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Delhi
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{{Redirect|National Capital Territory|the generic term|Capital districts and territories}}{{distinguish|text=New Delhi, the capital of India, located entirely within the city of Delhi}}{{short description|Megacity and a Union territory of India}}{{other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-pc}}{{Use Indian English|date=May 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2016}}







factoids
List of sovereign states>CountryIndia}}| established_title = Settled| established_date = 6th century B.C.| established_title1 = Incorporated| established_date1 = 1857| established_title2 = Capital formation| established_date2 = 1911| established_title3 = Formation of Union Territory| established_date3 = 1956| established_title4 = Formation of NCT| established_date4 = 1 February 1992| seat_type = Capital| seat = New Delhi| parts_type = Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts of Delhi>11| governing_body = Government of DelhiGovernors and Lieutenant-Governors of states of India>Lt. GovernorAnil Baijal, Indian Administrative Service>IASANIL BAIJAL TAKES OVER AS NEW LT GOVERNOR OF DELHI>URL=HTTP://M.TIMESOFINDIA.COM/INDIA/ANIL-BAIJAL-TAKES-OVER-AS-NEW-LT-GOVERNOR-OF-DELHI/ARTICLESHOW/56268275.CMSWORK=TIMES OF INDIADATE=31 DECEMBER 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170103035905/HTTP://M.TIMESOFINDIA.COM/INDIA/ANIL-BAIJAL-TAKES-OVER-AS-NEW-LT-GOVERNOR-OF-DELHI/ARTICLESHOW/56268275.CMSDF=DMY-ALL, Chief Minister}}Arvind Kejriwal (Aam Aadmi Party>AAP)| leader_title2 = Deputy Chief Minister| leader_name2 = Manish SisodiaChief Secretary (India)>Chief SecretaryAnshu Prakash, Indian Administrative Service>IASHTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/CITIES/DELHI/CENTRE-NAMES-ANSHU-PRAKASH-AS-DELHIS-NEW-CHIEF-SECRETARY/ARTICLE21245173.ECE>TITLE=CENTRE NAMES ANSHU PRAKASH AS DELHI’S NEW CHIEF SECRETARYWORK=THE HINDUAGENCY=STAFF REPORTERNEW DELHI>ISSN=0971-751XDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=3 MARCH 2018DATE=DECEMBER 1, 2017INDIA TODAY>PUBLICATION-PLACE=NEW DELHIACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 20, 2018PRESS TRUST OF INDIA>DEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=21 FEBRUARY 2018DATE=DECEMBER 1, 2017HINDUSTAN TIMES>ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 20, 2018PUBLICATION-PLACE=DELHIARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180220114115/HTTPS://WWW.HINDUSTANTIMES.COM/DELHI-NEWS/ANSHU-PRAKASH-APPOINTED-DELHI-CHIEF-SECRETARY/STORY-UB5MDE7T1Z4F4EQL4DDB1K.HTMLDF=DMY-ALL, Commissioner of Police, Delhi>Commissioner of PoliceIndian Police Service>IPSHTTP://WWW.NDTV.COM/DELHI-NEWS/AMULYA-KUMAR-PATNAIK-OFFICIALLY-TAKES-CHARGE-AS-DELHI-POLICE-COMMISSIONER-1654695 >TITLE=AMULYA KUMAR PATNAIK OFFICIALLY TAKES CHARGE AS DELHI POLICE COMMISSIONER DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=31 JANUARY 2017, dmy-all, | total_type = Union territory| area_magnitude = 1 E8| area_total_km2 = 1484.0| area_total_sq_mi = 573.0| area_water_sq_mi = 6.9List of states and territories of India by area>31st| elevation_m = 200–250| elevation_ft = 650–820| population_footnotes = | population_total = 16,787,941| population_as_of = 2011| population_density_km2 = auto| population_density_sq_mi = 29,298WORK=CITY POPULATIONDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=2 MARCH 2017, dmy-all, List of million-plus urban agglomerations in India>2nd)| population_blank1_footnotes = Municipal Corporation of Delhi>MegacityList of cities in India by population>2nd)| population_blank2_footnotes = Metropolitan area>Metro (2016)List of metropolitan areas in India>1st)| population_demonym = Delhiite| demographics_type1 = Languages| demographics1_title1 = OfficialHindiEnglish language>EnglishHTTP://DELHI.GOV.IN/WPS/WCM/CONNECT/D09FD2004BD07AD9A305AB56803943F0/DELHI+OFFICIAL+LANGUAGES+ACT+2000.PDF?MOD=AJPERES&LMOD=-344844204>TITLE=OFFICIAL LANGUAGE ACT 2000PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF DELHIDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=4 MARCH 2016, dmy-all, }}| demographics1_title2 = Additional official Punjabi language>Urdu }}| demographics_type2 = GDP| demographics2_footnotes = | demographics2_title1 = Nominal (NCT)6.86WEBSITE= DELHI.GOV.IN, 15 March 2018, | demographics2_title2 = Nominal per capita329093}} (2017-18)Gross metropolitan product>Metro GDP/PPP| demographics2_info3 = $167–370 billionHuman Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2017)}}{{increase}} 0.744SUB-NATIONAL HDI - AREA DATABASE >URL=HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/ PUBLISHER=INSTITUTE FOR MANAGEMENT RESEARCH, RADBOUD UNIVERSITY LANGUAGE=EN, ({{colorHigh}})}} · 5thLiteracy in India>Literacy {{nobold|(2011)}}WEBSITE=PLANNINGCOMMISSION.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=3 OCTOBER 2018, Human sex ratio>Sex ratio {{nobold|(2011)}}females>♀/1000 ♂Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset = +5.30Postal Index Number>Pincode(s)| postal_code = 1100XXTelephone numbers in India>+91 11IN-DL)weblink}}}}Delhi ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|É›|l|i}}, {{IPA-hi|dɪlliː}} Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.WEB,weblink The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India, 23 November 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160821020032weblink">weblink 21 August 2016, dmy-all, BOOK, The agrarian system of Mughal India, 1556–1707, Habib, Irfan, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-562329-1,weblink ... The current Survey of India spellings are followed for place names except where they vary rather noticeably from the spellings in our sources: thus I read "Dehli" not "Delhi ..., 1999, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all,
  • JOURNAL, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society, Cambridge University Press,weblink ... also Dehli or Dilli, not Delhi..., 1834, no,weblink 9 February 2016, dmy-all,
  • JOURNAL, India, the beautiful, L.T, Karamchandani, Sita Publication,weblink ... According to available evidence the present Delhi, spelt in Hindustani as Dehli or Dilli, derived its name from King ..., 1968, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all,
  • JOURNAL, The National geographical journal of India, Volume 40, National Geographical Society of India,weblink ... The name which remained the most popular is "Dilli" with variation in its pronunciation as Dilli, Dehli, or Delhi ..., 1994, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all,
It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of {{convert|1,484|km2}}. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,Delhi Metropolitan/City Population section of WEB, Delhi Population Sex Ratio in Delhi Literacy rate Delhi NCR,weblink 2011 Census of India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170126061217weblink">weblink 26 January 2017, dmy-all, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary and include the neighboring cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) with an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations.WEB, The World's Cities in 2016,weblink United Nations, 4 March 2017, 4, PDF, October 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170112211410weblink">weblink 12 January 2017, dmy-all, {{As of|2016}} recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. It is the second-wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.WEB,weblink Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report, The Indian Express, 27 February 2017, 28 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170227063903weblink">weblink 27 February 2017, dmy-all,
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC.BOOK, Asher, Catherine B, James D. Tracy, City Walls, 2000,weblink 1 November 2008, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-65221-6, 247–281, Chapter 9:Delhi walled: Changing Boundaries, 2000, Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982, respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.WEB, Rationale,weblink ncrpb.nic.in, NCR Planning Board, The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the NCRPB Act, 1985, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121216113422weblink">weblink 16 December 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Census 2011,weblink National Capital Region Planning Board, National Informatics Centre, 26 March 2016, 3, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160406160207weblink">weblink 6 April 2016, dmy-all,

Toponymy

There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Introduction, 21 December 2011, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 1–7, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113174155weblink">weblink 13 November 2016, dmy-all, BOOK, Bakshi, S.R., Delhi Through Ages, 2002, Whispering Eye Bangdat, 978-81-7488-138-0, 2, 1995, BOOK, Smith, George, The Geography of British India, Political & Physical,weblink 1 November 2008, J. Murray, 216–217, 1882, Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.HTTP://NCERT.NIC.IN/TEXTBOOKS/TESTING/INDEX.HTM>TITLE=OUR PASTS II, HISTORY TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS VIIPUBLISHER=NCERT ARCHIVEDATE = 23 JUNE 2007, According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.Delhi City {{webarchiveweblink >date=3 March 2016 }} The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 11, p. 236.. Some historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of the Hindustani language words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Indo-Gangetic Plain>Gangetic Plain.HTTP://DSAL.UCHICAGO.EDU/DICTIONARIES/PLATTS/>TITLE=A DICTIONARY OF URDU, CLASSICAL HINDI, AND ENGLISHACCESSDATE=24 OCTOBER 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111016190309/HTTP://DSAL.UCHICAGO.EDU/DICTIONARIES/PLATTS/DF=DMY-ALL, COHEN >FIRST=RICHARD J. TITLE=AN EARLY ATTESTATION OF THE TOPONYM DHILLI VOLUME = 109 PAGES=513–519, 10.2307/604073LAST=AUSTIN AUTHOR2=THHAKUR NAHAR SINGH JASOL PUBLISHER=MEWARINDIA.COM ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20061114120751/HTTP://MEWARINDIA.COM/ENCY/CHAT.HTML, 14 November 2006, The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.NEWS, Why developers charge a premium for upper storeys in Delhi/NCR region,weblink Economic Times, 5 August 2011, 30 May 2012, The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:
  • Abhi Dilli door hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है) or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast (هنوز دلی دور است), literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.JOURNAL, A handbook for travellers in India, Burma and Ceylon, John Murray, J. Murray, 1924,weblink ... "Dilli hanoz dur ast" ("Delhi is still far off")— has passed into the currency of a proverb ..., 1924, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, JOURNAL, A dictionary of Hindustani proverbs, S. W. Fallon, Dihlavi Fakir Chand, Printed at the Medical hall press, 1886,weblink ... Abhi Dilli dur hai ..., 1886, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all,
  • Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.JOURNAL, India today, Volume 31, Issues 13–25, Thomson Living Media India Ltd., 2006,weblink ... As the saying in Hindustani goes: "Dilli dilwalon ki (Delhi belongs to those with a heart)". So shed your inhibitions and try out your hand ..., 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130613190658weblink">weblink 13 June 2013, dmy-all,
  • Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.

History

Early History

The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Introduction, 21 December 2011, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 1–7, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113174155weblink">weblink 13 November 2016, dmy-all, According to the Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.Entry Door to the Yogmaya precincts.JPG|The ancient Yogmaya Temple, claimed to be one of the five temples from the era of Mahabharata in Indraprastha.BOOK, Prabha Chopra, Delhi Gazetteer,weblink 1976, 1078, The Unit, QtubIronPillar.JPG|The iron pillar of Delhi is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire.The bastion of Lal Kot fort, Mehrauli, Delhi.jpg|The bastion of Lal Kot fort in Delhi's Mehrauli built by Tomara Rajput ruler, Anangpal in c. 736 CE.

Delhi Sultanate

{{See also|Delhi Sultanate}}File:Qila Rai Pithora, New Delhi.jpg|thumb|250px||Museum and remnants of the walls at Qila Rai Pithora, the first city of Delhi, and ruled by Prithviraj ChauhanPrithviraj Chauhan The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India was to last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India and then Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. He died in 1206 AD. He had no heirs and so his generals declared themselves independent in different parts of his empire. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions. He laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty. He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524155833weblink">weblink 24 May 2006India: Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi >accessdate=22 December 2006, PDFpublisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centre Razia Sultana>Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She is the first and only woman to rule over Delhi.File:Qutub - Minar, Delhi (6994969674).jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|At {{convert|72.5|m|abbr=on|0}}, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick (minaret]].WEB,weblink Under threat: The Magnificent Minaret of Jam, The New Courier No 1, October 2002, UNESCO, 3 May 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060522201305weblink">weblink 22 May 2006, dmy-all, |alt=A view of Qutab minor)For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.WEB,weblink's_Trip_Seven.html, Battuta's Travels: Delhi, capital of Muslim India, Sfusd.k12.ca.us, 7 September 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080423014415weblink">weblink 23 April 2008, yes, Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.BOOK, Travel Delhi, India, Google books, History section, 10,weblink 10 June 2012, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi Sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur in 1398,WEB,weblink The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire), Ucalgary.ca, 7 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090816204247weblink">weblink 16 August 2009, who massacred 100,000 captives."Genocide: a history {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101225812weblink |date=1 January 2016 }}". W. D. Rubinstein (2004). p.28. {{ISBN|978-0-582-50601-5}} Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Mughal Empire

{{See also|Mughal Empire}}File:Maharaja Hemu Bhargava - Victor of Twenty Two Pitched Battles, 1910s.jpg|thumb|Hemu, after taking control of Delhi, claimed royal status, assumed the ancient Hindu title of Vikramaditya, and resisted MughalsMughalsBabur was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan. In 1526, he invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra. The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.WEB,weblink Sher Shah â€“ The Lion King, 22 December 2006, India's History: Medieval India, indhistory.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061212214725weblink">weblink 12 December 2006, dmy-all, In 1553, the Hindu king Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556.Akbar the Great, Srivastva, A. L. Vol.1 pages 24–26Himu-a forgotten Hindu Hero," Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan, p100Kar, L. Colonel H. C. Military History of India Calcutta 1980, p. 283 Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.BOOK, Travel Delhi, India, Google Books, 12,weblink no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, File:Delhi Red fort.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.15|A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Red Fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence DayIndependence DayAfter the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.BOOK
, Thomas
, Amelia
, Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra
, Lonely Planet
, 978-1-74104-690-8, In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.BOOK,weblink Later Mughal, 2 June 2014, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Territories and States of India, 2 June 2014, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Iran in the Age of the Raj, Avalanchepress.com, 11 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110113091203weblink">weblink 13 January 2011, dmy-all, Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.BOOK,weblink Soul and Structure of Governance in India, 2 June 2014, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.BOOK
, Gordon
, Stewart
, The Marathas 1600–1818, Volume 2
, Cambridge University Press, 1993
, 978-0-521-26883-7,
File:Ragonath Row Ballajee.jpg|thumb|Raghunath Rao, the Maratha Empire's Peshwa who played a key role in capturing Delhi from the Afghans in the Second Battle of Delhi.]]In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control until their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat when the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah.NEWS,weblink The Times of India, In 1761, battle of Panipat cost Marathas Rs 93 lakh, say papers – The Times of India, 17 December 2011, However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772.BOOK,weblink From Iran East and West, 28 July 2015, 9780933770409, Cole, Juan Ricardo, Momen, Moojan, 1984, In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort but due to the treaty signed, Sikhs withdrew from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam II as the emperor.

British rule

{{See also|British Raj}}In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.BOOK
, Mayaram
, Shail
, Against history, against state: counter perspective from the margins Cultures of history
, Columbia University Press, 2003
, 978-0-231-12731-8,
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab. In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.NEWS, Shifting pain,weblink 18 June 2012, Times of India, 11 December 2011, The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,NEWS, Lutyens' Delhi in race for UN heritage status,weblink 18 June 2012, Hindustan Times, 11 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120615235957weblink">weblink 15 June 2012, was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.BOOK, Travel Delhi, Google books, 8,weblink 9781605010519, 2007-01-01, During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues ({{As of|2013|lc=y}}), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.NEWS, Fall in Delhi birth rate fails to arrest population rise,weblink 3 January 2005, 19 December 2006, The Hindu, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070604194955weblink">weblink 4 June 2007, dmy-all,

Post-Independence

File:Delhi aerial photo 04-2016 img11.jpg|upright=1.15|thumb|right|Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river YamunaYamunaThe States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from the its predecessor the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.WEB, The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,weblink Ministry of Law and Justice (India), 16 March 2017, 1956, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170501011646weblink">weblink 1 May 2017, dmy-all, WEB, The States Reorganisation Act, 1956,weblink Ministry of Law and Justice (India), 16 March 2017, 1956, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170317144043weblink">weblink 17 March 2017, dmy-all, The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.WEB,weblink THE CONSTITUTION (SIXTY-NINTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1991, 8 January 2007, Government of India, National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160821020032weblink">weblink 21 August 2016, dmy-all, The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.NEWS, Terrorists attack Parliament; five intruders, six cops killed,weblink rediff.com, 13 December 2001, 2 November 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131006075521weblink">weblink 6 October 2013, dmy-all, India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.NEWS, India and Pakistan: Who will strike first?,weblink Economist, 20 December 2001, 2 November 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205030926weblink">weblink 5 December 2008, dmy-all, There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.NEWS,weblink Serial blasts rock Delhi; 30 dead, 90 injured-India-The Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 14 September 2008, 3 November 2008, Rahul, Tripathi, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915175046weblink">weblink 15 September 2008, dmy-all,

Ecology

{| class="infobox borderless"|+ Local symbols of Delhi! AnimalNilgaiHTTP://WWW.FRIENVIS.NIC.IN/KIDSCENTRE/STATE-ANIMALS-BIRDS-TREES-FLOWERS-OF-INDIA_1500.ASPX PUBLISHER=ENVIS CENTRE ON FORESTRY ACCESSDATE=8 MARCH 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160308180415/HTTP://WWW.FRIENVIS.NIC.IN/KIDSCENTRE/STATE-ANIMALS-BIRDS-TREES-FLOWERS-OF-INDIA_1500.ASPX DF=DMY-ALL, 50px)! BirdPasser domesticus>House sparrowHTTP://KNOWINDIA.GOV.IN/KNOWINDIA/NATIONAL_SYMBOLS.PHP?ID=16#DEL >TITLE=SYMBOLS OF DELHI ACCESSDATE=15 OCTOBER 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131112080035/HTTP://KNOWINDIA.GOV.IN/KNOWINDIA/NATIONAL_SYMBOLS.PHP?ID=16 DF=, HTTP://WWW.DELHI.GOV.IN/WPS/WCM/CONNECT/4AA5DA804BEF731EAD75EFA074822B2A/NOTIFICATION+ON+SPARROWS.PDF?MOD=AJPERES&LMOD=-2143418103 >TITLE=SYMBOLS OF DELHI DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=15 OCTOBER 2013, dmy, 50px)! TreeWEBSITE = WWW.BSIENVIS.NIC.INDEADURL = NOARCHIVEDATE = 19 JUNE 2015, dmy-all, | ! Flower| Alfalfa50px)Delhi is located at {{coord|28.61|N|77.23|E}}, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of {{convert|318|m|abbr=on}} and is a dominant feature of the region.WEB,weblink GIS-Based Spatial Information Integration, Modeling and Digital Mapping: A New Blend of Tool for Geospatial Environmental Health Analysis for Delhi Ridge, 3 February 2007, Mohan, Madan, April 2002, PDF, Spatial Information for Health Monitoring and Population Management, FIG XXII International Congress, 5, no,weblink 22 December 2015, dmy-all, The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of {{convert|1484|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, of which {{convert|783|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0}} is designated rural, and {{convert|700|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0}} urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of {{convert|51.9|km|mi|abbr=on|0}} and a width of {{convert|48.48|km|mi|abbr=on|0}}.{{citation needed|reason=Please also update List of cities in India by area when you add a citation|date=April 2018}}Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.WEB,weblink Hazard profiles of Indian districts, 23 August 2006, PDF, National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management, UNDP,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060519100611weblink">weblink 19 May 2006,

Climate

{{See also|Climate of Delhi}}Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above {{convert|39|C|abbr=on}}. The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of {{convert|40|C|abbr=on}} and low of {{convert|28|C|abbr=on}}.WEB, Average weather for New Delhi, India,weblink Weatherspark.com, 2 July 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130816202008weblink">weblink 16 August 2013, dmy-all, The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below {{convert|20|C|abbr=on}}. The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of {{convert|2|C|abbr=on}} and high of {{convert|14|C|abbr=on}}. In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.WEB, Climate of Delhi,weblink Delhitrip.in, 17 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140713174210weblink">weblink 13 July 2014, dmy-all, The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.NEWS, The Hindu,weblink Fog continues to disrupt flights, trains, 7 January 2005, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060304160457weblink">weblink 4 March 2006, dmy-all, Temperatures in Delhi usually range from {{convert|2|to|47|C|abbr=on|1}}, with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being {{convert|-2.2|and|48.4|C|abbr=on|1}}, respectively.WEB,weblink PDF, Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010, India Meteorological Department, 11 June 2016, yes,weblink 21 May 2013, dmy, The annual mean temperature is {{convert|25|C|abbr=on}}; monthly mean temperatures range from {{convert|13|to|32|C}}. The highest temperature recorded in July was {{convert|45|C|abbr=on}} in 1931.NEWS,weblink Mercury touches new high for July, Met predicts rain relief, 3 July 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130317212829weblink">weblink 17 March 2013, dmy-all, WEB, Canty and Associates LLC,weblink Weatherbase entry for Delhi, 16 January 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110907174813weblink">weblink 7 September 2011, dmy-all, The average annual rainfall is approximately {{convert|886|mm|in|abbr=on}}, most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.NEWS, Vinson, Kurian, Monsoon reaches Delhi two days ahead of schedule,weblink The Hindu Business Line, 28 June 2005, 9 January 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930225909weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, {{Clear}}{{Delhi weatherbox}}

Air pollution

{{see also|Environmental issues in Delhi|Air quality in Delhi}}(File:Poulluted killer fog in Delhi.jpg|thumb|A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".NEWS,weblink Delhi, Blanketed in Toxic Haze, ‘Has Become a Gas Chamber’, New York Times, 7 Nov 2017, dmy-all, )According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Delhi was the most pollutedNEWS,weblink Delhi is most polluted city in world, Beijing much better: WHO study, Hindustan Times, 8 May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140508004750weblink">weblink 8 May 2014, dmy-all, city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database.WEB,weblink Fancy Schemes for a Dirty Business, Kumar, Rahul, July 2016, Digital Development Debates, 5 September 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160915234747weblink">weblink 15 September 2016, dmy-all, According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year.NEWS,weblink Delhi's Air Has Become a Lethal Hazard and Nobody Seems to Know What to Do About It, Time magazine, 10 February 2014, 10 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302085642weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink India's Air Pollution Triggers Comparisons with China, Voice of America, 20 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140221104928weblink">weblink 21 February 2014, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink A Delhi particular, The Economist, 6 November 2012, 6 November 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121106114416weblink">weblink 6 November 2012, dmy-all, Air quality index of Delhi is generally Moderate (101-200) level between January to September, and then it drastically deteriorates to Very Poor (301-400), Severe(401-500) or even Hazardous(500+) levels in three months between October to December, due to various factors including stubble burning, fire crackers burning during Diwali and cold weather.WEB,weblink Pollution level in Delhi: Day after Diwali, Delhi's air turns 'hazardous, WEB,weblink Delhi breathed easier from January to April, WEB,weblink Air pollution: Delhi enjoys cleanest February in three years, During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.NEWS,weblink How Crop Burning Affects Delhi's Air, Wall Street Journal, 15 February 2014, 15 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140306041835weblink">weblink 6 March 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, HARRIS, GARDINER, Beijing's Bad Air Would Be Step Up for Smoggy Delhi,weblink 27 January 2014, New York Times, 25 January 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141103045801weblink">weblink 3 November 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, BEARAK, MAX, Desperate for Clean Air, Delhi Residents Experiment with Solutions,weblink 8 February 2014, New York Times, 7 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222171648weblink">weblink 22 February 2014, dmy-all, It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.NEWS, Madison Park, Top 20 most polluted cities in the world,weblink CNN, 8 May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160508104416weblink">weblink 8 May 2016, dmy-all, Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women.WEB,weblink Children in Delhi have lungs of chain-smokers!, India Today, 22 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302000403weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pollution increasing lung cancer in Indian women, DNA, 3 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140305181411weblink">weblink 5 March 2014, dmy-all, The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.NEWS,weblink Delhi blanketed in thick smog, transport disrupted, Reuters, 18 December 2013, 18 December 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131220012916weblink">weblink 20 December 2013, dmy-all, According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.January days getting colder, tied to rise in pollution {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150904034839weblink |date=4 September 2015 }}, Times of India, 27 January 2014File:Smog in the skies of Delhi, India.jpg|thumb|left|Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, New Delhi]]Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it; however, {{As of|2015|lc=y}}, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.NEWS, Gardiner Harris, Delhi Wakes Up to an Air Pollution Problem It Cannot Ignore,weblink 15 February 2015, The New York Times, 14 February 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150215042638weblink">weblink 15 February 2015, dmy-all, Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution—Delhi has the third-highest quantity of trees among Indian citiesWEB,weblink Delhi 'third greenest' city, Ndtv.com, 11 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110213062310weblink">weblink 13 February 2011, dmy-all, and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.WEB,weblink Express India, Cities.expressindia.com, 11 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101231054504weblink">weblink 31 December 2010, In 1996, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives". The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.Delhi Metro helps reduce vehicular air pollution, indicates research {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140301231933weblink |date=1 March 2014 }}, India Today, 28 April 2013However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.JOURNAL, R. Kumari, A.K. Attri, L. Int Panis, B.R. Gurjar, Emission estimates of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Mobile sources in Delhi (India), J. Environ. Science & Engg., 55, 2, 127–142, April 2013,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141108235156weblink">weblink 8 November 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink HWhat is the status of air pollution in Delhi?, CSE, India, 2 March 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140301185410weblink">weblink 1 March 2014, dmy-all, According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.NEWS,weblink Delhi's air quality deteriorating due to burning of agriculture waste, Economic Times, 6 November 2014, WEB,weblink Thick blanket of smog envelopes Delhi, northern India, India Today, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141105070407weblink">weblink 5 November 2014, dmy-all, The state government of Uttar Pradesh is considering imposing a ban on crop burning to reduce pollution in Delhi NCR and an environmental panel has appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars.Straw burning ban soon to reduce smog in NCR {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140108030541weblink |date=8 January 2014 }}, Times of India, 4 January 2014Impose 30% cess on diesel cars, panel tells Supreme Court {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140304004249weblink |date=4 March 2014 }}, Times of India, 11 February 2014(File:Delhi Profile, Level 1, 2012.jpg|thumb|Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme)The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.WEB,weblink Circles of Sustainability Urban Profile Process, The Cities Programme, 27 July 2012, 13 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131112175841weblink">weblink 12 November 2013,

Civic administration

{{See also|Divisions of Delhi|Districts of Delhi|List of towns in National Capital Territory of Delhi}}As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages,BOOK, M. S. A. Rao, Urbanization and Social Change: A Study of a Rural Community on a Metropolitan Fringe,weblink 1970, Orient Longmans, no,weblink 3 March 2018, dmy-all, and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD){{spaced ndash}}{{convert|1397.3|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0|disp=or}}, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC){{spaced ndash}}{{convert|42.7|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0|disp=or}} and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB){{spaced ndash}}{{convert|43|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0|disp=or}}).WEB,weblink Table 3.1: Delhi Last 10 Years (1991–2001) â€” Administrative Set Up, 3 July 2007, PDF, Economic Survey of India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070702220619weblink">weblink 2 July 2007, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Introduction, 3 July 2007, THE NEW DELHI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL ACT, 1994, New Delhi Municipal Council, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080302220220weblink">weblink 2 March 2008, Since the trifurcation of the DMC at the start of 2012, Delhi has been run by five local municipal corporations: the North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi Municipal Corporations, the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board.WEB, The Delhi Municipal Corporation (Amendment) Act 2011(Delhi Act 12 of 2011),weblink delhi.gov.in, Department of Law, Justice & Legislative Affairs, 29 December 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170324174340weblink">weblink 24 March 2017, dmy-all, In July of that year, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, the Delhi Government increased the number of districts in Delhi from nine to eleven.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130126025404weblink">weblink yes, 26 January 2013, From 9 to 11 districts for better governance in city, 17 July 2012, Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.WEB, Nair, Ajesh, Annual Survey of India's City-Systems,weblink Janaagraha.org, Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, 12 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319003215weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, dmy-all, Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India and the regional Delhi High Court along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.WEB,weblink Poile Stations, 19 December 2006, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070110174612weblink">weblink 10 January 2007, dmy-all, {{clear}}

Government and politics

{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=400|caption_align=center caption1=Supreme Court of India in Delhi is the apex court in the country.>alt=The Supreme Court of India with Green coloured lawn and the building which shows its entrance to the court.caption2=The Parliament House in New Delhi government block.caption3=The Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi is the official residence of the President of India.caption4=The Secretariat Building, New Delhi is where the Cabinet Secretariat of India is housed.}}As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.WEB,weblink Delhi: Assembly Constituencies, 19 December 2006, Compare Infobase Limited, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070101060414weblink">weblink 1 January 2007, NEWS, Lok Sabha constituencies get a new profile,weblink The Hindu, 7 September 2006, 19 December 2006, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070104221526weblink">weblink 4 January 2007, dmy-all, The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.WEB, Politics of Delhi,weblink INDFY, 17 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120424064032weblink">weblink 24 April 2012, dmy-all, In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.NEWS,weblink Arvind Kejriwal to be Delhi Chief Minister, swearing-in at Ramleela Maidan, timesofindia-economictimes, 28 July 2015, 23 December 2013, However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.NEWS,weblink Arvind Kejriwal quits over Jan Lokpal, Mohammad Ali, Vishal Kant, Sowmiya Ashok, The Hindu, 28 July 2015, Chennai, India, 14 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016060813weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all, Delhi was then under President's rule till February 2015.NEWS,weblink President's rule imposed in Delhi, The Times of India, 28 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150719135440weblink">weblink 19 July 2015, dmy-all, On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.NEWS,weblink Upstart Party Wins India State Elections – WSJ, Niharika Mandhana, 10 February 2015, WSJ, 28 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150809100429weblink">weblink 9 August 2015, dmy-all, Since 2011 Delhi has three municipal bodiesNEWS,weblink Delhi govt decides to split MCD into three parts, PTI, May 30, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130728090021weblink">weblink 28 July 2013, dmy-all,
  1. SDMC having jurisdiction over South and West Delhi areas including Mahipalpur, Rajouri Garden, Janakpuri, Hari Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Dwarka, Jungpura, Greater Kailash, R K Puram, Malvya Nagar, Kalkaji, Ambedkar Nagar and Badarpur.
  2. NDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Badli, Rithala, Bawana, Kirari, Mangolpuri, Tri nagar, Model Town, Sadar Bazar, Chandni Chowk, Matia Mahal, Karol Bagh, Moti Nagar
  3. EDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Patparganj, Kondli, Laxmi Nagar, Seemapuri, Gonda, Karawal Nagar, Babarpur and Shahadra
In 2017 BJP became victorious in all the three corporationsNEWS,weblink MCD results 2017: BJP rides on Modi wave; AAP routed, Kejriwal accepts defeat, Hindustan Ties, May 29, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171106111359weblink">weblink 6 November 2017, dmy-all,

Economy

File:Skyline at Rajiv Chowk.JPG|thumb|center|upright=3.65|Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital RegionNational Capital RegionDelhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. {{As of|2016}} recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have ranged from $167 to $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.WEB,weblink Global city GDP 2014, Brookings Institution, 8 May 2015, no,weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, PwC, 16 December 2009,weblink 4 May 2011, WEB,weblink The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025, Foreign Policy, 24 August 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120828041241weblink">weblink 28 August 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Lewis, Clara, Delhi, not Mumbai, India’s economic capital - Times of India,weblink The Times of India, 24 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170214065413weblink">weblink 14 February 2017, dmy-all, The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016-17 was estimated at {{INRConvert|6224|b}}, 13% higher than in 2015–16.WEB, Delhi Budget Analysis 2017-18,weblink PRS Legislative Research, 10 March 2017, 8 March 2017, PDF, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312041800weblink">weblink 12 March 2017, dmy-all, As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions, respectively.WEB,weblink Chapter 2: State Income, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 8–16, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614085129weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all, Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.WEB,weblink Chapter 5: Employment and Unemployment, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 59–65, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160215013210weblink">weblink 15 February 2016, dmy-all, Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003. In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000. Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.WEB,weblink Industries in Delhi, Mapsofindia.com, 7 September 2009, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries.NEWS,weblink Delhi hot favourite retail destination in India â€“ Corporate Trends â€“ News By Company -News, The Economic Times, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131007010541weblink">weblink 7 October 2013, Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.WEB,weblink Chapter 9: Industrial Development, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 94–107, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614085148weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all,

Utility services

Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). {{As of|2005|06}}, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD.WEB,weblink Chapter 13: Water Supply and Sewerage, 21 December 2006, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 147–162, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614203642weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all, The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage. Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.WEB,weblink Unequal, Unreliable and Running Out, Birkinshaw, Matt, July 2016, Digital Development Debates, 5 September 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160915231848weblink">weblink 15 September 2016, dmy-all, In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.NEWS, Sandeep, Joshi, MCD developing new landfill site,weblink The Hindu, 19 June 2006, 19 December 2006, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061119091230weblink">weblink 19 November 2006, dmy-all, The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.WEB,weblink Risks in Delhi: Environmental concerns, 19 December 2006, Gadhok, Taranjot Kaur, Natural Hazard Management, GISdevelopment.net, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher.WEB,weblink Chapter 11: Energy, 21 December 2006, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 117–129, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614203731weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all, In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Yamuna & Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.WEB,weblink About Us, 9 January 2007, Delhi Fire Service, Govt. of NCT of Delhi, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070122143240weblink">weblink 22 January 2007, dmy-all, The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises such as Vodafone, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocomm, Aircel, Reliance Jio and Tata Docomo provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G and 4G.

Transport

{{Multiple image|align=right| direction = vertical| image1 = Mudras at Indira Gandhi Delhi 1007.jpgIndira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia.HTTP://AIRPORT-DELHI.COM/ PUBLISHER=AIRPORT-DELHI.COM ACCESSDATE=7 SEPTEMBER 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WWW.WEBCITATION.ORG/684WQLGCW?URL=HTTP://AIRPORT-DELHI.COM/ DF=DMY-ALL, Shown here is the immigration counter at Terminal 3 of the airport.| alt1 = Shown here is the check-in counter at Terminal 2 of the airport.| image2 = | caption2 = The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of compressed natural gas buses, totalling 9,000.NEWS
, Delhi's CNG success inspiring many countries: Naik
,weblink
, Press Trust of India
, outlookindia.com
, Outlook Publishing (India) Private Limited
, 11 December 2002
, 2 November 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090201164114weblink">weblink
, 1 February 2009
,
, | alt2 = A green coloured Delhi Transport Corporation CNG bus in the middle of the road| image3 = Anandvihar.jpgAnand Vihar Railway Terminal>Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009| alt3 = The entrance of the Anand Vihar station| image4 = DelhiMetroBlueLineBombardier.jpg| caption4 = The Delhi Metro| alt4 = Front view of a Delhi Metro Train| image5 = Signaturebridgenedelhi.png| caption5 = Signature Bridge on Yamuna river, is the tallest structure in Delhi| alt5 = Signature Bridge on Yamuna river, is the tallest structure in Delhi| image6 = File-Gurgaon Expressway.jpg| caption6 = The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway, connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport| alt6 = The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway| image7 = Delhi underground metro station.jpg| caption7 = A Delhi underground metro station| alt7 = A Delhi underground metro station}}

Air

Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,WEB,weblink jsp, TRAFFIC STATISTICS - DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL PASSENGERS, Airports Authority of India, 5 May 2016, 3, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160527102138weblink">weblink 27 May 2016, dmy-all, making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost {{INRConvert|96.8|b}} to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.WEB,weblink218story_18-2-2007_pg5_24, India begins $1.94b Delhi airport revamp, Dailytimes.com.pk, 18 February 2007, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090116121748weblink">weblink 16 January 2009, The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.NEWS, Mecca for young aviators,weblink Hindustan Times, 23 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150715193135weblink">weblink 15 July 2015, dmy, The airport functioned until 2001; however, in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.NEWS, Ministries in row over Safdarjung Airport land,weblink The Times of India, 13 April 2011, A second airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.WEB,weblink Search, India News Analysis Opinions on Niti Central, 28 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140102193703weblink">weblink 2 January 2014, The Taj International Airport project in Jewar has been approved by the Uttar Pradesh government.NEWS,weblink Jewar airport will now be a full-fledged aviation hub, Shah, Pankaj, The Times of India, 23 February 2018, 3 March 2018, no,weblink 24 February 2018, dmy-all,

Road

Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India.WEB,weblink The road that larger particles travel, Pritha Chatterjee, 6 April 2015, 7 November 2016, The Indian Express, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161107174952weblink">weblink 7 November 2016, It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 44, 2, 48, 9 and 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.WEB,weblink GIS Based Maintenance Management System (GMMS) For Major Roads of Delhi, 14 January 2007, I.Prasada Rao, Dr. P.K. Kanchan, Dr. P.K. Nanda, Map India 2006: Transportation, GISdevelopment.net, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand.WEB,weblink Delhi traffic chaos costs Rs 60,000 crore annually, The Economic Times, 5 February 2017, 23 March 2017, Dipak K. Dash, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170324092149weblink">weblink 24 March 2017, dmy-all, Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ruled that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) to tackle increasing vehicular pollution.WEB,weblink Introduction, 14 January 2007, Armin Rosencranz, Michael Jackson, PDF, The Delhi Pollution Case: The Supreme Court of India and the Limits of Judicial Power, indlaw.com, 3, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614203640weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.WEB,weblink Citizen Charter, 21 December 2006, Delhi Transport Corporation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070110171420weblink">weblink 10 January 2007, dmy-all, WEB,weblink DTC records highest single-day collection, NDTV, 12 July 2011, 23 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170324174140weblink">weblink 24 March 2017, dmy-all, In addition, cluster scheme buses are operated by Delhi Integrated Multi-Modal Transit System (DIMTS) with the participation of private concessionaires and DTC.WEB,weblink Cluster buses to be back on road today, The Times of India, 18 March 2018, 7 May 2018, New Delhi, TNN, WEB,weblink Cabinet sets ball rolling to procure 1,000 cluster buses, The Times of India, 10 January 2018, 7 May 2018, New Delhi, TNN, In December 2017, the DTC and cluster buses carried over 4.19 million passengers per day.WEB,weblink Upswing in DTC, Cluster buses daily ridership, 41.90 passengers carried per day: Sisodia, Moneycontrol.com, PTI, 22 March 2018, 7 May 2018, Kashmiri Gate ISBT, Anand Vihar ISBT and Sarai Kale Khan ISBT are the main bus terminals for outstation buses plying to neighboring states. Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. {{As of|2007}}, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.WEB,weblink Chapter 12: Transport, 21 December 2006, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 130–146, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070116044119weblink">weblink 16 January 2007, dmy-all, Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India.NEWS,weblink Bengaluru retains second place after Delhi with most vehicles on roads, The Times of India, Bengaluru, Aparajita Ray, 16 June 2016, 24 April 2018, TNN, Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers. {{As of|2008}}, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, was 11.2 million (11.2 million).WEB,weblink Traffic snarl snaps 42 Cr man-hour from Delhi, NCR workers at iGovernment, Igovernment.in, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081007124559weblink">weblink 7 October 2008, In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.NEWS,weblink Every 12th Delhiite owns a car- Automobiles-Auto-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times, Economictimes.indiatimes.com, 3 November 2008, 2 January 2008, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, In 2017, the number of vehicles in Delhi city alone crossed one crore mark with the transport department of Delhi Government putting the total number of registered vehicles at 1,05,67,712 till May 25 of the year.NEWS,weblink Vehicle numbers cross one crore mark in Delhi, The Times of India, New Delhi, PTI, 4 June 2017, 24 April 2018, Important Roads in DelhiSome roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:
  • The Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road which connects important areas in Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free.
  • The Outer Ring Road is another major artery in Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi.
  • The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway or DND Flyway is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida (an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh).NEWS, Noida: An idea that has worked,weblink The Times of India, 4 June 2003, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101225812weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, WEB, DND Flyway,weblink DND Flyway, 17 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111002234008weblink">weblink 2 October 2011, dmy-all,
  • The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting Delhi to Gurgaon, an important satellite city of Haryana.
  • The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Faridabad, an important satellite city of Haryana.
National Highways Passing Through DelhiDelhi is connected by road to various parts of the country through several National Highways:

Railway

Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The main railway stations are New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Anand Vihar, Delhi Sarai Rohilla and Delhi Cantt. The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad.WEB,weblink Faridabad Metro Corridor – Press Brief, Delhimetrorail.com, 24 December 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101225813weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, As of August 2018, the metro consists of eight operational lines with a total length of {{convert|296|km|mi|abbr=on}} and 214 stations, and several other lines are under construction.NEWS, Barman, Sourav Roy, Since 2013, 99% of Delhi Metro trips have been on time,weblink The Indian Express, 10 August 2018, New Delhi, The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional {{INRConvert|216|b}}.NEWS,weblink Bloomberg.com: Opinion, Bloomberg.com, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.NEWS,weblink Get ready for revolution on wheels- Shipping / Transport-Transportation-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times, Economictimes.indiatimes.com, 3 November 2008, 6 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090111203439weblink">weblink 11 January 2009, dmy-all, Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.WEB,weblink 10 years of Delhi Metro, delhimetrorail.com, 24 January 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130830032441weblink">weblink 30 August 2013, dmy-all, In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.NEWS, Changing Delhi map makes Ring Railway redundant,weblink Indian Express, 22 February 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110228113258weblink">weblink 28 February 2011, dmy-all,

Metro

File:Delhi Metro - Magenta Line.jpg|right|thumb|Delhi Metro is lifeline of Delhi- NCR.]]The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's tenth-largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of {{convert|296|km|mi|abbr=off}} with 214 stations, which are a mix of underground, at-grade and elevated stations. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps.It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional {{INRConvert|216|b}}.NEWS,weblink Bloomberg.com: Opinion, Bloomberg.com, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.NEWS,weblink Get ready for revolution on wheels- Shipping / Transport-Transportation-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times, Economictimes.indiatimes.com, 3 November 2008, 6 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090111203439weblink">weblink 11 January 2009, dmy-all, Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.WEB,weblink 10 years of Delhi Metro, delhimetrorail.com, 24 January 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130830032441weblink">weblink 30 August 2013, dmy-all, Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.WEB,weblink French award presented to Sreedharan, New Delhi, The Hindu, Staff Reporter, 23 November 2005, 24 April 2018, Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)

The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi.WEB,weblink Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS), Urban Mass Transit Company Limited, 24 April 2018, The three main corridors in the first phase are as follows:WEB,weblink Project Details, National Capital Region Transport Corporation, 24 April 2018,
  1. Delhi – Alwar via Gurugram - 180.50 km
  2. Delhi – Panipat via Sonipat - 111 km
  3. Delhi – Meerut via Ghaziabad - 92.05 km
Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.

Demographics

{{See also|Ethnic groups in Delhi}}{{IndiaCensusPop|title= Population Growth of Delhi| state = collapsed| 1901 = 405819| 1911 = 413851| 1921 = 488452| 1931 = 636246| 1941 = 917939| 1951 = 1744072| 1961 = 2658612| 1971 = 4065698| 1981 = 6220406| 1991 = 9420644| 2001 = 13782976| 2011 = 16753235| estimate = | estyear = | estref = PUBLISHER=CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=12 APRIL 2011, dmy-all, † Huge population rise in 1951 due to largescale migration after Partition of India in 1947.}}According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235. The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08, respectively.WEB,weblink Chapter 3: Demographic Profile, 21 December 2006, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–2006, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 17–31, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614203710weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all, In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth, which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.Can't afford to fall ill in Dwarka {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141027190146weblink |date=27 October 2014 }}, Hindustan Times, 16 July 2009 Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond the NCT boundaries to incorporate the towns and cities of neighbouring states including Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population of which is estimated by the United Nations at over 26 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second-largest, after Tokyo,WEB, The World's Cities in 2016,weblink United Nations, 4 March 2017, 4, PDF, October 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170112211410weblink">weblink 12 January 2017, dmy-all, although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second-largest.BOOK, Demographia, Demographia World Urban Areas, April 2016, 12th,weblink November 17, 2016, no,weblink 23 August 2011, dmy-all, The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary,WEB,weblink Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above, 2011, Provisional population totals, census of India 2011, PDF, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 26 January 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111215163132weblink">weblink 15 December 2011, dmy-all, and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area.WEB,weblink India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011, pibmumbai.gov.in, 7 September 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150630112755weblink">weblink 30 June 2015, dmy-all, The 2021 regional plan released by the Government of India renamed the Extended Urban Area from Delhi Metropolitan Area (DMA) as defined by the 2001 planWEB, Evaluation Study of DMA Towns in National Capital Region,weblink Town and Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, 19 March 2017, September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170320052724weblink">weblink 20 March 2017, to Central National Capital Region (CNCR).WEB, Regional Plan 2021 - Chapter 4, Demographic Profile and Settlement Pattern,weblink NCR Planning Board, 19 March 2017, 28,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170320055054weblink">weblink 20 March 2017, dmy-all, no, {{clear}}

Religion

Akshardham angled.jpg|Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complexes in the National Capital Territory. Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.|alt=A complete view of Akshardham temple with people entering the temple.Naya Mandir, Dharampura (1).jpg|Naya Mandir is a historic Jain temple in Old Delhi.Front view of Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Delhi.jpg|Gurudwara Bangla Sahib is one of the most prominent Sikh Gurdwara in Delhi, and known for its association with the eighth Sikh Guru, Guru Har Krishan.OldMosqueStepss.jpg|Northeast entrance to Delhi's Islamic Jama Masjid.{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Religion in NCT of Delhi (2011)WEB
, Delhi Religion Census 2011
,weblink
, www.census2011.co.in
, Census 2011 India
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171103082917weblink">weblink
, 3 November 2017
, |label1 = Hinduism|value1 = 81.68|color1 = Orange|label2 = Islam|value2 = 12.86|color2 = Green |label3 = Sikhism|value3 = 3.40|color3 = DarkKhaki|label4 = Jainism|value4 = 0.99|color4 = Red|label5 = Christianity|value5 = 0.87|color5 = DodgerBlue |label6 = Buddhism|value6 = 0.11|color6 = Yellow|label7 = Other or Not stated|value7 = 0.09|color7 = Black}}Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%).WEB, Religion PCA,weblink censusindia.gov.in, Government of India, 8 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160707231710weblink">weblink 7 July 2016, Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baha'ism and Judaism.WEB, Census of India 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070812011525weblink">weblink 12 August 2007, Data on Religion, 1, 16 May 2006,

Languages

{{Pie chart| thumb = right| caption = Languages in Delhi (2001) |label1=Hindi|value1=80.94|color1= orange|label2=Punjabi|value2=7.14|color2=Purple|label3=Urdu|value3=6.31|color3 =Green|label4=Bengali|value4=1.50|color4=Red|label5 =Other|value5=4.11|color5=Grey}}According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%), Urdu (6.31%) and Bengali (1.50%). 4.11% of the Delhites speak other languages.WEB, 50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA,weblink nclm.nic.in, Ministry of Minority Affairs, 8 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160708012438weblink">weblink 8 July 2016, 9, Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as additional official languages.According to the Directorate of Education, GNCTD the following languages are taught in schools in Delhi under the three-language formula:WEB, 52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA,weblink nclm.nic.in, Ministry of Minority Affairs, 15 February 2018, 18, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525141614weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, First Language: Hindi/Urdu/EnglishSecond Language: EnglishThird language: Urdu/Punjabi/Bengali/Sindhi/Tamil/Telugu/Malayalam/Kannada/Gujarati/Marathi/Arabic/Persian/Sanskrit

Slums

Around 49% of the population of Delhi lives in slums and unauthorized colonies without any civic amenities.WEB,weblink The Times of India, 'Half of Delhi’s population lives in slums', 4 October 2012, 1 January 2016, Dhananjay Mahapatra, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160414235944weblink">weblink 14 April 2016, dmy-all, Majority of the slums have inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to a DUSIB report, almost 22% of the people do open defecation.WEB,weblink Delhi: Slum shame, Mayura Janwalkar, The Indian Express, 20 April 2015, 1 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160112235218weblink">weblink 12 January 2016,

Culture

{{See also|Culture of India}}File:Traditional pottery in Dilli Haat.jpg|right|thumb|Traditional pottery on display in alt=An image showing a number of pots which are made traditionally, black coloured with red and green work on it.Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha, the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1,200 heritage buildingsNEWS, PTI ,weblink Promote lesser-known monuments of Delhi'-Delhi-Cities, The Times of India, 27 February 2009, 7 September 2009, and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.WEB
,weblink
, Delhi Circle (NCT of Delhi)
, 27 December 2006
, List of Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains of National Importance
, Archaeological Survey of India
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070514061700weblink">weblink
, 14 May 2007
, dmy-all
, In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid—India's largest mosqueWEB, Terra Galleria,weblink Jama Masjid, India's largest mosque, 13 March 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090304032037weblink">weblink 4 March 2009, dmy-all, built in 1656WEB, India.gov,weblink Know India, 22 January 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904034839weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites—the Red Fort, Qutub Minar and Humayun's Tomb—are located in Delhi.WEB,weblink Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List: India, 13 January 2007, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar—an 18th-century astronomical observatory—and the Purana Qila—a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple, Akshardham temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, the Bahá'í Lotus Temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.JOURNAL, Jacob, Satish, July 2002, Wither, the walled city, Seminar (web edition), 515,weblink 19 January 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061212133015weblink">weblink 12 December 2006, dmy-all, Lotus Temple, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá'í Houses of Worship, is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá'í texts. The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Iranica, 1989, Bahai temples, V., Rafati, Sahba, F., The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.The National Museum and National Gallery of Modern Art are some of the largest museums in the country. Other museums in Delhi include the National Museum of Natural History, National Rail Museum and National Philatelic Museum.Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.WEB, About Palace on Wheels, Delhi Tours,weblink Shopping in Delhi, 4 January 2007, yes,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, Delhi's arts and crafts include, ZardoziBOOK, The Textile Book, Google Books, 99,weblink 9781859735121, 2002-05-01, —an embroidery done with gold thread—NEWS, Ancient and modern metal craft works attract visitors,weblink 18 June 2012, Times of India, 12 June 2012, and MeenakariWEB, Delhi Handicrafts,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070601175713weblink">weblink yes, 1 June 2007, Indian Handicrafts suppliars, 18 June 2012, —the art of enamelling.

Festivals

File:Rashtrapati Bhavan and adjacent buildings, illuminated for the Republic Day.jpg|left|thumb|Rashtrapati Bhavan lit up for Republic DayRepublic DayDelhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.WEB, 123independenceday.com, Compare Infobase Limited,weblink Independence Day, 4 January 2007, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.WEB,weblink R-Day parade, an anachronism?, 13 January 2007, Ray Choudhury, Ray Choudhury, 28 January 2002, The Hindu Business Line, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118160454weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, dmy-all, HTTP://WWW.INDIA-TOURISM.ORG/DELHI-TRAVEL/DELHI-FAIRS-FESTIVALS.HTML >DEADURL=YES,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070319223442weblink">weblink 19 March 2007accessdate=13 January 2007publisher=India Tourism.org, Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe—fans embroidered with flowers—are offered to the shrine of the 13th-century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya Temple, both situated in Mehrauli.Delhi: a portrait, by Khushwant Singh, Raghu Rai, Published by Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation>Delhi Tourism Development Corp., 1983. {{ISBN|978-0-19-561437-4}}. Page 15.(File:Pragati Maidan, inside hall 18 (3).JPG|right|thumb|The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially|alt=A view of Pragati Maidan from inside)Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti. The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.NEWS, Madhur, Tankha, It's Sufi and rock at Qutub Fest,weblink The Hindu, 15 December 2005, 13 January 2007, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060513084038weblink">weblink 13 May 2006, dmy-all, Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,NEWS,weblink The Hindu: Front Page: Asia's largest auto carnival begins in Delhi tomorrow, Thehindu, 9 January 2008, 3 November 2008, Chennai, India, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second-largest exhibition of books in the world.NEWS,weblink Delhi Metro records 10% rise in commuters-Delhi-Cities-The Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 1 July 2008, 3 November 2008, Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.WEB,weblink Sunil Sethi: Why Delhi is India's Book Capital, Business-standard.com, Sunil Sethi / New Delhi 9 February 2008, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090101102116weblink">weblink 1 January 2009, India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 15 lakh people.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206103109weblink">weblink yes, 6 February 2015, Report of IITF 2014,

Cuisine

(File:Daulat Chaat in Old Delhi.JPG|left|thumb|Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.WEB,weblink Daulat Ki Chaat: In search of Delhi's secret delicacy, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905205022weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, dmy-all, |alt=Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.)As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.BOOK, New Delhi,weblink Marshall Cavendish, 14–17, 2006, M.R.Narayan, Swamy, 978-981-232-996-7, 23 June 2012, The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.WEB, Commonwealth games guide to Delhi,weblink Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Ltd, 2010, Chetananand, Singh, PDF, 23 June 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120510032252weblink">weblink 10 May 2012, dmy-all, {{rp|40–50, 189–196}}The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.{{rp|41}} A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.NEWS, Delhi, India: hotels, restaurants and transport,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Fiona, Duncan, 6 March 2011, 23 June 2012, London, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120314143015weblink">weblink 14 March 2012, dmy-all, The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food .{{rp|40–50}}BOOK, Rajasthan, Delhi and Agra, Lonely Planet, 20–31, 2008, Lindsay, Brown, Amelia, Thomas, Footscray, Vic., 978-1-74104-690-8, second,

Tourism

(File:Jantar Delhi.jpg|thumb|Jantar Mantar) {{See also|Shopping in Delhi}} According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th-most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in 2015.WEB, Bremner, Caroline, Top 100 City Destinations Ranking,weblink Euromonitor International, 9 August 2016, There are numerous tourist attractions in Delhi, both historic and modern. The three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Delhi, Qutb Complex, Red Fort and Humayun's Tomb are among the finest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.WEB,weblink Indo - Islamic Architecture, Centre for Cultural Resources and Training, 28 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170509031758weblink">weblink 9 May 2017, dmy-all, Another prominent landmark of Delhi is India Gate, a 1931 built war memorial to soldiers of British Indian Army who died during First World War.WEB,weblink India Gate, 28 February 2017, Delhi Tourism, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170124123007weblink">weblink 24 January 2017, dmy-all, Delhi has several famous places of worship of various religions. One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world,WEB,weblink Akshardham Temple, 28 February 2017, Delhi Tourism, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402092410weblink">weblink 2 April 2017, dmy-all, Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Other famous religious sites include Lal Mandir, Laxminarayan Temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place, Chandni Chowk, Sarojini Nagar, Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi.WEB,weblink Shopping in Delhi, 28 February 2017, Delhi Tourism, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161208101305weblink">weblink 8 December 2016, dmy-all, Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk, DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio, Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza.WEB,weblink 6 Best Shopping Malls in Delhi for Shopping, Traveljee, 28 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161109063424weblink">weblink 9 November 2016, dmy-all,

Education

{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=400|caption_align=center caption1=All India Institute of Medical Sciencescaption2=Indian Institute of Technology, Delhicaption3=National Law University, Delhicaption4=University of Delhi}}Private schools in Delhi—which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)WEB, Schools in Delhi,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120921165659weblink">weblink 21 September 2012, or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi. Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education. Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,WEB,weblink Chapter 15: Education, 21 December 2006, PDF, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2005–06, Planning Department, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 173–187, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614203748weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy-all, seven major universities and nine deemed universities.The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India.Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities.WEB,weblink List of State Universities, 11 May 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130520070301weblink">weblink 20 May 2013, dmy-all, University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.WEB, THE INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ACT, 198,weblink Government of India, 17 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120417134753weblink">weblink 17 April 2012, {{As of|2008}}, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.WEB,weblink outlookindia.com | wired, Outlookindia.com, 3 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051104152936weblink">weblink 4 November 2005,

Media

{{See also|Media of India}}File:Pitampura TV Tower, Delhi, India.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|alt=Pitampura TV Tower with background of blue skyAs the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.WEB
,weblink
, What is CAS? What is DTH?
, 8 January 2007
, Rediff Business Desk
, 5 September 2006
, rediff news: Business
, Rediff.com
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100531143055weblink">weblink
, 31 May 2010
, dmy
, Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.WEB, Biographical Data of Vir Sanghvi,weblink 17 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120513021053weblink">weblink 13 May 2012, dmy-all, Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularityWEB,weblink Chapter4: Towards a Mass Media Campaign: Analysing the relationship between target audiences and mass media, 8 January 2007, Naqvi, Farah, 14 November 2006, PDF, Images and icons: Harnessing the Power of Mass Media to Promote Gender Equality and Reduce Practices of Sex Selection, BBC World Service Trust, 26–36, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.WEB,weblink Delhi: Radio Stations in Delhi, India, 7 January 2007, 15 November 2006, ASIAWAVES: Radio and TV Broadcasting in South and South-East Asia, Alan G. Davies, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.WEB, All India Radio,weblink Indian government, 30 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120505053343weblink">weblink 5 May 2012, WEB, Radio Stations in Delhi, India,weblink Asiawaves asiawaves.net, 30 May 2012, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all,

Sports

File:Commonwealth-Games-2010-Opening-Ceremony.jpg|thumb|left|250px|The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is one of the largest international multi-sport eventmulti-sport eventDelhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,NEWS, India to bid for 2014 Asian Games,weblink South Asia, 29 March 2005, 21 December 2006, BBC, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061215222724weblink">weblink 15 December 2006, dmy-all, the 2010 Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,NEWS, New Delhi loses bid,weblink The Hindu, 18 April 2007, 18 April 2007, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070420171456weblink">weblink 20 April 2007, dmy-all, and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.WEB,weblink Delhi To Bid For 2020 Summer Games, 5 August 2007, 28 April 2007, gamesbids.com, Menscerto Inc., no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.WEB,weblink India Won't Bid For 2020 Games, Gamesbids.com, 11 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100905114040weblink">weblink 5 September 2010, There are indications of a possible 2028 bid.File:Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium CWG opening ceremony.jpg|thumb|Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.]]The 2010 Commonwealth Games, which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India.NEWS,weblink 'India has arrived': spectacular ceremony opens Commonwealth Games, The Guardian, UK, 3 October 2010, 5 October 2010, London, Jason, Burke,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101006004503weblink">weblink 6 October 2010, no, NEWS,weblink Commonwealth Games 2010: India opens doors to the world at opening ceremony, The Telegraph, 3 October 2010, 5 October 2010, London, Simon, Hart,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101006045221weblink">weblink 6 October 2010, no, The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.NEWS, PTI ,weblink Biggest ever Commonwealth Games begins in Delhi â€“ The Times of India, Timesofindia.indiatimes.com, 3 October 2010, 14 October 2010, The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.WEB
,weblink
, CWG: 8,000 artists to show 5,000-year-old culture
, One India News
, 3 October 2010
, 4 September 2011
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120104153835weblink">weblink
, 4 January 2012
, dmy-all
, It is estimated that {{INRConvert|3.5|b}} were spent to produce the ceremony.NEWS
,weblink
, The CWG opening show reality: Rs 350 crore
, Times of India
, 5 October 2010
, 4 September 2011
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110319040638weblink">weblink
, 19 March 2011
, dmy-all
, Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.WEB, Non-Competition Venues, Commonwealth Games Organising Committee,weblink 1 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100927033237weblink">weblink 27 September 2010, no, The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.NEWS, Commonwealth Games hit by more bad luck after giant scoreboard collapse,weblink Daily Mail, 17 May 2012, 8 October 2012, London, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20120724195636weblink">weblink 24 July 2012, dmy-all, The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.WEB,weblink New Sports Minister, Sify.com, 19 January 2011, 11 March 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110121204150weblink">weblink 21 January 2011, dmy-all, Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.WEB
,weblink
, Cricket may be included in the 2010 Games
, 7 January 2007
, Camenzuli
, Charles
, Interview
, International Sports Press Association
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929074954weblink">weblink
, 29 September 2007
,
, There are several cricket grounds, or (wikt:meidan|maidans), located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.WEB,weblink A Brief History: The Ranji Trophy, 6 January 2007, Cricinfo staff, Cricinfo, The Wisden Group, no,weblink 31 May 2012, dmy-all, The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli,WEB,weblink Virat Kohli: Delhi's golden boy since 2002 – Times of India, indiatimes.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160427012859weblink">weblink 27 April 2016, dmy-all, Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Ishant Sharma and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium, respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Daredevils, who play their home matches at the Kotla.Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.NEWS, Ambedkar stadium to host India's World Cup qualifier,weblink 17 May 2012, Times of Inia, 28 June 2011, Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007WEB, Bob Houghton's Boys made India proud with a superb victory over Syria,weblink 17 May 2012, KolkataFootballs.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131110183327weblink">weblink 10 November 2013, and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.WEB, India vs Syria Nehru Cup 2009 Football Final Results, Highlights,weblink CLbuzz, 17 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008132055weblink">weblink 8 October 2011, In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India â€“ TIME NewsFeed {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111125025255weblink |date=25 November 2011 }}. Newsfeed.time.com (4 August 2011). Retrieved 24 October 2011. Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.NEWS, India company says on track for 2011 F1 race,weblink 15 April 2009, Reuters, 21 October 2009, The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi{| class="wikitable"!Team/Club!Tournament/League!Sport!Venue!Established|Delhi cricket team|Ranji TrophyVijay Hazare TrophySyed Mushtaq Ali Trophy|CricketFeroz Shah Kotla Ground>Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium|1934|Delhi football team|Santosh Trophy|FootballJawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Delhi)>Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium|1941| Delhi Hurricanes RFC|All India & South Asia Rugby TournamentRugby union>Rugby Union|B-7 Vasant Kunj 110070 Delhi|2004|Delhi Daredevils|Indian Premier League|CricketFeroz Shah Kotla Ground>Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium|2008| Delhi Wizards|World Series HockeyField hockey>Field Hockey|Dhyan Chand National Stadium|2011|Delhi Defenders|Elite Football League of IndiaAmerican football>American Football| -|2012| Delhi Waveriders|Hockey India LeagueField hockey>Field HockeyShivaji Hockey Stadium>Shivaji Stadium|2012|Delhi Dynamos FC|Indian Super League|FootballJawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Delhi)>Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium|2013|Dabang Delhi|Pro Kabaddi League|Kabaddi|Thyagaraj Sports Complex|2014|Delhi Dreams|Champions Tennis League|Tennis|R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex|2014| Indian Aces|International Premier Tennis League|Tennis|Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium|2014|Delhi Capitals|UBA Pro Basketball League|Basketball| -|2015Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi{| class="wikitable"!Team/Club!Tournament/League!Sport!Venue!Established!Ceased|Delhi Giants|Indian Cricket League|Cricket| N/A|2007|2009

Notable people

International relations

Sister citiesWEB,weblink SISTER-CITY AGREEMENTS/ MEMORANDUM, Department of Urban Development, Government of Delhi, 28 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160601181749weblink">weblink 1 June 2016, dmy-all,


Partnerships

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Delhi}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160215014054weblink">Economic Survey of Delhi 2005–2006. Planning Department. Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. Retrieved on 12 February 2007
  • BOOK, Dalrymple, W, 2003, 1, City of Djinnsisbn=978-0-14-200100-4,
  • BOOK, Dalrymple, W, 2003, 1, Vidhya Society, (2009). Vidhya Society (NGO) is a leading charitable organization of Uttar Pradesh (India) established under society registration act 21-1860 on the special occasion of World Disable Year 2009. Director Mr. Pavan Upadhyay www.vidhyasociety.com
isbn=978-0-14-200100-4,
  • BOOK, Prager, D, 2013, 1, Delirious Delhi
isbn=978-1-61145-832-9,
  • BOOK, Brown, L, 2011, 5, Lonely Planet Rajasthan, Delhi & Agra, Lonely Planet Publications, 978-1-74179-460-1,
  • BOOK, Rowe, P, Coster, P, 2004, Delhi (Great Cities of the World), World Almanac Library, 978-0-8368-5197-7,
  • NEWS, Metrocity Journal: Delhi's Changing Landscape, Four-part series on Delhi, The Wall Street Journal, 30 May – 2 June 2012,weblink

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Delhi}}Government General information
  • Delhi Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Delhi|Delhi}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|1942586}}
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