Queen Victoria

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Queen Victoria
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{{Other uses|Queen Victoria (disambiguation)|Victoria of the United Kingdom (disambiguation)}}{{Redirect|Victoria Regina|the play|Victoria Regina (play)}}{{Pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|British monarch who reigned 1837–1901}}

| coronation = 28 June 1838Coronation of Queen Victoria>CoronationWilliam IV of the United Kingdom>William IV| successor = Edward VII| reign1 = 1 May 1876 â€“ 22 January 1901| coronation1 = 1 January 1877Imperial Durbar}}| succession1 = Empress of India| successor1 = Edward VII| birth_name = Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent| birth_date = 24 May 1819| birth_place = Kensington Palace, London, England1901225df=yes}}| death_place = Osborne House, Isle of Wight| burial_date = 4 February 1901Frogmore Mausoleum, Windsor, Berkshire>WindsorAlbert, Prince Consort>10 February 1840reason=died}} Victoria, Princess Royal > Edward VII Princess Alice of the United Kingdom>Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha > Princess Helena of the United Kingdom > Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn > Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom>Princess Beatrice }}| issue-link = #Issue| religion = Protestant| full name = Alexandrina VictoriaHouse of Hanover>Hanover| father = Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn| mother = Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld| signature = Queen Victoria Signature.svg}}Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 â€“ 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, she attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the United Kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Birth and family

File:Denning, Stephen Poyntz - Princess Victoria aged Four - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Victoria aged 4|Portrait of Victoria aged four by Stephen Poyntz DenningStephen Poyntz DenningVictoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24{{nbsp}}May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.Hibbert, pp. 3–12; Strachey, pp. 1–17; Woodham-Smith, pp. 15–29Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24{{nbsp}}June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.Her godparents were Emperor Alexander I of Russia (represented by her uncle Frederick, Duke of York), her uncle George, Prince Regent, her aunt Queen Charlotte of Württemberg (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta) and Victoria's maternal grandmother the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh). She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent.Hibbert, pp. 12–13; Longford, p. 23; Woodham-Smith, pp. 34–35At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George{{nbsp}}III: the Prince Regent (later George{{nbsp}}IV); Frederick, Duke of York; William, Duke of Clarence (later William{{nbsp}}IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent.Longford, p. 24 The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George{{nbsp}}IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line.Worsley, p. 41.The Duke of York died in 1827. When George{{nbsp}}IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William{{nbsp}}IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81 King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.Hibbert, p. 46; Longford, p. 54; St Aubyn, p. 50; Waller, p. 344; Woodham-Smith, p. 126

Heir presumptive

File:Princess Victoria and Dash by George Hayter.jpg|thumb|left|Portrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George HayterGeorge HayterVictoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".Hibbert, p. 19; Marshall, p. 25 Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. The rumours were false in the opinion of these biographers. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.Hibbert, pp. 27–28; Waller, pp. 341–342; Woodham-Smith, pp. 63–65 The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.Hibbert, pp. 32–33; Longford, pp. 38–39, 55; Marshall, p. 19 Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.Waller, pp. 338–341; Woodham-Smith, pp. 68–69, 91 Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,Hibbert, p. 18; Longford, p. 31; Woodham-Smith, pp. 74–75 but she spoke only English at home.Longford, p. 31; Woodham-Smith, p. 75(File:Victoria sketch 1835.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Victoria's sketch of herself|Self-portrait, 1835)In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.Hibbert, pp. 34–35 Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.Hibbert, pp. 35–39; Woodham-Smith, pp. 88–89, 102 William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.Hibbert, p. 36; Woodham-Smith, pp. 89–90 Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.Hibbert, pp. 35–40; Woodham-Smith, pp. 92, 102 She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.Hibbert, pp. 38–39; Longford, p. 47; Woodham-Smith, pp. 101–102 At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.Hibbert, p. 42; Woodham-Smith, p. 105 While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.Hibbert, p. 42; Longford, pp. 47–48; Marshall, p. 21 As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.Hibbert, pp. 42, 50; Woodham-Smith, p. 135 Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.Marshall, p. 46; St Aubyn, p. 67; Waller, p. 353By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert,Longford, pp. 29, 51; Waller, p. 363; Weintraub, pp. 43–49 the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.Longford, p. 51; Weintraub, pp. 43–49 William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.Longford, pp. 51–52; St Aubyn, p. 43; Weintraub, pp. 43–49; Woodham-Smith, p. 117 Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.Weintraub, pp. 43–49 According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."Victoria quoted in Marshall, p. 27 and Weintraub, p. 49 Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".Victoria quoted in Hibbert, p. 99; St Aubyn, p. 43; Weintraub, p. 49 and Woodham-Smith, p. 119Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser",Victoria's journal, October 1835, quoted in St Aubyn, p. 36 and Woodham-Smith, p. 104 to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."Hibbert, p. 102; Marshall, p. 60; Waller, p. 363; Weintraub, p. 51; Woodham-Smith, p. 122 However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.Waller, pp. 363–364; Weintraub, pp. 53, 58, 64, and 65

Early reign

{{see also|Coronation of Queen Victoria}}File:Victoriatothrone.jpg|alt=Drawing of two men on their knees in front of Victoria|thumb|left|Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Engraving after painting by Henry Tanworth WellsHenry Tanworth WellsVictoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.Under section 2 of the Regency Act 1830, the Accession Council's proclamation declared Victoria as the King's successor "saving the rights of any issue of His late Majesty King William the Fourth which may be borne of his late Majesty's Consort". {{London Gazette|issue=19509|date=20 June 1837|page=1581}} In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."St Aubyn, pp. 55–57; Woodham-Smith, p. 138 Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.Woodham-Smith, p. 140Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited all the British Dominions, her father's unpopular younger brother, the Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was her heir presumptive while she was childless.Packard, pp. 14–15File:Dronning victoria.jpg|thumb|right|Coronation portrait by George HayterGeorge HayterAt the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The Prime Minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice.Hibbert, pp. 66–69; St Aubyn, p. 76; Woodham-Smith, pp. 143–147 Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.Greville quoted in Hibbert, p. 67; Longford, p. 70 and Woodham-Smith, pp. 143–144 Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.{{citation|title=Queen Victoria's Coronation 1838|url=|publisher=The British Monarchy|accessdate=28 January 2016}} She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham PalaceSt Aubyn, p. 69; Waller, p. 353 and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.Hibbert, p. 58; Longford, pp. 73–74; Woodham-Smith, p. 152At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,Marshall, p. 42; St Aubyn, pp. 63, 96 but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.Marshall, p. 47; Waller, p. 356; Woodham-Smith, pp. 164–166 Victoria believed the rumours.Hibbert, pp. 77–78; Longford, p. 97; St Aubyn, p. 97; Waller, p. 357; Woodham-Smith, p. 164 She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",Victoria's journal, 25 April 1838, quoted in Woodham-Smith, p. 162 because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System.St Aubyn, p. 96; Woodham-Smith, pp. 162, 165 At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin.Hibbert, p. 79; Longford, p. 98; St Aubyn, p. 99; Woodham-Smith, p. 167 Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.Hibbert, pp. 80–81; Longford, pp. 102–103; St Aubyn, pp. 101–102 When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.Longford, p. 122; Marshall, p. 57; St Aubyn, p. 104; Woodham-Smith, p. 180 At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".Hibbert, p. 83; Longford, pp. 120–121; Marshall, p. 57; St Aubyn, p. 105; Waller, p. 358In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.St Aubyn, p. 107; Woodham-Smith, p. 169 The Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.Hibbert, pp. 94–96; Marshall, pp. 53–57; St Aubyn, pp. 109–112; Waller, pp. 359–361; Woodham-Smith, pp. 170–174


{{See also|Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha|Wedding dress of Queen Victoria}}File:Victoria Marriage01.jpg|upright=1.4|alt=Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room|thumb|Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George HayterGeorge HayterThough Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.Longford, p. 84; Marshall, p. 52 Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.Longford, p. 72; Waller, p. 353 When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking {{sic}} alternative".Woodham-Smith, p. 175 Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.Hibbert, pp. 103–104; Marshall, pp. 60–66; Weintraub, p. 62Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.Hibbert, pp. 107–110; St Aubyn, pp. 129–132; Weintraub, pp. 77–81; Woodham-Smith, pp. 182–184, 187 They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary:Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.St Aubyn, p. 151 Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.Hibbert, p. 265, Woodham-Smith, p. 256 Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.Marshall, p. 152; St Aubyn, pp. 174–175; Woodham-Smith, p. 412File:Edward Oxford shoots at H. M. the Queen, 1840.jpg|upright=1.4|thumb|Contemporary lithograph of Edward OxfordEdward OxfordDuring Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.Charles, p. 23 He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.Hibbert, pp. 421–422; St Aubyn, pp. 160–161 In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.Woodham-Smith, p. 213 Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,Hibbert, p. 130; Longford, p. 154; Marshall, p. 122; St Aubyn, p. 159; Woodham-Smith, p. 220 viewed breast-feeding with disgust,Hibbert, p. 149; St Aubyn, p. 169 and thought newborn babies were ugly.Hibbert, p. 149; Longford, p. 154; Marshall, p. 123; Waller, p. 377 Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857).Victoria's household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on VictoriaWoodham-Smith, p. 100 and had supported her against the Kensington System.Longford, p. 56; St Aubyn, p. 29 Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.Hibbert, pp. 150–156; Marshall, p. 87; St Aubyn, pp. 171–173; Woodham-Smith, pp. 230–232


File:Winterhalter - Queen Victoria 1843.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Portrait by Franz Xaver WinterhalterFranz Xaver WinterhalterOn 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; however the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to provoke Francis to take a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.Charles, p. 51; Hibbert, pp. 422–423; St Aubyn, pp. 162–163 Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.Hibbert, p. 423; St Aubyn, p. 163 In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.Longford, p. 192 In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.St Aubyn, p. 164Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.Marshall, pp. 95–101; St Aubyn, pp. 153–155; Woodham-Smith, pp. 221–222(File:Queen Victoria the Princess Royal Victoria c1844-5.png|alt=Victoria cuddling a child next to her|thumb|upright|Earliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845{{citation|url=|title=Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal|publisher=Royal Collection|accessdate=29 March 2013}})In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.Woodham-Smith, p. 281 In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.Longford, p. 359 In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".The title of Maud Gonne's 1900 article upon Queen Victoria's visit to Ireland{{citation|author=Harrison, Shane|url= | work=BBC News | title=Famine Queen row in Irish port | date=15 April 2003 | accessdate=29 March 2013}} In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016{{citation|url=|last1=Officer|first1=Lawrence H.|last2=Williamson|first2=Samuel H.|year=2018|title=Five Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a UK Pound Amount, 1270 to Present|publisher=MeasuringWorth|accessdate=5 April 2018}}) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,{{citation|url=|title=Private Responses to the Famine|publisher=University College Cork|author=Kinealy, Christine|accessdate=29 March 2013|archiveurl=|archivedate=6 April 2013}} and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.Longford, p. 181 The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.Kenny, Mary (2009) Crown and Shamrock: Love and Hate Between Ireland and the British Monarchy, Dublin: New Island, {{ISBN|1-905494-98-X}}By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.St Aubyn, p. 215{{Victorian Prime Ministers}}Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.St Aubyn, p. 238 She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.Longford, pp. 175, 187; St Aubyn, pp. 238, 241; Woodham-Smith, pp. 242, 250 When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.Woodham-Smith, p. 248 Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.Hibbert, p. 198; Longford, p. 194; St Aubyn, p. 243; Woodham-Smith, pp. 282–284 At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,Hibbert, pp. 201–202; Marshall, p. 139; St Aubyn, pp. 222–223; Woodham-Smith, pp. 287–290 a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.Hibbert, pp. 161–164; Marshall, p. 129; St Aubyn, pp. 186–190; Woodham-Smith, pp. 274–276 Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.Longford, pp. 196–197; St Aubyn, p. 223; Woodham-Smith, pp. 287–290 Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.Longford, p. 191; Woodham-Smith, p. 297Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.St Aubyn, p. 216 She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.Hibbert, pp. 196–198; St Aubyn, p. 244; Woodham-Smith, pp. 298–307 Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.Hibbert, pp. 204–209; Marshall, pp. 108–109; St Aubyn, pp. 244–254; Woodham-Smith, pp. 298–307 The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby.(File:Queen Victoria Prince Albert and their nine children.JPG|alt=Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around her|thumb|upright=1.8|Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria and Helena)In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.Hibbert, pp. 216–217; St Aubyn, pp. 257–258 Victoria may have suffered from postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies. Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".Hibbert, pp. 217–220; Woodham-Smith, pp. 328–331In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.Hibbert, pp. 227–228; Longford, pp. 245–246; St Aubyn, p. 297; Woodham-Smith, pp. 354–355Napoleon III, who had been Britain's closest ally since the Crimean War, visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.Woodham-Smith, pp. 357–360 Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.Queen Victoria's Journals, Volume 40, p. 93, 18 August 1855, St Cloud They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.{{citation|url=|title=1855 visit of Queen Victoria|publisher=Château de Versailles|accessdate=29 March 2013|archiveurl=|archivedate=11 January 2013}}(File:Queen Victoria - Winterhalter 1859.jpg|thumb|upright|Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859)On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.Hibbert, pp. 241–242; Longford, pp. 280–281; St Aubyn, p. 304; Woodham-Smith, p. 391 The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.Hibbert, p. 242; Longford, p. 281; Marshall, p. 117 Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French one.{{citation|url=|title=Napoleon III Receiving Queen Victoria at Cherbourg, 5 August 1858|publisher=Royal Museums Greenwich|accessdate=29 March 2013}} Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.Hibbert, p. 255; Marshall, p. 117Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17.Longford, pp. 259–260; Weintraub, pp. 326 ff. The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.Longford, p. 263; Weintraub, pp. 326, 330 The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."Hibbert, p. 244 Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor.


File:Queen Victoria by JJE Mayall, 1860.png|thumb|left|upright|Victoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860]]In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;Hibbert, p. 267; Longford, pp. 118, 290; St Aubyn, p. 319; Woodham-Smith, p. 412 she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.Hibbert, p. 267; Marshall, p. 152; Woodham-Smith, p. 412 To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,Hibbert, pp. 265–267; St Aubyn, p. 318; Woodham-Smith, pp. 412–413 Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.Waller, p. 393; Weintraub, p. 401 In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.Hibbert, p. 274; Longford, p. 293; St Aubyn, p. 324; Woodham-Smith, p. 417 Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.Longford, p. 293; Marshall, p. 153; Strachey, p. 214 By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.Hibbert, pp. 276–279; St Aubyn, p. 325; Woodham-Smith, pp. 422–423 He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.Hibbert, pp. 280–292; Marshall, p. 154 She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.Hibbert, p. 299; St Aubyn, p. 346 She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years.St Aubyn, p. 343 Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".e.g. Strachey, p. 306 Her weight increased through comfort eating, which further reinforced her aversion to public appearances.{{Citation|url=|title=Queen Victoria – burdened by grief and six-course dinners|last=Ridley|first=Jane|date=27 May 2017|work=The Spectator|access-date=}}Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.Marshall, pp. 170–172; St Aubyn, p. 385 She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".Hibbert, p. 310; Longford, p. 321; St Aubyn, pp. 343–344; Waller, p. 404 Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.Hibbert, p. 310; Longford, p. 322File:Queen Victoria, photographed by George Washington Wilson (1863).jpg|thumb|upright|Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson.]]Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.Hibbert, pp. 323–324; Marshall, pp. 168–169; St Aubyn, pp. 356–362 Slanderous rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and the Queen was referred to as "Mrs. Brown".Hibbert, pp. 321–322; Longford, pp. 327–328; Marshall, p. 170 The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.Hibbert, p. 329; St Aubyn, pp. 361–362Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.Hibbert, pp. 311–312; Longford, p. 347; St Aubyn, p. 369 The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,St Aubyn, pp. 374–375 though she was not in favour of votes for women.Marshall, p. 199; Strachey, p. 299 Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."Hibbert, p. 318; Longford, p. 401; St Aubyn, p. 427; Strachey, p. 254 With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.Buckle, George Earle; Monypenny, W. F. (1910–20) The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, vol. 5, p. 49, quoted in Strachey, p. 243 Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".Hibbert, p. 320; Strachey, pp. 246–247In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.Longford, p. 381; St Aubyn, pp. 385–386; Strachey, p. 248 A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.St Aubyn, pp. 385–386; Strachey, pp. 248–250 In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.Longford, p. 385 In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.Hibbert, p. 343 As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.Hibbert, pp. 343–344; Longford, p. 389; Marshall, p. 173 To general rejoicing, he recovered.Hibbert, pp. 344–345 Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.Hibbert, p. 345; Longford, pp. 390–391; Marshall, p. 176; St Aubyn, p. 388On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,Charles, p. 103; Hibbert, pp. 426–427; St Aubyn, pp. 388–389 and a birching.{{Old Bailey|defendant=Arthur O'Connor|trialdate=8 April 1872|id= t18720408-352}} As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.Hibbert, p. 427; Marshall, p. 176; St Aubyn, p. 389

Empress of India

{{Wikisource|Queen Victoria's Proclamation}}After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.Hibbert, pp. 249–250; Woodham-Smith, pp. 384–385 She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",Woodham-Smith, p. 386 and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".Hibbert, p. 251; Woodham-Smith, p. 386 At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.File:Queen Victoria by Julia Abercromby.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Victoria admired Heinrich von AngeliHeinrich von AngeliIn the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.Hibbert, p. 361; Longford, p. 402; Marshall, pp. 180–184; Waller, p. 423 She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.Hibbert, pp. 295–296; Waller, p. 423 Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.Hibbert, p. 361; Longford, pp. 405–406; Marshall, p. 184; St Aubyn, p. 434; Waller, p. 426 The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.Waller, p. 427On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".Victoria's diary and letters quoted in Longford, p. 425 In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".Victoria quoted in Longford, p. 426Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.Longford, pp. 412–413 Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."Longford, p. 426 Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."Longford, p. 411 To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.Hibbert, pp. 367–368; Longford, p. 429; Marshall, p. 186; St Aubyn, pp. 442–444; Waller, pp. 428–429 When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",Letter from Victoria to Montagu Corry, 1st Baron Rowton, quoted in Hibbert, p. 369 and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."Longford, p. 437

Later years

File:Victoria farthing.jpg|thumb|upright|Victorian farthing, 1884]]On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,Hibbert, p. 420; St Aubyn, p. 422 shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.Hibbert, p. 420; St Aubyn, p. 421 Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,Hibbert, pp. 420–421; St Aubyn, p. 422; Strachey, p. 278 but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".Hibbert, p. 427; Longford, p. 446; St Aubyn, p. 421On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.Longford, pp. 451–452 Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.Longford, p. 454; St Aubyn, p. 425; Hibbert, p. 443 Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.Hibbert, pp. 443–444; St Aubyn, pp. 425–426 The manuscript was destroyed.Hibbert, pp. 443–444; Longford, p. 455 In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".Hibbert, p. 444; St Aubyn, p. 424; Waller, p. 413 On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.Longford, p. 461 The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her.Longford, pp. 477–478File:British Empire in 1898.png|thumb|upright=1.3|Extent of the British EmpireBritish EmpireVictoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.Hibbert, p. 373; St Aubyn, p. 458 She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.Waller, p. 433; see also Hibbert, pp. 370–371 and Marshall, pp. 191–193 Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".Hibbert, p. 373; Longford, p. 484 Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.Hibbert, p. 374; Longford, p. 491; Marshall, p. 196; St Aubyn, pp. 460–461 In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again.

Golden Jubilee

File:Queen Victoria and Abdul Karim.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk|Victoria and the MunshiMunshiIn 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.{{citation|url=|title=Queen Victoria|publisher=Royal Household|accessdate=29 March 2013}} By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.Marshall, pp. 210–211; St Aubyn, pp. 491–493 Two days later on 23 June,Longford, p. 502 she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk.Hibbert, pp. 447–448; Longford, p. 508; St Aubyn, p. 502; Waller, p. 441{{citation|url=|title=Queen Victoria's Urdu workbook on show|date=15 September 2017|work=BBC News|accessdate=23 November 2017}}{{citation|last=Hunt|first=Kristin|url=|title=Victoria and Abdul: The Friendship that Scandalized England|date=20 September 2017|work=Smithsonian|accessdate=23 November 2017}} Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.Hibbert, pp. 448–449 Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."Hibbert, pp. 449–451 Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.Hibbert, p. 447; Longford, p. 539; St Aubyn, p. 503; Waller, p. 442 Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.Hibbert, p. 454Victoria's eldest daughter became Empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed within the year, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Under Wilhelm, Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany were not fulfilled. He believed in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped {{sic}}".Hibbert, p. 382Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.Hibbert, p. 375; Longford, p. 519 In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.Hibbert, p. 376; Longford, p. 530; St Aubyn, p. 515 His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.Hibbert, p. 377

Diamond Jubilee

File:Queen Victoria 60. crownjubilee.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress|Victoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. DowneyW. & D. DowneyOn 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,Hibbert, p. 456 which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.Longford, p. 546; St Aubyn, pp. 545–546 The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.Marshall, pp. 206–207, 211; St Aubyn, pp. 546–548 One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.{{citation|first=Margaret|last=MacMillan|title=The War That Ended Peace|page=29|year=2013|publisher=Random House|isbn=978-0-8129-9470-4}}The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.Hibbert, pp. 457–458; Marshall, pp. 206–207, 211; St Aubyn, pp. 546–548(File:Queen Victoria In Dublin (Rare archive footage from 1900).webm|thumb|upright|Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900)Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.Hibbert, p. 436; St Aubyn, p. 508 By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.Hibbert, pp. 437–438; Longford, pp. 554–555; St Aubyn, p. 555

Death and succession

(File:Queen Victoria by Heinrich von Angeli.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Queen Victoria aged 80, 1899)In July 1900, Victoria's second son Alfred ("Affie") died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."Longford, p. 558Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.Hibbert, pp. 464–466, 488–489; Strachey, p. 308; Waller, p. 442 Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",Victoria's journal, 1 January 1901, quoted in Hibbert, p. 492; Longford, p. 559 and St Aubyn, p. 592 and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".Her personal physician Sir James Reid, 1st Baronet, quoted in Hibbert, p. 492 She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.Longford, p. 562 Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.Longford, p. 561; St Aubyn, p. 598 Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.{{citation |title=Queen Victoria: A Biographical Companion |author=Helen Rappaport |pages=34–39 |chapter=Animals |isbn=978-1-85109-355-7|year=2003 }}File:Proclamation - Day of mourning in Toronto for Queen Victoria February 2, 1901.jpg|thumb|upright|Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral ]]In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army, and white instead of black.Hibbert, p. 497; Longford, p. 563 On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm and her third son, the Duke of Connaught, helped lift her body into the coffin.St Aubyn, p. 598 She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.Longford, p. 563 An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.Hibbert, p. 498 Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.Matthew, H. C. G.; Reynolds, K. D. (2004; online edition October 2009) "Victoria (1819–1901)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, {{doi|10.1093/ref:odnb/36652}}, retrieved 18 October 2010 (subscription required for online access) Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in Frogmore Mausoleum at Windsor Great Park.Longford, p. 565; St Aubyn, p. 600With a reign of 63 years, seven months and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.{{citation|last1=Gander|first1=Kashmira|title=Queen Elizabeth II to become Britain's longest reigning monarch, surpassing Queen Victoria|url=|accessdate=9 September 2015|work=The Daily Telegraph |location=London |date=26 August 2015}} She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover. Her son and successor Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.


{{See also|Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria}}File:Her Majesty's Gracious Smile by Charles Knight.JPG|thumb|left|upright|alt=Victoria smiling|Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,Fulford, Roger (1967) "Victoria", Collier's Encyclopedia, United States: Crowell, Collier and Macmillan Inc., vol. 23, p. 127 and she denied doing so.(Mike Ashley (writer)|Ashley, Mike]] (1998) British Monarchs, London: Robinson, {{ISBN|1-84119-096-9}}, p. 690)According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.Hibbert, p. xv; St Aubyn, p. 340 From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.St Aubyn, p. 30; Woodham-Smith, p. 87 After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.Hibbert, pp. 503–504; St Aubyn, p. 30; Woodham-Smith, pp. 88, 436–437 Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.Hibbert, p. 503 Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.Hibbert, pp. 503–504; St Aubyn, p. 624Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.Hibbert, pp. 61–62; Longford, pp. 89, 253; St Aubyn, pp. 48, 63–64 She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.Marshall, p. 210; Waller, pp. 419, 434–435, 443 Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.Waller, p. 439 Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.St Aubyn, p. 624 The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.Hibbert, p. 504; St Aubyn, p. 623 They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.e.g. Hibbert, p. 352; Strachey, p. 304; Woodham-Smith, p. 431 Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.Example from a letter written by lady-in-waiting Marie Mallet née Adeane, quoted in Hibbert, p. 471Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.Waller, p. 429 In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".Bagehot, Walter (1867) The English Constitution, London:Chapman and Hall, p. 103 As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.St Aubyn, pp. 602–603; Strachey, pp. 303–304; Waller, pp. 366, 372, 434File:Victoria Memorial Kolkata panorama.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|The Victoria Memorial in KolkataKolkataFile:Victoria Memorial London.JPG|alt=Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side|upright|thumb|The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham PalaceBuckingham Palace

Descendants and haemophilia

Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".Erickson, Carolly (1997) Her Little Majesty: The Life of Queen Victoria, New York: Simon & Schuster, {{ISBN|0-7432-3657-2}} Of the 42 grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain.Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; Alfonso, Prince of Asturias; and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.{{citation|last=Rogaev|first=Evgeny I.|last2=Grigorenko|first2=Anastasia P.|last3=Faskhutdinova|first3=Gulnaz|last4=Kittler|first4=Ellen L. W.|last5=Moliaka|first5=Yuri K.|title=Genotype Analysis Identifies the Cause of the "Royal Disease"|journal=Science|volume=326|issue=5954|page=817|doi=10.1126/science.1180660|pmid=19815722|year=2009|bibcode=2009Sci...326..817R}} The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.Potts and Potts, pp. 55–65, quoted in Hibbert p. 217; Packard, pp. 42–43 There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.Jones, Steve (1996) In the Blood, BBC documentary It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.McKusick, Victor A. (1965) "The Royal Hemophilia", Scientific American, vol. 213, p. 91; Jones, Steve (1993) The Language of the Genes, London: HarperCollins, {{ISBN|0-00-255020-2}}, p. 69; Jones, Steve (1996) In The Blood: God, Genes and Destiny, London: HarperCollins, {{ISBN|0-00-255511-5}}, p. 270; Rushton, Alan R. (2008) Royal Maladies: Inherited Diseases in the Royal Houses of Europe, Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford, {{ISBN|1-4251-6810-8}}, pp. 31–32 Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.{{citation|url=|title=Hemophilia B|publisher=National Hemophilia Foundation|accessdate=29 March 2015|date=5 March 2014}}


Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland), and the capital of the island nation of Seychelles.The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,{{London Gazette|issue=21846|pages=410–411|date=5 February 1856}} and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday).

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 24 May 1819 â€“ 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent
  • 20 June 1837 â€“ 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen
At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style and title were: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India."


  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India – 1861{{London Gazette|issue=22523|date=25 June 1861|page=2621}}
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert – 1861{{citation|url=|title=Badge of the Order of Victoria and Albert (first class) c. 1860-2|publisher=Royal Collection Trust|access-date=4 September 2018|quote='...she got our Order which I have established as a Family Order called the "Victoria & Albert"' (Journal, 17 April 1862). The Queen had turned the family gift into an Order in memory of her late husband, with its date of foundation her twenty-second wedding anniversary, 10 February 1861.}}
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India – 1878{{London Gazette |issue=24539 |date=4 January 1878 |page=113}}
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order – 1886{{London Gazette|issue=25641|pages=5385–5386| date=9 November 1886}}
  • Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order – 1896{{London Gazette|issue=26733|date=24 April 1896|page=2455}}


As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne.Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland.Patterson, Stephen (1996) Royal Insignia, London: Merrell Holberton, {{ISBN|978-1-85894-025-0}}{| border="0" style="margin:auto; width:50%;"!width=50% |(File:Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg|center|200px)!width=50% |(File:Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svg|center|200px)Royal arms (outside Scotland)Royal arms (in Scotland)


{{See also|Grandchildren of Victoria and Albert|Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! Name! Birth! Death! Spouse and childrenWhitaker's Almanack (1900) Facsimile Reprint 1998, London: Stationery Office, {{ISBN|0-11-702247-0}}, p. 86Whitaker's Almanack (1993) Concise Edition, London: J. Whitaker and Sons, {{ISBN|0-85021-232-4}}, pp. 134–136 style="background: #fff8f8;"Victoria, Princess Royal > 184021 November1840 style="text-align:center;" Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) style="background: #f8f8ff;"Edward VII of the United Kingdom > 18419 November1841 style="text-align:center;" Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925);3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) style="background: #fff8f8;"Princess Alice of the United Kingdom>Princess Alice style="text-align:center;" 187814 December1878 style="background:#f8f8ff;"Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892);2 sons, 5 daughters (including Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse)>Empress Alexandra of Russia) style="background: #f8f8ff;"Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha > 18446 August1844 style="text-align:center;" Married 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920);2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) style="background: #fff8f8;"Princess Helena of the United Kingdom>Princess Helena style="text-align:center;" 19239 June1923 style="background:#f8f8ff;"| Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917);4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters style="background: #fff8f8;"Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll>Princess Louise style="text-align:center;" 19393 December1939 style="background:#f8f8ff;"John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll>John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914);no issue style="background: #f8f8ff;"Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn > 18501 May 1850 style="text-align:center;" Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917);1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) style="background: #f8f8ff;"Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany > 18537 April1853 style="text-align:center;" Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922);1 son, 1 daughter style="background: #fff8f8;"Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom>Princess Beatrice style="text-align:center;" 1944 26 October1944 style="background:#f8f8ff;"| Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain)File:Franz Xaver Winterhalter Family of Queen Victoria.jpg|thumb|center|upright=3.15|Victoria's family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria ]]


{{ahnentafelalign=center|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom|2= 2. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn|3= 3. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Saalfeld|4= 4. George III of Great Britain and Hanover|5= 5. Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz|6= 6. Francis Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Saalfeld|7= 7. Countess Augusta Carolina of Reuss-EbersdorfFrederick Lewis, Prince of Wales{{citation> last = Loudaauthor1link=Jiří Loudafirst2=Michael title = Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe publisher = Little, Brown isbn = 978-1-85605-469-0| page = 34 }}|9= 9. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha|10= 10. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg|11= 11. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen|12= 12. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Saalfeld|13= 13. Princess Sophia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel|14= 14. Henry XXIV, Count Reuss-Ebersdorf|15= 15. Countess Carolina of Erbach-Schönberg}}

Notes and references



  • Charles, Barrie (2012) Kill the Queen! The Eight Assassination Attempts on Queen Victoria, Stroud: Amberley Publishing, {{ISBN|978-1-4456-0457-2}}
  • Hibbert, Christopher (2000) Queen Victoria: A Personal History, London: HarperCollins, {{ISBN|0-00-638843-4}}
  • Longford, Elizabeth (1964) Victoria R.I., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, {{ISBN|0-297-17001-5}}
  • Marshall, Dorothy (1972) The Life and Times of Queen Victoria, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, {{ISBN|0-297-83166-6}} [1992 reprint]
  • Packard, Jerrold M. (1998) Victoria's Daughters, New York: St. Martin's Press, {{ISBN|0-312-24496-7}}
  • Potts, D. M.; Potts, W. T. W. (1995) Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family, Stroud: Alan Sutton, {{ISBN|0-7509-1199-9}}
  • St Aubyn, Giles (1991) Queen Victoria: A Portrait, London: Sinclair-Stevenson, {{ISBN|1-85619-086-2}}
  • Strachey, Lytton (1921) Queen Victoria, London: Chatto and Windus online edition
  • Waller, Maureen (2006) Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England, London: John Murray, {{ISBN|0-7195-6628-2}}
  • Weintraub, Stanley (1997) Albert: Uncrowned King, London: John Murray, {{ISBN|0-7195-5756-9}}
  • Woodham-Smith, Cecil (1972) Queen Victoria: Her Life and Times 1819–1861, London: Hamish Hamilton, {{ISBN|0-241-02200-2}}
  • Worsley, Lucy (2018) Queen Victoria – Daughter, Wife, Mother, Widow, London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, {{ISBN|978-1-4736-5138-8}}

Published primary sources

  • Benson, A. C.; Esher, Viscount (editors, 1907) The Letters of Queen Victoria: A Selection of Her Majesty's Correspondence Between the Years 1837 and 1861, London: John Murray
  • Bolitho, Hector (editor, 1938) Letters of Queen Victoria from the Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia, London: Thornton Butterworth
  • Buckle, George Earle (editor, 1926) The Letters of Queen Victoria, 2nd Series 1862–1885, London: John Murray
  • Buckle, George Earle (editor, 1930) The Letters of Queen Victoria, 3rd Series 1886–1901, London: John Murray
  • Connell, Brian (1962) Regina v. Palmerston: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and her Foreign and Prime Minister, 1837–1865, London: Evans Brothers
  • Duff, David (editor, 1968) Victoria in the Highlands: The Personal Journal of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, London: Muller
  • Dyson, Hope; Tennyson, Charles (editors, 1969) Dear and Honoured Lady: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan
  • Esher, Viscount (editor, 1912) The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries, 1832–40, London: John Murray
  • Fulford, Roger (editor, 1964) Dearest Child: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal, 1858–61, London: Evans Brothers
  • Fulford, Roger (editor, 1968) Dearest Mama: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–64, London: Evans Brothers
  • Fulford, Roger (editor, 1971) Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878–85, London: Evans Brothers
  • Fulford, Roger (editor, 1971) Your Dear Letter: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1863–71, London: Evans Brothers
  • Fulford, Roger (editor, 1976) Darling Child: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess of Prussia, 1871–78, London: Evans Brothers
  • Hibbert, Christopher (editor, 1984) Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, London: John Murray, {{ISBN|0-7195-4107-7}}
  • Hough, Richard (editor, 1975) Advice to a Grand-daughter: Letters from Queen Victoria to Princess Victoria of Hesse, London: Heinemann, {{ISBN|0-434-34861-9}}
  • Jagow, Kurt (editor, 1938) Letters of the Prince Consort 1831–61, London: John Murray
  • Mortimer, Raymond (editor, 1961) Queen Victoria: Leaves from a Journal, New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy
  • Ponsonby, Sir Frederick (editor, 1930) Letters of the Empress Frederick, London: Macmillan
  • Ramm, Agatha (editor, 1990) Beloved and Darling Child: Last Letters between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, 1886–1901, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, {{ISBN|978-0-86299-880-6}}
  • Victoria, Queen (1868) Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1848 to 1861, London: Smith, Elder
  • Victoria, Queen (1884) More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1862 to 1882, London: Smith, Elder

Further reading

  • Arnstein, Walter L. (2003) Queen Victoria, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, {{ISBN|978-0-333-63806-4}}
  • Baird, Julia (2016) Victoria The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire, New York: Random House, {{ISBN|978-1-4000-6988-0}}
  • Gardiner, Juliet (1997) Queen Victoria, London: Collins and Brown, {{ISBN|978-1-85585-469-7}}
  • Hough, Richard (1996) Victoria and Albert, St. Martin's Press, {{ISBN|978-0312303853}}
  • Lyden, Anne M. (2014) A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, {{ISBN|978-1-60606-155-8}}
  • Weintraub, Stanley (1987) Victoria: Biography of a Queen, London: HarperCollins, {{ISBN|978-0-04-923084-2}}
  • Wilson, A. N. (2014) Victoria: A Life, London: Atlantic Books, {{ISBN|978-1-84887-956-0}}

External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|En-Queen Victoria-article.ogg|20 July 2014}}{{sisterlinks|n=no|d=Q9439|wikt=no|b=no|voy=no|v=no|mw=no|m=no|species=no|s=Author:Queen Victoria}}
  • {{Britannica|627603|Victoria}}
  • {{NPG name}}
  • Queen Victoria's Journals, online from the Royal Archive and Bodleian Library
  • {{Gutenberg author | id=9035}}
  • {{Internet Archive author |sname=Queen Victoria}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=3622}}
  • {{PM20|FID=pe/017802}}
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