SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

United Arab Emirates

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
United Arab Emirates
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Redirect|UAE}}{{short description|Country in Western Asia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Coord|24|N|54|E|display=title}}







factoids
''{{translal-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabīyyah al-Muttaḥidah}}''| image_flag = Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg| image_coat = Emblem of the United Arab Emirates.svgEmblem of the United Arab Emirates>EmblemIshy Bilady>{{translĪšiy Bilādī}}''"{{smallIshy Bilady (instrumental)|center)| image_map = United Arab Emirates (orthographic projection).svglocation_color= green |region=the Arabian Peninsula}}| image_map2 = United Arab Emirates - Location Map (2013) - ARE - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Abu Dhabi24N22type:city}}Dubai{{small>{{coord1555E|display=inline}}}}| official_languages = Arabic| ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| 38.2% Indian
| 11.6% Emirati
| 9.4% Pakistani
| 9.5% Bangladeshi
| 6.1% Filipino
| 10.2% Egyptian
| 15.1% Others
}}| ethnic_groups_ref = | ethnic_groups_year = 2015
Islam in the United Arab Emirates>IslamEmiratis>EmiratiFederal monarchy>Federal constitutional monarchyHTTPS://ELAWS.MOJ.GOV.AE/MAINARABICTRANSLATION.ASPX?VAL=UAE-MOJ_LC-EN/00_CONSTITUTION/UAE-LC-EN_1971-07-18_00000_DOS.HTML&NP=&LMP=UNDEFINED>TITLE=UNITED ARAB EMIRATES CONSTITUTIONACCESSDATE=10 OCTOBER 2018, President of the United Arab Emirates>President| leader_name1 = Khalifa bin Zayed Al NahyanList of Prime Ministers of the United Arab Emirates>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum| legislature = Federal National CouncilEstablishment) from the United Kingdom and the Trucial States| established_event1 = Ras al-Khaimah| established_date1 = 1708Emirate of Sharjah>Sharjah| established_date2 = 1727Emirate of Abu Dhabi>Abu Dhabi| established_date3 = 1761Emirate of Ajman>Ajman| established_date5 = 1816Emirate of Dubai>Dubai| established_date6 = 1833| established_event7 = Fujairah| established_date7 = 1952National Day (United Arab Emirates)>Independence| established_date8 = 2 December 1971United Nations Security Council Resolution 304>Admitted to the United Nations| established_date9 = 9 December 1971| established_event10= Admission of Ras al-Khaimah to the UAE| established_date10 = 10 February 1972| area_km2 = 83,600| area_rank = 114th| area_sq_mi = 32,278 | percent_water = negligible| population_estimate_year = 2018 WEBSITE=WWW.WORLDOMETERS.INFO, | population_census = 4,106,427| population_estimate_rank = 92nd| population_census_year = 2005| population_density_km2 = 99| population_density_sq_mi = 256 | population_density_rank = 110thWORK=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 32nd| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $70,262| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 7th| GDP_nominal = $432.612 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 28th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $41,476| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 19th| Gini = 36 | Gini_year = 2008| Gini_change = | Gini_ref = | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.863 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseYEAR=2017 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 34thUnited Arab Emirates dirham>UAE dirham| currency_code = AEDGulf Standard Time>GST| utc_offset = +4| date_format = dd/mm/yyyy| drives_on = RightList of left- & right-driving countries – World Standards. Worldstandards.eu (30 July 2018). Retrieved on 21 August 2018.Guide to Driving In UAE – Drive Safe in UAE. Rhinocarhire.com (8 January 2018). Retrieved on 21 August 2018.Telephone numbers in the United Arab Emirates>+971.ae |امارات.}}(Portal:United Arab Emirates>United Arab Emirates portal)| linking_name = }}The United Arab Emirates (UAE; {{transl|ar|al-ʾImārāt al-Ê¿ArabÄ«yyah al-Muttaḥidah}}), sometimes simply called the Emirates ( {{transl|ar|al-ʾImārāt}}), is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south and west, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates.WEB,weblink The Federal Boundaries of the United Arab Emirates, Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates.WEB, United Arab Emirates's Constitution of 1971 with Amendments through 2004,weblink constituteproject.org, 29 October 2017, In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.Habboush, Mahmoud. (10 October 2013) Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE. Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 10 October 2015.WEB,weblink Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses, migrationpolicy.org, 12 February 2016, 18 September 2013, NEWS,weblink United Arab Emirates country profile, 28 September 2016, BBC News, 23 October 2016, Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais. Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley, Bahrain and Mesopotamia as well as Iran, Bactria and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior. The Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present-day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area. The maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British.Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819 (ratified in 1853 and again in 1892), which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate. This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971, immediately following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Heard-Bey, Frauke, Motivate, 2004, 9781860631672, 370, Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE. The UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest.WEB,weblinkweblink 20 October 2012, Oil â€“ proved reserves, Cia.gov, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120705035456weblink">Natural Gas. BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012 Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure.NEWS,weblink United Arab Emirates profile, BBC News, 14 November 2012, The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and international aviation and maritime trade hub.NEWS,weblink Dubai International is world's busiest airport, Iyer, Srinivasan, 30 December 2014, The National, 4 January 2015, WEB,weblink IMF Data Mapper, Imf.org, 12 February 2016, Consequently, the country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business. The UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.NEWS,weblink New era in UAE as VAT takes effect, Editor, Babu Das Augustine, Banking, 1 January 2018, GulfNews, 12 July 2018, The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power.WEB,weblink The UAE and Egypt's New Frontier in Libya, The National Interest, 3 September 2014, 26 October 2014, Ellen, Laipson, WEB,weblink Middle Power Diplomacy, Gareth, Evans, 29 June 2011, 26 October 2014, It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council.

History

File:Strait of hormuz.jpg|thumb|An 1892 map of Arabia denoting the Pirate Coast.BOOK, The Myth of Piracy in the Arabian Gulf, Al Qasimi, Muhammad, Croom Helm, 1986, 0709921063, UK, Note: "The term Pirate Coast was first used by the British around the 17th century and acquired its name from the raiding activities that Al QawasimAl Qawasim

Antiquity

File:Iron Age Pot From Bidaa Bint Saud.jpg|thumb|A pot discovered in the Iron Age building of Bidaa Bint Saud, Al Ain on display at the alt=|leftThe land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago.NEWS,weblink UAE archaeologist discovers the Swiss Army knife from 130,000 years ago, Pennington, Roberta, 5 February 2014, The National, 19 February 2017, There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia, Iran and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE.WEB,weblink Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS), Adias-uae.com, 12 February 2016, Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to the 'Makkan' or Magan people.BOOK, The Early History of Civilisation, Woolley, Leonard, UNESCO, 1963, 611, There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the UAE before Islam, which include the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE; the Umm Al Nar culture spanned from 2,600-2,000 BCE, the Wadi Suq people dominated from 2,000–1,300 BCE. From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages (Iron Age 1, 1,200–1,000 BC; Iron Age 2, 1,000–600 BC and Iron Age 3 600–300 BC) and the Mleiha period (300 BC onward), the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system.In ancient times, Al Hasa (today's Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) was part of Al Bahreyn and adjoined Greater Oman (today's UAE and Oman). From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani (or Yamani) and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman.

Islam

The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sasanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, UK, 127, Following the death of Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory (the Ridda Wars) with the Battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, UK, 127–128, This assured the integrity of the Caliphate and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the newly emerging Rashidun Caliphate.In 637, Julfar (in the area of today's Ras Al Khaimah) was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the Sasanian Empire.BOOK, Ibrahim Abed, Peter Hellyer, United Arab Emirates, a New Perspective,weblink 2001, Trident Ltd, 978-1-900724-47-0, 83–84, The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu'am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, UK, 22–23, The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD.NEWS,weblink Ancient secrets of Sir Bani Yas unveiled, Thomas, Jen, 12 December 2012, The National, 19 February 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222103357weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, dmy-all, It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John – the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD.BOOK, The Trucial States, Hawley, Donald, Allen & Unwin, 1971, 9780049530058, UK, 48–51,

Ottoman and Portuguese era

{{see also|Piracy in the Persian Gulf}}File:Travels in Assyria Ras Al Khaimah (cropped).jpg|thumb|‘Ras-el-Khyma, the chief port of the Wahabee pirates’ (1829) by James Silk BuckinghamJames Silk BuckinghamThe harsh desert environment led to the emergence of the "versatile tribesman", nomadic groups who subsisted due to a variety of economic activities, including animal husbandry, agriculture and hunting. The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the west coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir, Al Ali and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North.BOOK, The Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, Lorimer, John, Government of India, 1908, Bombay, 1432–1436, With the expansion of European colonialism, Portuguese, English and Dutch forces appeared in the Persian Gulf region. By the 18th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi,BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, UK, 43, 'Kashf Al Gumma' "Annals of Oman from Early times to the year 1728 AD" – Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874Ibn Ruzaiq, translated by GP Badger, "History of the Imams and Sayids of Oman", London 1871 while the Northern Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) dominated maritime commerce. The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building forts in the wake of the bloody 16th-century conquests of coastal communities by Albuquerque and the Portuguese commanders who followed him – particularly on the east coast at Muscat, Sohar and Khor Fakkan.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, UK, 282, The southern coast of the Persian Gulf was known to the British as the "Pirate Coast",Baker, Randall (1979), King Husain and the Kingdom of Hejaz, The Oleander Press, Great BritainBOOK, The British Threat to the Ottoman Presence in the Persian Gulf during the Era of Abdülhamid II and the Responses toward it, Biral, Bilal Emre, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 2009, 10.1.1.633.1663, as boats of the Al Qawasim federation harassed British-flagged shipping from the 17th century into the 19th.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 8 December 2011, November 3, 2008 â€“ The UAE is the old Pirate Coast. Not much has changed., Wayne Madsen Report, 12 February 2016, The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah, Sheikh Sultan Al Qasimi, in his 1986 book The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf.BOOK, The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf, Al Qasimi, Sultan, Croom Helm, 1986, 978-0709921066, UK, File:Ras Al Khaimah under attack, 1809 01.jpg|thumb|A painting depicting the British Expeditionary Force in 1809 sacking the coastal town and port of Ras Al KhaimahRas Al KhaimahBritish bloody expeditions to protect the Indian trade led to campaigns against Ras Al Khaimah and other harbours along the coast, including the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1809 and the more successful campaign of 1819. The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a maritime truce, giving rise to the term Trucial States, which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. A further treaty was signed in 1843 and, in 1853 the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Truce was agreed. To this was added the 'Exclusive Agreements', signed in 1892, which made the Trucial States a British protectorate.WEB,weblink British Era, www.na.ae, 18 July 2018, Under the 1892 treaty, the trucial sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without their consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. The Exclusive Agreement was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. It was subsequently ratified by the Viceroy of India and the British Government in London.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the slave trade meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants.United Arab Emirates – The Economy. Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 14 July 2013.In 1869, the Qubaisat tribe settled at Khawr al Udayd and tried to enlist the support of the Ottomans, whose flag was occasionally seen flying there. Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British. In 1906, the British Political Resident, Percy Cox, confirmed in writing to the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan ('Zayed the Great') that Khawr al Udayd belonged to his sheikhdom.BOOK, Morton, Michael Quentin, Keepers of the Golden Shore: A History of the United Arab Emirates, 15 February 2016, Reaktion Books, London, 9781780235806, 49–50,weblink 19 February 2017,

British era and discovery of oil

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the pearling industry thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. The First World War had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the economic depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the invention of the cultured pearl, that wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the Second World War, when the newly-independent Government of India imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States.WEB,weblink UAE History & Traditions: Pearls & pearling, UAEinteract, 12 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160206103534weblink">weblink 6 February 2016, In 1922, the British government secured undertakings from the rulers of the Trucial States not to sign concessions with foreign companies without their consent. Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia (from 1908) and Mesopotamia (from 1927), a British-led oil company, the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), showed an interest in the region. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP) had a 23.75% share in IPC. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were granted by local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC.BOOK, From Pearls to Oil, Heard, David, Motivate, 2013, 9781860633119, UAE, 41–42, APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the Red Line Agreement, which required it to operate through IPC. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a {{convert|13000|ft|m|abbr=off|adj=mid|-deep}} bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million.File:Mid-20th century Dubai.JPG|thumb|left|Dubai in 1950; the area in this photo shows Bur Dubai in the foreground (centered on Al-Fahidi Fort); Deira in middle-right on the other side of the creek; and Al Shindagha (left) and Al Ras (right) in the background across the creek again from Deira]]The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080803020019weblink">weblink 3 August 2008, Al Khaleej News Paper, and appointed Adi Bitar, Dubai's Sheikh Rashid's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429011257weblink">weblink 29 April 2011, Trucial States Council until 1971 (United Arab Emirates), Fotw.net, The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The Trucial Oman Scouts was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace.In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, D'Arcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. BP joined with Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later Total) to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd (ADMA) and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd (DUMA). A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer Jacques Cousteau.JOURNAL, Cousteau, Jacques, Calypso explores for underwater oil,weblink National Geographic Magazine, August 1955, CVIII, 2, 19 February 2017, JOURNAL, Morton, Michael Quentin, Calypso in the Arabian Gulf: Jacques Cousteau's Undersea Survey of 1954, Liwa, June 2015, 7, 13, 3–28,weblink 27 November 2016, In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah (shared with Iran).WEB, Butt, Gerald, Oil and Gas in the UAE,weblink UAE Interact, 19 November 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151123003948weblink">weblink 23 November 2015, Meanwhile, onshore exploration was hindered by territorial disputes. In 1955, the United Kingdom represented Abu Dhabi and Oman in their dispute with Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates (06/07), State.gov, 12 February 2016, A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia seemed to have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute, but this has not been ratified.BOOK, Gray, Matthew, Global Security Watch – Saudi Arabia, 7 October 2014, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, 978-0-313-38699-2, 99,weblink 20 June 2015, The UAE's border with Oman was ratified in 2008.NEWS,weblink Historic UAE-Oman accord involves 272km of border, 22 July 2008, Gulf News, 19 February 2017, PDTC continued its onshore exploration away from the disputed area, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry. However, on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. 3 well on the coast near Tarif.BOOK, From Pearls to Oil, Heard, David, Motivate, 2013, 9781860633119, UAE, 413–416, In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern global city of Dubai.NEWS,weblink Middle East | Country profile: United Arab Emirates, BBC News, 11 March 2009,

Independence

(File:Flag-hoisting at the Union Declaration.jpg|thumb|left|Historic photo depicting the first hoisting of the United Arab Emirates flag by the rulers of the emirates at The Union House, Dubai on 2 December 1971)File:UAE Father of the Nation.jpg|thumb|upright|Zayed bin Sultan Al NahyanZayed bin Sultan Al NahyanBy 1966, it had become clear the British government could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. British MPs debated the preparedness of the Royal Navy to defend the sheikhdoms. Secretary of State for Defence Denis Healey reported that the British Armed Forces were seriously overstretched and in some respects dangerously under-equipped to defend the sheikhdoms. On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British Labour government rejected the offer.WEB, Gornall, Jonathan, 2 December 2011,weblink Sun sets on British Empire as UAE raises its flag, The National, Abu Dhabi, After Labour MP Goronwy Roberts informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year.WEB,weblink History the United Arab Emirates (UAE) â€“ TEN Guide, Guide.theemiratesnetwork.com, 11 February 1972, Fears of vulnerability were realized the day before independence. An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the Tunb islands. The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion.WEB,weblink TONB ISLANDS (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of QeÅ¡m island, Mirfendereski, Guive, 25 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150704222708weblink">weblink 4 July 2015, A destroyer group approached the island Abu Musa as well. But there, Sheikh Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi had already negotiated with the Iranian Shah, and the island was quickly leased to Iran for $3 million a year. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi.BOOK, Krane, Jim, 2009, City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism, 81–84, Originally intended to be part of the proposed Federation of Arab Emirates, Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, they became fully independent.WEB,weblink Bahrain â€“ INDEPENDENCE, Country-data.com, On 2 December 1971, at the Dubai Guesthouse, now known as Union House, six of the emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, on 10 January 1972.BOOK, Smith, Simon C., Britain's Revival and Fall in the Gulf: Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, 1950–71,weblink 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-33192-0, 64, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111119060814weblink">weblink 19 November 2011, Trucial Oman or Trucial States â€“ Origin of Trucial Oman or Trucial States | Encyclopedia.com: Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names, Encyclopedia.com, In February 1972, the Federal National Council (FNC) was created; it was a 40-member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers. The UAE joined the Arab League on 6 December 1971 and the United Nations on 9 December.BOOK, Now the Dust Has Settled, De Butts, Freddie, Tabb House, 1995, 978-1873951132, 228, It was a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first GCC summit.A 19 year old Emirati boy from Abu Dhabi, Abdullah Mohammed Al Maainah, designed the UAE flag in 1971. The main theme of four colors of flag was unity of Arabs nations. The Pan-Arab colors red, green, white, and black. It was adopted on 2 December 1971. Al Maainah previously served as the UAE ambassador to Chile and currently serves as the UAE ambassador to the Czech Republic.NEWS,weblink International Relations Abdullah Mohamed Al Maainah, Czech Gulf Business Council, 12 March 2018,

Post-Independence period

File:Dubai skyline 2015.jpg|thumb|left|View of DubaiDubaiThe UAE supported military operations from the US and other coalition nations engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations supporting the Global War on Terror for the Horn of Africa at Al Dhafra Air Base located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the 1991 Persian Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch. The country had already signed a military defense agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995.WEB,weblink Prados, Alfred B., 2002, Iraqi Challenges and U.S. Responses: March 1991 through October 2002, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060818063026weblink">weblink 18 August 2006, Library of Congress, JOURNAL, Foley, Sean,weblink The UAE: Political Issues and Security Dilemmas, Middle East Review of International Affairs, 3, 1, March 1999, In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi.NEWS,weblink United Arab Emirates profile – Timeline, BBC News, 14 November 2012, The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011.(File:Sharjah city skyline in 2015.jpg|thumb|right|Sharjah city skyline)On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi.NEWS,weblink Veteran Gulf ruler Zayed dies, BBC News, 2 November 2004, In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles.The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. A small number of hand-picked voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council, an advisory body. The UAE has largely escaped the Arab Spring, which other countries have experienced; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. Furthermore, some people have had their nationality revoked.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates: Silencing dissent in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Amnesty International, 12 February 2016, Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media.

Geography

{{more citations needed section|date=November 2016}}File:Dunebashing group Dubai.jpg|thumb|A view of the desert landscape on the outskirts of DubaiDubai(File:UAE Regions map.png|thumb|left|Map of the United Arab Emirates)(File:Satellite image of United Arab Emirates in October.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite image of United Arab Emirates)File:View from Jebel Jais - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Roads leading to Jebel Jais, the highest mountain in the UAE (1,892 m), in Ras Al KhaimahRas Al KhaimahThe United Arab Emirates is situated in Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in a strategic location slightly south of the Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080705161411weblink">weblink 5 July 2008, UAE Oil and Gas, Uae.gov.ae, 19 June 1999, The UAE lies between 22°30' and 26°10' north latitude and between 51° and 56°25′ east longitude. It shares a {{convert|530|km|mi|adj=on}} border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a {{convert|450|km|mi|adj=on}} border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the Khawr al Udayd area is about {{convert|19|km|mi|spell=in|abbr=off}} in the northwest; however, it is a source of ongoing dispute.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100408121304weblink">weblink 8 April 2010, Saudi-UAE Disputes, Arabmediawatch.com, 21 August 1974, Following Britain's military departure from the UAE in 1971, and its establishment as a new state, the UAE laid claim to islands resulting in disputes with Iran that remain unresolved. The UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar.WEB,weblink UAE Disputes, International UAE Disputes, UAE Boundary Dispute, UAE National Disputes, UAE Emirate Disputes, Claims Three Islands, Abu Musa Island, Greater & Lesser Tumb, The History of Islands, Human Resources UAE, Arab Emirates., www.uaeprison.com, 25 June 2018, The largest emirate, Abu Dhabi, accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area ({{convert|67340|km2|0|abbr=out}}). The smallest emirate, Ajman, encompasses only {{convert|259|km2|0|abbr=on}}(see figure).The UAE coast stretches for more than {{convert|650|km|0|abbr=on}} along the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. Most of the coast consists of salt pans that extend far inland. The largest natural harbor is at Dubai, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere. Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller islands, as well as many coral reefs and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore. The UAE also has a stretch of the Al Bāţinah coast of the Gulf of Oman, although the Musandam Peninsula, the very tip of Arabia by the Strait of Hormuz, is an exclave of Oman separated by the UAE.South and west of Abu Dhabi, vast, rolling sand dunes merge into the Rub al-Khali (Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive Liwa Oasis is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About {{convert|100|km|0|abbr=on}} to the northeast of Liwa is the Al-Buraimi oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border. Lake Zakher is a human-made lake near the border with Oman.Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves.

Flora and fauna

File:1501200713074 Acacia tortilis.jpg|thumb|Acacia trees growing in desert suburbs near FujairahFujairahThe oases grow date palms, acacia and eucalyptus trees. In the desert, the flora is very sparse and consists of grasses and thorn bushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Bani Yas Island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, Arabian Oryx, Arabian camel and leopards. Coastal fish and mammals consist mainly of mackerel, perch, and tuna, as well as sharks and whales.

Climate

The climate of the UAE is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The climate is categorized as desert climate. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above {{convert|45|°C|°F|0}} on the coastal plain. In the Al Hajar Mountains, temperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased elevation.WEB,weblink UAE Climate, Manmm.net, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160112072308weblink">weblink 12 January 2016, Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between {{convert|10|and|14|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Weather in Abu Dhabi, Abudhabi.ms, 8 March 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090429193142weblink">weblink 29 April 2009, During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. "Easterner") makes the coastal region especially unpleasant. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than {{convert|120|mm|in|1|abbr=on}}, but in some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches {{convert|350|mm|in|1|abbr=on}}. Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry wadi beds.NEWS,weblink In Pictures | Flooding in the UAE, BBC News, 15 January 2008, The region is prone to occasional, violent dust storms, which can severely reduce visibility.On 28 December 2004, there was snow recorded in the UAE for the very first time, in the Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah.Middle East | Cold snap brings Gulf rare snow. BBC News (30 December 2004). Retrieved 10 October 2015. A few years later, there were more sightings of snow and hail.Global warming or wonder! Hail the snow in Abu Dhabi : World, News – India Today. Indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 10 October 2015.Middle East snow, extreme heatwaves and UAE fog: what's going on with the weather? | The National. Thenational.ae (29 January 2013). Retrieved 10 October 2015. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster has experienced snow only twice since records began.NEWS,weblink Heavy snowfall on Ras Al Khaimah's Jebel Jais mountain cluster, Nazzal, Nasouh, Gulf News, 24 January 2009,

Politics

File:Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan picture.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan is the President of the UAE and Ruler of Abu DhabiAbu DhabiThe United Arab Emirates is a federal constitutional monarchy made up from a federation of seven hereditary tribal absolute monarchy-styled political system called Sheikhdoms. It is governed by a Federal Supreme Council made up of the ruling Sheikhs of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, Ras al-Khaimah and Umm al-Quwain. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the individual emirate.WEB,weblink UAE Government: Political system, UAEinteract, 12 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160213062650weblink">weblink 13 February 2016, A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget.WEB,weblink UAE Government: Political system, UAEinteract, 12 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160213062650weblink">weblink 13 February 2016, The United Arab Emirates uses the title Sheikh instead of Emir to refer to the rulers of individual emirates. The title is used due to the sheikhdom styled governing system in adherence to the culture of tribes of Arabia, where Sheikh means leader, elder, or the tribal chief of the clan who partakes in shared decision making with his followers.The President and Prime Minister are elected by the Federal Supreme Council. Usually, a sheikh from Abu Dhabi holds the presidency and a sheikh from Dubai the prime minister-ship. All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan is the UAE founding father and widely accredited for unifying the seven emirates into one country. He was the UAE's first president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, is the heir apparent but will still require the election of Federal Supreme Council to assume presidency.WEB,weblink UAE, Arabruleoflaw.org, 12 February 2016, The federal government is composed of three branches: The UAE eGovernment is the extension of the UAE Federal Government in its electronic form.WEB,weblink Service Channels- The UAE Government Official Portal, UAE federal eGovernment, 8 September 2014, The UAE's Council of Ministers () is the chief executive branch of the government presided over by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Federal Supreme Council, appoints the ministers. The Council of Ministers is made up of 22 members and manages all internal and foreign affairs of the federation under its constitutional and federal law.WEB,weblink دليل أعمال نظام مجلس الوزراء, United Arab Emirates Cabinet, January 2010, The UAE is the only country in the world that has a Ministry of Tolerance,NEWS,weblink UAE's tolerance model has 'potential to become a global movement for good': Sheikh Nahyandate=4 February 2019, Ministry of Happiness,HTTP://FORTUNE.COM/2016/02/10/UAE-MINISTER-HAPPINESS/>TITLE=THIS COUNTRY JUST APPOINTED A MINISTER OF HAPPINESSDATE=10 FEBRUARY 2016, and Ministry of Artificial Intelligence.HTTPS://FUTURISM.COM/UAE-MINISTER-ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE>TITLE=AN INSIDE LOOK AT THE FIRST NATION WITH A STATE MINISTER FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEDATE=11 DECEMBER 2017, The UAE also has a National Youth Council, which is represented in the UAE cabinet through the Minister of Youth.WOMEN SHINING IN NEW UAE CABINET – KHALEEJ TIMES>URL = HTTP://WWW.KHALEEJTIMES.COM/NATION/GOVERNMENT/SHAIKH-MOHAMMED-TO-ANNOUNCE-NEW-CABINET-TODAYACCESS-DATE = 11 FEBRUARY 2016, HTTPS://UAECABINET.AE/EN/DETAILS/NEWS/WHY-MINISTERS-FOR-HAPPINESS-TOLERANCE-YOUTH-AND-THE-FUTURE>TITLE=WHY MINISTERS FOR HAPPINESS, TOLERANCE, YOUTH AND THE FUTURE?, United Arab Emirates Cabinet, The UAE legislative is the Federal National Council which convenes nationwide elections every 4 years. The FNC consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Each emirate is allocated specific seats to ensure full representation. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are elected to serve two-year terms. However, the FNC is restricted to a largely (:wikt:consultation|consultative) role.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051027123241weblink">weblink dead, 27 October 2005, UAE Federal e-Government Portal, Government.ae, A directive was issued stating that as of the 2019 election, half of the FNC members would be allocated to females.Sheikh Khalifa: UAE's Federal National Council to be 50 per cent women The National, 8 December 2018The UAE is frequently described as an "autocracy".NEWS,weblink Trouble in the United Arab Emirates: The perils of autocracy, the Economist, 12 February 2016, WEB,weblink Dubai, the UAE, and the Gulf States: Autocracy in Question, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141028043850weblink">weblink 28 October 2014, According to The New York Times, the UAE is "an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state".NEWS,weblink Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater's Founder, The United Arab Emirates – an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state – are closely allied with the United States, and American officials indicated that the battalion program had some support in Washington., New York Times, 14 May 2011, Mazzetti, Mark and Hager, Emily B., The UAE ranks poorly in freedom indices measuring civil liberties and political rights. The UAE is annually ranked as "Not Free" in Freedom House's annual Freedom in the World report, which measures civil liberties and political rights. The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual Reporters without Borders' Press Freedom Index.Sheikh Zayed was asked by The New York Times in April 1997 on why there is no elected democracy in the United Arab Emirates, in which he replied: Why should we abandon a system that satisfies our people in order to introduce a system that seems to engender dissent and confrontation? Our system of government is based upon our religion and that is what our people want. Should they seek alternatives, we are ready to listen to them.We have always said that our people should voice their demands openly. We are all in the same boat, and they are both the captain and the crew. Our doors are open for any opinion to be expressed, and this well known by all our citizens. It is our deep conviction that God has created people free, and has prescribed that each individual must enjoy freedom of choice. No one should act as if they own others.WEB,weblink Zayed as a Role Model of Leadership, Saed, Alshanti, 2008, 49, Atlantic International University,

Foreign relations

File:Secretary Pompeo Shakes Hands With UAE Foreign Minister Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan (41210385295).jpg|thumb|Minister of Foreign Affairs Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan with U.S. Secretary of State Mike PompeoMike PompeoThe UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). One of the main anchorers of the UAE's foreign policy has been building cooperation-based relations with all countries of the world. Substantial development assistance has increased the UAE's stature among recipient states. Most of this foreign aid (in excess of $15 billion) has been to Arab and Muslim countries.{{citation needed|date=August 2019}}The UAE is a member of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies (ICAO, ILO, UPU, WHO, WIPO); as well as the World Bank, IMF, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), OPEC, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement and is an observer in Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie.The UAE maintains close relations with Egypt and is Egypt's largest investor from the Arab world.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090109153827weblink">weblink 9 January 2009, Egypt and U.A.E. Relations, Egypt State Information Service Sis.gov.eg, Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090626001001weblink">weblink 26 June 2009, Relations with UAE get wider, deeper, Pakistan Observer, 26 November 2008, China and UAE are also strong international allies, with significant cooperation across economic, political and cultural aspects.NEWS, Strong bilateral relations serve the strategic interests of both China and the UAE,weblink The National, NEWS, UAE to welcome China president Xi Jinping in landmark state visit,weblink The National, NEWS, Editor, Samir Salama, Associate, President Xi’s visit a milestone in UAE-China ties, says Chinese ambassador,weblink GulfNews, 13 July 2018, NEWS, Zaatari, Sami, More and more Chinese make UAE their home,weblink GulfNews, 12 July 2018, The largest expatriate presence in the UAE is Indian.UAE Eyes Ways to Discourage Marriage with Foreigners. Antisystemic.org (21 October 2005). Retrieved 26 January 2014.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116234839weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, India-UAE Bilateral Relations, Embassy of India, UAE, Following British withdrawal from the UAE in 1971 and the establishment of the UAE as a state, the UAE disputed rights to three islands in the Persian Gulf against Iran, namely Abu Musa, Greater Tunb, and Lesser Tunb. The UAE tried to bring the matter to the International Court of Justice, but Iran dismissed the notion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080229133058weblink">weblink 29 February 2008, Konfliktbarometer 2001, dead, 1 June 2016, . Heidelberger Institut für Internationale Konfliktforschung The dispute has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties.WEB,weblink UAE Government: Foreign policy, UAEinteract, 1 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090610084435weblink">weblink 10 June 2009, The UAE also has a long and a close relationship with UK and Germany, and a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE.WEB,weblink UAE and France sign landmark nuclear cooperation agreement, Gulf News, 16 January 2008, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101205215341weblink">weblink 5 December 2010, France signs up to £2 billion deal to build nuclear plants in the Gulf, The Times, 16 January 2008, Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair serves as a funded adviser to the Mubadala Development Company, a wholly owned investment vehicle of the government of Abu Dhabi.NEWS,weblink Tony Blair lobbied Treasury minister on behalf of Arab statedate=13 June 2015first1=Robert Mendick, In November 2018, the United Kingdom threatened the UAE with "serious diplomatic consequences" after it sentenced a British academic Arrest of Matthew Hedges to life in prison for allegedly spying for the UK government.BRITISH ACADEMIC MATTHEW HEDGES SENTENCED TO LIFE IN PRISON BY UAE COURT FOR 'SPYING FOR UK GOVERNMENT' WORK=THE DAILY TELEGRAPH, 22 November 2018, File:President Donald Trump meet with His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi, in the Oval Office of the White House, Monday, May 15, 2017 (02).jpg|thumb|left|Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan and U.S. President Donald TrumpDonald TrumpThe United Arab Emirates and the United States enjoy very close strategic ties. The UAE has been described as the United States' best counter-terrorism ally in the Gulf by Richard A. Clarke, the US national security advisor and counter-terrorism expert.WEB,weblink 9/11 Commission Report, 9/11 Commission Report, 138, The US maintains three military bases in the UAE. The UAE is also the only country in the Middle East which has a US border preclearance that is staffed and operated by US Customs and Border Protection officers, allowing travelers to reach the US as domestic travelers. In 2013, The UAE spent more than any other country in the world to influence U.S. policy and shape domestic debate.WEB,weblink What countries spent the most to influence the USA in 2013, 8 May 2014, In its dispute with the United States, Iran has repeatedly threatened to close the Strait of Hormuz, a vital oil-trade route. Therefore, in July 2012, the UAE began operating a key overland oil pipeline, the Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline, which bypasses the Strait of Hormuz in order to mitigate any consequences of an Iranian shut-off.It was reported in 2019 that UAE's National Electronic Security Authority (NESA) has enlisted the help of American and Israeli experts in its targeting of political leaders, activists and the governments of Qatar, Turkey and Iran. According to Reuters their surveillance activities have also targeted American citizens.NEWS, UAE buys its way toward supremacy in Gulf cyberwar, using US and Israeli experts,weblink 1 February 2019, Ars Technica, The UAE was one of only three countries to recognise the Taliban as Afghanistan's legitimate government (Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were the other two countries).BOOK,weblink Foreign Policy Aspects of the War Against Terrorism: Fourth Report of Session, 60, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons, 9780215029492, Committee, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs, 2 July 2006, At the encouragement of the United States, the UAE attempted to host a Taliban embassy under three conditions which include denouncing Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, recognizing the Afghan constitution, and renouncing violence and laying down their weapons.NEWS,weblink The United Arab Emirates and the Taliban, The New York Times, 9 August 2017, 9 September 2018, The Taliban refused all three conditions, and the UAE withdrew its offer. The UAE rescinded diplomatic relations with the Taliban after 11 September attacks in 2001 (alongside Pakistan).File:Vladimir Putin and Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (2019-10-15) 41.jpg|thumb|Russian president Vladimir Putin meeting with Sheikh Mohammed bin ZayedMohammed bin ZayedThe United Arab Emirates has been actively involved in Saudi-led intervention in Yemen and has supported Yemen's internationally recognized government as well as the separatist Southern Transitional Council in Yemen against the Houthi takeover in Yemen.NEWS, Yemen’s government 'prepares to flee' as UAE-backed separatists seize control in Aden,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 30 January 2018, NEWS, UAE-backed separatists launch 'coup' in southern Yemen,weblink Al-Jazeera, 28 January 2018, The Saudi-led coalition has been repeatedly accused of conducting indiscriminate and unlawful airstrikes on civilian targets.NEWS, War Crimes Report on Yemen Accuses Saudi Arabia and U.A.E.,weblink The New York Times, 28 August 2018, During Sheikh Al-Nahyan's visit to France in November 2018, a group of rights activists filed a lawsuit against the crown prince accusing him of "war crimes and complicity in torture and inhumane treatment in Yemen".NEWS,weblink Rights group sues Abu Dhabi Crown Prince in France over Yemen, Jarry, Emmanuel, U.S., Reuters, 2018-11-27, en-US, An Associated press report implicated that the United Arab Emirates made gains against Al Qaeda in Yemen by making payments and recruiting them in fighting the Houthis, instead of military intervention.NEWS, AP Investigation: US allies, al-Qaida battle rebels in Yemen,weblink Associated Press, 6 August 2018, NEWS, Report: Saudi-UAE coalition 'cut deals' with al-Qaeda in Yemen,weblink Al-Jazeera, 6 August 2018, NEWS, US allies, Al Qaeda battle rebels in Yemen,weblink Fox News, 7 August 2018, The UAE, as part of the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, landed troops on the island of Socotra.NEWS, As Saudi Arabia and the UAE struggle for control of Socotra, Yemen’s island paradise may just swap one occupation for another,weblink The Independent, 21 May 2018, The UAE and Saudi Arabia became close allies when Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud became King of Saudi Arabia in 2015 and Mohammed bin Salman as Crown Prince in 2017.NEWS,weblink A Saudi Prince’s Quest to Remake the Middle East, The New Yorker, 2 April 2018, In June 2017, the UAE alongside multiple middle eastern and African countries cut diplomatic ties with Qatar due to allegations of Qatar being a state sponsor of terrorism, resulting in the Qatar diplomatic crisis. The UAE backed Saudi Arabia in its 2018 dispute with Canada.NEWS, 6 August 2018, Arab states back Saudi Arabia in expelling Canadian ambassador over human rights dispute, Global News,weblink The UAE also backed Saudi Arabia's statement about the death of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi.NEWS, Middle East leaders back Saudi Arabia after Jamal Khashoggi's disappearance,weblink Middle East Eye, 15 October 2018, Pope Francis became the first pontiff from the Holy See to visit the Arabian Peninsula on a trip to Abu Dhabi in 2019 and held papal mass to more than 120,000 attendees in the Zayed Sports City Stadium.NEWS,weblink The significance of Pope Francis' UAE visit is impossible to exaggerate (Nobel Committee, take note), Fox News, 5 February 2019, As a result of the successful foreign policy of the United Arab Emirates, the Emirati passport became the largest individual climber in Henley & Partners Passport Index in 2018 over the past decade, increasing its global rank by 28 places.WEB, Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2017,weblink Henley & Partners, 14 March 2017, According to the Henley Passport Index, as of 28 March 2019, Emirati citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Emirati passport 21nd in the world in terms of travel freedom.NEWS, UAE passport inches upwards on Henley Passport Indexauthor=Khaleej TimesThe Passport Index, however, the UAE passport ranks 1st in the world with access to 167 countries.HTTPS://WWW.NEWS.COM.AU/TRAVEL/WORLD-TRAVEL/A-COUNTRY-NO-ONE-EXPECTED-SUDDENLY-HAS-THE-WORLDS-MOST-POWERFUL-PASSPORT/NEWS-STORY/1D07AF5FB2ECA3BB326BD11A8822F94CDATE=4 DECEMBER 2018, NewsComAu,

Military

File:F-16e block60.jpg|thumb|right|United Arab Emirates Air Force F-16 Block 60 "Desert Falcon", taking off from the Lockheed Martin plant in Fort Worth, TexasFort Worth, TexasThe United Arab Emirates military was formed in 1971 from the historical Trucial Oman Scouts, a long symbol of public order on Eastern Arabia and commanded by British officers. The Trucial Oman Scouts were turned over to the United Arab Emirates as the nucleus of its defence forces in 1971 with the formation of the UAE and was absorbed into the Union Defence Force.Although initially small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown significantly over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of military advanced countries, mainly France, the US and the UK. Most officers are graduates of the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, with others having attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, the Royal Military College, Duntroon in Australia, and St Cyr, the military academy of France. France and the United States have played the most strategically significant roles with defence cooperation agreements and military material provision.NEWS, UAE confirms discussions with France on purchase of Rafale aircraft,weblink Emirates News Agency, 5 June 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509014605weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, Some of the UAE military deployments include an infantry battalion to the United Nations UNOSOM II force in Somalia in 1993, the 35th Mechanised Infantry Battalion to Kosovo, a regiment to Kuwait during the Iraq War, demining operations in Lebanon, Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, American-led intervention in Libya, American-led intervention in the Syria, and the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen. The active and effective military role despite its small active personnel has led the UAE military to be nicknamed as "Little Sparta" by United States Armed Forces Generals and former US defense secretary James Mattis.NEWS, In the UAE, the United States has a quiet, potent ally nicknamed 'Little Sparta'work=The Washington Post, 15 September 2018, Examples of the military assets deployed include the enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Libya by sending six UAEAF F-16 and six Mirage 2000 multi-role fighter aircraft,NEWS,weblink BBC News – Libya no-fly zone: Coalition firepower, BBC News, 25 December 2014, 21 October 2011, ground troop deployment in Afghanistan,NEWS,weblink Nato officially initiates UAE into Afghan mission, The National, 12 July 2018, 30 UAEAF F-16s and ground troops deployment in Southern Yemen,NEWS,weblink Al Arabiya, Saudi warplanes bomb Houthi positions in Yemen, 25 March 2015, 25 March 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402125058weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, and helping the US launch its first airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria.NEWS, US launches air strikes against Isil in Syria,weblink The Telegraph, 24 September 2014, Winch, Jessica, The UAE has begun to produce a greater amount of military equipment in a bid to reduce foreign dependence and help with national industrialisation. Example of national military development include the Abu Dhabi Shipbuilding company (ADSB), which produces a range of ships and are a prime contractor in the Baynunah Programme, a programme to design, develop and produce corvettes customised for operation in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. The UAE is also producing weapons and ammunition through Caracal International, military transport vehicles through Nimr LLC and unmanned aerial vehicles collectively through Emirates Defence Industries Company. The UAE operates the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon F-16E Block 60 unique variant unofficially called "Desert Falcon", developed by General Dynamics with collaboration from the UAE and specifically for the United Arab Emirates Air Force.WEB,weblink Dubai 2007: UAE shows off its most advanced Falcons, Flightglobal, 11 November 2007, In terms of battle tanks, the United Arab Emirates Army operate a customized Leclerc tank and is the only other operator of the tank aside from the French Army.WEB,weblink One Tough Tank: Why France's Leclerc Is One of the Best on the Planet, nationalinterest.org, 19 February 2019, The largest defence exhibition and conference in the Middle East, International Defence Exhibition, takes place biennially in Abu Dhabi.The UAE introduced a mandatory military conscription for adult males since 2014 for 16 months to expand its reserve force.NEWS,weblink UAE extends compulsory military service to 16 months, Reuters, 8 July 2018, The highest loss of life in the history of UAE military occurred on Friday 4 September 2015, in which 52 soldiers were killed in Marib area of central Yemen by a Tochka missile which targeted a weapons cache and caused a large explosion.NEWS, UAE, Bahrain say 50 soldiers killed in Yemen attack,weblink 17 September 2015, Reuters, 4 September 2015,

Political divisions

{{See also|Politics of the United Arab Emirates|List of cities in the United Arab Emirates|Emirates of the United Arab Emirates}}(File:UAE en-map.png|center|700px|Location of the Emirates)
 
The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates. Dubai is the most populated Emirate with 35.6% of the UAE population. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has a further 31.2%, meaning that over two-thirds of the UAE population live in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai.Abu Dhabi has an area of {{convert|67340|km2|0|abbr=off}}, which is 86.7% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. It has a coastline extending for more than {{convert|400|km|-1|abbr=on}} and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions.The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately {{convert|72|km|0|abbr=on}}. Dubai has an area of {{convert|3885|km2|0|abbr=off}}, which is equivalent to 5% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately {{convert|16|km|0|abbr=on}} of the UAE's Persian Gulf coastline and for more than {{convert|80|km|0|abbr=on}} into the interior. The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of {{convert|3881|km2|0|abbr=off}}. There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah.There is an Omani exclave surrounded by UAE territory, known as Wadi Madha. It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately {{convert|75|km2|0|abbr=off}} and the boundary was settled in 1969. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely {{convert|10|m|ft|abbr=off}} away. Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called Nahwa, also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about {{convert|8|km|mi|spell=in|abbr=off}} on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and telephone exchange.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;" style="background:#efefef; "! rowspan=2 class="unsortable"|Flag! rowspan=2 | Emirate! rowspan=2 | Capital! colspan=2 | Population! colspan=3 | Area! 2018! %! (km²)! (mi²)! %border|40px)Emirate of Abu Dhabi>Abu DhabiAbu Dhabi > 2,784,490 align="right" 67,340 align="right" 86.7%border|40px)Emirate of Ajman>AjmanAjman (city)>Ajman align="right" 3.9% align="right" 100 align="right"| 0.3%border|40px)Emirate of Dubai>DubaiDubai > 4,177,059 align="right" 3,885 align="right" 5.0%border|40px)| FujairahFujairah (city)>Fujairah align="right" 1.6% align="right" 450 align="right"| 1.5%border|40px)Ras Al Khaimah>Ras al-KhaimahRas al-Khaimah (city)>Ras al-Khaimah align="right" 4.3% align="right" 950 align="right"| 3.2%border|40px)Emirate of Sharjah>SharjahSharjah (city)>Sharjah align="right" 24.7% align="right" 1,000 align="right"| 3.3%border|40px)Umm Al Quwain>Umm al-QuwainUmm al-Quwain (city)>Umm al-Quwainalign="right" 0.8% align="right" 300 align="right"| 1% class="sortbottom" style="background:#ccc;"border|40px)|UAE 9,599,353 align="right" 77,700 align="right" 100%

Law

File:Police helicopter at sunset (Unsplash).jpg|thumb|Dubai PoliceDubai PoliceFile:Dubai Police at work (12385410394).jpg|thumb|right|Dubai Police super-car motorcade at Jumeirah RoadJumeirah RoadFile:Abu Dhabi Police - Lykan Hypersport (Official Press) (18015081283).jpg|thumb|right|Abu Dhabi Police patrol car on duty at Emirates PalaceEmirates PalaceThe UAE has a federal court system. There are three main branches within the court structure: civil, criminal and Sharia law. The UAE's judicial system is derived from the civil law system and Sharia law. The court system consists of civil courts and Sharia courts. UAE's criminal and civil courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law.Flogging is a punishment for criminal offences such as adultery, premarital sex and alcohol consumption.WEB,weblink 2013 Human Rights Reports: United Arab Emirates, US Department of State, Sharia (Islamic law) courts, which adjudicate criminal and family law, have the option of imposing flogging as punishment for adultery, prostitution, consensual premarital sex, pregnancy outside marriage, defamation of character, and drug or alcohol abuse., WEB,weblink 2014 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – United Arab EmiratesUS Department of State, HTTP://WWW.HUMANRIGHTSVOICES.ORG/EYEONTHEUN/UN_101/FIGURES/?P=2484WORK=HUMAN RIGHTS VOICESISBN=978-0-16-081399-3PAGE=2092WORK=WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RESEARCHDATE=8 DECEMBER 2010QUOTE=IN THE UAE, ONLY VERBAL ABUSE PERTAINING TO THE SEXUAL HONOUR OF A PERSON WOULD BE TRIED UNDER SHARIA. FOR GUILT TO BE PROVEN, THE ATTACK MUST HAVE BEEN MADE IN PUBLIC AND ONE RELIABLE WITNESS MUST TESTIFY. IF CONVICTED, A PERSON WOULD BE SENTENCED TO 80 LASHES AND WOULD NEVER BE ACCEPTED AS A VALID WITNESS IN A SHARIA-BASED CASE., Between 2007 and 2014, many people in the UAE were sentenced to 100 lashes.HTTP://7DAYSINDUBAI.COM/NEWS-14918/ >TITLE=PREGNANT MAID TO GET 100 LASHES AFTER BEING FOUND GUILTY OF ILLEGAL AFFAIR PUBLISHER=7DAYSINDUBAI.COM ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141006151535/HTTP://7DAYSINDUBAI.COM/NEWS-14918/ DF=, World News » Teenager to be lashed for adultery. Gulf Daily News (10 July 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Illicit lovers sentenced to 100 lashes each. GulfNews.com (15 November 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Two women sentenced to death for adultery. Khaleej Times (25 September 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Prison for couple who conceived outside of wedlock. Thenational.ae (22 August 2011). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Bassma Al Jandaly (9 May 2010) Adulterer to be lashed, jailed in Sharjah. Gulf NewsAmnesty International Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates. Refworld (23 May 2007). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Court jails pregnant Filipina in Fujairah . Emirates247.com (9 October 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015.DUBAI: Alleged victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison . Latimesblogs.latimes.com (17 June 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015. More recently in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman.HTTP://WWW.EMIRATES247.COM/CRIME/LOCAL/2-MEN-TO-BE-LASHED-FOR-HITTING-WOMAN-IN-FUJAIRAH-2015-03-26-1.585455>TITLE=2 MEN TO BE LASHED FOR HITTING WOMAN IN FUJAIRAHWORK=EMIRATES 247, In 2014, an expatriate in Abu Dhabi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 80 lashes after alcohol consumption and raping a toddler.HTTP://WWW.EMIRATES247.COM/NEWS/EMIRATES/DRUNK-WORKER-RAPES-2-YEAR-OLD-GIRL-IN-ABU-DHABI-2014-01-22-1.535691>TITLE=DRUNK WORKER RAPES 2-YEAR-OLD GIRL IN ABU DHABIWORK=EMIRATES247.COM, Alcohol consumption for Muslims is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many Muslims have been sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption.Man to get 80 lashes for drinking alcohol. GulfNews.com (19 February 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.HTTP://GULFNEWS.COM/NEWS/UAE/CRIME/EMIRATI-MAN-TO-BE-LASHED-EXECUTED-FOR-MURDER-AND-DRINKING-ALCOHOL-1.1028979>TITLE=EMIRATI MAN TO BE LASHED, EXECUTED, FOR MURDER AND DRINKING ALCOHOLWORK=GULF NEWS, Man who stabbed brother in drunken fight in Abu Dhabi jailed for year. Thenational.ae (14 March 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015.HTTP://WWW.THENATIONAL.AE/NEWS/UAE-NEWS/COURTS/MAN-WHO-STABBED-BROTHER-IN-DRUNKEN-FIGHT-IN-ABU-DHABI-JAILED-FOR-YEAR>TITLE=MAN WHO STABBED BROTHER IN DRUNKEN FIGHT IN ABU DHABI JAILED FOR YEARWORK=THE NATIONALMan appeals 80 lashes for drinking alcohol in Abu Dhabi. Thenational.ae (9 August 2012). Retrieved 26 November 2015.HTTP://7DAYS.AE/NEWS-13714/19218 DATE=9 MARCH 2013 QUOTE=AS WELL AS THE JAIL TERM FOR RAPE, THE SUPREME COURT ALSO ORDERED THAT THE DEFENDANTS BE GIVEN 80 LASHES FOR DRINKING ALCOHOL. ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150923104044/HTTP://7DAYS.AE/NEWS-13714/19218 DF=, Cocaine trace due to drinking Red Bull Cola, Abu Dhabi court hears. Thenational.ae (14 August 2012). Retrieved 26 November 2015.HTTP://7DAYS.AE/NEWS-13704/19195 >TITLE=MAN JAILED FOR RAPING STEP-DAUGHTER WORK=7DAYS.AE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=23 SEPTEMBER 2015 Drinking costs dad custody of kids. Emirates247.com (13 March 2011). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Fujairah man is jailed for drunken kidnap bid {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923110747weblink Emirati to be executed for murder in Fujairah. Emirates247.com (29 May 2012). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Sometimes 40 lashes are given.HTTP://GULFNEWS.COM/NEWS/GULF/UAE/CRIME/ESTONIAN-SOLDIER-TO-BE-LASHED-1.233170LAST=AL JANDALYDATE=16 APRIL 2006ACCESS-DATE=18 NOVEMBER 2014ARCHIVE-DATE=29 NOVEMBER 2014Girl to receive 60 lashes for illicit sex. GulfNews.com (20 June 2007). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Two sex workers are sentenced to lashes. Khaleej Times. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Indian lover in UAE sentenced to 60 lashes – Express India. Expressindia.indianexpress.com (8 June 2002). Retrieved 26 November 2015. 80 lashes is the standard number for anyone sentenced to flogging in several emirates.HTTP://7DAYS.AE/NEWS-13088/17027 DATE=26 NOVEMBER 2012 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=23 SEPTEMBER 2015 PUBLISHER=HUMAN RIGHTS WATCHDATE=26 JUNE 2013DATE=27 MARCH 2013Motorist sentenced to 80 lashes for drink driving {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923091346weblink |date=23 September 2015 }}. 7days.ae (26 November 2012). Retrieved 26 November 2015.80 lashes and one month in jail for drink driving. GulfNews.com (12 August 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Drunk driver sentenced to 80 lashes. Thenational.ae (28 July 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.4 years and 80 lashes for drug addict . Emirates247.com (1 November 2011). Retrieved 26 November 2015.80 lashes, jail for drink-driving upheld . Emirates247.com (18 May 2011). Retrieved 26 November 2015. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public.Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche. Thenational.ae (10 January 2013). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes.Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning. Thenational.ae (29 July 2009). Retrieved 26 November 2015.Stoning is a legal punishment in the UAE. In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi.Expat faces death by stoning after admitting in court to cheating on husband {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141006154624weblink |date=6 October 2014 }}. 7daysindubai.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Woman Sentenced To Death By Stoning In Abu Dhabi. Emirateswoman.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Asian housemaid gets death for adultery in Abu Dhabi. Qatar Living (4 May 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Other expatriates have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery.Document | Amnesty International. Amnesty.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning.Man faces stoning in UAE for incest . Dnaindia.com (14 April 2007). Retrieved 26 November 2015.WEB,weblink Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning, 29 July 2009, The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison.WEB,weblink Hotel executive who had abortion gets jail term, 30 December 2010, The National, In recent years, several people have retracted their guilty plea in illicit sex cases after being sentenced to stoning or 100 lashes.WEB,weblink "Change plea or you'll be stoned": Husband who admits cheating given legal advice by judge, 6 April 2014, 7days.ae, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20160405175140weblink">weblink 5 April 2016, WEB,weblink To avoid 100 lashes and prison, woman retracts plea in sex case, 9 October 2009, The National, The punishment for committing adultery is 100 lashes for unmarried people and stoning to death for married people.WEB,weblink Lawyer urges acquittal of woman on zina charges, 26 November 2010, The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction over family law cases and also have jurisdiction over several criminal cases including adultery, premarital sex, robbery, alcohol consumption and related crimes. The Sharia-based personal status law regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody. The Islamic personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. Non-Muslim expatriates can be liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody.Britons 'liable to Sharia divorces' in UAE – BBC News. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Apostasy is a crime punishable by death in the UAE.Evans, Robert. (9 December 2013) Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study. Reuters. Retrieved 26 November 2015.WEB,weblink The International Briefing: Persecution of Atheists and Apostates, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150428131415weblink">weblink 28 April 2015, Blasphemy is illegal; expatriates involved in insulting Islam are liable for deportation.WEB,weblink UAE to deport expats abusing religions, 22 July 2015, Emirates 247, UAE incorporates hudud crimes of Sharia (i.e., crimes against God) into its Penal Code – apostasy being one of them.JOURNAL, Butti Sultan Butti Ali Al-Muhairi, 1996, 3381546, The Islamisation of Laws in the UAE: The Case of the Penal Code, Arab Law Quarterly, 11, 4, 350–371, 10.2307/3381546, Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty;Al-Muhairi (1997), Conclusion to the Series of Articles on the UAE Penal Law. Arab Law Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4 therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE.In several cases, the courts of the UAE have jailed women who have reported rape.NEWS, UAE imprisoning rape victims under extramarital sex laws – investigation,weblink The Guardian, 26 October 2015, Topping, Alexandra, WEB,weblink Dubai's Progressive Charade, The Daily Beast, 12 February 2016, WEB,weblink Gang-rape victim in Dubai arrested for drinking alcohol: report, New York Daily News, 12 February 2016, WEB,weblink DUBAI: Victim of gang rape sentenced to one year in prison, 17 June 2010, For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of "alcohol consumption". Another British woman was charged with "public intoxication and extramarital sex" after she reported being raped, while an Australian woman was similarly sentenced to jail after she reported gang rape in the UAE.NEWS, Bakr, Amena,weblink Woman jailed in Dubai after reporting rape hopes to warn others, Reuters, 21 July 2013, 5 November 2013, In another recent case, an 18-year Emirati girl withdrew her complaint of gang rape by six men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term and flogging.NEWS,weblink U.A.E. Woman Withdraws Gang-Rape Claim to Avoid Lashes, Prison Sentence, The woman still had to serve one year in jail.NEWS,weblink Court jails Emirati woman in gang rape case, In July 2013, a Norwegian woman, Marte Dalelv, reported rape to the police and received a prison sentence for "illicit sex and alcohol consumption".NEWS,weblink Dubai ruler pardons Norwegian woman convicted after she reported rape, CNN.com, 10 September 2013, Emirati women must receive permission from a male guardian to marry and remarry.WEB, Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying,weblink The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, This requirement is derived from the UAE's interpretation of Sharia, and has been federal law since 2005. In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims. In the UAE, a marriage union between a Muslim woman and non-Muslim man is punishable by law, since it is considered a form of "fornication".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091031224349weblink">weblink dead, 2009-10-31, United Arab Emirates International Religious Freedom Report, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2009), U.S. Department of State, Kissing in public is illegal and can result in deportation.Public kissing can lead to deportation | The National. Thenational.ae (7 July 2008). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public.Jailed Dubai kissing pair lose appeal over conviction. BBC News (4 April 2010). Retrieved 26 November 2015.WEB,weblink Women get jail and deportation for kissing on Dubai public beach, Gulf News, 25 May 2008, 1 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150115034127weblink">weblink 15 January 2015, dead, London man tells of 'shock' jailing in Dubai over kiss – BBC News. Bbc.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public.WEB,weblink Couple deny kissing on Abu Dhabi Corniche, A man jailed and sentenced to 80 lashes for drunkenly kissing his girlfriend on the Corniche, A new federal law in the UAE prohibits swearing in Whatsapp and penalizes swearing by a 250,000 AED fine and imprisonment;NEWS,weblink Swearing on Whatsapp 'will result in £40,000 fine and deportation, UAE rules', 16 June 2015, The Independent, expatriates are penalized by deportation.WEB,weblink UAE Imposes over $68,000 Fine, Jail Term for Swearing on Whatsapp; Expatriates Face Deportation, 16 June 2015, International Business Times, WEB,weblink Man to face trial in UAE for swearing in WhatsApp message, 16 June 2015, 7days.ae, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923094431weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, WEB,weblink British Expats Face Being Deported From UAE For Swearing on WhatsApp, 16 June 2015, Yahoo News, In July 2015, an Australian expatriate was deported for swearing on Facebook.WEB,weblink Australian woman deported from Abu Dhabi over Facebook post, 15 July 2015, Khaleej Times, WEB,weblink Australian woman deported from the UAE after Facebook post, 15 July 2015, Arabian Business, WEB,weblink Australian jailed over Facebook post deported from Abu Dhabi, 15 July 2015, Stuff.co.nz, WEB,weblink Expat deported after posting abusive message about parking on Facebook, 15 July 2015, 7days.ae, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923100012weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, WEB,weblink Australian expat deported following Facebook post, 15 July 2015, Gulf News, Homosexuality is illegal and is a capital offence in the UAE.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates, Facts as drug trafficking, homosexual behaviour, and apostasy are liable to capital punishment., WEB,weblink Man Accused of 'Gay Handshake' Stands Trial in Dubai, 11 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151030104723weblink">weblink 30 October 2015, dead, In 2013, an Emirati man was on trial for being accused of a "gay handshake". Article 80 of the Abu Dhabi Penal Code makes sodomy punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, while article 177 of the Penal Code of Dubai imposes imprisonment of up to 10 years on consensual sodomy.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614053249weblink">weblink 14 June 2006, Federal criminal statute in UAE, Sodomylaws.Org, live, Amputation is a legal punishment in the UAE due to the Sharia courts.WEB, Amnesty International Report 1999 – United Arab Emirates,weblink WEB, United Arab Emirates: Briefing for the Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review,weblink 3, WEB, United Arab Emirates – Global Progress,weblink 3, Punishments include flogging, amputation, and – as retaliation – injury similar to that for which the offender has been convicted of inflicting on the victim., WEB, United Arab Emirates – Country Reports on Human Rights Practices,weblink In February an Indonesian woman convicted of adultery by the Shari'a court in the Emirate of Fujairah, was sentenced to death by stoning after she purportedly insisted on such punishment. The sentence was commuted on appeal to 1 year in prison, followed by deportation. In June 1998, the Shari'a court in Fujairah sentenced three Omani nationals convicted of robbery to have their right hands amputated. The Fujairah prosecutor's office instead commuted the sentence to a term of imprisonment., WEB, Defining Sharia's role in the UAE's legal foundation,weblink The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the UAE.NEWS,weblink Crucifixion for UAE murderers, The Independent, WEB,weblink UAE: Further information on fear of imminent crucifixion and execution, Amnesty International, September 1997, WEB,weblink UAE: Fear of imminent crucifixion and execution, Amnesty International, September 1997, Article 1 of the Federal Penal Code states that "provisions of the Islamic Law shall apply to the crimes of doctrinal punishment, punitive punishment and blood money."WEB, Federal Law No (3) of 1987 on Issuance of the Penal Code,weblink United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, dead,weblink 25 May 2013, The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously.WEB, Measures Against Corruptibility, Gifts and Gratification – Bribery in the Middle East,weblink Arab Law Quarterly, During the month of Ramadan, it is illegal to publicly eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset.WEB,weblink Sharia law and Westerners in Dubai: should non-Muslims in UAE be made to face Islamic justice?, Exceptions are made for pregnant women and children. The law applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, and failure to comply may result in arrest.NEWS,weblink Britons warned to respect Ramadan while holidaying in Dubai, Butt, Riazat, The Guardian, 31 July 2011, London, UK, 60623878, Dancing in public is illegal in the UAE.WEB, Criminal Law of Dubai,weblink lawyersuae.com, 23 October 2012, WEB,weblink المشارق, al-shorfa.com, No dancing in public: Dubai. Arab News (15 March 2009). Retrieved 26 November 2015.

Human rights

Flogging and stoning are legal punishments in the UAE. The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005.WEB, Divorcees, widows concerned about receiving 'permission' before remarrying,weblink Some domestic workers in the UAE are victims of the country's interpretations of Sharia judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning. The annual Freedom House report on Freedom in the World has listed the United Arab Emirates as "Not Free" every year since 1999, the first year for which records are available on their website.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates Reports, Freedom House, 7 May 2015, 22 August 2014, File:Stop UK Arms Exports to Saudi UAE Dictatorships !.jpg|thumb|Protest against the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in YemenSaudi Arabian-led intervention in YemenThe UAE has escaped the Arab Spring; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms.WEB,weblink UAE: Ruthless crackdown on dissent exposes 'ugly reality' beneath façade of glitz and glamour, Amnesty International, WEB,weblink Silencing dissent in the UAE, Amnesty International, dead,weblink 19 February 2017, 19 February 2017, Since 2011, the UAE government has increasingly carried out forced disappearances.WEB,weblink Silencing dissent in the UAE, 16–29 & 35–45, Amnesty International, UAE: Enforced Disappearance and Torture | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Human Rights in the United – UAE: Enforced disappearances continue {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151126101711weblink |date=26 November 2015 }}. Ic4jhr.net. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Emirati victim of enforced disappearance seen in state security prison » Emirates Centre for Human Rights. Echr.org.uk (14 March 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015.UAE must reveal whereabouts of 'disappeared' Libyans and Emiratis: HRW. Middle East Eye (6 October 2014). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. The UAE government denies these people are being held (to conceal their whereabouts), placing these people outside the protection of the law.WEB,weblink Forced Disappearances and Torture in the United Arab Emirates, November 2014, Arab Organisation for Human Rights, UAE's crackdown on democracy short-sighted. Middleeastmonitor.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015. According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern.The Arab Organization for Human Rights has obtained testimonies from many defendants, for its report on "Forced Disappearance and Torture in the UAE", who reported that they had been kidnapped, tortured and abused in detention centres. The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with electrocution and denying access to medical care.In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government.WEB,weblink The UAE's bizarre, political trial of 94 activists, The Guardian, Hearst, David, 2013, Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. An Emirati, whose father is among the defendants, was arrested for tweeting about the trial. In April 2013, he was sentenced to 10 months in jail.NEWS, Man faces 10 months jail for tweets about trial in UAE,weblink 18 April 2013, CNN, 11 April 2013, Brumfield, Ben, Faraj, Caroline, Abedine, Saad, The latest forced disappearance involves three sisters from Abu Dhabi.UAE Three women held in secret detention over tweets | Amnesty International. Amnesty.org (27 February 2015). Retrieved 26 November 2015.NEWS,weblink 3 women risk torture in secret UAE detention over 'I miss my brother' tweet – Amnesty, 27 February 2015, Russia Today, 11 May 2015, Repressive measures were also used against non-Emiratis in order to justify the UAE government's claim that there is an "international plot" in which UAE citizens and foreigners were working together to destabilize the country. Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations. There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country.Foreign nationals subjected to forced disappearance include two LibyansUAE: Reveal Whereabouts of ‘Disappeared’ Libyans | Human Rights Watch. Hrw.org. Retrieved 26 November 2015. and two Qataris.WEB,weblink Urgent Action: Enforced Disappearance of Qatari Nationals, Amnesty International, Amnesty reported that the Qatari men have been abducted by the UAE government and the UAE government has withheld information about the men's fate from their families. Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is Iyad El-Baghdadi, a popular blogger and Twitter personality. He was arrested by UAE authorities, detained, imprisoned and then expelled from the country. Despite his lifetime residence in the UAE, as a Palestinian citizen, El-Baghdadi had no recourse to contest this order. He could not be deported back to the Palestinian territories, therefore he was deported to Malaysia.In 2007, the UAE government attempted to cover up information on the rape of a French teenage boy by three Emirati locals, one of whose HIV-positive status was hidden by Emirati authorities.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Thanassis, Cambanis, In Rape Case, a French Youth Takes on Dubai, 1 November 2007, Diplomatic pressure led to the arrest and conviction of the Emirati rapists.French Teen's Rape Case Exposes Dubai's Dark Side, ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (19 February 2009). Retrieved 10 October 2015.In April 2009, a video tape of torture smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh Issa bin Zayed Al Nahyan torturing a man (Mohammed Shah Poor) with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car.WEB,weblink ABC News Exclusive: Torture Tape Implicates UAE Royal Sheikh, ABC News, 22 April 2009, 24 September 2013, In December 2009, Issa appeared in court and proclaimed his innocence.NEWS, Bakr, Amena, UAE ruling family member says not guilty of torture, 14 December 2009, Reuters,weblink 10 January 2010, The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor.NEWS, Bakr, Amena, UAE ruling family member acquitted in torture trial, 10 January 2010, Reuters,weblink 10 January 2010, Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority.WEB, Rights group questions UAE trial, 11 January 2010, Al Jazeera,weblink 11 January 2010, The US State Department has expressed concern over the verdict and said all members of Emirati society "must stand equal before the law" and called for a careful review of the decision to ensure that the demands of justice are fully met in this case.NEWS, US concern after UAE acquits sheikh in torture case, 12 January 2010, BBC News,weblink 12 January 2010, In recent years, a large number of Shia Muslim expatriates have been deported from the UAE.WEB,weblink Shiites deported from Gulf lament injustice, Daily Star, 4 July 2013, JOURNAL,weblink Concern over deportations from Gulf Arab states, RTÉ.ie, 5 July 2013, WEB,weblink UAE urged to allow appeal on deportations, Financial Times, July 2013, Lebanese Shia families in particular have been deported for their alleged sympathy for Hezbollah.WEB,weblink UAE deportations raise questions in Lebanon, Global Post, July 2013, WEB,weblink Lebanese Shiites Ousted from Gulf over Hizbullah Ties, naharnet.com, July 2013, WEB,weblink Lebanese Living in UAE Fear Deportation, Al Monitor, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141016142536weblink">weblink 16 October 2014, WEB,weblink UAE Deports 125 Lebanese Citizens, Al Monitor, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141225122306weblink">weblink 25 December 2014, WEB,weblink UAE/Lebanon: Allow Lebanese/Palestinian Deportees to Appeal, Human Rights Watch, 2010, WEB,weblink Lebanese Families in UAE Face Deportations on Short Notice, Al Monitor, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117022005weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, According to some organizations, more than 4,000 Shia expatriates have been deported from the UAE in recent years.Luca, Ana Maria (5 June 2013) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141225122615weblink">Hezbollah and the Gulf. mmedia.meThousands of Shias Coercively deported from UAE – Majlis-e-Ulama-e-Shia Europe. Majlis.org.uk. Retrieved on 21 August 2018.The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007.WEB, Whitson, Sarah Leah,weblink UAE: Draft Labor Law Violates International Standards, Human Rights Watch, 24 March 2007, Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process.NEWS,weblink Indian workers jailed in Dubai over violent protest, Reuters, 24 February 2008, In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty.WEB,weblink Annual Report 2013, Amnesty International, 2 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140410131431weblink">weblink 10 April 2014, In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges.WEB,weblink Dubai drugs trial: Mother tells of 'torture horror', BBC, 28 April 2013, 2 April 2014, The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressed "concern" over the case and raised it with the UAE President, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during his 2013 state visit to the UK.NEWS,weblink Dubai drugs trial: David Cameron 'concerned' over torture claims, 29 April 2013, 2 April 2014, BBC News, The three men were pardoned and released in July 2013.WEB,weblink Dubai pardons three Britons 'tortured' and jailed over drugs, The Guardian, 19 July 2013, 2 April 2014, In 2013, police arrested a US citizen and some UAE citizens, in connection with a YouTube parody video which allegedly portrayed Dubai and its residents in a bad light. The video was shot in areas of Satwa, Dubai, and featured gangs learning how to fight using simple weapons, including shoes, the aghal, etc."Three held for parody video on Satwa streets", Khaleej Times, 9 December 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. In 2015, nationals from different countries were put in jail for offences. An Australian woman was accused of 'writing bad words on social media', after she had posted a picture of a vehicle parked illegally. She was later deported from the UAE.Australian woman deported from Abu Dhabi over Facebook post. Khaleej Times. Retrieved 10 October 2015.The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of a series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture,WEB, Human Rights in The UAE,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150213013240weblink">weblink 13 February 2015, Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. All associations and NGOs have to register through the Ministry of Social Affairs and are therefore under de facto State control. About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. All associations have to be submitted to censorship guidelines and all publications have first to be approved by the government.WEB, Fanack, Stifling Dissent in the UAE,weblink Fanack.com, 13 July 2015, dead,weblink 13 July 2015, In a report released on 12 July 2018, Amnesty International urged for probe of torture claims on UAE-run prisons in Yemen.NEWS,weblink Amnesty calls for probe of torture claims at Yemen detention centers, Reuters, 12 July 2018, On 10 September 2018, Yemeni detainees in a UAE-run prison underwent a hunger strike to protest their detention. Despite orders by the prosecutors to release some of the detained prisoners, the detainees are still being held.WEB,weblink Yemeni detainees in UAE-run prison start hunger strike, The Associated Press, 10 September 2018, 10 September 2018, On 30 September 2019, the Gulf Centre for Human Rights (GCHR) reported that Ahmed Mansoor was beaten up by the Abu Dhabi Al-Sadr Prison authorities for holding a hunger strike against his imprisonment._WEB,weblink Ahmed Mansoor declares hunger strike, 1 October 2019, International Campaign for Freedom in the UAE,

Migrant workers

File:Burj Dubai Construction Workers on 25 January 2008 Pict 2.jpg|thumb|right|Two south east Asian blue-collar workers posing for a picture with Burj KhalifaBurj KhalifaMigrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions or going on strike. Those who strike may risk prison and deportation.WEB,weblinkwork=International Trade Union Confederation, HTTP://SURVEY.ITUC-CSI.ORG/UNITED-ARAB-EMIRATES.HTML?LANG=EN#TABS-2>TITLE=UNITED ARAB EMIRATESConditions for Abu Dhabi's migrant workers 'shame the west' > World news. The Guardian (22 December 2013). Retrieved on 21 August 2018. The International Trade Union Confederation has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour.HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/GLOBAL-DEVELOPMENT/2014/SEP/13/MIGRANT-WORKERS-UAE-GULF-STATES-UN-ITUC>TITLE=CALL FOR UN TO INVESTIGATE PLIGHT OF MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE UAEDATE=13 SEPTEMBER 2014FIRST1=DAVID,

Dress code

The UAE has a modest dress code. The dress code is part of Dubai's criminal law.WEB,weblink Criminal Law of Dubai, 23 October 2012, Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances.WEB,weblink UAE: "Dress Modestly" Drive Gains Momentum, At Dubai's malls, women are encouraged to cover their shoulders and knees.WEB,weblink Twitter Campaign Wants Female Visitors To Respect UAE Dress Code in Malls, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141028060915weblink">weblink 28 October 2014, WEB,weblink Dubai Mall dress code, alceis.com, But people can wear swimwear at the pools and beaches.People are also requested to wear modest clothing when entering mosques, such as the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi. Mosques which are open to tourists provide modest clothing for men and women if needed.

Media

The UAE's media is annually classified as "not free" in the Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House.WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press, The UAE ranks poorly in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters without Borders. Dubai Media City and twofour54 are the UAE's main media zones. The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. In 2007, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates, Carnegie Endowment, 10, UAE Prime Minister Sheikh Muhammad bin Rashid al-Maktum decreed on September 25, 2007 that journalists can no longer be imprisoned for reasons relating to their work, setting a first for the decriminalization of media offenses in the region., At the same time, the UAE has made it illegal to disseminate online material that can threaten "public order".WEB,weblink Federal Decree-Law no.5, Legislation bans the dissemination of online material that can threaten "public order", and provides for prison terms for those who "deride or damage" the reputation of the state and "display contempt" for religion.NEWS,weblink United Arab Emirates – Media, BBC News, 15 June 2012,

Economy

File:Burj Khalifa.jpg|thumb|upright|Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure in the world.]](File:Abu dhabi skylines 2014.jpg|thumb|Abu Dhabi skyline)The UAE has developed from a juxtaposition of Bedouin tribes to one of the world's most modern and wealthy states in only about 50 years. Economic growth has been impressive and steady throughout the history of this young confederation of emirates with brief periods of recessions only, e.g. in the global financial and economic crisis years 2008-09, and a couple of more mixed years starting in 2015 and persisting until 2019. Between 2000 and 2018, average real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth was at close to 4%.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates – Economic, Social, and Institutional Analysis – Empyrean Advisors, www.empyrean-advisors.com, 2019-09-27, It is the second largest economy in the GCC (after Saudi Arabia),WEB,weblink UAE's economy growth momentum set to pick up, Khaleej Times, 27 December 2013, 5 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140104225058weblink">weblink 4 January 2014, with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$414.2 billion, and a real GDP of 392.8 billion constant 2010 USD in 2018. Since its independence in 1971, the UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1.45 trillion AED in 2013. The non-oil trade has grown to 1.2 trillion AED, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012. Backed by the world's seventh-largest oil deposits, and thanks to considerate investments combined with decided economic liberalism and firm Government control, the UAE has seen their real GDP more than triple in the last four decades. Nowadays the UAE is one of the world's richest countries, with GDP per capita almost 80% higher than OECD average.As impressive as economic growth has been population growth in the UAE: the total population has increased from just about 550,000 in 1975 to close to 10 million in 2018. This growth is mainly due to the influx of foreign workers into the country, making the national population a minority. The UAE features a unique labor market system, in which residence in the UAE is conditional on stringent visa rules. This system is a major advantage in terms of macroeconomic stability, as labor supply adjusts quickly to demand throughout economic business cycles. This allows the Government to keep unemployment in the country on a very low level of less than 3%, and it also gives the Government more leeway in terms of macroeconomic policies – where other governments often need to make trade-offs between fighting unemployment and fighting inflation.

Business and finance

The UAE offers businesses a strong enabling environment: stable political and macroeconomic conditions, a future-oriented Government, good general infrastructure and ICT infrastructure. Moreover, the country has made continuous and convincing improvements to its regulatory environment and is generally a top country for doing business. UAE is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business by the Doing Business 2017 Report published by the World Bank Group.WEB,weblink Ranking of Economies, World Bank Group, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110604005151weblink">weblink 4 June 2011, The UAE are in the top ranks of several global indices, such as the Doing Business, the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), the World Happiness Report (WHR) and the Global Innovation Index (GII). The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), for example, assigns the UAE rank two regionally in terms of business environment and 22 worldwide. From the 2018 Arab Youth Survey the UAE emerges as top Arab country in areas such as living, safety and security, economic opportunities, and starting a business, and as an example for other States to emulate.The weaker points remain the level of education across the UAE population, limitations in the financial and labor markets, barriers to trade and some regulations that hinder business dynamism. The major challenge for the country, though, remains translating investments and strong enabling conditions into knowledge, innovation and creative outputs.UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist. The right to collective bargaining and the right to strike are not recognised, and the Ministry of Labour has the power to force workers to go back to work. Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates, ITUC, Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis – other GCC Arabs – getting preference in public sector jobs despite lesser credentials than competitors and lower motivation. In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as Emirates airlines and Dubai Properties.BOOK, Krane, Jim, City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 2009, 267–270, 978-0-312-53574-2, The UAE's monetary policy is in the service of stability and predictability, as the Central Bank of the UAE (CBUAE) keeps a peg to the US Dollar (USD) and moves interest rates close to the Federal Funds Rate. This policy makes sense in the current situation of global and regional economic and geopolitical uncertainty. Also considering the fact that exports have become the main driver of the UAE's economic growth (the contribution of international trade to GDP grew from 31% in 2017 to 33.5% in 2018, outpacing overall GDP growth for the period), and the fact that the AED is currently undervalued, a departure from this policy – and particularly the peg – would negatively affect this important part of the UAE economy in the short term. In the mid- to long term, however, the peg will become less important, as the UAE transitions to a knowledge-based economy – and becomes yet more independent from the oil and gas sector (oil is currently still being traded not in AED, but in USD). On the contrary, it will become more and more important for the Government to have monetary policy at its free disposal to target inflation, shun too heavy reliance on taxes, and avoid situations where decisions on exchange rates and interest rates contradict fiscal policy measures – as has been the case in recent years, where monetary policy has limited fiscal policy effects on economic expansion.According to Fitch Ratings, the decline in property sector follows risks of progressively worsening the quality of assets in possession with UAE banks, leading the economy to rougher times ahead. Even though as compared to retail and property, UAE banks fared well. The higher US interest rates followed since 2016 - which the UAE currency complies to - have boosted profitability. However, the likelihood of plunging interest rates and increasing provisioning costs on bad loans, point to difficult times ahead for the economy._WEB,weblink UAE banks prepare for rough ride ahead, 18 October 2019, Financial Times, Since 2015, economic growth has been more mixed due to a number of factors impacting both demand and supply. In 2017 and 2018 growth has been positive but on a low level of 0.8 and 1.4%, respectively. To support the economy the Government is currently following an expansionary fiscal policy. However, the effects of this policy are partially offset by monetary policy, which has been contractionary. If not for the fiscal stimulus in 2018, the UAE economy would probably have contracted in that year. One of the factors responsible for slower growth has been a credit crunch, which is due to, among other factors, higher interest rates. Government debt has remained on a low level, despite high deficits in a few recent years. Risks related to government debt remain low. Inflation has been picking up in 2017 and 18. Contributing factors were the introduction of a value added tax (VAT) of 5% in 2018 as well as higher commodity prices. Despite the Government's expansionary fiscal policy and a growing economy in 2018 and at the beginning of 2019, prices have been dropping in late 2018 and 2019 owing to oversupply in some sectors of importance to consumer prices.

Oil and gas

The UAE leadership has driven forward economic diversification efforts already before the oil price crash in the 1980s, and the UAE is nowadays the most diversified economy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Although the oil and gas sector does still play an important role in the UAE economy, these efforts have paid off in terms of great resilience during periods of oil price fluctuations and economic turbulence. In 2018, the oil and gas sector contributed 26% to overall GDP. The introduction of the VAT has provided the Government with an additional source of income – approximately 6% of the total revenue in 2018, or 27 billion United Arab Emirates Dirham (AED) – affording its fiscal policy more independence from oil and gas-related revenue, which constitutes about 36% of the total Government revenue. While the Government may still adjust the exact arrangement of the VAT, it is not likely that any new taxes will be introduced in the foreseeable future. Additional taxes would destroy one of the UAE's main enticements for businesses to operate in the country and put a heavy burden on the economy.

Tourism

File:Dubai Marina Beach Panorama.jpg|thumb|Dubai MarinaDubai MarinaTourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. Dubai is the top tourism destination in the Middle East. According to the annual MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, Dubai is the fifth most popular tourism destination in the world.WEB,weblink Dubai Ranks Fifth Among Top Global Destinations For Travellers, Gulf Business, 10 July 2014, Dubai holds up to 66% share of the UAE's tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16% and Sharjah 10%. Dubai welcomed 10 million tourists in 2013.Between 2014 and 18, the accommodation and food, education, information and communication, arts and recreation, and real estate sectors overperformed in terms of growth, whereas the construction, logistics, professional services, public, and oil and gas sectors underperformed.The UAE has the most advanced and developed infrastructure in the region.WEB,weblink Infrastructure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), The Prospect Group, Since the 1980s, the UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property.WEB,weblink UAE yearbook 2009, Slideshare.net, 13 April 2009,

Transport

{{Multiple image
| align = right
| direction = horizontal
| width =
| image1 = Emirates Airbus A380 (A6-EDS) departs London Heathrow 11April2015.jpg
| width1 = 190
| alt1 =
| caption1 = Emirates, one of the world's largest airlines based in Dubai.
| image2 = Etihad Airways - Airbus A380-861.jpg
| width2 = 210
| alt2 =
| caption2 = Etihad Airways, second largest airline in UAE based in Abu Dhabi.
}}Dubai International Airport was the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2014, overtaking London Heathrow.NEWS,weblink Dubai Overtakes Heathrow To Become World's Busiest, Anderson, Elizabeth, 27 January 2015, The Telegraph, 12 February 2015, A {{convert|1200|km|mi|abbr=on}} country-wide railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports.NEWS,weblink From sand to sea, International Railway Journal, 21 March 2012, The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.NEWS,weblink Will metro change Dubai car culture?, 11 September 2009, BBC News, The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080714124311weblink">weblink 14 July 2008, UAE Ports, Uae.gov.ae, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, and Ras Al Khaimah are connected by the E11 highway, which is the longest road in the UAE. In Dubai, in addition to the metro, Dubai Tram and Palm Jumeirah Monorail also connect specific parts of the city.

Telecommunications

The UAE is served by two telecommunications operators, Etisalat and Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company ("du"). Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates, OpenNet Interactive, Internet subscribers were expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012.WEB,weblink UAE telecom market grows with competition | Mobile telecomms report, Ameinfo.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141214221608weblink">weblink 14 December 2014, The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content.WEB,weblink UAE reports high website censorship, The National Newspaper, 12 June 2009, 5G wireless services were installed nationwide in 2019 through a partnership with HuaweiNEWS,weblink UAE ready for fast lane with 5G in 2019, Khaleej Times, 17 February 2019,

Culture

{{See also|Emirati Dialect}}File:Deira Souk on 9 May 2007 Pict 2.jpg|thumb|A traditional souk in Deira, Dubai]]Emirati culture is based on Arabian culture and has been influenced by the cultures of Persia, India, and East Africa. Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity.BOOK,weblink Handbook of Islamic Marketing, 430, Arabian and Persian inspired architecture is part of the expression of a 'local' identity., 9780857936028, Sandıkcı, Özlem, Rice, Gillian, 1 January 2011, Persian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and folk arts.BOOK,weblink Folklore and Folklife in the United Arab Emirates, 167, 9781136849077, Hurriez, Sayyid Hamid, 16 December 2013, For example, the distinctive wind tower which tops traditional Emirati buildings, the barjeel has become an identifying mark of Emirati architecture and is attributed to Persian influence. This influence is derived both from traders who fled the tax regime in Persia in the early 19th Century and from Emirati ownership of ports on the Persian coast, for instance the Al Qassimi port of Lingeh.BOOK, United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, Hellyer, Peter, Trident, 2001, 978-1900724470, 181, (File:Haribya Band.jpg|thumb|left|A band performs a razfah in an Emirati wedding. Razfah is a cultural dance derived from Arab tribes sword battles.)The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society.WEB,weblink Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief, Major holidays in the United Arab Emirates include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080503011056weblink">weblink 3 May 2008, Official holidays in UAE, Gowealthy.com, Emirati males prefer to wear a kandura, an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an abaya, a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body.WEB,weblink UAE National Clothing, Grapeshisha.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120104204209weblink">weblink 4 January 2012, Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. The earliest known poet in the UAE is Ibn Majid, born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili (1880–1954), Salem bin Ali al Owais (1887–1959) and Ahmed bin Sulayem (1905–1976). Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and Romantic poets.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008014601weblink">weblink 8 October 2011, Literature and poetry, Visitabudhabi.ae, 1 July 2009, The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country.The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums,Sharjah Museums Department {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110222082532weblink |date=22 February 2011 }}. sharjahmuseums.ae which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World.WEB, 18 October 2009,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090202124611weblink">weblink 2 February 2009, About Sharjah â€“ Sharjah Commerce Tourism Development Authority, Sharjahtourism.ae, In Dubai, the area of Al Quoz has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the Salsali Private Museum.WEB, Dubai FAQs,weblink Art Galleries Dubai, Dubaifaqs.com, Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on Saadiyat Island. Six grand projects are planned, including the Guggenheim Abu Dhabi and the Louvre Abu Dhabi.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120730122944weblink">weblink 30 July 2012, Saadiyat Island â€“ Island of Happiness, Saadiyat.ae, 19 March 2009, Dubai also plans to build a Kunsthal museum and a district for galleries and artists.WEB,weblink Irish, John and Walid, Tamara, Dubai eyeing new fashion, design district, ArabianBusiness.com, 11 June 2009, Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. Liwa is a type of music and dance performed locally, mainly in communities that contain descendants of Bantu peoples from the African Great Lakes region. The Dubai Desert Rock Festival is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100119083259weblink">weblink 19 January 2010, Festival Info, DesertRockFestival.com, The cinema of the United Arab Emirates is minimal but expanding.

Cuisine

File:Luqaimat.jpg|thumb|Arabic coffee with LugaimatLugaimatThe traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods, with lamb and mutton preferred to goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with cardamom, saffron, or mint to give them a distinctive flavour.WEB,weblink UAE Travel& Tourism: Food & Drink, UAEinteract, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090611160248weblink">weblink 11 June 2009, Popular cultural Emirati dishes include threed, machboos, khubisa, khameer and chabab bread among others while Lugaimat is a famous Emirati dessert.With the influence of western culture, fast food has become very popular among young people, to the extent that campaigns have been held to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses.The UAE's big fat problem. Gulf News. (19 July 2012). Retrieved 26 January 2014. Alcohol is allowed to be served only in hotel restaurants and bars. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. Likewise, pork, which is haram (not permitted for Muslims), is sold in separate sections in all major supermarkets. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood.WEB,weblink Alcohol and Pork Licenses, Alloexpat.com, 30 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090805054659weblink">weblink 5 August 2009,

Sports

File:Yas Marina Circuit, October 12, 2018 SkySat (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|Yas Marina Circuit in Abu DhabiAbu DhabiFile:DTC1.jpg|thumb|Dubai Tennis ChampionshipsDubai Tennis ChampionshipsFormula One is particularly popular in the United Arab Emirates, and is annually held at the Yas Marina Circuit. The race takes place in the evening, and was the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night.NEWS, AUTOSPORT.com – premium content,weblink Autosport, 28 August 2009, Other popular sports include camel racing, falconry, endurance riding, and tennis.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080611135303weblink">weblink 11 June 2008, UAE Sports, Uae.gov.ae, The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: The Dubai Golf Club and Emirates Golf Club.In the past, child camel jockeys were used, leading to widespread criticism. Eventually the UAE passed laws banning the use of children for the sport, leading to the prompt removal of almost all child jockeys.Middle East | Help for Gulf child camel jockeys. BBC News (2 December 2004). Retrieved 10 October 2015. Recently robot jockeys have been introduced to overcome the problem of child camel jockeys which was an issue of human right violations. Ansar Burney is often praised for the work he has done in this area.NEWS,weblink Ansar Burney — a true champion of human rights, 19 July 2018,

Football

Football is a popular sport in the UAE. Al Nasr, Al Ain, Al Wasl, Sharjah, Al Wahda, and Shabab Al Ahli are the most popular teams and enjoy the reputation of long-time regional champions.WEB,weblink Clubs, Sports Clubs UAE United Arab Emirates, Indexuae.com, 8 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090717173430weblink">weblink 17 July 2009, dead, The United Arab Emirates Football Association was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organising youth programmes and improving the abilities of not only its players, but also the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The UAE qualified for the FIFA World Cup in 1990, along with Egypt. It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after Kuwait and Algeria in 1982, and Iraq and Algeria again in 1986. The UAE has won the Gulf Cup Championship twice: the first cup won in January 2007 held in Abu Dhabi and the second in January 2013, held in Bahrain.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070318080035weblink">weblink 18 March 2007, Gulf Cup 2007, Gulf News, The country hosted the 2019 AFC Asian Cup. The UAE team went all the way to the semi-finals, where they were defeated by the eventual champions, Qatar.

Cricket

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the SAARC countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted four international test cricket matches so far.WEB,weblink UAE Cricket Timeline, Cricketeurope4.net, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120709093903weblink">weblink 9 July 2012, Sheikh Zayed Cricket Stadium in Abu Dhabi has also hosted international cricket matches. Dubai has two cricket stadiums (Dubai Cricket Ground No. 1 and No. 2) with a third, the DSC Cricket Stadium, as part of Dubai Sports City. Dubai is also home to the International Cricket Council.WEB,weblink Cricinfo â€“ Grounds â€“ United Arab Emirates, Content-uk.cricinfo.com, 17 June 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090106155437weblink">weblink 6 January 2009, The UAE national cricket team qualified for the 1996 Cricket World Cup and narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. They qualified for the 2015 Cricket World Cup held in Australia and New Zealand.WEB, Nayar, K.R.,weblink Not stumped by UAE cricket issues â€“ Khan, Gulf News, 6 September 2008, 1 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150406013456weblink">weblink 6 April 2015, dead, Qualification – Cricket World Cup 2015 Qualifier | ICC {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131104135014weblink |date=4 November 2013 }}. Icc-cricket.com (10 April 2015). Retrieved 26 November 2015. The 14th edition of the Asia Cup Cricket tournament was held in the UAE in September 2018.United Arab Emirates set to host Asia Cup – Rediff.com Cricket. Rediff.com (14 June 2015). Retrieved 10 October 2015.

Education

File:UniversityCityHall.jpg|thumb|left|University City Hall is the largest hall located in University City in Sharjah. Graduation ceremonies of American University of Sharjah, University of Sharjah, and Higher Colleges of TechnologyHigher Colleges of TechnologyFile:Abu Dhabi University 2013 03 13 (8582695329).jpg|thumb|Abu Dhabi UniversityAbu Dhabi UniversityThe education system through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the Abu Dhabi Education Council. It consists of primary schools, middle schools and high schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates' development goals. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary.The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its undergraduate institutions.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101224200815weblink">weblink 24 December 2010, American University in Dubai. Undergraduate : Admission, Aud.edu, The adult literacy rate in 2015 was 93.8%.WEB, Middle East :: United Arab Emirates — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency,weblink www.cia.gov, 29 October 2019, The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the CERT Research Centers and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and Institute for Enterprise Development.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080731123515weblink">weblink 31 July 2008, MASDAR | Profile, Web.archive.org, 31 July 2008, According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the United Arab Emirates University (421–430th worldwide), Khalifa UniversityKhalifa University | Undergraduate. Top Universities. Retrieved 10 October 2015. (441–450th worldwide), the American University of Sharjah (431–440th) and University of Sharjah (551–600th worldwide).American University of Sharjah Rankings. Top Universities. Retrieved 26 November 2015.

Demographics

File:Palm jumeirah core.jpg|thumb|Residential villas in the Palm Jumeirah palm fronds in DubaiDubaiFile:Sharjah, UAE.jpg|thumb|left|The old residential area in SharjahSharjahAccording to an estimate by the World Bank, the UAE's population in 2018 stands at 9.543 million. Expatriates and immigrants account for 88.52% while Emiratis make up the remaining 11.48%.WEB,weblink UAE Population Statistics, This unique imbalance is due to the country's exceptionally high net migration rate of 21.71, the world's highest.WEB,weblink Net migration rate, Cia.gov, Under Article 8 of UAE Federal Law No. 17, an expatriate can apply for UAE citizenship after residing in the country for 20 years, providing they have never been convicted of a crime and can speak fluent Arabic.Camille Paldi (13 July 2010) UAE Islamic Finance. I Love The UAE. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Only 1.4 million inhabitants are citizens.The UAE is ethnically diverse. The five most populous nationalities in the emirates of Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman are Indian (25%), Pakistani (12%), Emirati (9%), Bangladeshi (7%), and Filipino (5%).WEB, Indians, Pakistanis make up 23% of Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman population,weblink gulfnews.com, 7 August 2015, Expatriates from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the population.WEB,weblink UAE population hits 6m, Emiratis make up 16.5%, Sambidge, Andy, 7 October 2009, ArabianBusiness.com, WEB, Mcintosh, Lindsay,weblink Terror red alert for 100,000 British expats in Dubai, The Scotsman, 16 June 2008, More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country.NEWS, Whittell, Giles,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100525100904weblink">weblink 25 May 2010, British pair face jail for kissing in Dubai restaurant, The Times, 15 March 2010, The rest of the population are from other Arab states.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates, CIA World Factbook, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120709123331weblink">weblink 9 July 2012, Editorial: The Ideal Prince, Arabnews.com, 3 November 2004, About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban.WEB, Table 3.10 Urbanization, World Development Indicators,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090325215156weblink">weblink 25 March 2009, unfit, The average life expectancy was 76.7 in 2012, higher than for any other Arab country.WEB,weblink Life expectancy at birth, The World Factbook, WEB,weblink Average life expectancy in UAE rises to 75 years, Uaeinteract.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090611161529weblink">weblink 11 June 2009, With a male/female sex ratio of 2.2 males for each female in the total population and 2.75 to 1 for the 15–65 age group, the UAE's gender imbalance is second highest in the world after Qatar.WEB,weblink Sex ratio, The World Factbook, dead,weblink 16 October 2013,

Religion

{{bar boxPew Research Center>Pew Research)Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: United Arab Emirates. Pew Research Center. 2010.United Arab Emirates. International Religious Freedom Report 2007. State.gov. Retrieved 27 September 2013.|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Muslim|green|76}}{{bar percent|Christianity|blue|12.6}}{{bar percent|Hindu|orange|6.6}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|yellow|2}}{{bar percent|Other|gray|1}}{{bar percent|None|black|1}}}}Islam is the largest and the official state religion of the UAE. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report for 2012 – United Arab Emirates, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, By the same token, non-Muslims are expected to avoid interfering in Islamic religious matters or the Islamic upbringing of Muslims.The government imposes restrictions on spreading other religions through any form of media as it is considered a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country, one Hindu temple in the region of Bur Dubai,WEB, Al Jandaly, Bassma,weblink Churches and temples in the UAE, Gulf News, 5 April 2008, 1 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150112123921weblink">weblink 12 January 2015, dead, one Sikh Gurudwara in Jebel Ali and also a Buddhist temple in Al Garhoud.Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was Muslim, 13% Christian, and 11% other (mainly Hindu). Census figures do not take into account the many "temporary" visitors and workers while also counting Baha'is and Druze as Muslim. Among Emirati Muslim citizens, 97% are Sunni, while 3% are Shi'a, mostly concentrated in the emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. Omani immigrants are mostly Ibadi, while Sufi influences exist too.WEB,weblink Islam: Sunnis and Shiites, investigativeproject.org, 23 February 2004,

Largest cities

{{Largest cities of the United Arab Emirates}}

Languages

Arabic is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people.BOOK, Christensen, Shane, Frommer's Dubai, 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-71178-1, 174, Since the area was occupied by the British until 1971,{{dubious|date=January 2018|reason=English isn't common because of that, but because of the too many foreigners who can't find other common languages}} English is the primary lingua franca in the UAE. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs.

Health

The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 76.96 years.Gazetteer – The World – Life Expectancy – Top 100+ By Country (2018). Geoba.se (28 April 2016). Retrieved on 21 August 2018. Cardiovascular disease is the principal cause of death in the UAE, constituting 28% of total deaths; other major causes are accidents and injuries, malignancies, and congenital anomalies.WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates country profile, Library of Congress, According to World Health Organisation data from 2014, 37.2% of adults in the UAE are clinically obese, with a Body mass index (BMI) score of 30 or more.WEB, Prevalence of obesity, ages 18+, 2010–2014,weblink WHO, World Health Organisation, 26 February 2016, In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifyinghealthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080612101330weblink">weblink 12 June 2008, UAE Health, Uae.gov.ae, The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. Eventually, under federal law, every Emirati and expatriate in the country will be covered by compulsory health insurance under a unified mandatory scheme.WEB,weblink El Shammaa, Dina, Health cover is mandatory, Gulf News, 3 January 2009, 1 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150112123918weblink">weblink 12 January 2015, dead, The country has benefited from medical tourists from all over the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The UAE attracts medical tourists seeking plastic surgery and advanced procedures, cardiac and spinal surgery, and dental treatment, as health services have higher standards than other Arab countries in the Persian Gulf.WEB, Detrie, Megan,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091124064723weblink">weblink 24 November 2009, Dubai has eye on medical tourism, The National Newspaper, 15 November 2009, dead,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • "Towards A Foreign Language, Teaching Policy for the Arab World: U.A.E Perspective." United Arab Emirates University (1996).
  • Abu Libdeh, A. (1994). ‘English on Khalifa Street’. The Journal of the College of Education. UAE University 10, 25–51.
  • Swan, M. (26 April 2012). Arabic school aims to boost the popularity of the language. The National, p. 6.

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=United Arab Emirates}} {{Emirates of the United Arab Emirates |titlestyle=background:#ddf;}}{{United Arab Emirates topics}}{{Navboxes||title=Related articles|list={{Countries of Asia}}{{Middle East}}{{Arabian Plate}}{{Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean}}{{Countries bordering the Persian Gulf}}}}{{Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|state=collapsed}}{{Arab League}}{{OPEC}}{{Gulf Cooperation Council}}{{Monarchies|state=collapsed}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "United Arab Emirates" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 9:59pm EST - Thu, Nov 21 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT