House of Hohenzollern

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House of Hohenzollern
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{{redirect|Hohenzollern}}{{Royal house||surname = House of Hohenzollern|estate = Germany, Prussia, Romania
175px|Coat of arms of the Hohenzollerns)|country = Germany, Romania|parent house = German EmperorZollern>Count of ZollernMargraviate of BrandenburgDuchy of Prussia>Duke of PrussiaBurgrave of NurembergMargrave of BayreuthMargrave of Brandenburg-AnsbachKingdom of PrussiaPrincipality of Neuchâtel>Prince of NeuchâtelKingdom of RomaniaHohenzollern-Hechingen>Prince of Hohenzollern-HechingenPrince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen|founder = Burkhard I, Count of ZollernWilhelm II, German Emperor>Emperor Wilhelm II (1888–1918)Romania:King Michael I (1927–1930, 1940–1947)Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia>HI&RH Prince Georg Friedrich (1994–present)Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen:HRH Prince Karl Friedrich (2010–present)|founding year = before 1061German RevolutionRomania:1947: Socialist Republic of Romania>Stalinist take-overGerman people>GermanKingdom of Prussia>Prussian branchHohenzollern-SigmaringenRomanian royal family>Romanian branch}}The House of Hohenzollern ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|h|oʊ|ə|n|ˌ|z|ɒ|l|ər|n}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|-|ˌ|t|s|ɔː|l|-|,_|ˌ|h|oʊ|ə|n|ˈ|z|ɒ|l|ər|n|,_|-|ˈ|z|ɔː|l|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Hohenzollern, 18 May 2019, WEB,weblink Hohenzollern, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 18 May 2019, "Hohenzollern" (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Hohenzollern, 18 May 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Hohenzollern, 18 May 2019, {{IPA-de|ˌhoːənˈtsɔlɐn|lang}}) is a German dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle.Encyclopædia Britannica. Hohenzollern Dynasty The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch,Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XIX. "Haus Hohenzollern". C.A. Starke Verlag, 2011, pp. 30–33. {{ISBN|978-3-7980-0849-6}}. which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, and also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525.The Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line.

County of Zollern

File:Burg Hohenzollern ak.jpg|thumb|left|Hohenzollern Castle near HechingenHechingenFile:Alpirsbach Kloster Kirche innen.jpg|thumb|upright|Alpirsbach AbbeyAlpirsbach AbbeyZollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire. Later its capital was Hechingen.The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps. The Hohenzollern Castle lies on an 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today.The dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern (de Zolorin) was born before 1025 and died in 1061.Jeep, John. Medieval Germany: An EncyclopediaIn 1095 Count Adalbert of Zollern founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest.The Zollerns received the comital title from Emperor Henry V in 1111.Cawley, Charles. Swabia, NobilityAs loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to significantly enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III (c. 1139 – c. 1200) accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, and through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185 he married Sophia of Raabs, the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave Frederick I.In 1218 the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415.{{clear left}}

Counts of Zollern (1061–1204)

  • until 1061: Burkhard I
  • before 1125: Frederick I
  • between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick IWEB,weblink Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg, Schmid, Ludwig, 1862, Geschichte der Grafen von Zollern-Hohenberg. Anhang. Historisch-topographische Zusammenstellung der Grafschaft und Besitzungen des Hauses Zollern-Hohenberg, Gebrüder Scheitlin, Google Book, February 1, 2013, {{rp|XLI}}
  • between ca. 1143 and 1150–1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I{{rp|XLI}}
  • between ca. 1150–1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I{{rp|XLI}}
  • before 1171 â€“ c. 1200: Frederick III/I (son of Frederick II, also Burgrave of Nuremberg)
After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves:
  • Conrad I received the county of Zollern and exchanged it for the burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Members of the Franconian line eventually became the Brandenburg-Prussia branch. The Franconian line later converted to Protestantism.
  • Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. The Swabian line remains Catholic.

Franconian branch

The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1186–1261).The family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands.In the first phase, the family gradually added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany: In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and current Poland: These acquisitions eventually transformed the Franconian Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe.

Burgraves of Nuremberg (1192–1427)

(File:COA family de Burggrafen von Nürnberg (Haus Hohenzollern).svg|right|75px)File:Ansbach-Bayreuth.png|thumb|Region of Nuremberg, Ansbach, Kulmbach and Bayreuth (FranconiaFranconia
  • 1192–1200/1204: Frederick I (also count of Zollern as Frederick III)
  • 1204–1218: Frederick II (son of, also count of Zollern as Frederick IV)
  • 1218–1261/1262: Conrad I/III (brother of, also count of Zollern)
  • 1262–1297: Frederick III (c. 1220–1297), son of
  • 1297–1300: John I (c. 1279–1300), son of
  • 1300–1332: Frederick IV (1287–1332), brother of
  • 1332–1357: John II (c. 1309–1357), son of
  • 1357–1397: Frederick V (before 1333–1398), son of
At Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons: After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach were briefly reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 Frederick VI became governor of Brandenburg and later Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I. Upon his death on 21 September 1440, his territories were divided among his sons: In 1427 Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg sold Nuremberg Castle and his rights as burgrave to the Imperial City of Nuremberg. The territories of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach remained possessions of the family, once parts of the Burgraviate of Nuremberg. File:Burg Nürnberg 03.jpg|Nuremberg Castle (The Emperor's castle, left, and the Burgrave's castle, right)File:Cadolzburg-burg-wseite-gesamt-v-nw.jpg|Cadolzburg Castle near Nuremberg (from 1260 seat of the Burgraves)File:Heilsbronn_M%C3%BCnster_0592.jpg|Heilsbronn Abbey, which the Hohenzollerns used as the family burial place.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1398–1791)

(File:Wappen Brandenburg-Ansbach.svg|right|75px) On 2 December 1791, Christian II Frederick sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (1398–1604), later Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1604–1791)

(File:CoA.Brand-Bayreuth.png|right|75px) On 2 December 1791, Charles Alexander sold the sovereignty of his principalities to King Frederick William II of Prussia.From 8 January 1701 the title of Elector of Brandenburg was attached to the title of King in Prussia and, from 13 September 1772, to that of King of Prussia.

Dukes of Jägerndorf (1523–1622)

(File:Krnov znak.png|right|80px)The Duchy of Jägerndorf (Krnov) was purchased in 1523. The duchy of Jägerndorf was confiscated by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1622.

Brandenburg-Prussian branch

Margraves of Brandenburg (1415–1619)

File:FrederikIboek.jpg|thumb|Frederick VI became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415.]]In 1411 Frederick VI, Burgrave of Nuremberg was appointed governor of Brandenburg in order to restore order and stability. At the Council of Constance in 1415, King Sigismund elevated Frederick to the rank of Elector and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I.{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages
(File:Friedrich I. von Brandenburg.jpg|108x108px)Frederick Ialso as Frederick VI Burgrave of Nuremberg 1415–144013711440Elisabeth of Bavaria
(File:Friedrich II 300f.jpg|107x107px)Frederick IISon of1440–1471 14131471Catherine of Saxony
(File:AlbrechtAchilles.jpg|107x107px)Albrecht III AchillesBrother of1471–148614141486Margaret of BadenAnna of Saxony
(File:JohannCicero1500.JPG|107x107px)John CiceroSon of1486–149914551499Margaret of Thuringia
(File:Lucas Cranach (I) - Joachim I Nestor - Jagdschloss Grunewald.jpg|107x107px)Joachim I NestorSon of1499–153514841535Elizabeth of Denmark
(File:JoachimII.vonBrandenburg.JPG|107x107px)Joachim II HectorSon of1535–157115051571Magdalena of SaxonyHedwig of Poland
(File:JohannGeorg1564.JPG|107x107px)John GeorgeSon of1571–159815251598Sophie of LegnicaSabina of Brandenburg-AnsbachElisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst
(File:JoachimFriedrichBrandenburg1600.JPG|107x107px)Joachim FrederickSon of1598–160815461608Catherine of Brandenburg-KüstrinEleanor of Prussia
(File:Johann Sigismund 02 IV 13 2 0026 01 0318 a Seite 1 Bild 0001.jpg|99x99px)John SigismundSon ofpersonal union with Prussia after 1618 called Brandenburg-Prussia.1608–161915721619Anna, Duchess of Prussia

Margraves of Brandenburg-Küstrin (1535–1571)

(File:DEU Kuestrin-Kietz COA.svg|right|75px)The short-lived Margraviate of Brandenburg-Küstrin was set up as a secundogeniture of the House of Hohenzollern.

Margraves of Brandenburg-Schwedt (1688–1788)

(File:Wappen Schwedt.png|right|75px)Although recognised as a branch of the dynasty since 1688, the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Schwedt remained subordinate to the electors, and was never an independent principality.

Dukes of Prussia (1525–1701)

(File:POL Prusy książęce COA.svg|75px|right)File:Acprussiamap2.gif|thumb|400px|Growth of Brandenburg-PrussiaBrandenburg-PrussiaIn 1525 the Duchy of Prussia was established as a fief of the King of Poland. Albert of Prussia was the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and the first Duke of Prussia. He belonged to the Ansbach branch of the dynasty. The Duchy of Prussia adopted Protestantism as the official state religion. From 1701 the title of Duke of Prussia was attached to the title of King in and of Prussia.

Kings in Prussia (1701–1772)

(File:Wappen Preußen.png|75px|right)File:Preussen 1701 Königsberg.jpg|thumb|Coronation of Frederick I in KönigsbergKönigsbergIn 1701 the title of King in Prussia was granted, without the Duchy of Prussia being elevated to a Kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire. From 1701 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of King in Prussia. The Duke of Prussia adopted the title of king as Frederick I, establishing his status as a monarch whose royal territory lay outside the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, with the assent of Emperor Leopold I: Frederick could not be "King of Prussia" because part of Prussia's lands were under the suzerainty of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. In the age of absolutism, most monarchs were obsessed with the desire to emulate Louis XIV of France with his luxurious palace at Versailles.In 1772 the Duchy of Prussia was elevated to a kingdom.{{See also|List of monarchs of Prussia|l1=List of monarchs of Prussia}}{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages (File:Weidemann, Friedrich I Preußen.jpg|108x108px)Frederick ISon ofalso Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg1701–171316571713Elisabeth Henriette of Hesse-KasselSophia Charlotte of HanoverSophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin(File:Antoine pesne friedrich wil.jpg|107x107px)Frederick William ISon of1713–174016881740Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (File:Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png|99x99px)Frederick the GreatSon oflater King of Prussia1740–178617121786Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern

Kings of Prussia (1772–1918)

(File:Ac.prussiamap3.png|thumb|300px|Expansion of Prussia 1807–1871)Frederick William's successor, Frederick the Great gained Silesia in the Silesian Wars so that Prussia emerged as a great power. The king was strongly influenced by French culture and civilization and preferred the French language.In 1772 the title King of Prussia was assumed. From 1772 onwards the titles of Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title King of Prussia.In 1871 the Kingdom of Prussia became a constituent member of the German Empire, and the King of Prussia gained the additional title of German Emperor.{{See also|List of monarchs of Prussia|l1=List of monarchs of Prussia}}{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages (File:Frederick II of Prussia Coloured drawing.png|108x108px)Frederick the GreatSon ofbefore King in Prussia1740–178617121786Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern (File:Frédéric Guillaume II de Prusse.jpg|108x108px)Frederick William IINephew of1786–179717441797Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-LüneburgFrederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (File:FWIII.jpg|108x108px)Frederick William IIISon of1797–184017701840Louise of Mecklenburg-StrelitzAuguste von Harrach (File:FWIV.jpg|108x108px)Frederick William IVSon of1840–186117951861Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria (File:Wilhelm1.jpg|108x108px)William IBrother ofalso German Emperor (from 1871)1861–188817971888Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach(File:FriedIII.jpg|107x107px)Frederick IIISon ofalso German Emperor188818311888Victoria, Princess Royal (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0096, Kaiser Wilhelm II..jpg|99x99px)Wilhelm IISon ofalso German Emperor1888–191818591941Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-HolsteinHermine Reuss of Greiz

German Emperors (1871–1918)

(File:Hohenzollern Reichswappen Kleines.png|right|75px)(File:prussiamap.gif|thumb|upright=1.5|Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918)In 1871 the German Empire was proclaimed. With the accession of William I to the newly established imperial German throne, the titles of King of Prussia, Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg were always attached to the title of German Emperor.Prussia's Minister President Otto von Bismarck convinced William that German Emperor instead of Emperor of Germany would be appropriate. He became primus inter pares among other German sovereigns.William II intended to develop a German navy capable of challenging Britain's Royal Navy. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 set off the chain of events that led to World War I. As a result of the war, the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires ceased to exist.In 1918 the German empire was abolished and replaced by the Weimar Republic. After the outbreak of the German revolution in 1918, both Emperor Wilhelm II and Crown Prince Wilhelm signed the document of abdication.File:Wilhelm1.jpg|William I (1871–1888)File:FriedIII.jpg|Frederick III (1888)File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2004-0096, Kaiser Wilhelm II..jpg|Wilhelm II (1888–1918)

Brandenburg-Prussian branch since 1918 abdication

(File:Georg Friedrich Preußen Berlin 2012.jpg|thumb|upright|Georg Friedrich, the head of the Prussian Hohenzollerns and his wife)In June 1926, a referendum on expropriating the formerly ruling princes of Germany without compensation failed and as a consequence, the financial situation of the Hohenzollern family improved considerably. A settlement between the state and the family made Cecilienhof property of the state but granted a right of residence to Crown Prince Wilhelm and his wife Cecilie. The family also kept the ownership of Monbijou Palace in Berlin, Oleśnica Castle in Silesia, Rheinsberg Palace, Schwedt Palace and other property until 1945.Since the abolition of the German monarchy, no Hohenzollern claims to imperial or royal prerogatives are recognised by Germany's Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of 1949, which guarantees a republic.The communist government of the Soviet occupation zone depropriated all landowners and industrialists; the House of Hohenzollern lost almost all of its fortune, retaining a few company shares and Hohenzollern Castle in West Germany. The Polish government appropriated the Silesian property and the Dutch government seized Huis Doorn, the Emperor's seat in exile.After German reunification however, the family was legally able to re-claim their portable property, namely art collections and parts of the interior of their former palaces. Negotiations on the return of or compensation for these assets are not yet completed.Berlin's Old City Palace is being rebuilt and is scheduled to open in 2019. The Berlin Palace and the Humboldt Forum are located in the middle of Berlin.

Order of succession

{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders"! scope="col" | Name! scope="col" |Titular reign! scope="col" | Relation to predecessor! scope="row" | Wilhelm II| 1918–1941| Succeeded himself as pretender to the throne.! scope="row" | Crown Prince Wilhelm| 1941–1951| Son of! scope="row" | Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia| 1951–1994| Son of! scope="row" | Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia| since 1994|Grandson of! scope="row" | Carl Friedrich, Prince of Prussia|| Son of (heir apparent)File:Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg|Wilhelm II, the last incumbent of the throneFile:Kronprinz Wilhelm 1. Leib-Husarenregiment.jpg|Crown Prinz WilhelmFile:Louis ferdinand c1930.jpg|Louis FerdinandFile:Georg Friedrich Prinz von Preussen.jpg|Georg Friedrich The head of the house is the titular King of Prussia and German Emperor. He also bears a historical claim to the title of Prince of Orange. Members of this line style themselves princes of Prussia.Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, the current head of the royal Prussian House of Hohenzollern, was married to Princess Sophie of Isenburg on 27 August 2011. On 20 January 2013, she gave birth to twin sons, Carl Friedrich Franz Alexander and Louis Ferdinand Christian Albrecht, in Bremen. Carl Friedrich, the elder of the two, is the heir apparent.WEB, Official Website of the House of Hohenzollern: Prinz Georg Friedrich von Preußen,weblink

Royal House of Hohenzollern table

(File:Genealogy of House of Hohenzollern.svg|thumb|center|700px|Table of the Royal Brandenburg-Prussian House of Hohenzollern)

Swabian branch

File:Schloss Sigmaringen Wappen.jpg|thumb|right|Combined coat of arms of the House of Hohenzollern-SigmaringenHohenzollern-SigmaringenThe cadet SwabianHeraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan, 1981, pp. 178–179. branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Frederick IV, Count of Zollern. The family ruled three territories with seats at, respectively, Hechingen, Sigmaringen and Haigerloch. The counts were elevated to princes in 1623. The Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns is Roman Catholic.Affected by economic problems and internal feuds, the Hohenzollern counts from the 14th century onwards came under pressure by their neighbors, the Counts of Württemberg and the cities of the Swabian League, whose troops besieged and finally destroyed Hohenzollern Castle in 1423. Nevertheless, the Hohenzollerns retained their estates, backed by their Brandenburg cousins and the Imperial House of Habsburg. In 1535, Count Charles I of Hohenzollern (1512–1576) received the counties of Sigmaringen and Veringen as Imperial fiefs.In 1576, when Charles I, Count of Hohenzollern died, his county was divided to form the three Swabian branches. Eitel Frederick IV took Hohenzollern with the title of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Karl II took Sigmaringen and Veringen, and Christopher got Haigerloch. Christopher's family died out in 1634. In 1695, the remaining two Swabian branches entered into an agreement with the Margrave of Brandenburg which provided that if both branches became extinct, the principalities should fall to Brandenburg. Because of the Revolutions of 1848, Constantine, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen abdicated their thrones in December 1849. The principalities were ruled by the Kings of Prussia from December 1849 onward, with the Hechingen and Sigmaringen branches obtaining official treatment as cadets of the Prussian royal family.The Hohenzollern-Hechingen branch became extinct in 1869. A descendent of this branch was Countess Sophie Chotek, morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este.File:Sigmaringen Schloss 2015-04-29 15-52-34.jpg|Sigmaringen CastleFile:2011-07-17-hechingen-by-RalfR-006.jpg|The New Castle, HechingenFile:Schlosskirche Haigerloch 2010.JPG|Haigerloch Castle

Counts of Hohenzollern (1204–1575)

(File:Hohenzollern-herb-rodowy.jpg|75px|right)File:German Empire - Prussia - Hohenzollern (1871).svg|thumb|Hohenzollern region, in present-day Baden-Württemberg, GermanyGermanyIn 1204, the County of Hohenzollern was established out of the fusion of the County of Zollern and the Burgraviate of Nuremberg. The Swabian branch inherited the county of Zollern and, being descended from Frederick I of Nuremberg, were all named "Friedrich" down through the 11th generation.BOOK, L'Allemagne Dynastique, Tome V – Hohenzollern-Waldeck, Laballery, Huberty, Michel, Giraud, Alain, Magdelaine, F., B., 1989, France, 30, 33, 2-901138-05-5, Each one's numeral is counted from the first Friedrich to rule his branch's appanage.The most senior of these in the 12th century, Count Frederick VIII (d. 1333), had two sons, the elder of whom became Frederick IX (d. 1379), first Count of Hohenzollern, and fathered Friedrich X who left no sons when he died in 1412.But the younger son of Friedrich VIII, called Friedrich of Strassburg, uniquely, took no numeral of his own, retaining the old title "Count of Zollern" and pre-deceased his brother in 1364/65. Prince Wilhelm Karl zu Isenburg's 1957 genealogical series, Europäische Stammtafeln, says Friedrich of Strassburg shared, rather, in the rule of Zollern with his elder brother until his premature death.It appears, but is not stated, that Strassburg's son became the recognized co-ruler of his cousin Friedrich X (as compensation for having received no appanage and/or because of incapacity on the part of Friedrich X) and, as such, assumed (or is, historically, attributed) the designation Frederick XI although he actually pre-deceased Friedrich X, dying in 1401.Friedrich XI, however, left two sons who jointly succeeded their cousin-once-removed, being Count Frederick XII (d. childless 1443) and Count Eitel Friedrich I (d. 1439), the latter becoming the ancestor of all subsequent branches of the Princes of Hohenzollern.
  • 1204–1251/1255: Frederick IV, also Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick II until 1218
In the 12th century, a son of Frederick I secured the county of Hohenberg. The county remained in the possession of the family until 1486.The influence of the Swabian line was weakened by several partitions of its lands. In the 16th century, the situation changed completely when Eitel Frederick II, a friend and adviser of the emperor Maximilian I, received the district of Haigerloch. His grandson Charles I was granted the counties of Sigmaringen and Vehringen by Charles V.

Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1576–1849)

(File:Hohenzollern-Hechingen-1.PNG|75px|right)File:Klosterkirche Stetten (Hechingen).JPG|thumb|Stetten Abbey church in HechingenHechingenThe County of Hohenzollern-Hechingen was established in 1576 with allodial rights. It included the original County of Zollern, with the Hohenzollern Castle and the monastery at Stetten.In December 1849, the ruling princes of both Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen abdicated their thrones, and their principalities were incorporated as the Prussian province of Hohenzollern. The Hechingen branch became extinct in dynastic line with Konstantin's death in 1869.{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages(File:Eitelivs Fridericvs Comes Zollerensis.jpg|108x108px)Eitel Friedrich IVSon of Charles I1576–160515451605Veronica of OrtenburgSibylle of ZimmernJohanna of Eberstein(File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Johann GeorgSon ofraised to Prince in 16231605–162315771623Franziska of Salm-Neufville(File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Eitel Frederick VSon ofalso count of Hohenzollern-Hechingen1623–166116011661Maria Elisabeth van Bergh ’s-Heerenberg (File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)PhilippBrother of1661–167116161671Marie Sidonie of Baden-Rodemachern(File:Friedrich Wilhelm, Fùrst von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (1663-1735).jpg|108x108px)Friedrich WilhelmSon of1671–173516631735Maria Leopoldina of SinzendorfMaximiliane Magdalena of Lützau(File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Friedrich LudwigSon of1735–175016881750unmarried(File:JosefHohenzollernHechingen.jpg|108x108px)Josef Friedrich WilhelmSon of Herman Frederick of Hohenzollern-Hechingen1750–179817171798Maria Theresia Folch de Cardona y SilvaMaria Theresia of Waldburg-Zeil(File:Hermannhohenzollern.jpg|108x108px)HermannSon of Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen1798–181017511810Louise of Merode-WesterlooMaximiliane of GavreMaria Antonia of Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach(File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Friedrich Hermann OttoSon of1810–183817761838Pauline, Duchess of Sagan (File:KonstantinHohenzHech.jpg|108x108px)ConstantineSon of1838–184918011869Eugénie de BeauharnaisAmalie Schenk von Geyern

Counts of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (1576–1634 and 1681–1767)

(File:Wappen Haigerloch.svg|right|75px)The County of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch was established in 1576 without allodial rights. Between 1634 and 1681, the county was temporarily integrated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Upon the death of Francis Christopher Anton in 1767, the Haigerloch territory was incorporated into the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Counts, later Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1576–1849)

(File:Hohenzollern-2.PNG|75px|right)(File:Sigmaringen Schloss BW 2015-04-28 17-37-14.jpg|thumb|Sigmaringen Castle)The County of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was established in 1576 with allodial rights and a seat at Sigmaringen Castle.In December 1849, sovereignty over the principality was yielded to the Franconian branch of the family and incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia, which accorded status as cadets of the Prussian Royal Family to the Swabian Hohenzollerns. The last ruling Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Karl Anton, would later serve as Minister President of Prussia between 1858 and 1862.{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages (File:Karl II hohenzollern.jpg|108x108px)Charles IISon of Charles I1576–160615471606Euphrosyne of Oettingen-WallersteinElisabeth of Palant (File:Jean de Hohenzollern 1578-1638.jpg|108x108px)JohannSon ofelevated to Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 16231606–163815781638Johanna of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (File:Meinrad von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.jpg|108x108px)Meinrad ISon of1638–168116051681Anna Marie of Törring at Seefeld (File:Maximilien I de Hohenzollern.jpg|108x108px)Maximilian I Son of1681–168916361689Maria Clara of Berg-'s-Heerenberg (File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Meinrad IISon of1689–171516731715Johanna Catharina of Montfort(File:JosefFriedrErnstHohenzSig.jpg|107x107px)Joseph Friedrich ErnstSon of1715–176917021769Marie Franziska of Oettingen-SpielbergJudith of Closen-ArnstorfMaria Theresa of Waldburg-Trauchburg (File:Coat of Arms of House of Hohenzollern (small).png|50px)Karl FriedrichSon of1769–178517241785Johanna of Hohenzollern-Bergh (File:Adel im Wandel401.jpg|99x99px)Anton AloysSon of1785–183117621831Amalie Zephyrine of Salm-Kyrburg (File:Adel im Wandel403.jpg|99x99px)Karl Son of1831–184817851853Marie Antoinette MuratKatharina of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (File:Karl Anton von Hohenzollern.jpg|99x99px)Karl AntonSon of1848–184918111885Josephine of Baden

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen after 1849

File:Karte-Hohenzollern.png|thumb|upright=1.5|Map of the Province of HohenzollernProvince of HohenzollernFile:Graf von dem Bergh, Fotografie Fürst Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern.jpg|thumb|Karl Friedrich, Prince of HohenzollernKarl Friedrich, Prince of HohenzollernThe family continued to use the title of Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. After the Hechingen branch became extinct in 1869, the Sigmaringen branch adopted title of Prince of Hohenzollern. In 1866, Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was chosen prince of Romania, becoming King Carol I of Romania in 1881.Charles's elder brother, Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern, was offered the Spanish throne after a revolt exiled Isabella II in 1870. Although encouraged by Bismarck to accept, Leopold declined in the face of French opposition. Nonetheless, Bismarck altered and then published the Ems telegram to create a casus belli: France declared war, but Bismarck's Germany won the Franco-Prussian War.The head of the Sigmaringen branch (the only extant line of the Swabian branch of the dynasty) is Karl Friedrich, styled His Serene Highness The Prince of Hohenzollern. His official seat is Sigmaringen Castle.

Kings of the Romanians

(File:Kingdom of Romania - Small CoA.svg|75px|right)

Reigning (1866–1947)

File:Crowning of Carol I, 10 May 1881.jpg|thumb|left|Coronation of Carol I in BucharestBucharest(File:Romania territory during 20th century.gif|thumb|Romanian territory.)The Principality of Romania was established in 1862, after the Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia had been united in 1859 under Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Prince of Romania in a personal union. He was deposed in 1866 by the Romanian parliament.Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was invited to become reigning Prince of Romania in 1866. In 1881 he became Carol I, King of the Romanians. Carol I had an only daughter who died young, so the younger son of his brother Leopold, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, would succeed his uncle as King of the Romanians in 1914, and his descendants, having converted to the Orthodox Church, continued to reign there until the end of the monarchy in 1947.{{See also|King of the Romanians|Romanian royal family}}{|width=100% class="wikitable"!width=10%|Portrait!width=15%|Name!width=15%|Dynastic Status!width=10%|Reign!width=10%|Birth!width=10%|Death!width=15%|Marriages(File:Carol I King of Romania.jpg|108x108px)Carol ISon of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollerntitled as Prince until 18811866–191418391914Elisabeth of Wied(File:King Ferdinand of Romania.jpg|108x108px)Ferdinand INephew of Carol I1914–192718651927Marie of Edinburgh(File:Mihai.jpg|108x108px)Michael IGrandson of Ferdinand I1st reign1927–193019212017Anne of Bourbon-Parma(File:Carol al II-lea.jpg|108x108px)Carol IISon of Ferdinand I1930–194018931953Zizi LambrinoHelen of Greece and DenmarkMagda Lupescu (File:Mihai.jpg|108x108px)Michael ISon of Carol II2nd reign1940–194719212017Anne of Bourbon-Parma

Succession since 1947

In 1947 the Kingdom of Romania was abolished and replaced with the People's Republic of Romania. Michael did not press his claim to the defunct Romanian throne, but he was welcomed back to the country after half a century in exile as a private citizen, with substantial former royal properties being placed at his disposal. However, his dynastic claim was not recognised by post-Communist Romanians.On 10 May 2011, Michael severed the dynastic ties between the House of Romania and the House of Hohenzollern.WEB,weblink Romania's former King Michael ends ties with German Hohenzollern dynasty, The Canadian Press, 2011-05-11, After that the branch of the Hohenzollerns was dynastically represented only by the last king Michael, and his daughters. Having no sons, he declared that his dynastic heir, instead of being a male member of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen princely family to which he belongs patrilineally and in accordance with the last Romanian monarchical constitution, should be his eldest daughter Margareta."King Michael I broke ties with historical and dynastic House of Hohenzollern" in Adevarul – News Bucharest, 10 May 2011The royal house is still very populaweblink Long live the ex-king and in 2014 Prime Minister Victor Ponta promised a referendum on whether or not to reinstate the monarchy if he were re-electedweblink Romania may hold a referendum on the return of Monarchy


Palaces of the Prussian Hohenzollerns

File:BurgHohenzollernInnenhof02.jpg|Hohenzollern CastleFile:Berlin Stadtschloss 1920er.jpg|City Palace, BerlinFile:Berlin Stadtschloss Luftaufnahme.jpg|City Palace, BerlinFile:Charlottenburg Hohenzollern 2.jpg|Charlottenburg Palace, BerlinFile:Königsberg Castle courtyard.jpg|Königsberg Castle, PrussiaFile:Bundesarchiv Bild 170-237, Potsdam, Stadtschloss vom Turm der Nikolaikirche.jpg|City Palace, PotsdamFile:Potsdam Sanssouci 07-2017 img4.jpg|New Palace, PotsdamFile:Schloss Sanssouci 2014.jpg|Sanssouci in PotsdamFile:Marmorpalais.jpg|Marmorpalais, PotsdamFile:BabelsbergP1020137.jpg|Babelsberg Palace, PotsdamFile:Schloss Cecilienhof .jpg|Cecilienhof Palace, PotsdamFile:Schloss Oranienburg - Jan 2013.jpg|Oranienburg PalaceFile:Rheinsberg Castle.jpg|Rheinsberg PalaceFile:Wrocław Kazimierza Wielkiego 35 sm.jpg|Wrocław Palace, SilesiaFile:3273viki Zamek w Oleśnicy. Foto Barbara Maliszewska.jpg|Oels Castle, SilesiaFile:Schloss Stolzenfels 01 Koblenz 2015.jpg|Stolzenfels Castle, Koblenz

Palaces of the Franconian branches

File:Plassenburg oben.jpg|Plassenburg Castle at KulmbachFile:Neues schloß bayreuth.JPG|The New Castle at BayreuthFile:Ansbach - 2013 Mattes (73).JPG|Residenz Ansbach File:Erlangen Schloss 006.JPG|Erlangen Castle

Palaces of the Swabian Hohenzollerns

File:Neues Schloss (Hechingen).JPG|The New Castle at Hechingen

Coats of arms

File:Hohenzollern Haus Wappen.svg|Quartered coat of arms of the HohenzollernsFile:Zollern ZW.png|Counts of Zollern (1340)File:Nürenberg ZW.png|Burgraves of Nuremberg (1340)File:COA family de Burggrafen von Nürnberg (Haus Hohenzollern).svg|Burgraves of NurembergFile:Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichswappen (Grosses).svg|The greater coat of arms of the German EmperorFile:Hohenzollern.jpg|The princely Swabian branch (1605)

Members of the family after abdication

Royal Prussian branch

Princely Swabian branch

See also



Further reading

  • Bogdan, Henry. ''Les Hohenzollern : La dynastie qui a fait l'Allemagne (1061–1918)
  • Carlyle, Thomas. A Short Introduction to the House of Hohenzollern (2014)
  • Clark, Christopher. Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (2009), standard scholarly history {{ISBN|978-0-7139-9466-7}}
  • Koch, H. W. History of Prussia (1987), short scholarly history

External links

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