George III of the United Kingdom

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George III of the United Kingdom
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{{Redirect|George III}}{{pp-semi|small=yes}}{{short description|King of Great Britain and Ireland}}{{EngvarB|date=January 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2018}}{{Featured article}}

Elector of Hanover/King of Hanover{{efn>name=note 2|King from 12 October 1814.}}Style of the British sovereign#Styles of British sovereigns>more...)George II of Great Britain>George II| successor = George IVCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz1818|end=died}}George IVPrince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany>William IV of the United Kingdom>Charlotte, Princess RoyalPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn>Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom>Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom> Ernest Augustus, King of HanoverPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex>Prince Adolphus, Duke of CambridgePrincess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh>Princess Sophia of the United Kingdom>Prince Octavius of Great Britain>Prince Alfred of Great Britain>Princess Amelia}}| full name = George William FrederickHouse of Hanover>Hanover| father = Frederick, Prince of Wales| mother = Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha[Old Style and New Style dates>NS]{{efn|name=date}}| birth_place = Norfolk House, St James's Square, London, Englanddf=y117384}}| death_place = Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England| burial_date = 16 February 1820| burial_place = St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle| signature = File:George III signature.jpg| signature_alt = Handwritten "George" with a huge leading "G" and a curious curlicue at the end| religion = Protestant}}George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738{{efn|name=date|All dates in this article are in the New Style Gregorian calendar. George was born on 24 May in the Old Style Julian calendar used in Great Britain until 1752.}} – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language,WEB, Official website of the British monarchy, Royal Household, 18 April 2016, George III,weblink 2015-12-31, and never visited Hanover.Brooke, p. 314; Fraser, p. 277George's life and reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in Africa, the Americas, and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.In the later part of his life, George had recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. His eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.Butterfield, p. 9

Early life

File:Francis Ayscough with the Prince of Wales (later King George III) and Edward Augustus, Duke of York and Albany by Richard Wilson.jpg|thumb|left|George (right) with his brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, and their tutor, Francis Ayscough, later Dean of (Bristol Cathedral|Bristol]], c. 1749|alt=Conversation piece in oils: Ayscough dressed in black with a clerical collar stands beside a settee on which the two boys sit, one wearing a grey suit the other a blue one. He holds a sheet of paper; the boys hold a book.)George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square. He was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford.Hibbert, p. 8One month later, he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker. His godparents were King Frederick I of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), his uncle Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom Lord Carnarvon stood proxy), and his great-aunt Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin stood proxy).{{London Gazette|issue=7712|date=20 June 1738|page=2}}Prince George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight.Brooke, pp. 23–41 He was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, mathematics, French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, agriculture and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing, fencing, and riding. His religious education was wholly Anglican.Brooke, pp. 42–44, 55 At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated".Sedgwick, pp. ix–xKing George II disliked the Prince of Wales, and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, and his son George became heir apparent to the throne and inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales.{{London Gazette |issue=9050|date=16 April 1751|page=1}}Hibbert, pp. 3–15File:George, Prince of Wales (1738-1820), by Jean-Étienne Liotard.jpg|thumb|left|Pastel portrait of George as Prince of Wales by alt=Head-and-shoulders portrait of a young clean-shaven George wearing a finely-embroidered jacket, the blue sash of the Order of the Garter, and a powdered wig.In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister.Brooke, pp. 51–52; Hibbert, pp. 24–25 George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.Bullion, John L. (2004). "Augusta, princess of Wales (1719–1772)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. {{doi|10.1093/ref:odnb/46829}}. Retrieved 17 September 2008 (Subscription required)Ayling, p. 33


In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions."Ayling, p. 54; Brooke, pp. 71–72 Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother;Ayling, pp. 36–37; Brooke, p. 49; Hibbert, p. 31 Sophie married Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth, instead.Benjamin, p. 62The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day.{{efn|George was falsely said to have married a Quakeress named Hannah Lightfoot on 17 April 1759, prior to his marriage to Charlotte, and to have had at least one child by her. However, Lightfoot had married Isaac Axford in 1753, and had died in or before 1759, so there could have been no legal marriage or children. The jury at the 1866 trial of Lavinia Ryves, the daughter of imposter Olivia Serres who pretended to be "Princess Olive of Cumberland", unanimously found that a supposed marriage certificate produced by Ryves was a forgery.Documents relating to the case. The National Archives. Retrieved 14 October 2008.}} A fortnight later on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck.JOURNAL, John, Cannon, George III (1738–1820), Dictionary of National Biography#Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, September 2004,weblink 29 October 2008, 10.1093/ref:odnb/10540, (Subscription required) They had 15 children—nine sons and six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat.Ayling, pp. 85–87 His other residences were Kew Palace and Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively, and spent his entire life in southern England. In the 1790s, the King and his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset,Ayling, p. 378; Cannon and Griffiths, p. 518 which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England.Watson, p. 549

Early reign

{{further|Great Britain in the Seven Years' War}}George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain."Brooke, p. 612 He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke, to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain.Brooke, p. 156; Simms and Riotte, p. 58Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties,{{efn|For example, the letters of Horace Walpole written at the time of the accession defended George but Walpole's later memoirs were hostile.Butterfield, pp. 22, 115–117, 129–130}} the first years of his reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War.Hibbert, p. 86; Watson, pp. 67–79 George was also perceived as favouring Tory ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat. On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income; most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a civil list annuity for the support of his household and the expenses of civil government.WEB,weblink Our history, The Crown Estate, 2004, 7 November 2017, Claims that he used the income to reward supporters with bribes and giftsNEWS, Kelso, Paul,weblink The Guardian, The royal family and the public purse, 6 March 2000, 4 April 2015, are disputed by historians who say such claims "rest on nothing but falsehoods put out by disgruntled opposition".Watson, p. 88; this view is also shared by Brooke (see for example p. 99). Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was increased from time to time.Medley, p. 501 He aided the Royal Academy of Arts with large grants from his private funds,Ayling, p. 194; Brooke, pp. xv, 214, 301 and may have donated more than half of his personal income to charity.Brooke, p. 215 Of his art collection, the two most notable purchases are Johannes Vermeer's Lady at the Virginals and a set of Canalettos, but it is as a collector of books that he is best remembered.Ayling, p. 195 The King's Library was open and available to scholars and was the foundation of a new national library.Ayling, pp. 196–198File:George III (by Allan Ramsay).jpg|thumb|George III by Allan RamsayAllan RamsayIn May 1762, the incumbent Whig government of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was replaced with one led by the Scottish Tory Lord Bute. Bute's opponents worked against him by spreading the calumny that he was having an affair with the King's mother, and by exploiting anti-Scottish prejudices amongst the English.Brooke, p. 145; Carretta, pp. 59, 64 ff.; Watson, p. 93 John Wilkes, a member of parliament, published The North Briton, which was both inflammatory and defamatory in its condemnation of Bute and the government. Wilkes was eventually arrested for seditious libel but he fled to France to escape punishment; he was expelled from the House of Commons, and found guilty in absentia of blasphemy and libel.Brooke, pp. 146–147 In 1763, after concluding the Peace of Paris which ended the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power.Later that year, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed a limit upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation aimed to divert colonial expansion to the north (to Nova Scotia) and to the south (Florida). The Proclamation Line did not bother the majority of settled farmers, but it was unpopular with a vocal minority and ultimately contributed to conflict between the colonists and the British government.Watson, pp. 183–184 With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government thought it appropriate for them to pay towards the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions.{{efn|An American taxpayer would pay a maximum of sixpence a year, compared to an average of twenty-five shillings (50 times as much) in England.Cannon and Griffiths, p. 505; Hibbert, p. 122 In 1763, the total revenue from America amounted to about £1 800, while the estimated annual cost of the military in America was put at £225 000. By 1767, it had risen to £400 000.Cannon and Griffiths, p. 505}} The central issue for the colonists was not the amount of taxes but whether Parliament could levy a tax without American approval, for there were no American seats in Parliament.Black, p. 82 The Americans protested that like all Englishmen they had rights to "no taxation without representation". In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Since newspapers were printed on stamped paper, those most affected by the introduction of the duty were the most effective at producing propaganda opposing the tax.Watson, pp. 184–185 Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister.Ayling, pp. 122–133; Hibbert, pp. 107–109; Watson, pp. 106–111 After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville.Ayling, pp. 122–133; Hibbert, pp. 111–113File:King George III of the United Kingdom, by John van Nost the Younger 1767 CE. It is housed in the British Museum, London; lent by the Victoria and Albert Museum.JPG|thumb|upright|Bust by John van Nost the youngerJohn van Nost the youngerLord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt and the King, repealed Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City.Ayling, p. 137; Hibbert, p. 124 Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, and Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, took over the government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. That year, John Wilkes returned to England, stood as a candidate in the general election, and came top of the poll in the Middlesex constituency. Wilkes was again expelled from Parliament. He was re-elected and expelled twice more, before the House of Commons resolved that his candidature was invalid and declared the runner-up as the victor.Ayling, pp. 154–160; Brooke, pp. 147–151 Grafton's government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories led by Lord North to return to power.Ayling, pp. 167–168; Hibbert, p. 140File:King George III of England by Johann Zoffany.jpg|thumb|left|Portrait by alt=Three-quarter length seated portrait of a clean-shaven George with a fleshy face and white eyebrows wearing a powdered wig.George was deeply devout and spent hours in prayer,Brooke, p. 260; Fraser, p. 277 but his piety was not shared by his brothers. George was appalled by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, was exposed as an adulterer, and the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton. The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride: she was from a lower social class and German law barred any children of the couple from the Hanoverian succession. George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Shortly afterward, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents. Neither lady was ever received at court.Brooke, pp. 272–282; Cannon and Griffiths, p. 498Lord North's government was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, except for the tea duty, which in George's words was "one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]".Hibbert, p. 141 In 1773, the tea ships moored in Boston Harbor were boarded by colonists and the tea thrown overboard, an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was "certainly criminal".Hibbert, p. 143 With the clear support of Parliament, Lord North introduced measures, which were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and the charter of Massachusetts was altered so that the upper house of the legislature was appointed by the Crown instead of elected by the lower house.Watson, p. 197 Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George's "hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet's opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution."Thomas, p. 31 Though the Americans characterised George as a tyrant, in these years he acted as a constitutional monarch supporting the initiatives of his ministers.Ayling, p. 121

American War of Independence

The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and political American Revolution resulting from the American Enlightenment. Brought to a head over the lack of American representation in Parliament, which was seen as a denial of their rights as Englishmen and often popularly focused on direct taxes levied by Parliament on the colonies without their consent, the colonists resisted the imposition of direct rule after the Boston Tea Party. Creating self-governing provinces, they circumvented the British ruling apparatus in each colony by 1774. Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775. After petitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament were ignored, the rebel leaders were declared traitors by the Crown and a year of fighting ensued. The colonies declared their independence in July 1776, listing twenty-seven grievances against the British king and legislature while asking the support of the populace. Among George's other offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here ... He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." The gilded equestrian statue of George III in New York was pulled down.Carretta, pp. 97–98, 367 The British captured the city in 1776, but lost Boston, and the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada and cutting off New England failed with the surrender of the British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne at Saratoga.George III is often accused of obstinately trying to keep Great Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers.O'Shaughnessy, ch 1 In the words of the Victorian author George Trevelyan, the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal."Trevelyan, vol. 1 p. 4 The King wanted to "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse".Trevelyan, vol. 1 p. 5 However, more recent historians defend George by saying in the context of the times no king would willingly surrender such a large territory,Cannon and Griffiths, pp. 510–511 and his conduct was far less ruthless than contemporary monarchs in Europe.Brooke, p. 183 After Saratoga, both Parliament and the British people were in favour of the war; recruitment ran at high levels and although political opponents were vocal, they remained a small minority.Brooke, pp. 180–182, 192, 223 With the setbacks in America, Prime Minister Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable, but George refused to do so; he suggested instead that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in North's administration, but Chatham refused to co-operate. He died later in the same year.Hibbert, pp. 156–157 In early 1778, France (Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of alliance with the United States and the conflict escalated. The United States and France were soon joined by Spain and the Dutch Republic, while Britain had no major allies of its own. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned from the government. Lord North again requested that he also be allowed to resign, but he stayed in office at George III's insistence.Ayling, pp. 275–276 Opposition to the costly war was increasing, and in June 1780 contributed to disturbances in London known as the Gordon riots.Ayling, p. 284As late as the Siege of Charleston in 1780, Loyalists could still believe in their eventual victory, as British troops inflicted heavy defeats on the Continental forces at the Battle of Camden and the Battle of Guilford Court House.The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Army (1994) p. 129 In late 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis's surrender at the Siege of Yorktown reached London; Lord North's parliamentary support ebbed away and he resigned the following year. The King drafted an abdication notice, which was never delivered,Brooke, p. 221 finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised peace negotiations. The Treaties of Paris, by which Britain recognised the independence of the American states and returned Florida to Spain, were signed in 1782 and 1783.U.S. Department of State, Treaty of Paris, 1783. Retrieved 5 July 2013 When John Adams was appointed American Minister to London in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the former colonies. He told Adams, "I was the last to consent to the separation; but the separation having been made and having become inevitable, I have always said, as I say now, that I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power."Adams, C.F. (editor) (1850–56), The works of John Adams, second president of the United States, vol. VIII, pp. 255–257, quoted in Ayling, p. 323 and Hibbert, p. 165

Constitutional struggle

With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time, but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition. Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively.File:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg|thumb|In A new way to pay the National Debt (1786), James Gillray caricatured King George III and Queen Charlotte awash with treasury funds to cover royal debts, with Pitt handing him another (money bag]].|alt=Centre: George III, drawn as a paunchy man with pockets bulging with gold coins, receives a wheel-barrow filled with money-bags from William Pitt, whose pockets also overflow with coin. To the left, a quadriplegic veteran begs on the street. To the right, George, Prince of Wales, is depicted dressed in rags.)The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his character; he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the Prince of Wales.e.g. Ayling, p. 281 George III was distressed at having to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners.Hibbert, p. 243; Pares, p. 120 Although the King actually favoured greater control over the Company, the proposed commissioners were all political allies of Fox.Brooke, pp. 250–251 Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords; three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a "high crime" and Temple was forced to resign. Temple's departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved; the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate.

William Pitt

File:Daughters of King George III.jpg|thumb|left|The Three Youngest Daughters of King George III by alt=Imaginary garden scene with birds of paradise, vines laden with grapes, and architectural columns. The two young princesses and their baby sister wear fine dresses and play with three spaniels and a tambourine.File:GeorgeIIIGuinea.jpg|left|thumb|Gold guineaguineaFor George III, Pitt's appointment was a great victory. It proved that he was able to appoint Prime Ministers on the basis of his own interpretation of the public mood without having to follow the choice of the current majority in the House of Commons. Throughout Pitt's ministry, George supported many of Pitt's political aims and created new peers at an unprecedented rate to increase the number of Pitt's supporters in the House of Lords.Watson, pp. 272–279 During and after Pitt's ministry, George III was extremely popular in Britain.Brooke, p. 316; Carretta, pp. 262, 297 The British people admired him for his piety, and for remaining faithful to his wife.Brooke, p. 259 He was fond of his children, and was devastated at the death of two of his sons in infancy in 1782 and 1783 respectively.Ayling, p. 218 Nevertheless, he set his children a strict regimen. They were expected to attend rigorous lessons from seven in the morning, and to lead lives of religious observance and virtue.Ayling, p. 220 When his children strayed from George's own principles of righteousness, as his sons did as young adults, he was dismayed and disappointed.Ayling, pp. 222–230, 366–376By this time George's health was deteriorating. He had a mental illness, characterised by acute mania, which was possibly a symptom of the genetic disease porphyria,Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. {{ISBN|0-593-04148-8}}. although this has been questioned.JOURNAL, Peters, Timothy J., Wilkinson, D., 2010, King George III and porphyria: a clinical re-examination of the historical evidence, 10.1177/0957154X09102616, History of Psychiatry, 21, 1, 3–19, 21877427, JOURNAL, Rentoumi, v., Peters, T., Conlin, J., Gerrard, P., 2017, The acute mania of King George III: A computational linguistic analysis, PLOS ONE, 12, e0171626, 3, 10.1371/journal.pone.0171626, 28328964, 5362044, 2017PLoSO..1271626R, A study of samples of the King's hair published in 2005 revealed high levels of arsenic, a possible trigger for the disease. The source of the arsenic is not known, but it could have been a component of medicines or cosmetics.JOURNAL, 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66991-7, Cox, Timothy M., Jack, N., Lofthouse, S., Watling, J., Haines, J., Warren, M. J., 2005, King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation, The Lancet, 366, 9482, 332–335, 16039338, The King may have had a brief episode of disease in 1765, but a longer episode began in the summer of 1788. At the end of the parliamentary session, he went to Cheltenham Spa to recuperate. It was the furthest he had ever been from London—just short of 100 miles (150 km)—but his condition worsened. In November he became seriously deranged, sometimes speaking for many hours without pause, causing him to foam at the mouth and making his voice hoarse. George would frequently repeat himself, and write sentences with over 400 words at a time, as well as his vocabulary becoming more complex, possible symptoms of bipolar disorder.NEWS,weblink Was George III a manic depressive?, 15 April 2013, BBC News, 23 July 2018, en-GB, His doctors were largely at a loss to explain his illness, and spurious stories about his condition spread, such as the claim that he shook hands with a tree in the mistaken belief that it was the King of Prussia.Ayling, pp. 329–335; Brooke, pp. 322–328; Fraser, pp. 281–282; Hibbert, pp. 262–267 Treatment for mental illness was primitive by modern standards, and the King's doctors, who included Francis Willis, treated the King by forcibly restraining him until he was calm, or applying caustic poultices to draw out "evil humours".Ayling, pp. 334–343; Brooke, p. 332; Fraser, p. 282In the reconvened Parliament, Fox and Pitt wrangled over the terms of a regency during the King's incapacity. While both agreed that it would be most reasonable for George III's eldest son George, Prince of Wales, to act as regent, to Pitt's consternation Fox suggested that it was the Prince of Wales's absolute right to act on his ill father's behalf with full powers. Pitt, fearing he would be removed from office if the Prince of Wales were empowered, argued that it was for Parliament to nominate a regent, and wanted to restrict the regent's authority.Ayling, pp. 338–342; Hibbert, p. 273 In February 1789, the Regency Bill, authorising the Prince of Wales to act as regent, was introduced and passed in the House of Commons, but before the House of Lords could pass the bill, George III recovered.Ayling, p. 345

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

(File:George_III_assasination_attempt.png|thumb|A depiction of the 1786 assault on George III by Margaret Nicholson. The King took pity on her, shouting out: "The poor creature is mad, do not hurt her. She has not hurt me."WEB,weblink Was George III Britain's best king?, Putnam, Polly, 4 June 2019, Historic Royal Palaces, 3 August 2019, )File:King George III by Sir William Beechey (2).jpg|thumb|Portrait by Sir alt=George wearing the red jacket of an 1800 British army general with the star of the Order of the Garter, white breeches, black knee-high boots, and a black bicorne hat. Behind him a groom holds a horse.File:James Gillray The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver.–Vide. Swift's Gulliver- Voyage to Brobdingnag The Metropolitan Museum of Art edit.jpg|thumb|Caricature by alt=A span-high Napoleon stands on the outstretched hand of a full-size George III, who peers at him through a spy-glass.After George's recovery, his popularity, and that of Pitt, continued to increase at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales.Ayling, pp. 349–350; Carretta, p. 285; Fraser, p. 282; Hibbert, pp. 301–302; Watson, p. 323 His humane and understanding treatment of two insane assailants, Margaret Nicholson in 1786 and John Frith in 1790, contributed to his popularity.Carretta, p. 275 James Hadfield's failed attempt to shoot the King in the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, on 15 May 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the apocalyptic delusions of Hadfield and Bannister Truelock. George seemed unperturbed by the incident, so much so that he fell asleep in the interval.Ayling, pp. 181–182; Fraser, p. 282The French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on Great Britain in 1793; in the war attempt, George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the right of habeas corpus. The First Coalition to oppose revolutionary France, which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain, broke up in 1795 when Prussia and Spain made separate peace with France.Ayling, pp. 395–396; Watson, pp. 360–377 The Second Coalition, which included Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire, was defeated in 1800. Only Great Britain was left fighting Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul of the French Republic.A brief lull in hostilities allowed Pitt to concentrate effort on Ireland, where there had been an uprising and attempted French landing in 1798.Ayling, pp. 408–409 In 1800, the British and Irish Parliaments passed an Act of Union that took effect on 1 January 1801 and united Great Britain and Ireland into a single state, known as the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland". George used the opportunity to abandon the title "king of France", which English and British Sovereigns had maintained since the reign of Edward III.Weir, p. 286 It was suggested that George adopt the title "Emperor of the British Isles", but he refused. As part of his Irish policy, Pitt planned to remove certain legal disabilities that applied to Roman Catholics. George III claimed that to emancipate Catholics would be to violate his coronation oath, in which Sovereigns promise to maintain Protestantism.Ayling, p. 411 Faced with opposition to his religious reform policies from both the King and the British public, Pitt threatened to resign.Hibbert, p. 313 At about the same time, the King had a relapse of his previous illness, which he blamed on worry over the Catholic question.Ayling, p. 414; Brooke, p. 374; Hibbert, p. 315 On 14 March 1801, Pitt was formally replaced by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Henry Addington. Addington opposed emancipation, instituted annual accounts, abolished income tax and began a programme of disarmament. In October 1801, he made peace with the French, and in 1802 signed the Treaty of Amiens.Watson, pp. 402–409George did not consider the peace with France as real; in his view it was an "experiment".Ayling, p. 423 In 1803, the war resumed but public opinion distrusted Addington to lead the nation in war, and instead favoured Pitt. An invasion of England by Napoleon seemed imminent, and a massive volunteer movement arose to defend England against the French. George's review of 27,000 volunteers in Hyde Park, London, on 26 and 28 October 1803 and at the height of the invasion scare, attracted an estimated 500,000 spectators on each day.Colley, p. 225 The Times said, "The enthusiasm of the multitude was beyond all expression."The Times, 27 October 1803, p. 2 A courtier wrote on 13 November that, "The King is really prepared to take the field in case of attack, his beds are ready and he can move at half an hour's warning."Brooke, p. 597 George wrote to his friend Bishop Hurd, "We are here in daily expectation that Bonaparte will attempt his threatened invasion ... Should his troops effect a landing, I shall certainly put myself at the head of mine, and my other armed subjects, to repel them."Letter of 30 November 1803, quoted in Wheeler and Broadley, p. xiii After Admiral Lord Nelson's famous naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, the possibility of invasion was extinguished.WEB,weblink Nelson, Trafalgar, and those who served, National Archives, 31 October 2009, (File:A-Kick-at-the-Broad-Bottoms-Gillray.jpeg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|In A Kick at the Broad-Bottoms! (1807), James Gillray caricatured George's dismissal of the Ministry of All the Talents.|alt=The King, his face obscured by a pillar, kicks out at the behinds of a group of well-fed ministers.)In 1804, George's recurrent illness returned; after his recovery, Addington resigned and Pitt regained power. Pitt sought to appoint Fox to his ministry, but George refused. Lord Grenville perceived an injustice to Fox, and refused to join the new ministry. Pitt concentrated on forming a coalition with Austria, Russia, and Sweden. This Third Coalition, however, met the same fate as the First and Second Coalitions, collapsing in 1805. The setbacks in Europe took a toll on Pitt's health and he died in 1806, reopening the question of who should serve in the ministry. Grenville became Prime Minister, and his "Ministry of All the Talents" included Fox. The King was conciliatory towards Fox, after being forced to capitulate over his appointment. After Fox's death in September 1806, the King and ministry were in open conflict. To boost recruitment, the ministry proposed a measure in February 1807 whereby Roman Catholics would be allowed to serve in all ranks of the Armed Forces. George instructed them not only to drop the measure, but also to agree never to set up such a measure again. The ministers agreed to drop the measure then pending, but refused to bind themselves in the future.Pares, p. 139 They were dismissed and replaced by William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, as the nominal Prime Minister, with actual power being held by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Spencer Perceval. Parliament was dissolved, and the subsequent election gave the ministry a strong majority in the House of Commons. George III made no further major political decisions during his reign; the replacement of Portland by Perceval in 1809 was of little actual significance.Ayling, pp. 441–442

Later life

File:George III by Henry Meyer.jpg|thumb|right|Engraving by Henry MeyerHenry MeyerIn late 1810, at the height of his popularity,Brooke, p. 381; Carretta, p. 340 already virtually blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism, George became dangerously ill. In his view the malady had been triggered by stress over the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia.Hibbert, p. 396 The Princess's nurse reported that "the scenes of distress and crying every day ... were melancholy beyond description."Hibbert, p. 394 He accepted the need for the Regency Act 1811,Brooke, p. 383; Hibbert, pp. 397–398 and the Prince of Wales acted as Regent for the remainder of George III's life. Despite signs of a recovery in May 1811, by the end of the year George had become permanently insane and lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle until his death.Fraser, p. 285; Hibbert, pp. 399–402Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 and was replaced by Lord Liverpool. Liverpool oversaw British victory in the Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent Congress of Vienna led to significant territorial gains for Hanover, which was upgraded from an electorate to a kingdom.Meanwhile, George's health deteriorated. He developed dementia, and became completely blind and increasingly deaf. He was incapable of knowing or understanding that he was declared King of Hanover in 1814, or that his wife died in 1818.Ayling, pp. 453–455; Brooke, pp. 384–385; Hibbert, p. 405 At Christmas 1819, he spoke nonsense for 58 hours, and for the last few weeks of his life was unable to walk.Hibbert, p. 408 He died at Windsor Castle at 8:38 pm on 29 January 1820, six days after the death of his fourth son Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. His favourite son, Frederick, Duke of York, was with him.Letter from Duke of York to George IV, quoted in Brooke, p. 386 George III was buried on 16 February in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.WEB,weblink St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Dean and Canons of Windsor, Royal Burials in the Chapel since 1805, 7 November 2017, Brooke, p. 387George was succeeded by two of his sons, George IV and William IV, who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to the only legitimate child of the Duke of Kent, Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover.


George III lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years and 96 days: both his life and his reign were longer than those of any of his predecessors and subsequent kings. Only Queens Victoria and Elizabeth II have since lived and reigned longer.(File:TransitOfVenus1769.png|thumb|Extract from Observations on the Transit of Venus, a manuscript notebook from the collections of George III, showing George, Charlotte and those attending them.)George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first to mock his interest in mundane matters rather than politics, but later to contrast his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity and to portray him as a man of the people.Carretta, pp. 92–93, 267–273, 302–305, 317 Under George III, the British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak and great advances were made in fields such as science and industry. There was unprecedented growth in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution.Watson, pp. 10–11 George's collection of mathematical and scientific instruments is now owned by King's College London but housed in the Science Museum, London, to which it has been on long-term loan since 1927. He had the King's Observatory built in Richmond-upon-Thames for his own observations of the 1769 transit of Venus. When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, he at first named it Georgium Sidus (George's Star) after the King, who later funded the construction and maintenance of Herschel's 1785 40-foot telescope, which was the biggest ever built at the time.George III hoped that "the tongue of malice may not paint my intentions in those colours she admires, nor the sycophant extoll me beyond what I deserve",Brooke, p. 90 but in the popular mind George III has been both demonised and praised. While very popular at the start of his reign, by the mid-1770s George had lost the loyalty of revolutionary American colonists,Carretta, pp. 99–101, 123–126 though it has been estimated that as many as half of the colonists remained loyal.Ayling, p. 247 The grievances in the United States Declaration of Independence were presented as "repeated injuries and usurpations" that he had committed to establish an "absolute Tyranny" over the colonies. The Declaration's wording has contributed to the American public's perception of George as a tyrant. Contemporary accounts of George III's life fall into two camps: one demonstrating "attitudes dominant in the latter part of the reign, when the King had become a revered symbol of national resistance to French ideas and French power", while the other "derived their views of the King from the bitter partisan strife of the first two decades of the reign, and they expressed in their works the views of the opposition".Reitan, p. viiiBuilding on the latter of these two assessments, British historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such as Trevelyan and Erskine May, promoted hostile interpretations of George III's life. However, in the mid-twentieth century the work of Lewis Namier, who thought George was "much maligned", started a re-evaluation of the man and his reign.Reitan, pp. xii–xiii Scholars of the later twentieth century, such as Butterfield and Pares, and Macalpine and Hunter,Macalpine, Ida; Hunter, Richard A. (1991) [1969]. George III and the Mad-Business. Pimlico. {{ISBN|978-0-7126-5279-7}}. are inclined to treat George sympathetically, seeing him as a victim of circumstance and illness. Butterfield rejected the arguments of his Victorian predecessors with withering disdain: "Erskine May must be a good example of the way in which an historian may fall into error through an excess of brilliance. His capacity for synthesis, and his ability to dovetail the various parts of the evidence ... carried him into a more profound and complicated elaboration of error than some of his more pedestrian predecessors ... he inserted a doctrinal element into his history which, granted his original aberrations, was calculated to project the lines of his error, carrying his work still further from centrality or truth."Butterfield, p. 152 In pursuing war with the American colonists, George III believed he was defending the right of an elected Parliament to levy taxes, rather than seeking to expand his own power or prerogatives.Brooke, pp. 175–176 In the opinion of modern scholars, during the long reign of George III the monarchy continued to lose its political power, and grew as the embodiment of national morality.

Titles, styles and arms

Titles and styles

  • 4 June 1738 – 31 March 1751: His Royal Highness Prince GeorgeThe London Gazette consistently refers to the young prince as "His Royal Highness Prince George" {{London Gazette|issue=8734|page=3|date=5 April 1748}} {{London Gazette|issue=8735|page=2|date=9 April 1748}} {{London Gazette|issue=8860|page=2|date=20 June 1749}} {{London Gazette|issue=8898|page=3|date=31 October 1749}} {{London Gazette|issue=8902|page=3|date=17 November 1749}} {{London Gazette|issue=8963|page=1|date=16 June 1750}} {{London Gazette|issue=8971|page=1|date=14 July 1750}}
  • 31 March 1751 – 20 April 1751: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh
  • 20 April 1751 – 25 October 1760: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
  • 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820: His Majesty The King
In Great Britain, George III used the official style "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and so forth". In 1801, when Great Britain united with Ireland, he dropped the title of king of France, which had been used for every English monarch since Edward III's claim to the French throne in the medieval period. His style became "George the Third, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith."Brooke, p. 390In Germany, he was "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Arch-Treasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire" (Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Erzschatzmeister und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen ReichesBOOK,weblink Universalgeschichte des Staates: von der vorstaatlichen Gesellschaft zum Staat der Industriegesellschaft, Bernd, Marquardt, 28 July 2018, LIT Verlag Münster, Google Books, 9783643900043, ) until the end of the empire in 1806. He then continued as duke until the Congress of Vienna declared him "King of Hanover" in 1814.


Before his succession, George was granted the royal arms differenced by a label of five points Azure, the centre point bearing a fleur-de-lis Or on 27 July 1749. Upon his father's death, and along with the dukedom of Edinburgh and the position of heir-apparent, he inherited his difference of a plain label of three points Argent. In an additional difference, the crown of Charlemagne was not usually depicted on the arms of the heir, only on the Sovereign's.WEB,weblink Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family, Velde, François, 19 April 2008, Heraldica, 9 November 2009, From his succession until 1800, George bore the royal arms: Quarterly, I Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England) impaling Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); II Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); IV tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Saxony), overall an escutcheon Gules charged with the crown of Charlemagne Or (for the dignity of Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire).See, for example, BOOK, Berry, William, 1810, An introduction to heraldry containing the rudiments of the science, 110–111, William Berry (genealogist), BOOK, Pinches, John Harvey, Pinches, Rosemary, The Royal Heraldry of England, Heraldry Today, 1974, Hollen Street Press, Slough, Buckinghamshire, 978-0-900455-25-4, 215–216, Following the Acts of Union 1800, the royal arms were amended, dropping the French quartering. They became: Quarterly, I and IV England; II Scotland; III Ireland; overall an escutcheon of Hanover surmounted by an electoral bonnet.{{London Gazette|issue=15324|page=2|date=30 December 1800}} In 1816, after the Electorate of Hanover became a kingdom, the electoral bonnet was changed to a crown.{{London Gazette|issue=17149|page=1|date=29 June 1816}}File:Coat of arms of George William Frederick, Duke of Edinburgh.svg|Coat of arms from 1749 to 1751File:Coat of Arms of the Hanoverian Princes of Wales (1714-1760).svg|Coat of arms from 1751 to 1760 as Prince of WalesFile:Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg|Coat of arms used from 1760 to 1801 as King of Great BritainFile:Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg|Coat of arms used from 1801 to 1816 as King of the United KingdomFile:Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg|Coat of arms used from 1816 until death, also as King of Hanover


{{See also|Descendants of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz}}{{House of Hanover (UK)|george3}}{| class="wikitable sortable" bgcolor=cccccc!Name!!Birth!!Death!!class="unsortable"|NotesBOOK,weblink George III's Children, Kiste, John Van der, 2004-01-19, The History Press, 9780750953825, 205, en, dmy-all, George IV of the United Kingdom>Caroline of Brunswick>Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had one daughter: Princess CharlottePrince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany16 August 17635 January 1827Married 1791, Princess Frederica of Prussia; no issueWilliam IV of the United Kingdom>Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen>Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; no surviving legitimate issue, but had illegitimate children with Dorothea Jordan; descendants include David Cameron, the former Prime Minister of the United KingdomCharlotte, Princess Royal>|Married 1797, King Frederick of Württemberg; no surviving issuePrince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn2 November 176723 January 1820Married 1818, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; Queen Victoria was his daughter; descendants include Elizabeth II, Felipe VI of Spain, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Harald V of Norway and Margrethe II of Denmark.Princess Augusta Sophia of the United Kingdom>| Never married, no issuePrincess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom>Frederick VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg>Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg; no issueErnest Augustus, King of Hanover5 June 177118 November 1851Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale 1799–1851; married 1815, Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue; descendants include Constantine II of Greece and Felipe VI of Spain.Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex27 January 177321 April 1843(1) Married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, Lady Augusta Murray; had issue; marriage annulled 1794(2) Married 1831, Lady Cecilia Buggin (later Duchess of Inverness in her own right); no issuePrince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge24 February 17748 July 1850Married 1818, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel; had issue; descendants include Elizabeth IIPrincess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh25 April 177630 April 1857Married 1816, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh; no issuePrincess Sophia of the United Kingdom>|Never marriedPrince Octavius of Great Britain>|Died in childhoodPrince Alfred of Great Britain>|Died in childhoodPrincess Amelia of the United Kingdom>|Never married, no issue


{{ahnentafelalign=center URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=AINPAAAACAAJ&PG=PA4PUBLISHER=FREDERIC GUILLAUME BIRNSTIELLANGUAGE=FR, 4, |boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. George III of the United KingdomFrederick, Prince of Wales>Frederick Lewis, Prince of WalesPrincess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha>Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|4= 4. George II of Great BritainCaroline of Ansbach>Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach|6= 6. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg|7= 7. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst|8= 8. George I of Great BritainSophia Dorothea of Celle>Princess Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Celle|10= 10. John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach|11= 11. Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach|12= 12. Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-AltenburgMagdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels>Princess Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Halle|14= 14. Charles William, Prince of Anhalt-ZerbstSophia of Saxe-Weissenfels, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst>Princess Sophia of Saxe-Halle}}

See also






  • Ayling, Stanley (1972). George the Third. London: Collins. {{ISBN|0-00-211412-7}}.
  • Benjamin, Lewis Saul (1907). Farmer George. Pitman and Sons.
  • Black, Jeremy (2006). George III: America's Last King. New Haven: Yale University Press. {{ISBN|0-300-11732-9}}.
  • Brooke, John (1972). King George III. London: Constable. {{ISBN|0-09-456110-9}}.
  • Butterfield, Herbert (1957). George III and the Historians. London: Collins.
  • Cannon, John (2004). "George III (1738–1820)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  • Cannon, John; Griffiths, Ralph (1988). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-822786-8}}.
  • Carretta, Vincent (1990). George III and the Satirists from Hogarth to Byron. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. {{ISBN|0-8203-1146-4}}.
  • Colley, Linda (1994). Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837. Yale University Press.
  • Fraser, Antonia (1975). The Lives of the Kings and Queen of England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. {{ISBN|0-297-76911-1}}.
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1999). George III: A Personal History. London: Penguin Books. {{ISBN|0-14-025737-3}}.
  • Medley, Dudley Julius (1902). A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History.
  • O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson (2014). The Men Who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire.
  • Pares, Richard (1953). King George III and the Politicians. Oxford University Press.
  • Reitan, E. A. (editor) (1964). George III, Tyrant Or Constitutional Monarch?. Boston: D. C. Heath and Company. A compilation of essays encompassing the major assessments of George III up to 1964.
  • Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998). Purple Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe. London: Bantam Press. {{ISBN|0-593-04148-8}}.
  • Sedgwick, Romney (ed.; 1903). Letters from George III to Lord Bute, 1756–1766. Macmillan.
  • Simms, Brendan; Riotte, Torsten (2007). The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837. Cambridge University Press.
  • JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1468-229X.1985.tb02477.x, Thomas, Peter D. G., 1985, George III and the American Revolution, History, 70, 228, 16–31,
  • Trevelyan, George (1912). George the Third and Charles Fox: The Concluding Part of the American Revolution. New York: Longmans, Green.
  • Watson, J. Steven (1960). The Reign of George III, 1760–1815. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. London: Random House. {{ISBN|0-7126-7448-9}}.
  • Wheeler, H. F. B.; Broadley, A. M. (1908). Napoleon and the Invasion of England. Volume I. London: John Lane The Bodley Head.

Further reading

  • Black, Jeremy (Fall 1996). "Could the British Have Won the American War of Independence?" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 74 (299): 145–154. online 90-minute video lecture given at Ohio State in 2006; requires Real Player
  • Ditchfield, G. M. (2002). George III: An Essay in Monarchy. Basingstoke: Palgrave. {{ISBN|0-333-91962-9}}.
  • Hecht, J. Jean (1966). "The Reign of George III in Recent Historiography". In: Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939, pp. 206–234. Harvard University Press.
  • JOURNAL, 10.1136/bmj.1.5479.65, Macalpine, Ida, Hunter, Richard, 1966, The 'insanity' of King George III: a classic case of porphyria, 1843211, Br. Med. J., 1, 5479, 65–71, 5323262,
  • JOURNAL, Macalpine, I., Hunter, R., Rimington, C., Porphyria in the Royal Houses of Stuart, Hanover, and Prussia, British Medical Journal, 1968, 1, 5583, 7–18, 1984936, 4866084, 10.1136/bmj.1.5583.7,
  • Namier, Lewis B. (1955). "King George III: A Study in Personality" in Personalities and Power. London: Hamish Hamilton.
  • JOURNAL, O'Shaughnessy, Andrew Jackson, 'If Others Will Not Be Active, I Must Drive': George III and the American Revolution, Early American Studies, 2, 1, Spring 2004, iii, 1–46, 10.1353/eam.2007.0037,
  • Robertson, Charles Grant (1911). England under the Hanoverians. London: Methuen.
  • Smith, Robert A. (1984). "Reinterpreting the Reign of George III". In: Richard Schlatter, ed. Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966, pp. 197–254. Rutgers University Press.

External links

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