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Kushan Empire
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{{short description|Empire in South Asia}}{{Redirect|Kushan|the village in Iran|Kushan, Iran|the fictional video game race|Homeworld|East African Kingdom|Kingdom of Kush}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2015}}{{Use Indian English|date=December 2015}}







factoids
(Koine Greek>Greek)|conventional_long_name = Kushan Empire|common_name = Kushan Empire|era = Classical Antiquity|status = Nomadic empire|event_start = Kujula Kadphises unites Yuezhi tribes into a confederation|year_start = 30Sasanian Empire>Sasanians, Gupta Empire, and HepthalitesHTTP://LCWEB2.LOC.GOV/CGI-BIN/QUERY/R?FRD/CSTDY:@FIELD(DOCID+AF0005) ACCESSDATE=2012-08-16 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COUNTRY STUDIES >LOCATION=UNITED STATES, 1997, |year_end = 375|p1 = Indo-Greek Kingdom |p2 = Indo-Parthian Kingdom |p3=Indo-Scythians|s1 = Sasanian Empire|flag_s1 = Derafsh_Kaviani_flag_of_the_late_Sassanid_Empire.svg|s2 = Gupta Empire|s3=Nagas of Padmavati|s4 = Kidarites|flag_s4 = Kidarite_Tamga.png|image_map = File:Joppen 1907 India in the 2nd Century A.D.jpg|map_width=270URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=-5IRRXX0APQC&PG=PA221PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESSPAGE=221, to Varanasi on the confluence of the Ganges and the Yamuna,BURTON STEINURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=QY4ZDTDWMAQC&PG=PA86PUBLISHER=JOHN WILEY & SONSPAGE=86, PETER ROBB>TITLE=A HISTORY OF INDIAYEAR=2011ISBN=978-0-230-34549-2Pataliputra.HERMANN KULKETITLE=A HISTORY OF INDIAYEAR=2016ISBN=978-1-317-24212-3, Bagram (Ancient Kapisa>KapiÅ›i)Peshawar (History of PeshawarPuruá¹£apura)Taxila (Taká¹£aÅ›ilā)Mathura, Uttar Pradesh>Mathura (Mathurā)Koine Greek>Greek (official until ca. 127)The Kushans at first retained the Greek language for administrative purposes but soon began to use Bactrian. The Bactrian Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 and deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan king Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discarded Greek (Ionian) as the language of administration and adopted Bactrian ("Arya language"), from Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133.Bactrian languageThe Bactrian Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 and deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan king Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discarded Greek (Ionian) as the language of administration and adopted Bactrian ("Arya language"), from Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133. (official from ca. 127)SanskritThe Sanskrit word vaṃśa (dynasty) affixed to Gushana (Kushana), i.e. Gushana-vaṃśa (Kushan dynasty) appears on a dedicatory inscription at Mankiala>Manikiala stupa, in The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans, University of California Press, 1967, p.7 & 8Mahayana>Buddhism{{sfn2010Hinduism{{sfn>Bopearachchip=45}}Zoroastrianism{{sfn1992|p=56}}Kushan Coinage>Kushan drachma|government_type = Monarchy|leader1 = Kujula Kadphises|year_leader1 = 30–80|leader2 = Kipunada|year_leader2 = 350–375|title_leader = EmperorLAST2=ADAMSLAST3=HALL TITLE = EAST-WEST ORIENTATION OF HISTORICAL EMPIRES DATE=DECEMBER 2006 ISSUE=2 URL =HTTP://JWSR.PITT.EDU/OJS/INDEX.PHP/JWSR/ARTICLE/VIEW/369/381ISSN= 1076-156X, |stat_area1 = 2000000JSTOR=1170959SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY>VOLUME=3PAGE=132LAST1=TAAGEPERA, Rein, |stat_area2 = 2500000area_km2=GDP_PPP=HDI=today=}}The Kushan Empire (; , {{transl|xbc|Kushano}}; Sanskrit: (File:Gupta allahabad ku.jpg|14px)(File:Gupta_gujarat_ss.svg|14px)(File:Gupta_ashoka_nn.svg|14px) Ku-shā-ṇa (Late Brahmi script), {{transl|sa|Kuṣāṇa Sāmrājya}}; BHS: {{IAST|Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa}}; ; The Dynasty Arts of the Kushans, University of California Press, 1967, p. 5) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of Afghanistanweblink and Si-Yu-Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, (Tr. Samuel Beal: Travels of Fa-Hian, The Mission of Sung-Yun and Hwei-S?ng, Books 1–5), Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd. London. 1906 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 318–350 and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great.which began about 127 CE. "Falk 2001, pp. 121–136", Falk (2001), pp. 121–136, Falk, Harry (2004), pp. 167–176 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 33, 368–371. Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of Buddhism. He played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent and its spread to Central Asia and China.The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation,BOOK, Runion, Meredith L., The history of Afghanistan, 2007, Greenwood Press, Westport, 978-0-313-33798-7, 46, The Yuezhi people conquered Bactria in the second century BCE. and divided the country into five chiefdoms, one of which would become the Kushan Empire. Recognizing the importance of unification, these five tribes combined under the one dominate Kushan tribe, and the primary rulers descended from the Yuezhi., BOOK, Liu, Xinrui, Agricultural and pastoral societies in ancient and classical history, 2001, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 978-1-56639-832-9, 156, Adas, Michael, a possibly Iranian{{harvnb|Enoki|Koshelenko|Haidary|1994|pp=171–191}}WEB,weblink Ancient Iran: The movement of Iranian peoples, Girshman, Roman, Roman Ghirshman, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 May 2015, At the end of the 3rd century, there began in Chinese Turkistan a long migration of the Yuezhi, an Iranian people who invaded Bactria about 130 bc, putting an end to the Greco-Bactrian kingdom there. (In the 1st century bc they created the Kushān dynasty, whose rule extended from Afghanistan to the Ganges River and from Russian Turkistan to the estuary of the Indus.), or Tocharian,{{harvnb|Pulleyblank|1966|pp=9–39}}{{harvnb|Mallory|1989|pp=59–60}}{{harvnb|Mallory|1997|pp=591–593}}{{sfnp|Mallory|Mair|2000|pp=270–297}}{{harvnb|Loewe|Shaughnessy|1999|pp=87–88}}JOURNAL, Benjamin, Craig, Craig Benjamin, October 2003, The Yuezhi Migration and Sogdia,weblink Transoxiana Webfestschrift, Transoxiana, 1, Ä’ran ud AnÄ“rān, 29 May 2015, Indo-EuropeanWEB,weblink Zhang Qian, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 May 2015, {{harvnb|West|2009|pp=713–717}}"They are, by almost unanimous opinion, Indo-Europeans, probably the most oriental of those who occupied the steppes." Roux, p.90 nomadic people who migrated from Gansu and settled in ancient Bactria. The Kushans possibly used the Greek language initially for administrative purposes, but soon began to use Bactrian language.The Bactrian Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 and deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan king Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discarded Greek (Ionian) as the language of administration and adopted Bactrian ("Arya language"), from Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133. Kanishka sent his armies north of the Karakoram mountains. A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram and facilitating the spread of Mahayana Buddhism to China.The Kushan dynasty had diplomatic contacts with the Roman Empire, Sasanian Persia, the Aksumite Empire and the Han dynasty of China. While much philosophy, art, and science was created within its borders, the only textual record of the empire's history today comes from inscriptions and accounts in other languages, particularly Chinese.Hill (2009), p. 36 and notes.The Kushan empire fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century AD, which fell to the Sasanians invading from the west, establishing the Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom in the areas of Sogdiana, Bactria and Gandhara. In the 4th century, the Guptas, an Indian dynasty also pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Kushano-Sasanian kingdoms were eventually overwhelmed by invaders from the north, known as the Kidarites, and then the Hepthalites.

Origins

Chinese sources describe the Guishuang (貴霜), i.e. the Kushans, as one of the five aristocratic tribes of the Yuezhi, with some people claiming they were a loose confederation of Indo-European peoples,WEB,weblink Kushan Empire (ca. 2nd century B.C.–3rd century A.D.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art, metmuseum.org, 2015-10-23, though many scholars are still unconvinced that they originally spoke an Indo-European language. As the historian John E. Hill has put it: "For well over a century ... there have been many arguments about the ethnic and linguistic origins of the Great Yuezhi or Da Yuezhi (大月氏), Kushans (貴霜), and the Tochari, and still there is little consensus".Hill (2009), p. 311.File:Koshanoy.jpg|thumb|left|The ethnonym "KOÏ·Ï·ANOV" (Koshshanoy, "Kushans") in Greek alphabet (with the addition of the letter Ï·, "Sh") on a coin of the first known Kushan ruler HeraiosHeraiosThe Yuezhi were described in the Records of the Great Historian 史記 and the Book of Han 漢書 as living in the grasslands of Gansu, in the northwest of modern-day China, until their King was beheaded by the Huns from Siberia (the Xiongnu 匈奴) who were also at war with China, which eventually forced them to migrate west in 176–160 BCE.BOOK, Michael A.N., Loewe, Introduction, 1–70, China in Central Asia: The Early Stage: 125 BC – AD 23; an Annotated Translation of Chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty, Anthony François Paulus, Hulsewé, Brill, 1979, 978-90-04-05884-2, pp. 23–24. The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as XiÅ«mì (休密), Guìshuāng (貴霜), Shuāngmǐ (雙靡), Xìdùn (肸頓), and DÅ«mì (都密).The Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria (in northern Afghanistan and Uzbekistan) around 135 BC. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush and the Indus basin (in present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan), occupying the western part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

Early Kushans

{{multiple image| align = right| direction =horizontal| header=Kushan portraits| total_width=350| image1 = Heraios profile.jpg| caption1 = The first known Kushan king Heraios (1–30 CE), from his coinage.| image2 = Kushan devotee portrait.jpg| caption2 = Kushan devotee (2nd century CE). Metropolitan Museum of Art (detail)| footer=}}Some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. Archaeological structures are known in Takht-I-Sangin, Surkh Kotal (a monumental temple), and in the palace of Khalchayan. Various sculptures and friezes are known, representing horse-riding archers,Lebedynsky, p. 62. and, significantly, men with artificially deformed skulls, such as the Kushan prince of KhalchayanLebedynsky, p. 15. (a practice well attested in nomadic Central Asia). The Chinese first referred to these people as the Yuezhi and said they established the Kushan Empire, although the relationship between the Yuezhi and the Kushans is still unclear. On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum, the Kushans are known to have built fortresses.File:KushanHead.jpg|thumb|150px|left|Head of a Kushan prince (Khalchayan palace, UzbekistanUzbekistanThe earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler, was Heraios. He calls himself a "tyrant" in Greek on his coins, and also exhibits skull deformation. He may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises.Ban Gu's Book of Han tells us the Kushans (Kuei-shuang) divided up Bactria in 128 BC. Fan Ye's Book of Later Han "relates how the chief of the Kushans, Ch'iu-shiu-ch'ueh (the Kujula Kadphises of coins), founded by means of the submission of the other Yueh-chih clans the Kushan Empire, known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of Empire of the Indo-Scythians."BOOK, Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, Rutgers University Press, 1970, 0-8135-1304-9, 32, The Chinese Book of Later Han 後漢書 chronicles gives an account of the formation of the Kushan empire based on a report made by the Chinese general Ban Yong to the Chinese Emperor c. 125 AD:

Diverse cultural influences

File:Kanishka I Greek legend and Helios.jpg|thumb|300px|Early gold coin of Kanishka I with Greek language legend and Hellenistic divinity (Helios]]. (c. 120 AD).Obverse: Kanishka standing, clad in heavy Kushan coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding a standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Greek legend:ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥBasileus Basileon Kanishkoy"[Coin] of Kanishka, king of kings".Reverse: Standing Helios in Hellenistic style, forming a benediction gesture with the right hand. Legend in Greek script: ΗΛΙΟΣ Helios. Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the left.)File:Kushan script.jpg|thumb|300px|Greek alphabetGreek alphabetIn the 1st century BCE, the Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜) gained prominence over the other Yuezhi tribes, and welded them into a tight confederation under yabgu (Commander) Kujula Kadphises. The name Guishuang was adopted in the West and modified into Kushan to designate the confederation, although the Chinese continued to call them Yuezhi.Gradually wresting control of the area from the Scythian tribes, the Kushans expanded south into the region traditionally known as Gandhara (an area primarily in Pakistan's Pothowar and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region) and established twin capitals in BegramS. Frederick Starr, Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013, p. 53 and Peshawar, then known as Kapisa and Pushklavati respectively.The Kushans adopted elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria. They adopted the Greek alphabet to suit their own language (with the additional development of the letter Þ "sh", as in "Kushan") and soon began minting coinage on the Greek model. On their coins they used Greek language legends combined with Pali legends (in the Kharoshthi script), until the first few years of the reign of Kanishka. After the middle of Kanishka's reign, they used Kushan language legends (in an adapted Greek script), combined with legends in Greek (Greek script) and legends in Prakrit (Kharoshthi script).The Kushans "adopted many local beliefs and customs, including Zoroastrianism and the two rising religions in the region, the Greek cults and Buddhism".Starr, p. 53 From the time of Vima Takto, many Kushans started adopting aspects of Buddhist culture, and like the Egyptians, they absorbed the strong remnants of the Greek culture of the Hellenistic Kingdoms, becoming at least partly Hellenised. The great Kushan emperor Vima Kadphises may have embraced Shaivism (a sect of Hinduism), as surmised by coins minted during the period.{{sfn|Bopearachchi|2007|p=45}} The following Kushan emperors represented a wide variety of faiths including Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and Shaivism.The rule of the Kushans linked the seagoing trade of the Indian Ocean with the commerce of the Silk Road through the long-civilized Indus Valley. At the height of the dynasty, the Kushans loosely ruled a territory that extended to the Aral Sea through present-day Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan into northern India.The loose unity and comparative peace of such a vast expanse encouraged long-distance trade, brought Chinese silks to Rome, and created strings of flourishing urban centers.

Territorial expansion

File:Kushanmap.jpg|thumb|Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan control under Kanishka the Great according to the Rabatak inscription (dotted line for the Indian subcontinent)."The Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1 Kanishka I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra), and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka I himself." "Ancient Indian Inscriptions", S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also the analysis of Sims-Williams and J.Cribb, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great", in "Silk Road Art and Archaeology" No4, 1995–1996. Also Mukherjee B.N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin. The northern expansion into the Tarim BasinTarim BasinRosenfield notes that archaeological evidence of a Kushan rule of long duration is present in an area stretching from Surkh Kotal, Begram, the summer capital of the Kushans, Peshawar, the capital under Kanishka I, Taxila, and Mathura, the winter capital of the Kushans.Rosenfield, p. 41.Other areas of probable rule include Khwarezm, Kausambi (excavations of Allahabad University), Sanchi and Sarnath (inscriptions with names and dates of Kushan kings), Malwa and Maharashtra,For "Malwa and Maharashtra, for which it is speculated that the Kushans had an alliance with the Western Kshatrapas", see: Rosenfield, p. 41. and Odisha (imitation of Kushan coins, and large Kushan hoards).(File:Eurasia in 2nd Century.png|thumb|left|Map showing the four empires of Eurasia in 2nd Century AD. Kushan shared a border with the Chinese empire of Han.)Kushan invasions in the 1st century CE had been given as an explanation for the migration of Indians from the Indian Subcontinent toward Southeast Asia according to proponents of a Greater India theory by 20th-century Indian nationalists. However, there is no evidence to support this hypothesis.BOOK, Hall, D.G.E., A History of South-East Asia, Fourth Edition, 1981, Macmillan Education Ltd., Hong Kong, 0-333-24163-0, 17, The recently discovered Rabatak inscription confirms the account of the Hou Hanshu, Weilüe, and inscriptions dated early in the Kanishka era (incept probably 127 CE), that large Kushan dominions expanded into the heartland of northern India in the early 2nd century CE. Lines 4 to 7 of the inscriptionFor a translation of the full text of the Rabatak inscription see: Mukherjee, B.N., "The Great Kushana Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin, Calcutta, 1995. This translation is quoted in: Goyal (2005), p.88. describe the cities which were under the rule of Kanishka, among which six names are identifiable: Ujjain, Kundina, Saketa, Kausambi, Pataliputra, and Champa (although the text is not clear whether Champa was a possession of Kanishka or just beyond it).For quotation: "The Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1 Kanishka I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka I himself." see: Goyal, p. 93.See also the analysis of Sims-Williams and J. Cribb, specialists of the field, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great", in Silk Road Art and Archaeology No. 4, 1995–1996. pp.75–142.WEB, Sims-Williams, Nicholas, Nicholas Sims-Williams, Bactrian Documents from Ancient Afghanistan,weblink 2007-05-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070610192252weblink">weblink 10 June 2007, BOOK, Rezakhani, Khodadad, From the Kushans to the Western Turks, 201,weblink en, The Kushan state was bounded to the south by the Pārata state of Balochistan, western Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan was known for the kushan Buddhist city of Merv. As late as the 3rd century AD, decorated coins of Huvishka were dedicated at Bodh Gaya together with other gold offerings under the "Enlightenment Throne" of the Buddha, suggesting direct Kushan influence in the area during that period.British Museum display, Asian Art room.Northward, in the 2nd century AD, the Kushans under Kanishka made various forays into the Tarim Basin, where they had various contacts with the Chinese. Kanishka held areas of the Tarim Basin apparently corresponding to the ancient regions held by the Yüeh-zhi, the possible ancestors of the Kushan. There was Kushan influence on coinage in Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khotan.The Sino-Kharosthi coins of Khotan part 2, Numismatic Chronicle (1984), pp.129–152., by Joe Cribb According to Chinese chronicles, the Kushans (referred to as Da Yuezhi in Chinese sources) requested, but were denied, a Han princess, even though they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 90 CE with a force of 70,000 but were defeated by the smaller Chinese force. Chinese chronicles relate battles between the Kushans and the Chinese general Ban Chao. The Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire. The regions of the Tarim Basin were all ultimately conquered by Ban Chao. Later, during the Yuánchū period (114–120 CE), the Kushans sent a military force to install Chenpan, who had been a hostage among them, as king of Kashgar.Hill (2009), p. 43.

Main Kushan rulers

Kushan rulers are recorded for a period of about three centuries, from circa 30 CE, to circa 375 CE, until the advent of the Gupta Empire. They ruled around the same time as the Western Satraps and the Satavahanas.

Kujula Kadphises (c. 30 – c. 80)

{{Kushan rulers}}These conquests by Kujula Kadphises probably took place sometime between 45 and 60 and laid the basis for the Kushan Empire which was rapidly expanded by his descendants.Kujula issued an extensive series of coins and fathered at least two sons, Sadaṣkaṇa (who is known from only two inscriptions, especially the Rabatak inscription, and apparently never ruled), and seemingly Vima Takto.Kujula Kadphises was the great-grandfather of Kanishka.

Vima Taktu or Sadashkana (c. 80 – c. 95)

Vima Takto (Ancient Chinese: 閻膏珍 Yangaozhen) is mentioned in the Rabatak inscription (another son, Sadashkana, is mentioned in an inscription of Senavarman, the King of Odi). He was the predecessor of Vima Kadphises, and Kanishka I. He expanded the Kushan Empire into the northwest of South Asia. The Hou Hanshu says:

Vima Kadphises (c. 95 – c. 127)

Vima Kadphises (Kushan language: Οοημο Καδφισης) was a Kushan emperor from around 95–127 CE, the son of Sadashkana and the grandson of Kujula Kadphises, and the father of Kanishka I, as detailed by the Rabatak inscription.Vima Kadphises added to the Kushan territory by his conquests in Bactria. He issued an extensive series of coins and inscriptions. He issued gold coins in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage.

Kanishka I (c. 127 – c. 140)

{{multiple image| align = right| direction =vertical| header=Mathura statue of Kanishka| total_width=250| image1 = Kanishka enhanced.jpgKanishka in long coat and boots, holding a Mace (bludgeon)>mace and a sword, in the Mathura Museum. An inscription runs along the bottom of the coat.| image2 = Kanishka statue inscription.jpgBrahmi script: (File:Gupta_ashoka_m.svg>12px)(File:Gupta_ashoka_h.svg10px)(File:Gupta_ashoka_j.svg10px)(File:Gupta_ashoka_j.svg10px)(File:Gupta_allahabad_raa.jpg12px) (File:Gupta_ashoka_d.svg12px)(File:Gupta ashoka pu.jpg12px) (File:Gupta ashoka kaa.svg14px)(File:Gupta ashoka ssk.jpgMahārāja Rājadhirāja Devaputra Kāṇiá¹£ka"The Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Kanishka".PURI TITLE=INDIA UNDER THE KUSHāṇAS PUBLISHER=BHARATIYA VIDYA BHAVAN LANGUAGE=EN, Mathura art, Mathura Museum| footer=}}The rule of Kanishka the Great, fourth Kushan king, lasted for about 13 years from c. 127. Upon his accession, Kanishka ruled a huge territory (virtually all of northern India), south to Ujjain and Kundina and east beyond Pataliputra, according to the Rabatak inscription:His territory was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. He is also credited (along with Raja Dab) for building the massive, ancient Fort at Bathinda (Qila Mubarak), in the modern city of Bathinda, Indian Punjab.The Kushans also had a summer capital in Bagram (then known as Kapisa), where the "Begram Treasure", comprising works of art from Greece to China, has been found. According to the Rabatak inscription, Kanishka was the son of Vima Kadphises, the grandson of Sadashkana, and the great-grandson of Kujula Kadphises. Kanishka's era is now generally accepted to have begun in 127 on the basis of Harry Falk's ground-breaking research.Falk (2001), pp. 121–136.Falk (2004), pp. 167–176. Kanishka's era was used as a calendar reference by the Kushans for about a century, until the decline of the Kushan realm.

Vāsishka (c. 140 – c. 160)

Vāsishka was a Kushan emperor who seems to have had a 20-year reign following Kanishka. His rule is recorded as far south as Sanchi (near Vidisa), where several inscriptions in his name have been found, dated to the year 22 (the Sanchi inscription of "Vaksushana" – i.e., Vasishka Kushana) and year 28 (the Sanchi inscription of Vasaska – i.e., Vasishka) of the Kanishka era.

Huvishka (c. 160 – c. 190)

Huvishka (Kushan: Οοηϸκι, "Ooishki") was a Kushan emperor from about 20 years after the death of Kanishka (assumed on the best evidence available to be in 140) until the succession of Vasudeva I about thirty years later. His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire. In particular he devoted time and effort early in his reign to the exertion of greater control over the city of Mathura.

Vasudeva I (c. 190 – c. 230)

Vasudeva I (Kushan: Βαζοδηο "Bazodeo", Chinese: 波調 "Bodiao") was the last of the "Great Kushans". Named inscriptions dating from year 64 to 98 of Kanishka's era suggest his reign extended from at least 191 to 225 AD. He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sasanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sasanians or Kushanshahs in what is nowadays Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India from around 240 AD.

Kushan deities

File:Kumara, The Divine General LACMA M.85.279.3.jpg|thumb|upright|Kumara/Kartikeya with a KushanKushanFile:Gandhara, omaggio di un re kushana al bodhisattva, II-III sec.JPG|thumb|Kushan prince making a donation to a BoddhisattvaBoddhisattvaThe Kushan religious pantheon is extremely varied, as revealed by their coins that were made in gold, silver, and copper. These coins contained more than thirty different gods, belonging mainly to their own Iranian, Greek, and Indo-Aryan worlds as well. Kushan coins had images of Kushan Kings, Buddha, and figures from the Indo-Aryan and Iranian pantheons.Xinru Liu, The Silk Road in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 47. Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on early coins. During Kanishka's reign, the language of the coinage changes to Bactrian (though it remained in Greek script for all kings). After Huvishka, only two divinities appear on the coins: Ardoxsho and Oesho (see details below).The Iranian entities depicted on coinage include:
  • Αρδοχþο (ardoxsho, Ashi Vanghuhi)
  • Aþαειχþo (ashaeixsho, Asha Vahishta)
  • Αθþο (athsho, Atar)
  • Φαρρο (pharro, Khwarenah)
  • Λροοασπο (lrooaspa, Drvaspa)
  • Μαναοβαγο, (manaobago, Vohu Manah)
  • Μαο (mao, Mah)
  • Μιθρο, Μιιρο, Μιορο, Μιυρο (mithro and variants, Mithra)
  • Μοζδοοανο (mozdooano, Mazda vana "Mazda the victorious?")
  • Νανα, Ναναια, Ναναϸαο (variations of pan-Asiatic nana, Sogdian nny, Nana)
  • Οαδο (oado Vata)
  • Oαxþo (oaxsho, "Oxus")
  • Ooρoμoζδο (ooromozdo, Ahura Mazda)
  • Οραλαγνο (orlagno, Verethragna)
  • Τιερο (tiero, Tir)
Representation of entities from Greek mythology and Hellenistic syncretism are:
  • Ηλιος (Helios), Ηφαηστος (Hephaistos), Σαληνη (Selene), Ανημος (Anemos). Further, the coins of Huvishka also portray the demi-god erakilo Heracles, and the Egyptian god sarapo Sarapis
The Indic entities represented on coinage include:
  • Βοδδο (boddo, Buddha)
  • Μετραγο Βοδδο (metrago boddo, bodhisattava Maitreya)
  • Mαασηνo (maaseno, Mahasena)
  • Σκανδo koμαρo (skando komaro, Skanda Kumara)
  • þακαμανο Βοδδο (shakamano boddho, Shakyamuni Buddha)
  • Οηϸο (oesho), long considered to represent Indic Shiva,Sivaramamurti, p. 56-59.Loeschner, Hans (2012) The StÅ«pa of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 227 (July 2012); page 11Bopearachchi, O. (2007). Some observations on the chronology of the early Kushans. Res Orientales, 17, 41–53 but also identified as Avestan Vayu conflated with Shiva.BOOK, Sims-Williams, Nicolas, Bactrian Language, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 3, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, H. Humbach, 1975, p.402-408. K.Tanabe, 1997, p.277, M.Carter, 1995, p.152. J.Cribb, 1997, p.40. References cited in "De l'Indus à l'Oxus".
  • Two copper coins of Huvishka bear a 'Ganesa' legend, but instead of depicting the typical theriomorphic figure of Ganesha, have a figure of an archer holding a full-length bow with string inwards and an arrow. This is typically a depiction of Rudra, but in the case of these two coins is generally assumed to represent Shiva.
{{Gallery|align=center|title= Images of Kushan worshippers|lines= 4|width= 160|height= 140Kushan worshipper with Zeus/Serapis/Ohrmazd, Bactria, 3rd century CE.Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibitionKushan worshipper with Pharro, Bactria, 3rd century AD.Kushan worshipper with Shiva/Oesho, Bactria, 3rd century CE.}}{{Gallery|align=center|title= Deities on Kushan coinage|lines= 4|width= 160|height= 140Mahasena on a coin of HuvishkaFour-faced OeshoRishtiManaobagoPharroArdochshoOesho or ShivaOesho or Shiva with bullSkanda and VisakhaGold coin of Kanishka the Great, with a depiction of the Buddha, with the legend "Boddo" in Greek script;Ahin PoshHerakles.Kushan Carnelian seal representing the "ΑΔϷΟ" (adsho Atar), with triratana symbol left, and Kanishka the Great's dynastic mark rightBuddhaCoin of Vima Kadphises. The deity on the reverse could be Shiva because of the ithyphallic state, the Trishula, and the Nandi (bull)>Nandi bull as his mount, as in Hindu mythology.Perkins, J. (2007). Three-headed Śiva on the Reverse of Vima Kadphises's Copper Coinage. South Asian Studies, 23(1), 31–37 Alternatively, the deity, named Oesho on some coins, could be the Zoroastrian Vayu-Vata.ERRINGTON LAST2=TRUST LAST3=MUSEUM TITLE=THE CROSSROADS OF ASIA: TRANSFORMATION IN IMAGE AND SYMBOL IN THE ART OF ANCIENT AFGHANISTAN AND PAKISTAN PUBLISHER=ANCIENT INDIA AND IRAN TRUST PAGE=87 LANGUAGE=EN, }}

Kushans and Buddhism

File:Kanishka-Inaugurates-Mahyana-Buddhism.jpg|thumb|upright|Kanishka the Great inaugurates Mahayana BuddhismMahayana BuddhismFile:BuddhistTriad.JPG|thumb|Early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, Maitreya, the Buddha, AvalokitesvaraAvalokitesvaraThe Kushans inherited the Greco-Buddhist traditions of the Indo-Greek Kingdom they replaced, and their patronage of Buddhist institutions allowed them to grow as a commercial power.Xinru Liu, The Silk Road in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 42. Between the mid-1st century and the mid-3rd century, Buddhism, patronized by the Kushans, extended to China and other Asian countries through the Silk Road.Kanishka is renowned in Buddhist tradition for having convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. Along with his predecessors in the region, the Indo-Greek king Menander I (Milinda) and the Indian emperors Ashoka and Harsha Vardhana, Kanishka is considered by Buddhism as one of its greatest benefactors.During the 1st century AD, Buddhist books were being produced and carried by monks, and their trader patrons. Also, monasteries were being established along these land routes that went from China and other parts of Asia. With the development of Buddhist books, it caused a new written language called Gandhara. Gandhara consists of eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Scholars are said to have found many Buddhist scrolls that contained the Gandhari language.Xinru Liu, The Silk Road in World History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 58.The reign of Huvishka corresponds to the first known epigraphic evidence of the Buddha Amitabha, on the bottom part of a 2nd-century statue which has been found in Govindo-Nagar, and now at the Mathura Museum. The statue is dated to "the 28th year of the reign of Huvishka", and dedicated to "Amitabha Buddha" by a family of merchants. There is also some evidence that Huvishka himself was a follower of Mahāyāna Buddhism. A Sanskrit manuscript fragment in the Schøyen Collection describes Huvishka as one who has "set forth in the Mahāyāna."Neelis, Jason. Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks. 2010. p. 141

Kushan art

The art and culture of Gandhara, at the crossroads of the Kushan hegemony, continued the traditions of Greco-Buddhist art and are the best known expressions of Kushan influences to Westerners. Several direct depictions of Kushans are known from Gandhara, where they are represented with a tunic, belt and trousers and play the role of devotees to the Buddha, as well as the Bodhisattva and future Buddha Maitreya.During the Kushan Empire, many images of Gandhara share a strong resemblance to the features of Greek, Syrian, Persian and Indian figures. These Western-looking stylistic signatures often include heavy drapery and curly hair,BOOK, Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham Museum of Art: guide to the collection, 2010, Birmingham Museum of Art, [Birmingham, Ala], 978-1-904832-77-5, 51,weblink representing a composite (the Greeks, for example, often possessed curly hair).In the iconography, they are never associated however with the very Hellenistic "Standing Buddha" statues, which might therefore correspond to an earlier historical period.

Contacts with Rome

File:BegramGladiator.JPG|thumb|150px|Greco-Roman gladiatorgladiatorSeveral Roman sources describe the visit of ambassadors from the Kings of Bactria and India during the 2nd century, probably referring to the Kushans.File:TrajanCoinAhinposhBuddhistMonasteryAfghanistan.jpg|thumb|left|130px|Coin of the Roman Emperor Trajan, found together with coins of Kanishka the Great at the Ahin PoshAhin PoshHistoria Augusta, speaking of Emperor Hadrian (117–138) tells:Also in 138, according to Aurelius Victor (Epitome‚ XV, 4), and Appian (Praef., 7), Antoninus Pius, successor to Hadrian, received some Indian, Bactrian, and Hyrcanian ambassadors.The summer capital of the Kushan Empire in Begram has yielded a considerable amount of goods imported from the Roman Empire—in particular, various types of glassware.

Contacts with China

File:Lokaksema.jpg|thumb|upright|The Kushan Buddhist monk Lokaksema, first known translator of Buddhist MahayanaMahayanaDuring the 1st and 2nd century, the Kushan Empire expanded militarily to the north, putting them at the center of the profitable Central Asian commerce. They are related to have collaborated militarily with the Chinese against nomadic incursion, particularly when they collaborated with the Han dynasty general Ban Chao against the Sogdians in 84, when the latter were trying to support a revolt by the king of Kashgar.de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. page 5-6. {{ISBN|90-04-15605-4}}. Around 85, they also assisted the Chinese general in an attack on Turpan, east of the Tarim Basin.{{multiple image| align = left| direction =horizontal| header=Kushan coinage in China| total_width=300| image1 = KanishkaICoinFoundInKhotan.jpgKingdom of Khotan>Khotan, Tarim Basin.| image2 = Eastern Han ingot imprints with barbarous Greek inscriptions.jpg| caption2 = Eastern Han inscriptions on lead ingot, using barbarous Greek alphabet in the style of the Kushans, excavated in Shaanxi, 1st–2nd century CE.Joe Cribb, 1974, "Chinese lead ingots with barbarous Greek inscriptions in Coin Hoards" pp.76–8 weblink| footer=}}In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested a Han princess, but were denied,Torday, Laszlo. (1997). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham: The Durham Academic Press. page 393. {{ISBN|1-900838-03-6}}. even after they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 86 with a force of 70,000, but were defeated by a smaller Chinese force. The Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire during the reign of emperor He of Han (89–106).The Kushans are again recorded to have sent presents to the Chinese court in 158–159 during the reign of Emperor Huan of Han.Following these interactions, cultural exchanges further increased, and Kushan Buddhist missionaries, such as Lokaksema, became active in the Chinese capital cities of Loyang and sometimes Nanjing, where they particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They were the first recorded promoters of Hinayana and Mahayana scriptures in China, greatly contributing to the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism.

Decline

Kushano-Sassanians

File:Hormizd I Kushanshah on the Naqsh-e Rustam Bahram II panel.jpg|thumb|Hormizd I Kushanshah (277–286 CE), king of the Indo-Sasanians, maintained Sasanian rule in former Kushan territories of the northwest. Naqsh-e Rustam Bahram IIBahram IIAfter the death of Vasudeva I in 225, the Kushan empire split into western and eastern halves. The Western Kushans (in Afghanistan) were soon subjugated by the Persian Sasanian Empire and lost Sogdiana, Bactria, and Gandhara to them. The Sassanian king Shapur I (240–270 CE) claims in his Naqsh-e Rostam inscription possession of the territory of the Kushans (Kūšān šahr) as far as "Purushapura" (Peshawar), suggesting he controlled Bactria and areas as far as the Hindu-Kush or even south of it:BOOK, Rezakhani, Khodadad, From the Kushans to the Western Turks, 202-203,weblink en, This is also confirmed by the Rag-i-Bibi inscription in modern Afghanistan.The Sasanians deposed the Western dynasty and replaced them with Persian vassals known as the Kushanshas (in Bactrian on their coinage: KΟÞANΟ ÞAΟ Koshano Shao)BOOK, Rezakhani, Khodadad, From the Kushans to the Western Turks, 204,weblink en, also called Indo-Sasanians or Kushano-Sasanians. The Kushano-Sasanians ultimately became very powerful under Hormizd I Kushanshah (277–286 CE) and rebelled against the Sasanian Empire, while continuing many aspects of the Kushan culture, visible in particular in their titulature and their coinage.BOOK, Rezakhani, Khodadad, From the Kushans to the Western Turks, 200-210,weblink en,

"Little Kushans"

The Eastern Kushan kingdom, also known as the "Little Kushans", was based in the Punjab. Around 270 their territories on the Gangetic plain became independent under local dynasties such as the Yaudheyas. Then in the mid-4th century they were subjugated by the Gupta Empire under Samudragupta.BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, Litvinovskiĭ, Boris Abramovich, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, 1999, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 9788120815407, 165-166,weblink en, In his inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta proclaims that the Dēvaputra-Shāhi-Shāhānushāhi (referring to the last Kushan rulers, being a deformation of the Kushan regnal titles Devaputra, Shao and Shaonanoshao: "Son of God, King, King of Kings") are now under his dominion.This expression obviously refers to the last rulers of the Kushan Empire, in BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, Litvinovskiĭ, Boris Abramovich, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, 1999, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 9788120815407, 165-166,weblink en, BOOK, Cribb, Joe, TWO CURIOUS KIDARITE COIN TYPES FROM 5 TH CENTURY KASHMIR by Joe Cribb and Karan Singh, 3,weblink en, This suggests that by the time of the Allahaba inscription the Kushans still ruled in Punjab, but under the suzerainty of the Gupta Emperor.BOOK, Dani, Ahmad Hasan, Litvinsky, B. A., History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750, 1996, UNESCO, 9789231032110, 165-166,weblink en, File:A picture of Sirsukh Texila by Usman Ghani.jpg|thumb|Remains of a Kushan fortress in Sirsukh, PakistanPakistanNumimastics indicate that the coinage of the Eastern Kushans was much weakened: silver coinage was abandonned altogether, and gold coinage was debased. This suggests that the Eastern Kushans had lost their central trading role on the trade routes that supplied luxury goods and gold. Still, the Buddhist art of Gandhara continued to flourish, and cities such as Sirsukh near Taxila were established.

Kidarite invasion

In 360 a Kidarite Hun named Kidara overthrew the Indo-Sasanians and remnants of the old Kushan dynasty, and established the Kidarite Kingdom. The Kushan style of Kidarite coins indicates they claimed Kushan heritage. The Kidarite seem to have been rather prosperous, although on a smaller scale than their Kushan predecessors. East of the Punjab, the former eastern territories of the Kushans were controled by the mighty Gupta Empire.These remnants of the Kushan empire under the Kidarites in the northwest were ultimately wiped out in the 5th century by the invasions of the Alchon Huns (sometimes considered as a branch of the Hephthalites), and later the Nezak Huns.

Rulers

File:KushanTamgas.gif|upright=1.5|thumb|Listing of Kushan royal tamgastamgas
  • Heraios (c. 1 – 30), first known Kushan ruler (File:Heraios_coin.jpg|50px)
  • Kujula Kadphises (c. 30 – c. 80) (File:Kujula_Kadphises._Laureate_Julio-Claudian_style.jpg|50px)
  • Vima Takto (c. 80 – c. 95), alias Soter Megas or "Great Saviour." (File:Coin_of_Vima_Takto.jpg|50px)
  • Vima Kadphises (c. 95 – c. 127) First great Kushan Emperor (File:Vima_Kadphises_with_ithyphallic_Shiva.jpg|50px)
  • Kanishka the Great (127 – c. 140) (File:Kanishka_I_Greek_legend_and_Helios.jpg|50px)
  • Huvishka (c. 150 – c. 190) (File:Huvishka_Maaseno.jpg|50px)
  • Vasudeva I (c. 190 – to at least 230) Last great Kushan Emperor (File:VASUDEVA_I.jpg|50px)
  • Kanishka II (c. 230 – 240) (File:Coin_of_KanishkaII.jpg|50px)
  • Vashishka (c. 240 – 250) (File:Vasishka.jpg|50px)
  • Kanishka III (c. 250 – 275) (File:Kanishka_III_Circa_AD_267-270.jpg|50px)
  • Vasudeva II (c. 275 – 310) (File:Coin_of_VasudevaII.jpg|50px)
  • Chhu (c. 310? – 325?) (File:Coin_of_Kushan_ruler_Chhu.jpg|30px)
  • Shaka I (c. 325 – 345) (File:Kushan_Empire_Shaka_Circa_AD_325-345.jpg|50px)
  • Kipunada (c. 345 – 375) (File:Kipunada.jpg|50px)

See also

Notes

(File:Kushan devotee Mathura.jpg|thumb|upright|Kushan devotee, Mathura){{History of India}}{{History of Afghanistan}}{{Reflist|30em}}

References

  • BOOK, Avari, Burjor, India: The Ancient Past, 2007, Routledge, London, 978-0-415-35616-9,
  • BOOK, Bopearachchi, Osmund, Bopearachchi, De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale, 2003, Association imago-musée de Lattes, Lattes, French, 2-9516679-2-2
,
  • BOOK, Some Observations on the Chronology of the Early Kushans, Osmund, Bopearachchi, Des Indo-Grecs aux Sassanides: données pour l'histoire et la géographie historique, Rika, Gyselen, Vol. XVII, Group pour l'Etude de la Civilisation du Moyen-Orient, 2007, harv,
  • BOOK, Trois Généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux. Pan Tch'ao (32–102 p.C.); – son fils Pan Yong; – Leang K'in (112 p.C.). Chapitre LXXVII du Heou Han chou., 1906, Édouard, Chavannes, T'oung pao'' 7,
  • Faccenna, Domenico (1980). Butkara I (Swāt, Pakistan) 1956–1962, Volume III 1 (in English). Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente).
  • BOOK, Les pays d'occident d'après le Heou Han chou, 1907, Édouard, Chavannes, T'oung pao 8. pp. 149–244.,
  • BOOK, Enoki, K., Koshelenko, G. A., Haidary, Z., The Yu'eh-chih and their migrations, Harmatta, János, János Harmatta, 1 January 1994, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations, 700 B. C. to A. D. 250,weblink UNESCO, 171–191, 9231028464, 29 May 2015, harv,
  • Falk, Harry. 1995–1996. Silk Road Art and Archaeology IV.
  • Falk, Harry. 2001. "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the {{IAST|Kuṣāṇas}}." Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, pp. 121–136.
  • Falk, Harry. 2004. "The {{IAST|Kaniá¹£ka}} era in Gupta records." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology X, pp. 167–176.
  • BOOK, Peter B., Golden, An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples, Harrassowitz Verlag, 1992, harv,
  • Goyal, S. R. "Ancient Indian Inscriptions" Kusumanjali Book World, Jodhpur (India), 2005.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan é­šè±¢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. weblink
  • BOOK, Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, First to Second Centuries CE, 2009, John E., Hill, BookSurge, 978-1-4392-2134-1,
  • BOOK, Lebedynsky, Iaroslav, Les Saces, 2006, Editions Errance, Paris, 2-87772-337-2,
  • BOOK, Xinru, Liu, The Silk Road in World History, Oxford University Press, 2010, harv,
  • BOOK, Loewe, Michael, Shaughnessy, Edward L., Michael Loewe, Edward L. Shaughnessy, The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC,weblink 1999, Cambridge University Press, 0-5214-7030-7, 2013-11-01, harv,
  • BOOK, Mallory, J. P., J. P. Mallory, 1989, In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology, and Myth,weblink Thames & Hudson, Thames and Hudson, 050005052X, 29 May 2015, harv,
  • BOOK, Mallory, J. P., J. P. Mallory, 1997, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture,weblink Taylor & Francis, 1884964982, 29 May 2015, harv,
  • BOOK, Mallory, J. P., J. P. Mallory, Mair, Victor H., Victor H. Mair, 2000, The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London, Thames & Hudson, 0-500-05101-1, harv, registration,weblink .
  • BOOK, Pulleyblank, Edwin G., Edwin G. Pulleyblank, 1966, Chinese and Indo-Europeans,weblink UBC Department of Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, Department of Asian Studies, February 14, 2015, harv,
  • BOOK, Rosenfield, John M., The Dynastic Art of the Kushans, 1993, Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, 81-215-0579-8,
  • BOOK, Sivaramamurti, C., ÅšatarudrÄ«ya: VibhÅ«ti of Åšiva's Iconography, 1976, Abhinav Publications, Delhi,
  • Roux, Jean-Paul, L'Asie Centrale, Histoire et Civilization (French), Fayard, 1997, {{ISBN|978-2-213-59894-9}}
  • "Red Sandstone Railing Pillar." The British Museum Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 1/2, 1965, pp. 64–64.weblink
  • Masson, V. M. "The Forgotten Kushan Empire: New Discoveries at Zar-Tepe." Archaeology, vol. 37, no. 1, 1984, pp. 32–37.weblink
  • Hoey, W. "The Word Kozola as Used of Kadphises on KuÍŸsÍŸhān Coins." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1902, pp. 428–429.weblink
  • BOOK, West, Barbara A., Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania,weblink January 1, 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-1438119137, 2015-05-29, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Benjamin, Craig, Craig Benjamin, 2007, The Yuezhi: Origin, Migration and the Conquest of Northern Bactria,weblink ISD, 978-2503524290, 29 May 2015, harv,
  • Dorn'eich, Chris M. (2008). Chinese sources on the History of the Niusi-Wusi-Asi (oi)-Rishi (ka)-Arsi-Arshi-Ruzhi and their Kueishuang-Kushan Dynasty. Shiji 110/Hanshu 94A: The Xiongnu: Synopsis of Chinese original Text and several Western Translations with Extant Annotations. Berlin. To read or download go to: weblink
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jÄ«-kÄ« DhÄ“rÄ«"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11, pp. 25–32.
  • Iloliev, A. "King of Men: ῾Ali ibn Abi Talib in Pamiri Folktales." Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies, vol. 8 no. 3, 2015, pp. 307–323. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/isl.2015.0036.
  • Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Kennedy, J. "The Later Kushans." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1913, pp. 1054–1064.weblink
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. KharoshthÄ« Inscriptions with Exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • BOOK, Lerner, Martin, The flame and the lotus: Indian and Southeast Asian art from the Kronos collections, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984,weblink 0-87099-374-7,
  • Litvinsky, B. A., ed., 1996. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Liu, Xinru 2001 "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies." Journal of World History, Volume 12, No. 2, Fall 2001. University of Hawaii Press, pp. 261–292. weblink.
  • Rife, J. L. "The Making of Roman India by Grant Parker (review)." American Journal of Philology, vol. 135 no. 4, 2014, pp. 672–675. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/ajp.2014.0046.
  • Sarianidi, Viktor. 1985. The Golden Hoard of Bactria: From the Tillya-tepe Excavations in Northern Afghanistan. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1998. "Further notes on the Bactrian inscription of Rabatak, with an Appendix on the names of Kujula Kadphises and Vima Taktu in Chinese." Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies Part 1: Old and Middle Iranian Studies. Edited by Nicholas Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden. 1998, pp. 79–93.
  • Spooner, D. B. 1908–9. "Excavations at Shāh-jÄ«-kÄ« DhÄ“rÄ«."; Archaeological Survey of India, 1908–9, pp. 38–59.
  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1993. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Han Dynasty II. Translated from the Shiji of Sima Qian. Chapter 123: "The Account of Dayuan", Columbia University Press. Revised Edition. {{ISBN|0-231-08166-9}}; {{ISBN|0-231-08167-7}} (pbk.)
  • Zürcher, E. (1968). "The Yüeh-chih and Kaniá¹£ka in the Chinese sources." Papers on the Date of Kaniá¹£ka. Basham, A. L., ed., 1968. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 346–393.

External links

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