all, – greater than the current electricity deficit of approximately 4,500 MW.NEWS, Electricity shortfall increases to 4,500 MW,weblink 11 December 2015, Dunya News, 29 June 2015, Peshawar will also be linked to ports in Karachi by uninterrupted motorway access, while passenger and freight railway tracks will be upgraded between Peshawar and Karachi.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}Poor transportation is estimated to cause a loss of 4–6% of the Pakistani GDP.NEWS, Transport policy: need of the day,weblink 7 April 2017, Dawn, 13 February 2017, “Inefficiencies in the performance of the transport sector costs Pakistan’s economy 4-6pc of GDP”, said Werner E. Liepach, ADB Country Director., Peshawar for decades has suffered from chaotic, mismanaged, and inadequate public transportation. The provincial government, which started construction of the new TransPeshawar system, noted that poor public transportation also has been detrimental to the city's economy.NEWS, Peshawar Mass Transit Project Brief,weblink 7 April 2017, Urban Policy Unit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140801190105weblink">weblink 1 August 2014, yes, dmy-all,

Transportation

Road

File:Hayatabad Pesh.jpg|thumb|HayatabadHayatabadFile:Phase 3 Chowk.jpg|thumb|New flyovers, such as this one near the suburb of HayatabadHayatabadPeshawar's east-west growth axis is centred on the historic Grand Trunk Road that connects Peshawar to Islamabad and Lahore. The road is roughly paralleled by the M-1 Motorway between Peshawar and Islamabad, while the M-2 Motorway provides an alternate route to Lahore from Islamabad. The Grand Trunk Road also provides access to the Afghan border via the Khyber Pass, with onwards connections to Kabul and Central Asia via the Salang Pass.Peshawar is to be completely encircled by the Peshawar Ring Road in order to divert traffic away from the city's congested centre. The road is currently under construction, with some portions open to traffic.The Karakoram Highway provides access between the Peshawar region and western China, and an alternate route to Central Asia via Kashgar in the Chinese region of Xinjiang.The Indus Highway provides access to points south of Peshawar, with a terminus in the southern port city of Karachi via Dera Ismail Khan and northern Sindh. The {{convert|1.9|km|mi|1}} Kohat Tunnel south of Peshawar provides access to the city of Kohat along the Indus Highway.

Motorways

File:M1peshawarpaintedtruck.jpg|thumb|A decorated truck on the M-1 Motorway that connects Peshawar to Islamabad and RawalpindiRawalpindiPeshawar is connected to Islamabad and Rawalpindi by the 155 kilometre long M-1 Motorway. The motorway also links Peshawar to major cities in the province, such as Charsadda and Mardan. The M-1 motorway continues onwards to Lahore as part of the M-2 motorway.Pakistan's motorway network links Peshawar to Faisalabad by the M-4 Motorway, while a new motorway network to Karachi is being built as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor.The Hazara Motorway is also under construction as part of CPEC, and will provide control-access motorway travel all the way to Mansehra via the M-1 and Hazara Motorways.

Rail

Peshawar Cantonment railway station serves as the terminus for Pakistan's {{convert|1687|km|mi}}-long Main Line-1 railway that connects the city to the port city of Karachi and passes through the Peshawar City railway station. The Peshawar to Karachi route is served by the Awam Express, Khushhal Khan Khattak Express, and the Khyber Mail services.The entire Main Line-1 railway track between Karachi and Peshawar is to be overhauled at a cost of $3.65 billion for the first phase of the project,"PURCHASE OF POWER: PAYMENTS TO CHINESE COMPANIES TO BE FACILITATED THROUGH REVOLVING FUND". Business Recorder. Retrieved 6 December 2015. with completion by 2021.NEWS, Pakistan to get Chinese funds for upgrading rail links, building pipeline,weblink 9 August 2016, Hindustan Times, 10 June 2016, The project is planned to be completed in two phases in five years by 2021. The first phase will be completed by December 2017 and the second by 2021., Upgrading of the railway line will permit train travel at speeds of 160 kilometres per hour, versus the average 60 to 105 km per hour speed currently possible on existing track.NEWS, Karachi-Peshawar railway line being upgraded under CPEC,weblink 10 February 2016, Daily Times, 22 January 2016, Peshawar was also once the terminus of the Khyber Train Safari, a tourist-oriented train that provided rail access to Landi Kotal. The service was discontinued as the security situation west of Peshawar deteriorated with the beginning of the region's Taliban insurgency.

Air

File:Bacha_Khan_International_Airport_Peshawar_KPK.jpg|thumb|Peshawar International Airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab EmiratesPeshawar is served by the Bacha Khan International Airport, located in the Peshawar Cantonment. The airport served 1,255,303 passengers between 2014 and 2015,Statistical Information of CAA Pakistan CAA Pakistan, updated on 14 March 2016 the vast majority of whom were international travelers. The airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Public transit

TransPeshawar, a bus rapid transit system, is currently under construction with assistance from the Asian Development Bank. The line will stretch from Chamkani in the east, to Hayatabad in the west to replace Peshawar's current chaotic, dilapidated, and inadequate transportation system. The system will have 31 stations and will be mostly at grade, with four kilometres of elevated sections. The system will also contain 3.5 kilometres of underpasses.WEB, Peshawar Sustainable Bus Rapid Transit Corridor Project,weblink Asian Development Bank, 24 March 2017, February 2017, The TransPeshawar system will be complemented by a feeder system, with an additional 100 stations along those feeder lines,WEB, Peshawar Sustainable Bus Rapid Transit Corridor Project,weblink Asian Development Bank, 22 March 2017, February 2017, all of which will be new construction.(File:Daewoo bus terminal peshawar.jpg|thumb|One of Peshawar's privately run intercity bus terminals.)

Intercity bus

Peshawar is well-served by private buses (locally referred to as "flying coaches") and vans that offer frequent connections to throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as all major cities of Pakistan. The city's Daewoo Express bus terminal is located along the G.T. Road adjacent to the departure points for several other transportation companies.WEB,weblink Daewoo Express – Peshawar, Daewoo Express, 13 January 2017,

Administration

Civic government

(File:KPK Assembly 23.jpg|thumb|KPK Assembly){{expand section|date=October 2017}}

Politics

Peshawar has historically served as the political centre of the region, and is currently the capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The city and province have been historically regarded to be strongholds of the Awami National Party – a secular left-wing and moderate-nationalist party.WEB, Sheikh, Yasir, Areas of political influence in Pakistan: right-wing vs left-wing,weblink rugpundits.com, Rug Pandits, Yasir, 29 May 2015, Karachi, Sindh, 5 November 2012, WEB, Sheikh, Yasir, Political spectrum of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) – Part I: ANP, PPP & MMA,weblink rugpundits.com, Rug Pandits, Yasir Sheikh, 29 May 2015, Islamabad, 9 February 2013, The Pakistan Peoples Party had also enjoyed considerable support in the province due to its socialist agenda.Despite being a centre for leftist politics in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar is still generally known throughout Pakistan for its social conservatism.BOOK, Rakodi, Carole, Religion, Religious Organisations and Development: Scrutinising Religious Perceptions and Organisations, 4 April 2016, Routledge, 9781134912476,weblink 6 April 2017, Sunni Muslims in the city are regarded to be socially conservative, while the city's Shia population is considered to be more socially liberal.A plurality of voters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, of which Peshawar is the capital, elected one of Pakistan's only religiously-based provincial governments during the period of military dictatorship of Pervez Musharraf. A ground-swell of anti-American sentiment after the 2001 United States invasion of Afghanistan contributed to the Islamist coalition's victory.The Islamists introduced a range of social restrictions following the election of the Islamist Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal coalition in 2002, though Islamic Shariah law was never fully enacted. Restrictions on public musical performances were introduced, as well as a ban prohibiting music to be played in any public places, including on public transportation – which lead to the creation of a thriving underground music scene in Peshawar.NEWS, Peshawar underground: It's difficult to be a rock star in the land the epitomises conservatism, yet something shocking is happening. There is a rock scene waiting to burst out of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Rahim Shah was just the beginning, Sajid and Zeeshan were proof that originality can spring out of unlikely places and there are others who are making their riffs and ragas heard... slowly, but surely.,weblink 13 December 2012, The News on Sunday Instep, 24 June 2007, Maria, Tirmizi, Rizwan-ul-Haq, In 2005, the coalition successfully passed the "Prohibition of Use of Women in Photograph Bill, 2005,"BOOK, Clarke, Michael E., Misra, Ashutosh, Pakistan's Stability Paradox: Domestic, Regional and International Dimensions, 1 March 2013, Routledge, 9781136639340,weblink 6 April 2017, leading to the removal of all public advertisements in Peshawar that featured women.NEWS, PESHAWAR: Advertisers forced to deface billboards,weblink 6 April 2017, Dawn, 3 May 2006, The religious coalition was swept out of power by the secular and leftist Awami National Party in elections after the fall of Musharraf in 2008,NEWS, Robinson, Simon, Religion's Defeat in Pakistan's Election,weblink 6 April 2017, Time, 29 February 2008, leading to the removal of the MMA's socially conservative laws.NEWS, Musicians in Pakistan's northwest long for better times,weblink 7 April 2017, Reuters, 15 March 2008, 62% of eligible voters voted in the election. The Awami National Party was targeted by Taliban militants, with hundreds of its members having been assassinated by the Pakistani Taliban.NEWS, 'Pakistan's liberal Pashtuns are losing the battle',weblink 6 April 2017, Deutsche Welle, 24 December 2012, In 2013, the centrist Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf was elected to power in the province on an anti-corruption platform. Peshawar city recorded a voter turnout of 80% for the 2013 elections.

Municipal services

86% of Peshawar's households have access to municipal piped water as of 2015, though 39% of Peshawar's households purchase water from private companies in 2015.42% of Peshawar households are connected to municipal sewerage as of 2015.

Culture

Music

After the 2002 Islamist government implemented restrictions on public musical performances, a thriving underground music scene took root in Peshawar. After the start of Pakistan's Taliban insurgency in 2007–2008, militants began targeting members of Peshawar's cultural establishment. By 2007, Taliban militants began a widespread campaign of bombings against music and video shops across the Peshawar region, leading to the closure of many others.NEWS, Pakistan "Taliban" bombs shops in morality bid,weblink 7 April 2017, Reuters, 13 June 2007, In 2009, Pashto musical artist Ayman Udas was assassinated by Taliban militants on the city's outskirts. In June 2012, a Pashto singer, Ghazala Javed, and her father were killed in Peshawar, after they had fled rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for the relative security of Peshawar.NEWS, The Music Doesn’t Stop in Peshawar,weblink 13 December 2012, The Indian Express: Journalism of Courage, 30 June 2012, Raza, Rumi, Manzoor Ali, Musicians began to return to the city by 2016,NEWS, Music returns to Pakistan's Peshawar,weblink 7 April 2017, Al Jazeera, 26 May 2016, with a security environment greatly improved following the Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014 to eradicate militancy in the country. The provincial government in 2016 announced a monthly income of $300 to 500 musicians in order to help support their work, as well as a $5 million fund to "revive the rich cultural heritage of the province."

Museums

File:Peshawar Museum.JPG|thumb|The Peshawar Museum is known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist artGreco-Buddhist artThe Peshawar Museum was founded in 1907 in memory of Queen Victoria. The building features an amalgamation of British, South Asian, Hindu, Buddhist and Mughal Islamic architectural styles. The museum's collection has almost 14,000 items, and is well known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art. The museum's ancient collection features pieces from the Gandharan, Kushan, Parthian, and Indo-Scythian periods.

Notable people

Education

File:Peshawar University Oval Eye View.jpg|thumb|University of PeshawarUniversity of PeshawarFile:Islamia college.jpg 04.jpg|thumb|Islamia College UniversityIslamia College University(File:Iqra National University.jpg|thumb|Iqra National University)(File:Beautiful view of Peshawar Uni museum.jpg|thumb|Museum of Peshawar University)(File:FAST Peshawar campus.jpg|thumb|FAST Peshawar Campus)Numerous educational institutes — schools, colleges and universities — are located in Peshawar. 21.6% of children between the ages of 5 and 9 were not enrolled in any school in 2013, while 16.6% of children in the 10 to 14 age range were out of school.Currently, Peshawar has universities for all major disciplines ranging from Humanities, General Sciences, Sciences, Engineering, Medical, Agriculture and Management Sciences. The first public sector university, University of PeshawarWEB,weblink University of Peshawar, UoP, CITS, University of Peshawar, 2017-12-21, (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. University of Engineering and Technology, PeshawarWEB,weblink University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan, www.uetpeshawar.edu.pk, 2017-12-21, was established in 1980 while Agriculture University PeshawarWEB,weblink The University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan, www.aup.edu.pk, 2017-12-21, started working in 1981. The first private sector university CECOS University of IT and Emerging SciencesWEB,weblink CECOS – University of Information Technology and Emerging Sciences, www.cecos.edu.pk, en-US, 2017-12-21, was established in 1986. Institute of Management Sciences started functioning in 1995, which become degree awarding institution in 2005.WEB,weblink IMSciences, www.imsciences.edu.pk, en-gb, 2017-12-21, There are currently 9 Medical colleges in Peshawar, 2 in public sector while 7 in private sector.WEB,weblink RECOGNIZED MEDICAL COLLEGES IN PAKISTAN, www.pmdc.org.pk, 2017-12-21, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100819060118weblink">weblink 19 August 2010, dmy-all, The first Medical College, Khyber Medical College,NEWS,weblink University status for Khyber Medical College planned, Newspaper, From the, 2011-09-21, DAWN.COM, 2017-12-21, en-US, was established in 1954 as part of University of Peshawar. The first Medical University, Khyber Medical UniversityWEB,weblink Khyber Medical University {{!, Committed to Excellence in Medical Education and Research|website=www.kmu.edu.pk|language=en|access-date=2017-12-21}} while a women only Medical college, Khyber Girls Medical College were established in 2007.At the start of the 21st century, a host of new private sector universities started working in Peshawar. Qurtuba University,WEB,weblink Qurtuba University of Science & Information Technology, www.qurtuba.edu.pk, en-gb, 2017-12-21, Sarhad University of Science and IT,WEB,weblink Sarhad University, www.suit.edu.pk, en, 2017-12-21, Fast University, Peshawar CampusWEB,weblink FAST-NUCES Peshawar {{!, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences|website=pwr.nu.edu.pk|language=en-US|access-date=2017-12-21}} and City University of Science and ITWEB,weblink CUSIT: City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, www.cityuniversity.edu.pk, 2017-12-21, were established in 2001 while Gandhara UniversityWEB,weblink Gandhara University Peshawar Pakistan: Home Page, www.gandhara.edu.pk, 2017-12-21, was inaugurated in 2002 and Abasyn UniversityWEB,weblink Abasyn University, abasyn.edu.pk, en, 2017-12-21, in 2007.Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University,WEB,weblink Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University Peshawar, SBBWU, ITC, www.sbbwu.edu.pk, 2017-12-21, NEWS,weblink Universities asked to promote research, Report, Bureau, 2017-11-15, DAWN.COM, 2017-12-21, en-US, the first women university of Peshawar, started working in 2009 while private sector IQRA National UniversityWEB,weblink IQRA NAtional University {{!, Peshawar, Hayatabad|website=www.inu.edu.pk|language=en-GB|access-date=2017-12-21}} was established in 2012.Apart from good range of universities, Peshawar has host of high quality further education (Post School) educational institutes. The most renowned are, Edwardes College founded in 1900 by Herbert Edwardes, is the oldest college in the province and Islamia College Peshawar, which was established in 1913. Islamia College became university and named as Islamia College University in 2008.NEWS,weblink Khattak lauds academic standard of Islamia College University, Report, Bureau, 2014-11-14, DAWN.COM, 2017-12-21, en-US, The following is a list of some of the public and private universities in Peshawar:

Landmarks

(File:Bittani Plaza.jpg|thumb|Bhittani Plaza)(File:BBQ-shop.jpg|thumb|BBQ shop on Food Street)The following is a list of other significant landmarks in the city that still exist in the 21st century:

Sports

(File:Shahibaghgymkhana2.jpg|thumb|right|220px|Peshawar Gymkhana Cricket Ground)There are hosts of sporting facilities in Peshawar. The most renowned are Arbab Niaz Stadium,WEB,weblink Arbab Niaz Stadium {{!, Pakistan {{!}} Cricket Grounds {{!}} ESPN Cricinfo|website=Cricinfo|access-date=2017-12-24}} which is the International cricket ground of Peshawar and Qayyum Stadium,WEB,weblink Construction work on KP's second largest sports complex completes in Charsadda, www.radiotnn.com, en-US, 2017-12-24, 2016-07-12, which is the multi sports facilities located in Peshawar cantonment.Cricket is the most popular sports in PeshawarNEWS,weblink From bombs to trophies, cricket thrives in Peshawar, AFP, 2015-09-17, DAWN.COM, 2017-12-24, en-US, with Arbab Niaz Stadium as the main ground coupled with Cricket Academy. There is also small cricket ground, Peshawar Gymkhana ground,NEWS,weblink Teams refuse to play at Gymkhana Cricket Ground - The Express Tribune, 2016-07-11, The Express Tribune, 2017-12-24, en-US, which is located adjacent to Arbab Niaz Stadium, a popular club cricket ground. The oldest international cricket ground in Peshawar however is Peshawar Club Ground, which hosted the first ever test match between Pakistan and India in 1955.WEB,weblink Peshawar Club Ground {{!, Pakistan {{!}} Cricket Grounds {{!}} ESPN Cricinfo|website=Cricinfo|access-date=2017-12-24}} Peshawar's domestic cricket team is Peshawar Panthers, while Peshawar Zalmi represents the city in the Pakistan Super League.WEB,weblink Peshawar Zalmi Home page, Peshawar Zalmi, 13 January 2017, In 1975, the first sports complex, Qayyum Stadium was built in Peshawar while Hayatabad Sports Complex was built in early 1990s.NEWS,weblink As sports facilities decline in Peshawar, so do sports stars - Daily Times, 2016-06-29, Daily Times, 2017-12-24, en-US, Both Qayyum Stadium and Hayatabad Sports Complexes are multiple sports complexes with facilities for all major indoor and outdoor sports such as football,NEWS,weblink Pakistan and Qatar clash today: Olympic qualifier, 2007-06-06, DAWN.COM, 2017-12-24, en-US, Field Hockey ground,NEWS,weblink Imran inaugurates Hayatabad Sports Complex, The Nation, 2017-12-24, en-US, Squash, Swimming, Gymnasium, Board Games section, Wrestling, Boxing and Badminton. In 1991, Qayyum Stadium hosted Barcelona Olympics Qualifier Football match between Pakistan and Qatar plus it also hosted National Games in 2010.NEWS,weblink Playing for peace: Peshawar all set for 31st National Games - The Express Tribune, 2010-12-24, The Express Tribune, 2017-12-24, en-US, Hockey and squash are also popular in Peshawar.
Professional sports teams from Peshawar{| class="wikitable sortable"
! scope="col" | Club! scope="col" | League! scope="col" | Sport! scope="col" | Venue! scope="col" | Established! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | Peshawar Zalmi| Pakistan Super League| Cricket| Arbab Niaz Stadium| 2015! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | Peshawar PanthersHaier T20 Cup>National T20 League/National One-day Championship| Cricket| Arbab Niaz Stadium| 2004! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | Peshawar Haiders| Super Kabaddi League| KabaddiTehmas Khan Football Stadium Peshawar>Tehmas Khan Stadium| 2018

International relations

Peshawar is twinned with:
  • {{flagicon|IDN}} Makassar, IndonesiaNEWS, Indonesia seeking to enhance trade with Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa,weblink 13 December 2012, The Express Tribune, 6 January 2012, Umer, Farooq, The Express Tribune News Network,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Peshawar#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Peshawar}}
  • Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (1 March 2003). {{ISBN|0-86356-438-0}}.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. "Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang." 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. "The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing". Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier" Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). {{ISBN|969-35-0554-9}}.
  • Dobbins, K. Walton. 1971. "The StÅ«pa and Vihāra of Kanishka I". The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969).
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jÄ«-kÄ« DhÄ“rÄ«"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11, pp. 25–32.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue" 魏略 by Yu Huan é­šè±¢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation.
  • Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "(The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia)" Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. {{ISBN|1-56836-022-3}}.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. "Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825", Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Reeves, Richard. 1985. "Passage to Peshawar: Pakistan: Between the Hindu Kush and the Arabian Sea." Holiday House September 1985. {{ISBN|0-671-60539-9}}.
  • Imran, Imran Rashid. 2006. "Baghaat-i-Peshawar." Sarhad Conservation Network. July 2006.
  • Imran, Imran Rashid. 2012. "Peshawar – Faseel-e-Shehr aur Darwazay." Sarhad Conservation Network. March 2012.

External links

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{{PeshawarTopics}}{{Neighbourhoods of Peshawar}}{{PakistanCities}}

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