Government of Pakistan

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Government of Pakistan
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{{Short description|National government}}{{Use Pakistani English|date=December 2018}} {{Use dmy dates|date=December 2018}}

|label5 = Head of statePresident of Pakistan>President (Arif Alvi)|label7 = Seat|data7 = Aiwan-e-Sadr|header8 = Legislature|label9 = LegislatureParliament of Pakistan>Parliament|label10 = Upper houseSenate of Pakistan>Senate|label11 = LeaderChairman of the Senate of Pakistan>Chairman (Sadiq Sanjrani)|label12 = Lower houseNational Assembly of Pakistan>National Assembly|label13 = LeaderSpeaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan>Speaker (Asad Qaiser)|label14 = Meeting placeParliament of Pakistan>īmarat-e-PārlīmānExecutive (government)>Executive|label16 = Head of governmentPrime Minister of Pakistan>Prime Minister (Imran Khan)|label17 = Main organCabinet of Pakistan>Cabinet|label18 = Head of civil servicesCabinet Secretary of Pakistan>Cabinet secretary (Maroof Afzal)|label19 = Meeting placeCabinet Secretariat (Pakistan)>Cabinet secretariatMinistry (government department)>MinistriesCabinet of Pakistan>30 (25 Federal Ministers, 5 Ministers of state and 5 advisors)|label21 = Responsible toNational Assembly of Pakistan>National Assembly|header22 = JudiciarySupreme court>CourtSupreme Court of Pakistan>Supreme court|label24 = Chief judgeChief Justice of Pakistan>Chief Justice (Asif Saeed Khan Khosa)}}{{Politics of Pakistan}}The Government of Pakistan (}}) is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2007-10-24, About Government, Government of Pakistan, 2009-03-05, Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is mainly composed of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court.WEB, Govt. of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan,weblink Government of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan, 18 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 June 2013, The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions, departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President promulgates ordinances and passes bills.The President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive (of the executive branch) and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house. The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, district, anti-terrorism, and the green courts; all inferior to the Supreme Court.The full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases. The "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are often used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. Also, the terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government. As the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government.WEB,weblink Government tenure ends marking ten years of democracy in Pakistan,, WEB,weblink Here are the highest paid govt departments - The Express Tribune,,

Federal law and Constitution

The Constitution of Pakistan established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as State of Pakistan. The Constitution reads as:
The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation (a term inherited from the United Kingdom), such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, and the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga (or Panchayat) system has become an institution for local governance.NEWS, Chapter 3: Tribal Areas.,weblink 19 June 2013, Chapter 3: Tribal Areas., WEB,weblink,, The 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been greatly influenced by the United States Of America ' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has also influenced the country's judicial development.WEB, Please overview: the Court system of Pakistan,

Branches of government

Legislative branch

The legislative branch is known as the parliament, a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses;
  • The National Assembly is the lower house and has 342 members. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities.
  • The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms.
The Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament (MPs), according to the constitution. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government, then the government collapses and a new one must be formed.

Executive branch

By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history.

Prime Minister and Cabinet

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزيراعظم; lit: 'Wazir-e- Azam''), is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive (CE).WEB, Prime Minister of Pakistan,weblink Govt. Pakistan, 19 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 July 2014, Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations.The Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions, including;
  • The federal secretaries as head of cabinet- level ministries
  • The chief secretaries of the provinces
  • Key administrative and military personnel in the Pakistan Armed Forces
  • The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, TCP, PIA, PNSC etc.
  • The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions
  • Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries
The Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent (50 members including the Prime Minister) of the total strength of the Parliament.WEB,weblink 18th amendment limits cabinet size, Amir, Wasim, 15 May 2013, Each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament (MP). The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assisted by the Cabinet Secretary of Pakistan, whose appointment comes from the Civil Services of Pakistan. Other Ministers are Ministers of State, junior members who report directly to one of the Cabinet Ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government.Once appointed by the Prime Minister, all Cabinet Ministers are officially confirmed to their appointment offices by the President in a special oath of ceremony.WEB,weblink Prime Minister Imran Khan to chair federal cabinet meeting - Samaa Digital, Samaa TV,


The President of Pakistan is a ceremonial figurehead, a ceremonial head of state representing the unity of the country.Elected for a five-year term by an indirect election, the electoral college consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies, the president is now not eligible for reelection (18th amendment). However no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and removed from office for incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament.NEWS, Information and Mass-Media Broadcasting Ministry of Pakistan, President,weblink 19 June 2013, Information and Mass-Media Broadcasting Ministry of Pakistan, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2013, The President enjoys all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 41-Article 47.The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments.These include: The President, as Head of State also receives the credentials of Ambassadors from other countries, whilst the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, receives credentials of High Commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.The President is the civilian Commander in Chief of the Pakistan Armed Forces.WEB, Chapter 2: Armed Forces.,weblink Part XII: Miscellaneous, 19 June 2013, The President of Pakistan can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence, reprieve and respite, and remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority, particularly in cases involving a death sentence. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Parliamentary majority. In most other cases, however, the President exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister.WEB, Const. Pakistan, Chapter 1: The President,weblink Part III: The Federation of Pakistan, 19 June 2013,

Judicial branch

Pakistan's independent judicial system began under the British Raj, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. Institutional and judicial procedures were later changed, in 1950s, under the influence of American legal system to remove the fundamental rights problems. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Anti-terrorism courts, Sharia courts, and Environmental courts all over the country; Supreme Court being the superior court. The Supreme Court of Pakistan consists of a Chief Justice, and Senior Justices appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The Constitution does not fix the number of justices of the Supreme Court, though it can be fixed by Parliament through an act signed by the President.NEWS,weblink 19 June 2013, Part VII: The Judicature,

Judicature transfer

The Constitution grants powers to the Supreme Court to make judicature transfers. Although the proceedings in the Supreme Court arise out of the judgement or orders made by the subordinate courts, the Supreme Court reserves the right to transfer any case, appeal or proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.

Supreme Judicial Council

Misconduct of judges is highly intolerable as is mentioned in the constitution. Under the mainframe of the Supreme Judicial Council Article 209 an inquiry into the capacity or conduct of a Judge, who is a member of the Council, may be conducted.

Civil service

The civil service of Pakistan is the permanent bureaucracy of the Government of Pakistan. The civil servants are the permanent officials of the government, occupying a respected image in the civil society. Civil servants come from different cadres (e.g. Pakistan Administrative Service, Police Service of Pakistan etc.) after passing the CSS examinations. Not all the employees of the Government of Pakistan are civil servants; other employees of the Government of Pakistan come from the scientific institutions, state-owned corporations and commissioned military science circles.In the parliamentary democracy, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The cabinet and its ministers are expected to lay down the policy guidelines, and the civil servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing it.

Federal secretaries

The federal secretaries are the most senior, experienced, and capable officials in the country. Each ministry/division has its Secretary to oversee and enforce the public policy matters.The secretaries, who are basic pay scale (BPS)-22 grade officers, are largely considered to be the most powerful officials in the country.WEB,weblink Promotions: PM appoints 15 federal secretaries - The Express Tribune, 7 January 2015, WEB,weblink PM appoints new Cabinet Division, Establishment secretaries - Samaa TV,, Due to the importance of their respective assignments, there are twelve specific federal secretaries which are considered to be the most vital in the Government of Pakistan. These include the Secretary Establishment (responsible for civil service matters), Secretary Commerce (responsible for trade), Secretary Cabinet (responsible for Cabinet Division), Secretary to the Prime Minister (responsible for Prime Minister's Office), Secretary Interior (responsible for law and order), Secretary Finance (responsible for the country's treasury), Secretary Foreign Affairs (responsible for foreign relations), Secretary Maritime Affairs (responsible for ports and shipping), Secretary Power (responsible for the electricity and power sector), Secretary Planning and Development (responsible for development projects), Secretary Petroleum (responsible for the petroleum sector) and Secretary Industries (responsible for industrial development)weblinkweblink Lobbying on for post of finance secretary - The Express Tribune,, Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordination of activities of the various Ministries in such situations are the functions of the Cabinet Division. Appointment for the chairman of the FPSC, the prestigious body responsible for the recruitment of elite bureaucrats, is made by the President after consulting the Prime Minister, according to Article 242 of the Constitution.WEB, Part XII: Miscellaneous,weblink Part XII: Miscellaneous, 19 June 2013,

Elections and voting system

Since 1947, Pakistan has an asymmetric federal government, with elected officials at the national (federal), provincial, tribal, and local levels. Constitution has set the limit of government for five years, but if a Vote of no confidence movements takes place in the parliament (and prelude of movements are proved at the Judicial branch), the government falls and immediately replaced with caretaker government initiated by the president (consultation of Prime Minister also required to make such move), in regards to Article 58 of the constitution.WEB, Article 58,weblink 58 Dissolution of the National Assembly., 20 June 2013, There has been four times that the martial law has been in effect, and controversially approved by the supreme court. Through a general election where the leader of the majority winning party is selected to be the Prime Minister. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected. Elections in Pakistan take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.

Administration and governments

Provincial, Tribal, and Local governments

There are four provincial governments that rule the four provinces of the state; the Chief Minister heads the state government. All provincial assemblies are unicameral, elected for five years.NEWS, Chapter 3: The Provincial Governments,weblink 20 June 2013, The Governors appointed by President after consulting the Prime minister, act only as representatives of federal government in the province and do not have any part in running the government.The provincial governments tend to have the greatest influence over most Pakistanis' daily lives. The tribal and Local government functions at the basic level.WEB, NRB, The Local Government System 2001,weblink National Bureau of Reconstruction, National Bureau of Reconstruction, 20 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 January 2009, It is the third level of government, consisting Jirga in rural tribal areas.


Taxation and budget

Pakistan has a complex taxation system of more than 70 unique taxes administered by at least 37 tax collection institutions of the Government of Pakistan.NEWS, Kevin, Horrigan, Take a lesson from Pakistan: Taxes are for suckers, 2010-09-26,weblink Saint Louis Post-Dispatch, 2010-11-07, Taxation is a debated and controversial issue in public and political science circle of the country, and according to the International Development Committee, Pakistan had a lower-than-average tax take. Only 0.57% of Pakistanis, or 768,000 people out of a population of 190 million pay income tax.NEWS, Stop extra UK aid to Pakistan unless taxes increase, urge MPs,weblink 20 June 2013, BBC Pakistan Bureau, 4 April 2013, etal, The Finance Minister of Pakistan presents the annual federal budget in the Parliament in the midst of the year, and it has to be passed by the both houses of the Parliament.NEWS,weblink Economic plans: Govt set to unveil Rs3.5tr budget today, Express Tribune, 12 June 2013, 12 June 2013, Irfan, Ghauri, The budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial fiscal year.NEWS,weblink Govt unveils ‘business friendly’ budget for FY 2013–14, GEO News, 12 June 2013, 12 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013,

National Finance Commission program overview

Constituted under the Article 160 of the Constitution of Pakistan by the Constitution, the National Finance Commission Award (NFC) program is a series of planned economic programs to take control of financial imbalances and equally manage the financial resources for the four provinces to meet their expenditure liabilities while alleviating the horizontal fiscal imbalances.WEB, Const. Pakistan, Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits,weblink Constitution of Pakistan, Constitution of Pakistan, 4 May 2013, According to stipulations and directions of the Constitution, the provisional governments and Federal government compete to get higher share of the program's revenues in order to stabilize their own financial status.WEB, Sabir, Mohammad, 7th NFC and Its Implications,weblink Social Policy and Development Centre, Social Policy and Development Centre, 4 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2013,



(File:Transparency international 2015.png|thumb|250px|Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2015)The corruption is on-going issue in the government, claiming to take initiatives against it,BOOK,weblink 4, Corruption and good governa, Susan Rose-Ackerman, United Nations Development Programme, particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.{{citation|contribution=Pakistan|title=Country Reports on Human Rights Practices|publisher=United States Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor|date=4 August 2011|year=2010|contribution-url= International>Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index with scores of 2.5,WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index (2011),weblink Transparency International, 10 December 2011, 2.3 in 2010,WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index (2010),weblink Transparency International, 10 December 2011, and 2.5 in 2009WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index (2009),weblink Transparency Internationalurl= author=Marie Chêne |publisher=U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre}} In 2011, Pakistan ranked 134 on the index with 42 countries ranking worse.NEWS, Pakistan less corrupt, according to global corruption list,weblink The Express Tribune, 1 December 2011, 10 December 2011, In 2012, Pakistan's ranking dropped even further from 134 to 139, making Pakistan the 34th most corrupt country in the world, tied with Azerbaijan, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria.'Rule of law can end corruption in Pakistan' | Asia | DW.DE | 06.12.2012. DW.DE. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.However, during Sharif regime (2013–17), Pakistan got improved ranking of 117/180 in 2017 (with an improvement in score 28, 29, 30, 32, 32 [2013-17]), equal to Egypt (better than 59 countries).WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2017, Transparency International, e.V,,

Circular debt and spending priorities

(File:Literacy Rate Pak.jpg|thumb|250px|left|In 1947–1951, the literacy rate was ~16.40% but literacy rate is now ~69.0% (out of 80.00%). Still, Pakistan has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world.)Since before the collapse of the USSR in 1991, progressive economic liberalization has been carried out by the government both at the provincial and the national level. Pakistan has achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial fiscal year of 2006–07, surpassing the government target of $4 billion.Daily Mail News {{webarchive|url= |date=2010-06-11 }} Despite this milestone achievement, the Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping by ~54.6% due to Pakistan's military operations, financial crises, law and order situation in Karachi, according to the Bank of Pakistan.WEB, 2010-11-01, 2010-02-15, Malick, Sajid Ibrahim, Significant Decline In Foreign Investment To Pakistan,weblink From the 2006 estimate, the Government expenditures were ~$25 billion.Funding in science and education has been a primary policy of the Government of Pakistan, since 1947. Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis {{webarchive |url= |date=January 1, 2012 }} (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 3rd Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 2nd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year.weblink" title=""> Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the worldPakistan Literacy Rate. (2010-09-28). Retrieved on 2013-07-12. and the second largest out of school population (5.1 million children) after Nigeria.Youth and skills: putting education to work, EFA global monitoring report, 2012; 2013

Debts and deficit

(File:Debt.PNG|300px|thumb|Map of countries by external debt in US$, 2006)As per the CIA World Factbook, in 2010, Pakistan ranks 63rd in the world, with respect to the public external debt to various international monetary authorities (owning ~$55.98 billion in 2010), with a total of 60.1% of GDP.WEB, CIA, Public Debt of Pakistan,weblink Central Intelligenec Agency (CIA), CIA Fact book, 20 June 2013, Since 2009, Pakistan has been trying to negotiate debt cancellation currently Pakistan spends $3 billion on debt servicing annually to largely western nations and the International Monetary Fund.Pakistan seeking trade, not aid: Gilani {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-12-26 }}. (2010-06-09). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.

Ministries and divisions

{| class="wikitable sortable mw-collapsible"|+ Federal Government Ministries of Pakistan! {{color box|Green|Federal Ministerial Departments|White}}!! {{color box|Green|Ministerial Divisions|White}} !! {{color box|Green|Creation|White}}Cabinet Secretariat (Pakistan)>Cabinet Secretariat Cabinet DivisionEstablishment DivisionCapital Administration and Development DivisionAviation Division 1947Ministry of Climate Change (Pakistan)>Climate ChangeClimate Change Division Ministry of Commerce (Pakistan)>Commerce and Textile Industry Commerce DivisionTextile Industry Division Ministry of Communications (Pakistan)>Communications Communications Division 1947Ministry of Defence (Pakistan)>Defence Defence Division 1947Ministry of Defence Production>Defence Production Defence Production Division 1972Ministry of Energy (Pakistan)>Energy Petroleum Division Power DivisionMinistry of Education (Pakistan)>Federal Education and Professional Training Federal Education and Professional Training Division Ministry of Finance, Revenue and Economic Affairs>Finance, Revenue, Economic Affairs Finance Division Federal Board of Revenue Economic Affairs Division >|Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)>Foreign Affairs Foreign Affairs Division 1947Ministry of Housing and Works>Housing and Works Housing and Works Division Ministry of Human Rights (Pakistan)>Human Rights Human Rights Division Ministry of Interior (Pakistan)>Interior Interior Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Pakistan)>Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage Information, Broadcasting and National Heritage Division Ministry of Industries and Production (Pakistan)>Industries and Production Industries and Production Division Ministry of Information Technology and Telecommunication>Information Technology and Telecommunication Information Technology and Telecommunication Division Ministry of Inter Provincial Coordination>Inter-Provincial Coordination Inter Provincial Coordination Division Ministry of Kashmir Affairs & Gilgit Baltistan>Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit Baltistan Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan Division Ministry of Law and Justice (Pakistan)>Law and Justice Law and Justice Division Ministry of Maritime Affairs (Pakistan)>Maritime AffairsMaritime Affairs Division Ministry of Narcotics Control (Pakistan)>Narcotics Control Narcotics Control DivisionMinistry of Parliamentary Affairs (Pakistan)>Parliamentary Affairs Parliamentary Affairs Division Ministry of Planning and Development>Planning and Development Planning and Development Division Ministry of National Food Security & Research (Pakistan)>National Food Security and Research National Food Security and Research Division Ministry of National Health Services Regulation and Coordination (Pakistan)>National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination Division Ministry of Religious Affairs (Pakistan)>Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony Religious Affairs and Inter-faith Harmony Division Ministry of States and Frontier Regions>States and Frontier Regions States and Frontier Regions Division Ministry of Statistics (Pakistan)>Statistics Pakistan Bureau of Statistics>|Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development>Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development| Ministry of Postal Services (Pakistan)>Postal ServicesPostal Services Division Ministry of Privatisation (Pakistan)>Privatisation Privatisation DivisionMinistry of Science and Technology (Pakistan)>Science and Technology Science and Technology Division Ministry of Water Resources (Pakistan)>Water Resources Water Resources Division Ministry of Railways (Pakistan)>Railways Railways Division


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See also



External links

{{Government of Pakistan}}{{Cabinet of Pakistan |state=collapsed}}{{Pakistan topics}}{{Asia topic|Government of|title=Governments of Asia}}

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