Elizabeth II

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Elizabeth II
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{{Other uses}}{{short description|Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms}}{{Featured article}}{{Pp-semi-blp|small=yes}}{{Use British English|date=August 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}{{bots|deny=Citation bot}}

image Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg
|alt = Photograph of Queen Elizabeth II
|caption = Elizabeth in 2015
|succession =
| 1979–presentMonarchy of Belize>Belize | 1981–presentMonarchy of Antigua and Barbuda>Antigua and Barbuda | 1981–presentMonarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis>St. Kitts and Nevis | 1983–presentDominion of Pakistan>Pakistan | 1952–1956Union of South Africa>South Africa | 1952–1961Dominion of Ceylon>Ceylon | 1952–1972Dominion of Ghana>Ghana | 1957–1960Federation of Nigeria>Nigeria | 1960–1963Sierra Leone (1961–1971)>Sierra Leone | 1961–1971Tanganyika > 1961–1962Dominion of Trinidad and Tobago>Trinidad and Tobago | 1962–1976Uganda (1962–1963)>Uganda | 1962–1963Kenya (1963–1964)>Kenya | 1963–1964Malawi (1964–1966)>Malawi | 1964–1966State of Malta>Malta | 1964–1974The Gambia (1965–1970)>The Gambia | 1965–1970Guyana (1966–1970)>Guyana | 1966–1970Mauritius (1968–1992)>Mauritius | 1968–1992Dominion of Fiji>Fiji | 1970–1987}}}}}}| reign = 6 February 1952 â€“ presentCoronation of Elizabeth II>Coronation| coronation = 2 June 1953| predecessor = George VIList of British monarchs>Predecessor| suc-type = Heir apparent| successor = Charles, Prince of Wales| birth_name = Princess Elizabeth of Yorkdf=yes4|21}}Mayfair, County of London>London, United KingdomPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|20 November 1947}}| issue-link = #Issue {edih}her marriage certificate), which is signed by both her and her father.House of Windsor>Windsor| father = George VI| mother = Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon| signature = Elizabeth II signature 1952.svg}}{{British Royal Family}}Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor;{{citation |title=The Royal Family name |url= |website=Official web site of the British Royal Family |accessdate=6 June 2019}} born 21 April 1926){{efn|name=birthday|The Queen's Official Birthday is not the same day as her actual one.}} is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.{{efn|name=constitutional|As a constitutional monarch, the Queen is head of state, but her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules.{{citation |title=Britain's monarchy |work=The Guardian |date=16 May 2002 |url=}}}}Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence, and as realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics. Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, in the United Kingdom support for the monarchy has been and remains consistently high, as does her personal popularity.

Early life

File:Queen Elizabeth II 1929.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair|On the cover of Time magazine, April 1929]]Elizabeth was born at 02:40 (GMT) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, the Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.Bradford, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 103; Marr, p. 76; Pimlott, pp. 2–3; Lacey, pp. 75–76; Roberts, p. 74 She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,Hoey, p. 40{{efn|name=baptism|Her godparents were: King George V and Queen Mary; Lord Strathmore; Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (her paternal great-granduncle); Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (her paternal aunt); and Lady Elphinstone (her maternal aunt).Brandreth, p. 103; Hoey, p. 40}} and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier; and Mary after her paternal grandmother.Brandreth, p. 103 Called "Lilibet" by her close family,Pimlott, p. 12 based on what she called herself at first,Williamson, p. 205 she was cherished by her grandfather George V, and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.Lacey, p. 56; Nicolson, p. 433; Pimlott, pp. 14–16File:Philip Alexius de Laszlo-Princess Elizabeth of York, Currently Queen Elizabeth II of England,1933.jpg|thumb|right|upright|alt=Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hair|Portrait by Philip de LászlóPhilip de LászlóElizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.Crawford, p. 26; Pimlott, p. 20; Shawcross, p. 21 Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature, and music.Brandreth, p. 124; Lacey, pp. 62–63; Pimlott, pp. 24, 69 Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.Brandreth, pp. 108–110; Lacey, pp. 159–161; Pimlott, pp. 20, 163 The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.Brandreth, pp. 108–110 Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."Brandreth, p. 105; Lacey, p. 81; Shawcross, pp. 21–22 Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".Brandreth, pp. 105–106

Heir presumptive

During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young, and likely to marry and have children of his own, who would precede Elizabeth in the line of succession.Bond, p. 8; Lacey, p. 76; Pimlott, p. 3 When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second in line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis.Lacey, pp. 97–98 Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, and she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a later son, he would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by male-preference primogeniture.Marr, pp. 78, 85; Pimlott, pp. 71–73Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College,Brandreth, p. 124; Crawford, p. 85; Lacey, p. 112; Marr, p. 88; Pimlott, p. 51; Shawcross, p. 25 and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.{{citation |title=Her Majesty The Queen: Early life and education |publisher=Royal Household |url= |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=29 December 2015}} A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age.Marr, p. 84; Pimlott, p. 47 Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger.In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when they had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours.Pimlott, p. 54 She "looked tearful" as her parents departed.Pimlott, p. 55 They corresponded regularly, and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.

Second World War

File:Hrh Princess Elizabeth in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, April 1945 TR2832.jpg|thumb|right|In April 1945}}In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord HailshamBOOK, Warwick, Christopher, 2002, Princess Margaret: A Life of Contrasts, London, Carlton Publishing Group, 978-0-233-05106-2, 102, suggested that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing. This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=21 December 2015}} The princesses stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk.Crawford, pp. 104–114; Pimlott, pp. 56–57 From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years.Crawford, pp. 114–119; Pimlott, p. 57 At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.Crawford, pp. 137–141 In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.{{citation |url= |title=Children's Hour: Princess Elizabeth |publisher=BBC |date=13 October 1940 |accessdate=22 July 2009}} She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well."In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.{{citation |url= |title=Early public life |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=20 April 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=28 March 2010}} As she approached her 18th birthday, parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five Counsellors of State in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.Pimlott, p. 71 In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873.{{London Gazette| issue=36973| date=6 March 1945|page=1315 |supp=y}} She trained as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of captain at the time) five months later.Bradford, p. 45; Lacey, p. 148; Marr, p. 100; Pimlott, p. 75{{London Gazette| issue=37205| date=31 July 1945|page=3972 |supp=y}}{{citation |url= |title=The World War II Auto Mechanic in This Photo Is Queen Elizabeth II. Here's the Story Behind the Picture |work=Time |first=Lily |last=Rothman |date=25 May 2018}}File:Special Film Project 186 - Buckingham Palace 2.jpg|thumb|Elizabeth (far left) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with her family and Winston Churchill on 8 May 1945, Victory in Europe DayVictory in Europe DayAt the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, Elizabeth and Margaret mingled anonymously with the celebratory crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."Bond, p. 10; Pimlott, p. 79During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war.{{citation |url= |title=Royal plans to beat nationalism |publisher=BBC News |date=8 March 2005 |accessdate=15 June 2010}} Welsh politicians suggested she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.Pimlott, pp. 71–73 In 1946, she was inducted into the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.{{citation |url= |title=Gorsedd of the Bards |publisher=National Museum of Wales |accessdate=17 December 2009 |archiveurl= |archivedate=18 May 2014}}Princess Elizabeth went in 1947 on her first overseas tour, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."{{citation |url= |title=A speech by the Queen on her 21st birthday |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=20 April 1947}}


Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and 1937.Brandreth, pp. 132–139; Lacey, pp. 124–125; Pimlott, p. 86 They are second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through Queen Victoria. After another meeting at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, and they began to exchange letters.Bond, p. 10; Brandreth, pp. 132–136, 166–169; Lacey, pp. 119, 126, 135 She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.Heald, p. 77(File:Elizabeth II and Philip.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Elizabeth and Philip, 1950)The engagement was not without controversy; Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the Royal Navy throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links.{{citation |author=Edwards, Phil |url= |title=The Real Prince Philip |publisher=Channel 4 |date=31 October 2000 |accessdate=23 September 2009 |archive-url= |archive-date=9 February 2010}} Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."Crawford, p. 180 Later biographies reported Elizabeth's mother initially opposed the union, dubbing Philip "The Hun".{{citation |url= |title=Philip, the one constant through her life |accessdate=23 September 2009 |last=Davies |first=Caroline |date=20 April 2006 |work=The Daily Telegraph |location=London}} In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman".Heald, p. xviiiBefore the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.Hoey, pp. 55–56; Pimlott, pp. 101, 137 Just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.{{London Gazette| issue=38128|page=5495| date=21 November 1947}}Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world.{{citation |url= |title=60 Diamond Wedding anniversary facts |publisher=Royal Household |date=18 November 2007 |accessdate=20 June 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=3 December 2010 |df=}} Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown, which was designed by Norman Hartnell.Hoey, p. 58; Pimlott, pp. 133–134 In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.Hoey, p. 59; Petropoulos, p. 363 The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either.Bradford, p. 61Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.Letters Patent, 22 October 1948; Hoey, pp. 69–70; Pimlott, pp. 155–156 A second child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950.Pimlott, p. 163Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor, near Windsor Castle, until July 1949, when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. The children remained in Britain.Brandreth, pp. 226–238; Pimlott, pp. 145, 159–163, 167


Accession and coronation

(File:Elizabeth II & Philip after Coronation.JPG|thumb|upright|left|Elizabeth II and Prince Philip on Coronation Day, 1953)During 1951, George VI's health declined, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour.Brandreth, pp. 240–241; Lacey, p. 166; Pimlott, pp. 169–172 In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new queen.Brandreth, pp. 245–247; Lacey, p. 166; Pimlott, pp. 173–176; Shawcross, p.16 Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course".Bousfield and Toffoli, p. 72; Charteris quoted in Pimlott, p. 179 and Shawcross, p. 17 She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.Pimlott, pp. 178–179 She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace.Pimlott, pp. 186–187With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. The Duke's uncle, Lord Mountbatten, advocated the name House of Mountbatten. Philip suggested House of Edinburgh, after his ducal title.{{citation |url= |title=Emma Soames: As Churchills we're proud to do our duty |last=Soames |first=Emma |date=1 June 2012|access-date=12 March 2019}} The British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, and Elizabeth's grandmother, Queen Mary, favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."Bradford, p. 80; Brandreth, pp. 253–254; Lacey, pp. 172–173; Pimlott, pp. 183–185 In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.{{London Gazette| issue=41948 |supp=y|page=1003| date=5 February 1960}}Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."Brandreth, pp. 269–271 Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.Brandreth, pp. 269–271; Lacey, pp. 193–194; Pimlott, pp. 201, 236–238 Eventually, she decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.Bond, p. 22; Brandreth, p. 271; Lacey, p. 194; Pimlott, p. 238; Shawcross, p. 146 In 1960, she married Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created Earl of Snowdon the following year. They divorced in 1978; she did not remarry.{{citation |url= |title=Princess Margaret |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=21 December 2015}}Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died.Bradford, p. 82 The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.{{citation |url= |title=50 facts about The Queen's Coronation |date=25 May 2003 |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016}}{{efn|name=television|Television coverage of the coronation was instrumental in boosting the medium's popularity; the number of television licences in the United Kingdom doubled to 3 million,Pimlott, p. 207 and many of the more than 20 million British viewers watched television for the first time in the homes of their friends or neighbours.Briggs, pp. 420 ff.; Pimlott, p. 207; Roberts, p. 82 In North America, just under 100 million viewers watched recorded broadcasts.Lacey, p. 182}} Elizabeth's coronation gown was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries:Lacey, p. 190; Pimlott, pp. 247–248 English Tudor rose; Scots thistle; Welsh leek; Irish shamrock; Australian wattle; Canadian maple leaf; New Zealand silver fern; South African protea; lotus flowers for India and Ceylon; and Pakistan's wheat, cotton, and jute.{{citation |last1=Cotton |first1=Belinda |last2=Ramsey |first2=Ron |url= |title=By appointment: Norman Hartnell's sample for the Coronation dress of Queen Elizabeth II |publisher=National Gallery of Australia |accessdate=4 December 2009 |archiveurl= |archivedate=29 June 2011}}

Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth

{{further|Commonwealth realm#From the accession of Queen Elizabeth II}}(File:British Empire in February 1952.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Elizabeth's realms (pink) and their territories and protectorates (dark red) at the beginning of her reign in 1952)From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.Marr, p. 272 By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.Pimlott, p. 182 In 1953, the Queen and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than 40,000 miles by land, sea and air.{{citation |url= |title=The Commonwealth: Gifts to the Queen |publisher=Royal Collection Trust |accessdate=20 February 2016}} She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.{{citation |url= |title=Australia: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=13 October 2015}}{{citation |url= |title=New Zealand: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=22 December 2015}}Marr, p. 126 During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.Brandreth, p. 278; Marr, p. 126; Pimlott, p. 224; Shawcross, p. 59 Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she is the most widely travelled head of state.{{citation |url= |title=Queen's Diamond Jubilee: Sixty years of royal tours |first=Sophie |last=Campbell |newspaper=The Telegraph |date=11 May 2012 |accessdate=20 February 2016}}In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet, discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union.{{citation |url= |title=When Britain and France nearly married |publisher=BBC News |date=15 January 2007 |accessdate=14 December 2009 |first=Mike |last=Thomson}} In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.Pimlott, p. 255; Roberts, p. 84File:Queen Elizabeth II and the Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth Nations, at Windsor Castle (1960 Commonwealth Prime Minister's Conference).jpg|thumb|left|alt=A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume.|Elizabeth II and Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Conference ]]The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.Marr, pp. 175–176; Pimlott, pp. 256–260; Roberts, p. 84The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led, in 1957, to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,Lacey, p. 199; Shawcross, p. 75 Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".Lord Altrincham in National Review quoted by Brandreth, p. 374 and Roberts, p. 83 Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.Brandreth, p. 374; Pimlott, pp. 280–281; Shawcross, p. 76 Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint the Earl of Home as prime minister, advice she followed.Hardman, p. 22; Pimlott, pp. 324–335; Roberts, p. 84 The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister. In 1965 the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement.Roberts, p. 84{{Wikisource|Queen Elizabeth II's Address to the United Nations General Assembly}}In 1957 she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Canada: Royal visits |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=12 February 2012 |archiveurl= |archivedate=4 May 2010}} Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.Bradford, p. 114 In 1961 she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.Pimlott, p. 303; Shawcross, p. 83 On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins. Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."Macmillan, pp. 466–472 Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.BOOK, Speaight, Robert, Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat, Governor General: A Biography, William Collins, Sons and Co. Ltd., 1970, London, 978-0-00-262252-3,weblink {{citation |last=Dubois |first=Paul |title=Demonstrations Mar Quebec Events Saturday |newspaper=The Gazette |page=1 |date=12 October 1964 |url=,2340498 |accessdate=6 March 2010}} No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.Bousfield, p. 139Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes Andrew and Edward, in 1959 and 1963, mark the only times she has not performed the State Opening of the British parliament during her reign.{{citation |last=Dymond |first=Glenn |date=5 March 2010 |url= |title=Ceremonial in the House of Lords |publisher=House of Lords Library |page=12 |accessdate=5 June 2010}} In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.Hardman, pp. 213–214

Acceleration of decolonisation

File:Elizabeth II in Queensland, Australia, 1970.jpg|thumb|left|In QueenslandQueenslandThe 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian Prime Minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth. Although the Queen formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.Bond, p. 66; Pimlott, pp. 345–354 As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.Bradford, pp. 123, 154, 176; Pimlott, pp. 301, 315–316, 415–417In February 1974, the British Prime Minister, Edward Heath, advised the Queen to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.Bradford, p. 181; Pimlott, p. 418 The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.Bradford, p. 181; Marr, p. 256; Pimlott, p. 419; Shawcross, pp. 109–110A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.Bond, p. 96; Marr, p. 257; Pimlott, p. 427; Shawcross, p. 110 As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the Governor-General.Pimlott, pp. 428–429 The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.

Silver Jubilee

File:Jimmy Carter with Queen Elizabeth - NARA - 174724.tif|thumb|upright=1.5|Elizabeth (centre) in 1977, with national leaders Pierre Trudeau, (Prince Charles far background), Princess Margaret, Takeo Fukuda, James Callaghan, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Prince Philip, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, Jimmy Carter, Giulio Andreotti, and Helmut SchmidtHelmut SchmidtIn 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband.Pimlott, p. 449 In 1978, the Queen endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae CeauÈ™escu, and his wife, Elena,Hardman, p. 137; Roberts, pp. 88–89; Shawcross, p. 178 though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".Elizabeth to her staff, quoted in Shawcross, p. 178 The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.Pimlott, pp. 336–337, 470–471; Roberts, pp. 88–89According to Paul Martin, Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister. Tony Benn said the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing".{{citation |last=Heinricks |first=Geoff |title=Trudeau: A drawer monarchist |work=National Post |location=Toronto |date=29 September 2000 |page=B12}} Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office. In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats". She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state. Patriation removed the role of the British parliament from the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private".Trudeau, p. 313


During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.{{citation |url= |title=Queen's 'fantasy assassin' jailed |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=21 June 2010 |date=14 September 1981}} The Queen's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.Lacey, p. 281; Pimlott, pp. 476–477; Shawcross, p. 192Months later, in October, the Queen was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service documents, declassified in 2018, revealed that 17-year-old Christopher John Lewis fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.{{citation |url= |title=Intelligence documents confirm assassination attempt on Queen Elizabeth in New Zealand |work=The Sydney Morning Herald |first=Hamish |last=McNeilly |date=1 March 2018 |accessdate=1 March 2018}} Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William.{{citation |url= |title='Damn ... I missed': the incredible story of the day the Queen was nearly shot |work=The Guardian |first=Eleanor |last=Ainge Roy |date=13 January 2018 |accessdate=1 March 2018}}From April to September 1982, the Queen was anxious but proud of her son, Prince Andrew, who was serving with British forces during the Falklands War.Bond, p. 115; Pimlott, p. 487; Shawcross, p. 127 On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.Lacey, pp. 297–298; Pimlott, p. 491 After hosting US President Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting his California ranch in 1983, the Queen was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.Bond, p. 188; Pimlott, p. 497File:ElizabethIItroopingcolour crop.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse|Elizabeth riding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the ColourTrooping the ColourIntense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true.Pimlott, pp. 488–490 As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."Pimlott, p. 521 Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that the Queen was worried that Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.Pimlott, pp. 503–515; see also Neil, pp. 195–207 and Shawcross, pp. 129–132 Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.Thatcher to Brian Walden quoted in Neil, p. 207; Andrew Neil quoted in Woodrow Wyatt's diary of 26 October 1990 Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".Campbell, p. 467 Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen,Thatcher, p. 309 and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major.Roberts, p. 101; Shawcross, p. 139 Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.JOURNAL, Geddes, John, The day she descended into the fray, Maclean's, Special Commemorative Edition: The Diamond Jubilee: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years, 2012, 72, JOURNAL, MacQueen, Ken, Treble, Patricia, The Jewel in the Crown, Maclean's, Special Commemorative Edition: The Diamond Jubilee: Celebrating 60 Remarkable years, 2012, 43–44, By the end of the 1980s, the Queen had become the target of satire.Lacey, pp. 293–294; Pimlott, p. 541 The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed.Hardman, p. 81; Lacey, p. 307; Pimlott, pp. 522–526 In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau. The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.Pimlott, pp. 515–516


In 1991, in the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, the Queen became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress.Pimlott, p. 538(File:Bundesarchiv Bild 199-1992-089-19Acropped.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose|Philip and Elizabeth in Germany, {{nowrap|October 1992}})In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis (horrible year).{{citation |url= |title=Annus horribilis speech |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=24 November 1992}} Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the Queen's private wealth—which were contradicted by the Palace—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.Pimlott, pp. 519–534 In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, and his wife, Sarah, separated; in April, her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips;Lacey, p. 319; Marr, p. 315; Pimlott, pp. 550–551 during a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at her;{{citation |last=Stanglin |first=Doug |title=German study concludes 25,000 died in Allied bombing of Dresden |url= |work=USA Today |date=18 March 2010 |accessdate=19 March 2010}} and, in November, a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.Brandreth, p. 377; Pimlott, pp. 558–559; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 204 In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".Brandreth, p. 377 Two days later, Prime Minister John Major announced reforms to the royal finances planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list.Bradford, p. 229; Lacey, pp. 325–326; Pimlott, pp. 559–561 In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.Bradford, p. 226; Hardman, p. 96; Lacey, p. 328; Pimlott, p. 561 The year ended with a lawsuit, as the Queen sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.Pimlott, p. 562In the years to follow, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.Brandreth, p. 356; Pimlott, pp. 572–577; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 168 Even though support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism was still a minority viewpoint, and the Queen herself had high approval ratings.MORI poll for The Independent newspaper, March 1996, quoted in Pimlott, p. 578 and {{citation |last=O'Sullivan |first=Jack |date=5 March 1996 |url= |title=Watch out, the Roundheads are back |work=The Independent |accessdate=17 September 2011}} Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions.Pimlott, p. 578 In consultation with her husband and the Prime Minister, John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying a divorce was desirable.Brandreth, p. 357; Pimlott, p. 577In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons by Charles—Princes William and Harry—wanted to attend church and so the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh took them that morning.Brandreth, p. 358; Hardman, p. 101; Pimlott, p. 610 Afterwards, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Marr, p. 338; Pimlott, p. 615 but the royal family's seclusion and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace caused public dismay.Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Lacey, pp. 6–7; Pimlott, p. 616; Roberts, p. 98; Shawcross, p. 8 Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to return to London and do a live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.Brandreth, pp. 358–359; Lacey, pp. 8–9; Pimlott, pp. 621–622 In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 359; Lacey, pp. 13–15; Pimlott, pp. 623–624 As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.In November 1997, the Queen and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary.{{citation |url= |title=A speech by The Queen on her Golden Wedding Anniversary |publisher=The Royal Household |date=20 November 1997 |accessdate=10 February 2017}} She made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".

Golden Jubilee

File:Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Greeting NASA employees at the Goddard Space Flight Center, MarylandMarylandIn 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.Bond, p. 156; Bradford, pp. 248–249; Marr, pp. 349–350 She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the Governor-General, into darkness.Brandreth, p. 31 As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,Bond, pp. 166–167 and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had expected.Bond, p. 157Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.{{citation |url= |title=Queen cancels visit due to injury |publisher=BBC News |date=26 October 2006 |accessdate=8 December 2009}}In May 2007, The Daily Telegraph, citing unnamed sources, reported the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.{{citation |url= |last=Alderson |first=Andrew |work=The Telegraph |title=Revealed: Queen's dismay at Blair legacy |date=28 May 2007 |accessdate=31 May 2010}} She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.{{citation |url= |last=Alderson |first=Andrew |work=The Telegraph |title=Tony and Her Majesty: an uneasy relationship |date=27 May 2007 |accessdate=31 May 2010}} She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.{{citation |url= |title=Queen celebrates diamond wedding |date=19 November 2007|access-date=10 February 2017 |publisher=BBC News}} On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.{{citation |url= |title=Historic first for Maundy service |publisher=BBC News |date=20 March 2008 |accessdate=12 October 2008}}

Diamond Jubilee and longevity

Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.{{citation |title=A speech by the Queen to the United Nations General Assembly |date=6 July 2010 |url= |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016}} The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".{{citation |url= |title=Queen addresses UN General Assembly in New York |publisher=BBC News |date=7 July 2010 |accessdate=7 July 2010}} During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks. The Queen's visit to Australia in October 2011—her 16th visit since 1954—was called her "farewell tour" in the press because of her age.{{citation |title=Royal tour of Australia: The Queen ends visit with traditional 'Aussie barbie' |url= |work=The Daily Telegraph |date=29 October 2011 |accessdate=30 October 2011}} By invitation of the Irish President, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.Bradford, p. 253File:Day 194 - West Midlands Police - Royal Diamond Jubilee Visit (7555521830).jpg|thumb|Visiting July 2012}} as part of her Diamond Jubilee tourThe Queen's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. In a message released on Accession Day, Elizabeth wrote:}}She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.{{citation |url= |title=Prince Harry pays tribute to the Queen in Jamaica |date=7 March 2012 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=31 May 2012}}{{citation |url= |title=Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall to Undertake a Royal Tour of Canada in 2012 |date=14 December 2011 |publisher=Office of the Governor General of Canada |accessdate=31 May 2012}} On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.{{citation |url= |title=Event News |publisher=The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Beacons |accessdate=28 April 2016}} In November, the Queen and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary (65th).{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Duke of Edinburgh celebrate 65th wedding anniversary |work=The Daily Telegraph |date=19 November 2012 |accessdate=10 February 2017 |first=Gordon |last=Rayner}} On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781.{{citation |title=UK to name part of Antarctica Queen Elizabeth Land |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=18 December 2012 |accessdate=9 June 2019}}The Queen, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.{{citation |url= |title=Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium Announces Broadcast Details for London 2012 Opening Ceremony, Friday |agency=PR Newswire |date=24 July 2012 |accessdate=22 March 2015 |archive-url= |archive-date=2 April 2015}} For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.{{citation |last=Brown |first=Nicholas |date=27 July 2012 |url= |title=How James Bond whisked the Queen to the Olympics |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=27 July 2012}} On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.{{citation |url= |title=Queen honoured with Bafta award for film and TV support |date=4 April 2013 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=7 April 2013}}On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth was admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day.{{citation |title=Queen leaves hospital after stomach bug |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=4 March 2013 |accessdate=4 March 2013}} A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth.{{citation |title=Recovering Queen signs Commonwealth charter |url= |accessdate=23 October 2016 |publisher=BBC News |date=11 March 2013}} Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles.{{citation |title=Queen to miss Commonwealth meeting |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=7 May 2013 |accessdate=7 May 2013}} She had cataract surgery in May 2018.{{citation |url= |title=The Queen undergoes eye surgery to remove cataract |publisher=}} In March 2019, she opted to give up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months beforehand.{{citation |title=Queen slams brakes on driving in public |url= |work=The Times |date=31 March 2019 |accessdate=31 March 2019}}File:Elizabeth II at the Queen's Birthday Party (2018).jpg|thumb|left|The Queen's Birthday PartyThe Queen's Birthday PartyThe Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.{{citation |url= |title=Elizabeth Set to Beat Victoria's Record as Longest Reigning Monarch in British History |work=HuffPost |date=6 September 2014 |accessdate=28 September 2014}}{{citation |url= |first=Shrikant |last=Modh |title=The Longest Reigning Monarch Queen Elizabeth II |work=Philately News |date=11 September 2015 |accessdate=20 November 2017| archive-url=| archive-date=1 December 2017}}{{citation |url= |title=Enthralling 'Audience' puts Britain's queen in room with politicians |work=Chicago Sun-Times |date=24 August 2017 |accessdate=20 November 2017}} She is also the "longest-reigning sovereign in Canada's modern era"{{citation |url= |title=Governor General to Host Special Event in Honour of Her Majesty's Historic Reign |date=9 September 2015 |publisher=Office of the Secretary to the Governor General |accessdate=9 September 2015}} (Louis XIV of France reigned over the colony of Canada for longer than Elizabeth).{{citation |url= |title=Crown |date=19 July 2017 |publisher=Government of Canada |accessdate=15 October 2017}} She became the oldest current monarch after King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015.{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth II is now world's oldest monarch |date=24 January 2015 |newspaper=The Hindu |accessdate=20 November 2017}}{{citation |url= |title=Queen becomes world's oldest monarch following death of King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia |date=23 January 2015 |work=The Daily Telegraph |accessdate=20 November 2017 |last1=Rayner |first1=Gordon}} She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016,{{citation |url= |title=Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88 |date=13 October 2016 |publisher=BBC News|access-date=13 October 2016}}{{citation |author=PA |url= |title=Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies |publisher=AOL (UK) |date=13 October 2016 |accessdate=13 October 2016}} and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe on 21 November 2017.{{citation |first=Charlie |last=Proctor |url= |title=BREAKING: The Queen becomes the world's oldest living Head of State following Mugabe resignation |date=21 November 2017 |work=Royal Central |accessdate=21 November 2017}}{{citation |url= |title=Queen Elizabeth II will be the world's oldest head of state if Robert Mugabe is toppled |date=14 November 2017 | |accessdate=20 November 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=15 November 2017}} On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee,{{citation |last=Rayner |first=Gordon |url= |title=The Blue Sapphire Jubilee: Queen will not celebrate 65th anniversary but instead sit in 'quiet contemplation' remembering father's death |newspaper=The Telegraph |date=29 January 2017 |accessdate=3 February 2017}} and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.{{citation |url= |title=Queen and Prince Philip portraits released to mark 70th anniversary |date=20 November 2017 |newspaper=The Guardian |accessdate=20 November 2017 |agency=Press Association}} Prince Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August.{{citation |last=Bilefsky |first=Dan |url= |title=Prince Philip Makes His Last Solo Appearance, After 65 Years in the Public Eye |newspaper=The New York Times |date=2 August 2017 |accessdate=4 August 2017}} On 23 April 2019, she became the oldest living monarch following the death of Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg.The Queen does not intend to abdicate,Brandreth, pp. 370–371; Marr, p. 395 though Prince Charles is expected to take on more of her duties as Elizabeth, who celebrated her 93rd birthday in 2019, carries out fewer public engagements.{{citation |last1=Mansey |first1=Kate |last2=Leake |first2=Jonathan |last3=Hellen |first3=Nicholas |url= |title=Queen and Charles start to 'job-share' |work=The Sunday Times |date=19 January 2014 |accessdate=20 January 2014}}Marr, p. 395 On 20 April 2018, the government leaders of the Commonwealth of Nations announced that she will be succeeded by Charles as head of the Commonwealth. The Queen stated it was her "sincere wish" that Charles would follow her in the role.{{citation |url= |title=Charles to be next Commonwealth head |date=20 April 2018 |publisher=BBC News|access-date=21 April 2018}} Plans for her death and funeral have been extensively prepared by most British government and media organisations for decades.{{citation |url= |last=Knight |first=Sam |title=Operation London Bridge: the secret plan for the days after the Queen's death |date=16 March 2017 |newspaper=The Guardian |accessdate=17 March 2017}}

Public perception and character

Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. As a constitutional monarch, she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum.However, occasionally claims are made about her political opinions. For example after the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, the then Prime Minister, David Cameron, claimed that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome ({{citation |last=Dominiczak |first=Peter |title=David Cameron: I'm extremely sorry for saying Queen 'purred' over Scottish Independence vote |newspaper=The Daily Telegraph |date=24 September 2014 |url=}}). She does have a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and takes her coronation oath seriously.{{citation |url= |title=Queen 'will do her job for life' |publisher=BBC News |date=19 April 2006 |accessdate=4 February 2007}}Shawcross, pp. 194–195 Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she is a member of that church and also of the national Church of Scotland.{{citation |url= |title=How we are organised |publisher=Church of Scotland |accessdate=4 August 2011}} She has demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and has met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI, and Francis.{{citation |title=Queen meets Pope Francis at the Vatican |url= |accessdate=28 March 2017 |publisher=BBC News |date=3 April 2014}} A personal note about her faith often features in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:Shawcross, pp. 236–237}}File:President Reagan and Queen Elizabeth II 1982.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan on black horses. He bare-headed; she in a headscarf; both in tweeds, jodhpurs and riding boots.|Elizabeth and June 1982}}She is patron of over 600 organisations and charities.{{citation |url= |title=About The Patron's Lunch |publisher=The Patron's Lunch |accessdate=28 April 2016 |date=5 September 2014}} Her main leisure interests include equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.{{citation |title=80 facts about The Queen |publisher=Royal Household |url= |accessdate=20 June 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=21 March 2009}} Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.BOOK, Bush, Karen, Everything Dogs Expect You To Know, London,weblink 18 September 2012, 26 October 2007, New Holland Publishers, 978-1-84537-954-4, 115, {{citation |last=Pierce |first=Andrew |url= |title=Hug for Queen Elizabeth's first corgi |work=The Telegraph |date=1 October 2007 |accessdate=21 September 2012}} Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life have occasionally been witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepare a meal together and do the washing up afterwards.{{citation |url= |last=Delacourt |first=Susan |title=When the Queen is your boss |date=25 May 2012 |newspaper=Toronto Star |accessdate=27 May 2012}}In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".Bond, p. 22 After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 180; Roberts, p. 82; Shawcross, p. 50 Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 280; Shawcross, p. 76 In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales.Bond, pp. 66–67, 84, 87–89; Bradford, pp. 160–163; Hardman, pp. 22, 210–213; Lacey, pp. 222–226; Marr, p. 237; Pimlott, pp. 378–392; Roberts, pp. 84–86 In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, which allow her to be seen easily in a crowd.{{citation |first=Jess |last=Cartner-Morley |url= |title=Elizabeth II, belated follower of fashion |date=10 May 2007 |accessdate=5 September 2011 |newspaper=The Guardian |location=London}}At her Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic,Bond, p. 97; Bradford, p. 189; Pimlott, pp. 449–450; Roberts, p. 87; Shawcross, pp. 114–117 but in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.Bond, p. 117; Roberts, p. 91 Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.Bond, p. 134; Pimlott, pp. 556–561, 570 Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of the former Princess of Wales, Diana, though Elizabeth's personal popularity and support for the monarchy rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.Bond, p. 134; Pimlott, pp. 624–625In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.Hardman, p. 310; Lacey, p. 387; Roberts, p. 101; Shawcross, p. 218 Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for Elizabeth,{{citation |url= |title=Monarchy poll |date=April 2006 |publisher=Ipsos MORI |accessdate=22 March 2015}}{{citation |url= |format=PDF |title=Monarchy Survey |publisher=Populus Ltd |page=9 |date=14–16 December 2007 |accessdate=17 August 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=11 May 2011}}{{citation |url= |title=Poll respondents back UK monarchy |publisher=BBC News |date=28 December 2007 |accessdate=17 August 2010}} and in 2012, her Diamond Jubilee year, approval ratings hit 90 percent.{{citation |url= |title=Monarchy/Royal Family Trends â€“ Satisfaction with the Queen |date=19 May 2016 |publisher=Ipsos MORI |accessdate=19 September 2017}} Referendums in Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 both rejected proposals to become republics.{{citation |url= |title=Vincies vote "No" |publisher=BBC News |date=26 November 2009 |accessdate=26 November 2009}}Elizabeth has been portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett, and Tai-Shan Schierenberg.{{citation |last=Riley |first=Ben |url= |title=Revealed: Damien Hirst's only portrait of the Queen found in government archives |work=The Telegraph |date=12 February 2016 |accessdate=10 September 2016}}{{citation |url= |title=Elizabeth II |publisher=National Portrait Gallery |accessdate=22 June 2013}} Notable photographers of Elizabeth have included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Annie Leibovitz, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill, John Swannell, and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in 1926.{{citation |url= |title=Marcus Adams |publisher=National Portrait Gallery |accessdate=20 April 2013}}


{{Further|Finances of the British royal family}}{{See also|Paradise Papers}}File:Sandringham House garden.jpg|thumb|alt=View of Sandingham House from the south bank of the Upper Lake|Sandringham House, Elizabeth's private residence in Norfolk ]]Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £{{Formatprice|{{Inflation|UK|2000000|1971|r=-6}}}} in {{Inflation-year|UK}}{{Inflation-fn|UK|df=y}}).JOURNAL, £2m estimate of the Queen's wealth 'more likely to be accurate', The Times, 11 June 1971, 1, Pimlott, p. 401 In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated".Lord Chamberlain Lord Airlie quoted in Hoey, p. 225 and Pimlott, p. 561 In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother.{{citation |url= |title=Queen inherits Queen Mother's estate |date=17 May 2002 |accessdate=25 December 2015 |publisher=BBC News}} The Sunday Times Rich List 2017 estimated her personal wealth at £360 million, making her the 329th richest person in the UK.{{citation |url= |website=The Sunday Times |title=Rich List 2017 |accessdate=19 August 2017 |date=7 May 2017 |archiveurl= |archivedate=20 August 2017}}The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the British Crown Jewels, is not owned by the Queen personally but is held in trust,{{citation |url= |title=FAQs |publisher=Royal Collection |accessdate=29 March 2012}}{{citation |url= |title=The Royal Collection |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=20 November 2015}} as are her official residences, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle,{{citation |url= |title=The Royal Residences: Overview |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=9 December 2009 |archiveurl= |archivedate=1 May 2011}} and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015.{{citation |url= |title=Accounts, Annual Reports and Investments |publisher=Duchy of Lancaster |year=2015 |accessdate=19 August 2017| archive-url=| archive-date=24 August 2017}} Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle are personally owned by the Queen. The British Crown Estate—with holdings of £12 billion in 2016—is held in trust and cannot be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity.{{citation |url= |title=FAQs |publisher=Crown Estate |accessdate=22 March 2015}}

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 21 April 1926{{spaced ndash}}11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York
  • 11 December 1936{{spaced ndash}}20 November 1947: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth
  • 20 November 1947{{spaced ndash}}6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh
  • Since 6 February 1952: Her Majesty The Queen
Elizabeth has held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, is Sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and has received honours and awards from around the world. In each of her realms she has a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Jamaica and her other realms and territories in Jamaica, Queen of Australia and her other realms and territories in Australia, etc. In the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, which are Crown dependencies rather than separate realms, she is known as Duke of Normandy and Lord of Mann, respectively. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to initially address her as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am.{{citation |title=Greeting a member of The Royal Family |url= |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=15 January 2016}}


{{See also|Flags of Elizabeth II}}From 21 April 1944 until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent, the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George.{{citation |url= |title=Coat of Arms: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth |publisher=Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia |accessdate=6 April 2013 |archiveurl= |archivedate=6 November 2013}} Upon her accession, she inherited the various arms her father held as sovereign. The Queen also possesses royal standards and personal flags for use in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, and elsewhere.{{citation |url= |title=Personal flags |publisher=Royal Household |accessdate=18 April 2016 |date=15 January 2016}}{| border="0" style="margin:auto; width:100%;"!width=20% |(File:Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Heiress Presumptive (1944-1947).svg|centre|200px)!width=20% |(File:Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (1947-1952).svg|centre|200px)!width=20% |(File:Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg|centre|200px)!width=20% |(File:Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg|centre|200px)!width=20% |(File:Coat of arms of Canada (1957-1994).svg|centre|150px)Coat of arms 1944–1947}}Coat of arms 1947–1952}}Coat of arms since 1952 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland}}Coat of arms since 1952 in Scotland}}Arms of Canada (one of three versions used in her reign){{efn>name=armsurl= publisher=Royal Heraldry Society of Canada accessdate=13 March 2011 archivedate=30 January 2012}}}}}}">

Issue {| class"wikitable plainrowheaders"

! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Name! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Birth! colspan="2" scope="col" | Marriage! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Their children! rowspan="2" scope="col" | Their grandchildren! scope="col" | Date! scope="col" | Spouse! rowspan="3" scope="row" | Charles, Prince of Wales 14 November 1948 29 July 1981Divorced 28 August 1996 Lady Diana Spencer| Prince William, Duke of Cambridge| Prince George of CambridgePrincess Charlotte of CambridgePrince Louis of Cambridge| Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex| Archie Mountbatten-Windsor| 9 April 2005| Camilla Parker BowlesNone}}! rowspan="3" scope="row" | Anne, Princess Royal 15 August 1950 14 November 1973Divorced 28 April 1992 Mark Phillips| Peter Phillips| Savannah PhillipsIsla Phillips| Zara Tindall| Mia TindallLena Tindall| 12 December 1992| Timothy LaurenceNone}}! rowspan="2" scope="row" | Prince Andrew, Duke of York 19 February 1960 23 July 1986Divorced 30 May 1996 Sarah Ferguson| Princess Beatrice of YorkNone}}| Princess Eugenie of YorkNone}}! rowspan="2" scope="row" | Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie Rhys-Jones| Lady Louise WindsorNone}}| James, Viscount SevernNone}}


{{Ahnentafelcollapsed=yesLAST2=MACLAGAN AUTHORLINK2=MICHAEL MACLAGAN ORIGYEAR=1981 EDITION=2ND PUBLISHER=LITTLE, BROWN PAGE=34, |boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|2= 2. George VI of the United Kingdom|3= 3. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon|4= 4. George V of the United Kingdom|5= 5. Princess Mary of Teck|6= 6. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and KinghorneCecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne>Nina Cavendish-Bentinck|8= 8. Edward VII of the United KingdomAlexandra of Denmark>Princess Alexandra of Denmark|10= 10. Francis, Duke of Teck|11= 11. Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge|12= 12. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and KinghorneFrances Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne>Frances Dora SmithCharles Cavendish-Bentinck (priest)>Charles Cavendish-BentinckLouisa Cavendish-Bentinck>Carolina Burnaby}}

See also






  • Bond, Jennie (2006). Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years. London: Carlton Publishing Group. {{ISBN|1-84442-260-7}}
  • Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002). Fifty Years the Queen. Toronto: Dundurn Press. {{ISBN|978-1-55002-360-2}}
  • Bradford, Sarah (2012). Queen Elizabeth II: Her Life in Our Times. London: Penguin. {{ISBN|978-0-670-91911-6}}
  • Brandreth, Gyles (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Century. {{ISBN|0-7126-6103-4}}
  • Briggs, Asa (1995). The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-212967-8}}
  • Campbell, John (2003). Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady. London: Jonathan Cape. {{ISBN|0-224-06156-9}}
  • Crawford, Marion (1950). The Little Princesses. London: Cassell & Co.
  • Hardman, Robert (2011). Our Queen. London: Hutchinson. {{ISBN|978-0-09-193689-1}}
  • Heald, Tim (2007). Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. {{ISBN|978-0-297-84820-2}}
  • Hoey, Brian (2002). Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-653136-9}}
  • Lacey, Robert (2002). Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. London: Little, Brown. {{ISBN|0-316-85940-0}}
  • Macmillan, Harold (1972). Pointing The Way 1959–1961 London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-12411-1}}
  • Marr, Andrew (2011). The Diamond Queen: Elizabeth II and Her People. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|978-0-230-74852-1}}
  • Neil, Andrew (1996). Full Disclosure. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-64682-7}}
  • Nicolson, Sir Harold (1952). King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign. London: Constable & Co.
  • Petropoulos, Jonathan (2006). Royals and the Reich: the princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-516133-5}}
  • Pimlott, Ben (2001). The Queen: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-255494-1}}
  • Roberts, Andrew; Edited by Antonia Fraser (2000). The House of Windsor. London: Cassell & Co. {{ISBN|0-304-35406-6}}
  • Shawcross, William (2002). Queen and Country. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. {{ISBN|0-7710-8056-5}}
  • Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years. London: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-00-255049-0}}
  • Trudeau, Pierre Elliott (1993). Memoirs. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart. {{ISBN|978-0-7710-8588-8}}
  • Williamson, David (1987). Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain. Webb & Bower. {{ISBN|0-86350-101-X}}
  • Wyatt, Woodrow; Edited by Sarah Curtis (1999). The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: Volume II. London: Macmillan. {{ISBN|0-333-77405-1}}

External links

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