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{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2019}}{{Redirect|Calcutta|other uses|Calcutta (disambiguation)|and|Kolkata (disambiguation)}}{{Pp-semi-indef}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{Short description|Capital city of West Bengal, India}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}

| subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}States and union territories of India>StateDivisions of West Bengal>DivisionList of districts of West Bengal>District| subdivision_name1 = (:West Bengal)Presidency)Kolkata)HTTP://CEOWESTBENGAL.NIC.IN/ACNAME?DCID=12>TITLE=HOME | CHIEF ELECTORAL OFFICERWEBSITE=CEOWESTBENGAL.NIC.IN, and (:South 24 Parganas districtWEBSITE=CEOWESTBENGAL.NIC.IN, HTTP://S24PGS.GOV.IN/ELECTION/AC_POLL.PHP>TITLE=AC-WISE POLLING STATIONS – SOUTH 24 PARGANASARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130529011629/HTTP://WWW.S24PGS.GOV.IN/ELECTION/DOC/ELECTORS%20DETAILS.PDFARCHIVE-DATE=29 MAY 2013, {{refnNorth 24 Parganas district>North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas district, Howrah district>Howrah, Nadia district, and Hooghly district>Hooghly districts. See: Kolkata#Urban structure.>group=upper-alpha}}Municipal Corporations in India>Municipal Corporation| governing_body = Kolkata Municipal CorporationAll India Trinamool Congress>(AITC)Mayor of Kolkata>MayorFirhad Hakim (All India Trinamool Congress>AITC)WEBSITE=KOLKATA MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=2 APRIL 2015, | area_magnitude = 1 E+7| area_total_km2 = 205.00| area_total_sq_mi = 79.151| area_metro_km2 = 1886.67| area_metro_sq_mi = 728.45| elevation_m = 9| elevation_ft = 30| population_total = 4,496,694| population_as_of = 2011WEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIAACCESSDATE=13 MAY 2016URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=18 OCTOBER 2016, HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/PCA/SEARCHDETAILS.ASPX?ID=375980>PUBLISHER=CENSUS OF INDIAACCESS-DATE=3 JUNE 2016, | population_density_km2 = auto 1411253614,617,882 (Extended UA) }}WEBSITE=PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU, MUMBAIACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150630112755/HTTP://PIBMUMBAI.GOV.IN/SCRIPTS/DETAIL.ASP?RELEASEID=E2011IS3, 30 June 2015, List of most populous cities in India>7th| population_blank1_title = Metro rankList of million-plus agglomerations in India>3rd| population_demonyms = Kolkatan CalcuttanIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30Postal Index Number>ZIP code(s)| postal_code = 700 001 to 700 162Telephone numbers in India>+91-33List of Regional Transport Office districts in India#WB.E2.80.94West Bengal>WB-01 to List of Regional Transport Office districts in India#WB.E2.80.94West Bengal-10, List of Regional Transport Office districts in India#WB.E2.80.94West Bengal>WB-19 to WB-22| blank_name_sec1 = UN/LOCODE| blank_info_sec1 = IN CCUGross metropolitan product>Metro GDP/PPP | blank1_info_sec1 = $60–150 billionHuman Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2004)}}LANGUAGE=EN, ({{colorHigh}})}}group=upper-alpha}}Sheriff of Kolkata>Sheriff| leader_name2 = Dr. Swapan Kumar GhoshPolice Commissioner of Kolkata>Police commissionerAnuj Sharma (IPS)>Anuj Sharma, IPSOfficial languages}}Bengali language>BengaliHTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM47THREPORT.PDF >TITLE=REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES: 47TH REPORT (JULY 2008 TO JUNE 2010) PUBLISHER=COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES, MINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRS, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=13 MAY 2012, }}{{Contains Bangla text}}Kolkata ({{IPAc-en|k|Q|l|ˈ|k|V|t|@}},BOOK, Wells, John, John C. Wells, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, Pearson Longman, 3rd, 3 April 2008, 978-1-4058-8118-0, {{IPA-bn|kolkata|lang|Bn-কলকাতা.oga}}, also known as Calcutta {{IPAc-en|k|ae|l|'|k|V|t|@}}, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Kolkata Megalopolis is the area surrounding Kolkata Metropolitan city with additional population.BOOK, Issues in Global Environment—Climate and Climate Change: 2013 Edition,weblink 1 May 2013, ScholarlyEditions, 978-1-4901-0965-7, 399, Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately {{convert|80|km}} west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city, nicknamed the "City of Joy" is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India and as of 2019, 6 Nobel Laureates have been associated with the city.WEB,weblink India: Calcutta, the capital of culture-Telegraph,, 25 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2016, WEB,weblink Kolkata remains cultural capital of India: Amitabh Bachchan – Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis, 10 November 2012, 25 November 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2017, NEWS,weblink Foundation of Kolkata Museum of Modern Art laid, Press Trust of, India,, 25 July 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, 14 November 2013, Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion (GDP adjusted for purchasing power parity) making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.WEB,weblink Global city GDP 2014, Brookings Institution, 8 May 2015, live,weblink 25 May 2017, 22 January 2015, WEB, John Hawksworth, Thomas Hoehn, Anmol Tiwari, Which are the largest city economies in the world and how might this change by 2025?,weblink PricewaterhouseCoopers, 17 April 2015, November 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 April 2015, NEWS, India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP Photos Yahoo! India Finance,weblinkweblink 9 October 2014, Yahoo! Finance, 28 September 2012, 27 March 2017, In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690,BOOK, Dutta, K., Desai, A., April 2008, Calcutta: a cultural history, Interlink Books, Northampton, Massachusetts, US, 9–10, 978-1-56656-721-3, harv, the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, and the East India Company retook it the following year. In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat (local rule), and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle intellectual exchanges (adda). West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by focusing on association football and other sports.


The word Kolkata derives from Kôlikata () [ˈkɔlikat̪a], the Bengali name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was eventually established; the other two villages were Sutanuti and Govindapur.BOOK, Globalizing cities: a new spatial order?, Chakravorty, Sanjoy, Marcuse, Peter, Kempen, Ronald van, From colonial city to global city? The far-from-complete spatial transformation of Calcutta, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 978-0-631-21290-4, 56–77, There are several explanations for the etymology of this name:
  • Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô [ˈkalikʰːet̪rÉ”] (), meaning "Field of [the goddess] Kali". Similarly, it can be a variation of 'Kalikshetra' (Sanskrit: कालीक्षेत्र, lit. "area of Goddess Kali").
  • Another theory is that the name derives from Kalighat.WEB,weblink Kalighat Kali Temple,, en, 24 September 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2017,
  • Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila (), or "flat area".BOOK, Water resources, conservation and management, Chatterjee, S.N., 2008, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 978-81-269-0868-4, 85,weblink 29 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2013,
  • The name may have its origin in the words khal [ˈkÊ°al] () meaning "canal", followed by kaá¹­a [ˈkata] (), which may mean "dug".BOOK
  • According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun [ˈkÉ”litÉ•un] () and coir or kata [ˈkat̪a] (); hence, it was called Kolikata [ˈkÉ”likat̪a] ().
Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata [ˈkolkat̪a] () or Kôlikata [ˈkɔlikat̪a] () in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation.WEB,weblink The politics of name changes in India, 26 January 2012, Easwaran, Kenny, Open Computing Facility, University of California at Berkeleyweblink" title="">weblink >archivedate = 19 July 2011,


File:Fort William, Calcutta, 1735.jpg|thumb|left|Fort William, headquarters of the British East India CompanyBritish East India CompanyThe discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, {{Convert|35|km}} north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia.BOOK, A history of ancient and early medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th century, Singh, Upinder, Upinder Singh, 2008, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 978-81-317-1677-9, 395,weblink 25 January 2012, NEWS, Das, S.,weblink Pre-Raj crown on Clive House: abode of historical riches to be museum, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, Kolkata, 15 January 2003, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, which was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;BOOK, Nair, P. Thankappan, Job Charnock: the founder of Calcutta : in facts and fiction : an anthology, 1977, Engineering Times Publications, Kolkata, 164, In response to a public petition,NEWS,weblink Court changes Calcutta's history, 16 May 2003, 25 July 2016, BBC News, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2016, the Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder.NEWS, Gupta, Subhrangshu, Job Charnock not Kolkata founder: HC says city has no foundation day,weblink The Tribune (Chandigarh), The Tribune, Chandigarh, India, 18 May 2003, 7 December 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 November 2006, The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata, Gobindapur, and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village; Sutanuti was a riverside weavers' village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the jagirdari (a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen) taxation rights to the villages were held by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or zamindars. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698.BOOK, Banerjee, Himadri, Gupta, Nilanjana, Mukherjee, Sipra, Calcutta mosaic: essays and interviews on the minority communities of Calcutta,weblink 29 January 2012, 2009, Anthem Press, New Delhi, 978-81-905835-5-8, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2013, {{rp|1}}File:Chowringhee Square, Calcutta in 1945.jpg|thumb|Chowringhee avenue and rightIn 1712, the British completed the construction of Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River to protect their trading factory.JOURNAL, Mitter, Partha, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 45, 2, June 1986, 95–114jstor=990090ref=harv, Facing frequent skirmishes with French East India Company, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.THE INDIAN EMPIRE: ITS PEOPLES, HISTORY, AND PRODUCTS FIRST=WILLIAM WILSON YEAR=1886 LOCATION= LONDONURL= HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=GHEBAAAAIAAJ&PG=PA381 sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. Per the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province.AHMEDLAST2=FAROOQUITITLE=A COMPREHENSIVE HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL INDIA: FROM TWELFTH TO THE MID-EIGHTEENTH CENTURYPUBLISHER=PEARSON EDUCATION INDIAPAGE=369YEAR=2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160102024457/HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=SXHATCFLWOMC&PG=PA369Presidencies and provinces of British India>presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India Company by 1773.ARNOLD-BAKER>FIRST=CHARLESURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=75ZGCGAAQBAJ&PG=PT504PUBLISHER=TAYLOR & FRANCISPAGE=504ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180303193215/HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=75ZGCGAAQBAJ&PG=PT504Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley>Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between 1797 and 1805, was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture.HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=UKFOHI5412UC>TITLE=CALCUTTA: A CULTURAL AND LITERARY HISTORYLAST=DUTTAPUBLISHER=SIGNAL BOOKSISBN=978-1-902669-59-5PAGE=58ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110728081609/HTTP://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=UKFOHI5412UCTITLE=NARCOTICS AND EMPIRE ISSUE=10 JOURNAL=THE HINDU; FRONTLINE ACCESSDATE=3 MARCH 2012 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=16 OCTOBER 2006, {{wide image|Panorama of Kolkata (Calcutta), 1832 Jacob Janssen.jpg|1150px|Panoramic view of Kolkata (Calcutta) from the Shaheed Minar (Octerlony Monument), 1832, drawn by Jacob Janssen}} By the 1850s, Calcutta had two areas: White Town, which was primarily British and centred on Chowringhee and Dalhousie Square; and Black Town, mainly Indian and centred on North Calcutta.BOOK, Hardgrave, Robert L. Jr, Pratapaditya, Pal, Changing visions, lasting images: Calcutta through 300 years, 1990, Marg Publications, Bombay, 978-81-85026-11-4, 31–46, A portrait of Black Town: Balthazard Solvyns in Calcutta, 1791–1804,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early 1850s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and Howrah railway station. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities.BOOK, Chaudhuri, NC, 2001, The autobiography of an unknown Indian, New York Review of Books, New York, 978-0-940322-82-0, harv,weblink v–xi, In the 19th century, the Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens. In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India.BOOK, StÄ™pieÅ„, Jakub, Tokarski, StanisÅ‚aw, Latos, Tomasz, Jarecka-StÄ™pieÅ„, Katarzyna, Towards freedom. Ideas of "solidarity" in comparison with the thought of the Indian National Congress, 2011, Wydawnictwo Stowarzyszenia "Projekt Orient", Kraków, Poland, 978-83-933917-4-5, 58–59, Indian way to independence. The Indian National Congress, (File:Corner of Harrison Street (Burra Bazar) and Strand Road, Calcutta in 1945.jpg|thumb|Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India.|right)(File:Calcutta (Baedeker, 1914).jpg|thumb|left|Map of Calcutta, ca 1914)The partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British.BOOK, Chatterji, Joya, The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967, 2007, Cambridge University Press, 9781139468305, 9,weblink en, 31 May 2018,weblink 1 April 2019, live, NEWS, Wright, Tom, Why Delhi? The Move From Calcutta,weblink The Wall Street Journal, 11 November 2011, 31 May 2018,weblink 6 June 2018, live, The capital was moved to New Delhi in 1911.BOOK, Hall, Peter, Peter Hall (urbanist), Cities of tomorrow, 2002, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 978-0-631-23252-0, 198–206, Calcutta continued to be a centre for revolutionary organisations associated with the Indian independence movement. The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between 1942 and 1944, during World War II.WEB, Randhawa, K., BBC,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 February 2012, The bombing of Calcutta by the Japanese, 15 September 2005, 26 April 2006, WEB,weblink Pacific War timeline: New Zealanders in the Pacific War, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 13 October 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 October 2008, dmy-all, Coinciding with the war, millions starved to death during the Bengal famine of 1943 due to a combination of military, administrative, and natural factors.BOOK, Sen, A, 1973, Poverty and famines, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 978-0-19-828463-5, 52–85, Demands for the creation of a Muslim state led in 1946 to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4,000.REPORT, Burrows, Frederick, Frederick Burrows, 22 August 1946, A copy of a secret report written on 22 August 1946 to the Viceroy Lord Wavell, from Sir Frederick John Burrows, concerning the Calcutta riots,weblink The British Library, IOR: L/P&J/8/655 f.f. 95, 96–107, 25 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2012, JOURNAL, Das, Suranjan, 2000, The 1992 Calcutta Riot in Historical Continuum: A Relapse into 'Communal Fury'?, Modern Asian Studies, 34, 2, 281–306, 10.1017/S0026749X0000336X, 313064, harv, BOOK, Suhrawardy, H. S., 1987, Memoirs of Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Direct action day,weblink Talukdar, M. H. R., 55–56, The University Press, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 978-984-05-1087-0, H. S. Suhrawardy,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2006, The partition of India led to further clashes and a demographic shift—many Muslims left for East Pakistan (present day Bangladesh), while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.BOOK, Gandhi, R, 1992, Patel: a life, Navajivan, Ahmedabad, India, B0006EYQ0A, 497, During the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Marxist–Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation.NEWS,weblink India's riptide of modern aspiration has not reached Kolkata â€“ but that can't last, Jack, Ian, 4 February 2011, The Guardian, London, 6 November 2016, live,weblink 7 November 2016, The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 led to a massive influx of thousands of refugees, many of them penniless, that strained Kolkata's infrastructure.BOOK, Bennett, A, Hindle, J, 1996, London review of books: an anthology, Verso Books, London, 978-1-85984-121-1, 63–70, During the mid-1980s, Mumbai (then called Bombay) overtook Kolkata as India's most populous city. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes.NEWS, Follath, Erich, Spiegel Online, Hamburg,weblink From poorhouse to powerhouse, 15 January 2011, 30 November 2005, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2011, dmy-all, In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal was governed from Kolkata by the Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India (CPM). It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata was a key base for Indian communism.NEWS, Biswas, S., BBC News,weblink Calcutta's colorless campaign, 26 April 2006, 16 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2012, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Calcutta: a cultural and literary history, 30 January 2012, Dutta, Krishna, Signal Books, Oxford, UK, 978-1-902669-59-5, 2003, 185–87, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2011, BOOK,weblink Communist and socialist movement in India: a critical account, 30 January 2012, Singh, Chandrika, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 978-81-7099-031-4, 1987, 154–55, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2013, In the 2011 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, Left Front was defeated by the Trinamool Congress. The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after the 1990s, when India began to institute pro-market reforms. Since 2000, the information technology (IT) services sector has revitalised Kolkata's stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing marked growth in its manufacturing base.


(File:Howrah Pano 3.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Kolkata Skyline from Howrah.)File:Kolkata City skyline from Hoogly bridge.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Aerial view of the Kolkata skyline, including the Victoria Memorial and Vidyasagar SetuVidyasagar SetuSpread roughly north–south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower Ganges Delta of eastern India approximately 75 km (47 mi) west of the international border with Bangladesh; the city's elevation is {{convert|1.5|-|9|m|ft|abbr=on|0}}.WEB, PIA01844: space radar image of Calcutta, West Bengal, India,weblink NASA, 15 January 2012, 15 April 1999, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, Much of the city was originally a wetland that was reclaimed over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population.BOOK, Chatterjee, S. N., Water Resources, Conservation and Management, 2008, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 978-81-269-0868-4, 33, The remaining undeveloped areas, known as the East Kolkata Wetlands, were designated a "wetland of international importance" by the Ramsar Convention (1975).JOURNAL, Roy Chadhuri, S., Thakur, A. R., Microbial genetic resource mapping of East Calcutta wetlands, Current Science, 91, 2, 25 July 2006, 212–17, harv, As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. Kolkata is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin.CONFERENCE,weblink Characterization of soil over Kolkata municipal area, Diptendra, Das, B. C., Chattopadhyay, 17–19 December 2009, Indian Geotechnical Conference,weblink 1, Guntur, India, 11–12, 19 November 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 November 2013, Bengal basin comprises three structural units: shelf or platform in the west; central hinge or shelf/slope break; and deep basinal part in the east and southeast. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about {{convert|25|km|mi|abbr=on}} wide at a depth of about {{convert|45000|m|ft|abbr=on}} below the surface. The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly {{convert|7500|m|ft|abbr=on}} above the crystalline basement; of these the top {{convert|350|-|450|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}} is Quaternary, followed by {{convert|4500|-|5500|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}} of Tertiary sediments, {{convert|500|-|700|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}} trap wash of Cretaceous trap and {{convert|600|-|800|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}} Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana rocks. The quaternary sediments consist of clay, silt, and several grades of sand and gravel. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of {{convert|250|-|650|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}}; the upper one {{convert|10|-|40|m|ft|abbr=on|-1}} in thickness.JOURNAL, Bunting, S. W., Kundu, N., Mukherjee, M., Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK,weblink Situation analysis. Production systems and natural resources use in PU Kolkata, 3, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2006, According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from {{nowrap|I to V}} in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III.WEB,weblink Hazard profiles of Indian districts, 23 August 2006, National Capacity Building Project in Disaster Management, UNDP,weblink" title="">weblink 19 May 2006,

Urban structure

File:Howrah Bridge from the western bank of the Ganges.jpg|thumb|leftThe Kolkata metropolitan area is spread over {{Convert|1886.67|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|2}}WEB,weblink Introducing KMA, 2011, Annual Report 2011, Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, 9 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2013, {{rp|7}} and comprises 4 municipal corporations (Kolkata Municipal Corporation, Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation, Howrah Municipal Corporation and Chandernagore Municipal Corporation), 37 local municipalities (Bally Municipality is merged with Howrah Municipal Corporation and Rajarhat Gopalpur Municipality is merged with Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation, so total number of municipalities becomes 37 from 39) and 24 panchayat samitis.{{see also|Kolkata metropolitan area#Jurisdiction}} The urban agglomeration encompassed 72 cities and 527 towns and villages, {{as of|2006|lc=on}}.WEB, World Association of the Major Metropolises,weblink 007 Kolkata (India), 31 August 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2012, Suburban areas in the Kolkata metropolitan area incorporate parts of the following districts: Kolkata, North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly and Nadia.BOOK, Sahdev, Shashi, Verma, Nilima, Urban Land price Scenario- Kolkata − 2008,weblink Industry and Economic Planning, 2008, Kolkata—an outline, Town and Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, DOC, harv, {{rp|15}} Kolkata, which is under the jurisdiction of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), has an area of {{Convert|205|km2|sqmi|abbr=on|0}}.WEB,weblink Official Website of Kolkata Municipal Corporation,, The east–west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east—a span of {{Convert|9|-|10|km|mi|abbr=on|1}}.MAP, NASA, Calcutta, West Bengal, India,weblink 20 June 1996, Mission to planet earth program, 25 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2013, The north–south distance is greater, and its axis is used to section the city into North, Central and South Kolkata. East Kolkata is also a section.File:Kolka.jpg|thumb|Kolkata skyline from ChowringheeChowringhee(File:Kolkata skyline at night.jpg|thumb|Kolkata riverfront at night)File:Vidyasagar Setu - River Hooghly 2014-01-01 1889.JPG|thumb|Vidyasagar Setu over the Hooghly RiverHooghly River

North Kolkata

North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. Characterised by 19th-century architecture, dilapidated buildings, overpopulated slums, crowded bazaars, and narrow alleyways, it includes areas such as Shyambazar, Hatibagan, Maniktala, Kankurgachi, Rajabazar, Shobhabazar, Shyampukur, Tala, Sonagachi, Kumortuli, Bagbazar, Jorabagan, Posta, Burrabazar, Jorasanko, Phoolbagan, Ultadanga, Chitpur, Pathuriaghata, Cossipore, Belgachia, Sinthee.BOOK, Sahdev, Shashi, Verma, Nilima, Urban Land price Scenario- Kolkata − 2008,weblink Industry and Economic Planning, Trends in land prices in Kolkata, 2008, Town and Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, DOC, harv, {{rp|65–66}} The northern suburban areas like Baranagar, Durganagar, Noapara, Dunlop, Dakshineswar, Lake Town, Nagerbazar, Dum Dum, Belghoria, Birati, Kamarhati, Agarpara, Panihati, Sodepur, Sukchar, Ghola, Khardah, New Barrackpore, Madhyamgram, Hridaypur, Barasat, Titagarh, Barrackpore, Palta, Shyamnagar, Bhatpara, Jagatdal, Naihati, Halisahar and Kanchrapara are also within the city of Kolkata (as a metropolitan structure).

Central Kolkata

Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. It contains B. B. D. Bagh, formerly known as Dalhousie Square, and the Esplanade on its east; Strand Road is on its west.JOURNAL,weblink Kolkata heritage, Government of West Bengal, 27 November 2011, harv, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, The West Bengal Secretariat, General Post Office, Reserve Bank of India, High Court, Lalbazar Police Headquarters, and several other government and private offices are located there. Another business hub is the area south of Park Street, which comprises thoroughfares such as Chowringhee, Camac Street, Wood Street, Loudon Street, Shakespeare Sarani and A. J. C. Bose Road.NEWS, BSNL may take two weeks to be back online,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 July 2012, Times News Network, Times News Network (TNN), Times of India, 9 July 2009, 27 November 2011, With the Camac Street-Park Street-Shakespeare Sarani commercial hub located smack in the middle of the affected zone ..., harv, New Delhi, The Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city that has been called the "lungs of Kolkata"NEWS, In city's teeming heart, a place to gaze and graze, Jim, Yardley,weblink The New York Times, New York, 27 January 2011, 27 November 2011, To Kolkata, it is the 'lungs of the city,' a recharge zone for the soul., live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2014, and accommodates sporting events and public meetings.NEWS, Maidan marauders, Das, Soumitra,weblink The Telegraph, 21 February 2010, Kolkata, 27 November 2011, harv, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, The Victoria Memorial and Kolkata Race Course are located at the southern end of the Maidan. Other important areas of Central Kolkata are Park Circus, Sealdah, Beliaghata, College Street, Sealdah, Burrabazar, Bowbazar, Taltala, Janbazar, Entally, Chandni Chowk, Lalbazar, Chowringhee, Dharmatala, Rabindra Sadan, Elgin Road, Tiretti Bazaar, Bow Barracks, Babughat, Princep Ghat, Hastings, etc. Another important park is Millennium Park on Strand Road, beside the Hooghly River. Fort William, on the western part of the city (besides Maidan), houses the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army.WEB,weblink Eastern Command, Indian Army, 25 June 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2014,

South Kolkata

{{unreferenced section|date=September 2019}}South Kolkata developed mainly after India gained independence in the year 1947. It includes upscale neighbourhoods such as Ballygunge, Alipore, New Alipore, Lansdowne, Bhawanipore, Hazra, Kalighat, Gariahat, Charu Market, Chetla, Jodhpur Park, Lake Gardens, South City, Jadavpur, Dhakuria and Tollygunge. Other developed areas of South Kolkata include Golf Green, Katju Nagar, Poddar Nagar, Bikramgarh, Bijoygarh, Regent Estate, Ranikuthi, Regent Park, Netaji Nagar, Bansdroni, Kudghat, Naktala, Garia, Ramgarh, Raipur, Brahmapur, Baghajatin, Kalikapur{{dn|date=November 2019}}, Kasba, Haltu, Nandi Bagan, Santoshpur, Garfa, Haridevpur, Taratala Behala, Sarsuna, Barisha and Parnasree Pally. Outlying developing areas include Watgunge, Khidirpur, Ekbalpur, Majherhat, Bartala, BNR Colony, Metiabruz, Rajabagan, Garden Reach and Badartala. The southern suburban neighbourhoods of Boral, Mahamayatala, Pratapgarh, Kamalgazi, Narendrapur, Rajpur Sonarpur, Harinavi, Subhashgram, Mallikpur, Baruipur, Akra, Maheshtala, Thakurpukur, Joka, Batanagar, Nungi, Budge Budge and Pujali are also within the city of Kolkata (as metropolitan, urban agglomeration area).

East Kolkata

East Kolkata is largely composed of newly developed areas and neighbourhoods of Salt Lake, Rajarhat, Baguiati, Teghoria, Kaikhali, Picnic Garden, Anandapur, Madurdaha, Kalikapur, Survey Park, East Rajapur, Nandan Kanan, Purbalok, Mukundapur, Ajoy Nagar, Hiland Park, Chak Garia, Patuli, Budherhat, Nayabad, New Garia etc. It also includes under-developed areas like Kestopur, Hatiara, Tangra, Dhapa, Uttar Panchannagram, Chowbaga, Bantala, VIP Nagar etc. Some suburban neighbourhoods like Model Town, Panchpota, Techno City, Tentulberia are also within the city of Kolkata (as metropolitan, urban agglomeration area). Two planned townships in the Greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar (also known as Salt Lake City or just Salt Lake), located north-east of the city and New Town (a part of Rajarhat), sited east of Salt Lake.NEWS, Chakraborti, Suman, Beautification project for Salt Lake, Sec V and New Town,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 January 2013, 6 December 2011, Times of India, 2 November 2011, New Delhi, In the 2000s, Sector V in Salt Lake developed into a business hub for information technology and telecommunication companies.WEB, History of Sector V,weblink Nabadiganta Industrial Township Authority, 6 December 2011, dead,weblink 3 January 2012, NEWS, Kolkata! India's new IT hub,weblink 6 December 2011,, 13 July 2005, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2011, Salt Lake, Kestopur, Baguihati, Teghoria, Kaikhali, Hatiara, parts of Rajarhat are under Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation and New Town is under West Bengal Housing Infrastructure Development Corporation. Central Park in Salt Lake and Eco Park in New Town are two famous parks of East Kolkata.


Kolkata is subject to a tropical wet-and-dry climate that is designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk".


The annual mean temperature is {{Convert|26.8|C|F|abbr=on|1}}; monthly mean temperatures are {{Convert|19|-|30|C|F|abbr=on|0}}. Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s Celsius; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 Â°C (104 Â°F) in May and June.WEB, Canty and Associates LLC,weblink Weatherbase entry for Kolkata, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2011, dmy-all, Winter lasts for roughly two-and-a-half months, with seasonal lows dipping to {{Convert|9|–|11|C|F|abbr=on|0}} in December and January. May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures ranging from {{Convert|27|-|37|C|F|abbr=on|0}}; January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from {{convert|12|-|23|C|F|abbr=on|0}}. The highest recorded temperature is {{Convert|43.9|C|F|abbr=on|1}}, and the lowest is {{Convert|5|C|F|abbr=on|0}}. The winter is mild and very comfortable weather pertains over the city throughout this season.Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and are known locally as kal bôishakhi (), or "Nor'westers" in English.WEB,weblink kal Baisakhi, 5 September 2006, Glossary of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2006,


Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south-west summer monsoonNEWS, Khichar, M. L., Niwas, R., 14 July 2003, Know your monsoon, The Tribune, Chandigarh, India,weblink 9 June 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2007, lash Kolkata between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of about {{Convert|1850|mm|in|abbr=on|0}}. The highest monthly rainfall total occurs in July and August. In these months often incessant rain for days brings life to a stall for the city dwellers. The city receives 2,107 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in April. Kolkata has been hit by several cyclones; these include systems occurring in 1737 and 1864 that killed thousands.JOURNAL, Bilham, Roger, 1994, The 1737 Calcutta earthquake and cyclone evaluated, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84, 5, 1650–57,weblink 20 July 2011, harv, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 August 2011, BOOK, Report on the Calcutta cyclone of the 5th October 1864, Gastrell, James Eardley, Henry Francis, Blanford, 1866, O.T. Cutter, Military Orphan Press, Calcutta,weblink 20 July 2011, {{Kolkata weatherbox}}

Environmental issues

Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata. {{As of|2008}}, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide annual concentration were within the national ambient air quality standards of India, but respirable suspended particulate matter levels were high, and on an increasing trend for five consecutive years, causing smog and haze.WEB, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India,weblink Annual report 2008–2009, 40, 2 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2012, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Smog city chokes & grounds: foul air, moist and smoky, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 30 October 2008, 25 April 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2011, Severe air pollution in the city has caused a rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments, such as lung cancer.NEWS, Bhaumik, Subir, Oxygen supplies for India police,weblink BBC, 17 May 2007, 23 June 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2007,


(File:Reserve Bank of India (RBI) building, September 2011.jpg|thumb|left|Reserve Bank of India building, Kolkata)(File:KolkataFlowermarket.jpg|Mallikghat flower market|thumb|Flower hawkers in a road side markt)Kolkata is the commercial and financial hub of East and North-East India and home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange.WEB, Calcutta Stock Exchange Association,weblink Genesis and growth of the Calcutta Stock Exchange, 26 April 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2006, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Doing Business in India 2009, 30 June 2009, World Bank, 29 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2010, dmy-all, It is a major commercial and military port, and is the only city in eastern India, apart from Bhubaneswar to have an international airport. Once India's leading city, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties.NEWS, Dutta, Tanya, Tanya Datta, Rising Kolkata's winners and losers,weblink 11 December 2011, BBC, 22 March 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 February 2012, dmy-all, From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated. The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city".NEWS, Sudipta, Dutta,weblink Calcutta chronicles, 1 February 2009, Financial Express, New Delhi, 6 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, The city's fortunes improved after the Indian economy was liberalised in the 1990s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal state government.Flexible production has been the norm in Kolkata, which has an informal sector that employs more than 40% of the labour force. One unorganised group, roadside hawkers, generated business worth {{INR}} 87.72 billion ({{USD}} 2 billion) in 2005.NEWS,weblink Hawkers stay as Rs. 265 crore talks, 16 February 2008, Ganguly, Deepankar, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 30 November 2006, dmy-all,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2007, live, {{As of|2001}}, around 0.81% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 15.49% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 83.69% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).{{rp|19}} {{As of|2003}}, the majority of households in slums were engaged in occupations belonging to the informal sector; 36.5% were involved in servicing the urban middle class (as maids, drivers, etc.), and 22.2% were casual labourers.{{rp|11}} About 34% of the available labour force in Kolkata slums were unemployed.{{rp|11}} According to one estimate, almost a quarter of the population live on less than 27 rupees (equivalent to 45 US cents) per day.NEWS,weblink End is nigh for Gandhis after India's marathon poll, The Times, 12 January 2014, 12 May 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2014, live, {{As of|2010}}, Kolkata, with an estimated gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity of 150 billion dollars, ranked third among South Asian cities, after Mumbai and Delhi.WEB,weblink 3 March 2012, GDP: The top 10 cities in India, 23 April 2010,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2012, Kolkata's GDP in 2014 was Rs 1.84 trillion, according to a collaborative assessment by multiple universities and climate agencies.WEB,weblink The Economics of Low Carbon Cities: Kolkata, India, 2014,, 1 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2015, As in many other Indian cities, information technology became a high-growth sector in Kolkata starting in the late 1990s; the city's IT sector grew at 70% per annum—a rate that was twice the national average. The 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail, and hospitality sectors; several large shopping malls and hotels were launched.NEWS, Sonalee, M., Kolkata's retail story,weblink 11 December 2011, The Daily Star, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 16 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, live, NEWS, George, Tunia Cherian, Hospitality sector gets a boost from buoyant economy,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2011, The Hindu Business Line, Chennai, 1 January 2006, dead, 24 October 2011, NEWS, Rohit, Khanna, Roy, Monalisa,weblink Kolkata real estate players project 40% growth by April, 11 December 2011, Financial Express, New Delhi, 12 January 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, NEWS, Roy Chowdhury, Joy, Looking East,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink The Express Hospitality, The Indian Express, New Delhi, 11 December 2011, October 2011, dead, 26 April 2012, NEWS, West Bengal industrial growth rate higher than national average,weblink 11 December 2011, Economic Times, 1 December 2008, New Delhi,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, live, Companies such as ITC Limited, CESC Limited, Exide Industries, Emami, Eveready Industries India, Lux Industries, Rupa Company, Berger Paints, Birla Corporation and Britannia Industries are headquartered in the city. Philips India, PricewaterhouseCoopers India, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Steel have their registered office and zonal headquarters in Kolkata.Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India; and a private bank Bandhan Bank. Reserve Bank of India has its eastern zonal office in Kolkata, and India Government Mint, Kolkata is one of the four mints in India.Some of the oldest public sector companies are headquartered in the city such as the Coal India Limited, National Insurance Company, Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, Tea Board of India, Geological Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India, Jute Corporation of India, National Test House, Hindustan Copper and the Ordnance Factories Board of the Indian Ministry of Defence. {{wide image|Downtown Salt Lake, Kolkata.jpg|1150px|Panoramic view of the Down town Sector V one of the major IT hubs of Kolkata as seen from the lakes surrounding Bidhannagar. Major Buildings such as Technopolis, Godrej Waterside, TCS Lords, Eden and Wanderers Park, Gobsyn Crystal, South City Pinnacle, RDB Boulevard, West Bengal Electronics Industry Development Corporation (WEBEL) Bhawan can be seen.}}


{{See also|Ethnic communities in Kolkata}}{{historical populations|11=1901|12=10,09,853|13=1911|14=11,17,966|15=1921|16=11,58,497|17=1931|18=12,89,461|19=1941|20=23,52,399|21=1951|22=29,56,475|23=1961|24=33,51,250|25=1971|26=37,27,020|27=1981|28=41,26,846|29=1991|30=43,99,819|31=2001|32=45,72,876|33=2011|34=44,96,694|percentages=pagr|footnote=source:Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901|align=right}}File:South City Towers, Kolkata.JPG|thumb|left|Residential high-rise buildings in alt=A skyline consisting of several high-rise buildings(File:Slum Area - Dunlop - Kolkata 2012-04-11 9445.JPG|thumb|A slum area of the city)The demonym for residents of Kolkata are Calcuttan and Kolkatan.DICTIONARY, Calcuttan,weblink, 10 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2012, NEWS, Prithvijit, Kolkatans relish a journey down familiar terrain,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 July 2012, 2 February 2012, Times of India, 14 November 2011, New Delhi, According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Kolkata district, which occupies an area of {{Convert|185|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}}, had a population of4,486,679;WEB,weblink Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 26 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, dmy-all, its population density was {{convert|24252|/sqkm|/sqmi|abbr=on}}. This represents a decline of 1.88% during the decade 2001–11. The sex ratio is 899 females per 1000 males—lower than the national average.WEB,weblink Sex ratio, 0–6 age population, literates and literacy rate by sex for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 29 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, dmy-all, The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal; these men commonly leave their families behind.NEWS, Dutta, Romita, Kolkata sees dip in population, suburbs register an increase,weblink 10 December 2011, Mint, New Delhi, 5 April 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2011, dmy-all, Kolkata's literacy rate of 87.14% exceeds the national average of 74%.WEB,weblink Population census 2011, Census of India 2011, Government of India, 6 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2011, dmy-all, The final population totals of census 2011 stated the population of city as 4,496,694. The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,112,536 in 2011.WEB,weblink Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above, 2011, Provisional population totals, census of India 2011, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 26 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2011, Bengali Hindus form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities.WEB,weblink Basic statistics of Kolkata, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 2 November 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2008, dead, Among Kolkata's smaller communities are Chinese, Tamils, Nepalis, Odias, Telugus, Assamese, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Greeks, Tibetans, Maharashtrians, Konkanis, Malayalees, Punjabis, and Parsis.{{rp|3}} The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews, and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century. The Jewish population of Kolkata was 5,000 during World War II, but declined after Indian independence and the establishment of Israel;NEWS,weblink Twilight comes for India's fading Jewish community, Basu, Moni, 29 March 2010, CNN, 25 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2012, dmy-all, by 2013, there were 25 Jews in the city.NEWS, Zach Marks, The Last Jews of Kolkata,weblink New York Times, 24 October 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2015, India's sole Chinatown is in eastern Kolkata; once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese, its population dropped to around 2,000 {{as of|2009|lc=on}} as a result of multiple factors including repatriation and denial of Indian citizenship following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, and immigration to foreign countries for better economic opportunities.BOOK, India and China in the colonial world|, Thampi, Madhavi, 2005, Social Science Press, New Delhi, 978-81-87358-20-6, 60–64,weblink 31 January 2012, The Chinese community traditionally worked in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants.NEWS,weblink Calcutta's Chinatown facing extinction over new rule, Taipei Times, Taipei, Taiwan, 18 April 2011, 25 April 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, {| class="wikitable" style="float:left; border: 16px solid #FFF;"|{| class="wikitable" style="float:left;"|+Kolkata urban agglomeration population growth! scope="col" | Census! scope="col" | Total! scope="col" | %±! scope="row" | 1981 9,194,000 â€”! scope="row" | 1991 11,021,900 19.9%! scope="row" | 2001 13,114,700 19.0%! scope="row" | 2011 14,112,536 7.6%Source: Census of India{{bar box|title=Religion in KolkataWEB
, Population by Religious Community
, Census of India
, 10 May 2016
, live
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 13 September 2015
, dmy-all
, Click on arrow adjacent to state West Bengal so that a Microsoft excel document is downloaded with district wise population of different religious groups. Scroll down to Kolkata district in the document at row no. 1629.|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|76.51}}{{bar percent|Islam|#009000|20.60}}{{bar percent|Christianity|DodgerBlue|0.88}}{{bar percent|Jainism|#FFFF00|0.47}}{{bar percent|Others|#808080|1.54}}Others include Sikhism, Buddhism & Other religions (0.03%)}}Bengali, the official state language, is the dominant language in Kolkata.WEB, Basic statistics of Kolkata,weblink Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 5 February 2012, live,weblink 4 January 2012, English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Hindi and Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority.NEWS, Roy, Anirban, West Bengal to have six more languages for official use,weblink 26 January 2012, India Today, Noida, India, 27 May 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2011, NEWS, Bengal gives second language status to Urdu in 18 areas,weblink 9 February 2012, Asian Age, New Delhi, Press Trust of India, 4 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2016, According to the 2011 census, 76.51% of the population is Hindu, 20.60% Muslim, 0.88% Christian, and 0.47% Jain.WEB, Census 2011 India,weblink Kolkata City Census 2011, 10 May 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2016, dmy-all, Scroll down to "Religion in Kolkata" The remainder of the population includes Sikhs, Buddhists, and other religions which accounts for 0.45% of the population; 1.09% did not state a religion in the census. Kolkata reported 67.6% of Special and Local Laws crimes registered in 35 large Indian cities during 2004.BOOK, National Crime Records Bureau, 2004, Crime in India-2004, General crime statistics snapshots 2004,weblink 1, Ministry of Home Affairs, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 July 2007, The Kolkata police district registered 15,510 Indian Penal Code cases in 2010, the 8th-highest total in the country.BOOK
, National Crime Records Bureau
, 2010
, Crime in India 2010
, Compendium
, 35
, Ministry of Home Affairs
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 19 August 2017, In 2010, the crime rate was 117.3 per 100,000, below the national rate of 187.6; it was the lowest rate among India's largest cities.BOOK, National Crime Records Bureau, 2010, Crime in India-2010, Crimes in mega dities,weblink" title="">weblink 44, Ministry of Home Affairs, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2016,weblink
{{As of|2003}}, about one-third of the population, or 1.5 million people, lived in 3,500 unregistered squatter-occupied and 2,011 registered slums.WEB, Kundu, N, Development Planning Unit. University College, London,weblink Understanding slums: case studies for the global report on human settlements 2003. The case of Kolkata, India, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 May 2006, dmy-all, {{rp|4}}{{rp|92}} The authorised slums (with access to basic services like water, latrines, trash removal by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation) can be broadly divided into two groups—bustees, in which slum dwellers have some long term tenancy agreement with the landowners; and udbastu colonies, settlements which had been leased to refugees from present-day Bangladesh by the government.JOURNAL, Schenk, W. Collin, Slum diversity in Kolkata, Columbia Undergraduate Journal of South Asian Studies, 2010, 1, 2, 91–108 [92],weblink 2 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 January 2012, {{rp|5}} The unauthorised slums (devoid of basic services provided by the municipality) are occupied by squatters who started living on encroached lands—mainly along canals, railway lines and roads.{{rp|92}}{{rp|5}} According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, around 14% of the households in Kolkata were poor, while 33% lived in slums, indicating a substantial proportion of households in slum areas were better off economically than the bottom quarter of urban households in terms of wealth status.{{rp|23}} Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding and working with the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata—an organisation "whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after".BOOK, Nobel Lectures, Peace 1971–1980, 1997, World Scientific Publishing Co, Singapore, 978-981-02-1179-0, 221,weblink Frängsmyr, Tore, Abrams, Irwin, 3 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2014,

Government and public services

Civic administration

File:Calcutta High Court.jpg|thumb|alt=A red-and-yellow building with multiple arches and towers standing against a backdrop of blue sky and framed by treesKolkata is administered by several government agencies. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation, or KMC, oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 16 boroughs, which together encompass 144 wards. Each ward elects a councillor to the KMC. Each borough has a committee of councillors, each of whom is elected to represent a ward. By means of the borough committees, the corporation undertakes urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and municipal markets. As Kolkata's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC.WEB,weblink Legislative structure, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 3 December 2011, dead,weblink 4 January 2012, dmy-all, The functions of the KMC include water supply, drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management, street lighting, and building regulation.WEB,weblink KMC functions, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 3 December 2011, live,weblink 4 January 2012, The Kolkata Municipal Corporation was ranked 1st out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 4.0 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.WEB, Nair, Ajesh, Annual Survey of India's City-Systems,weblink Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, 7 March 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 March 2015, The Kolkata Port Trust, an agency of the central government, manages the city's river port. {{As of|2012}}, the All India Trinamool Congress controls the KMC; the mayor is Firhad Hakim, while the deputy mayor is Atin Ghosh.NEWS,weblink Firhad Hakim all set to be the new Mayor of Kolkata, The Hindu, 4 December 2018, 23 November 2018, The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences.NEWS,weblink The city dairy: new sheriff, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 28 December 2005, 1 September 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2007, Kolkata's administrative agencies have areas of jurisdiction that do not coincide. Listed in ascending order by area, they are: Kolkata district; the Kolkata Police area and the Kolkata Municipal Corporation area, or "Kolkata city";NEWS, Change of guard brings welcome relief,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 10 December 2011, Times of India, 2 September 2011, New Delhi, and the Kolkata metropolitan area, which is the city's urban agglomeration. The agency overseeing the latter, the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, is responsible for the statutory planning and development of greater Kolkata.WEB,weblink Role of KMDA, 2011, Annual Report 2011, Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, 9 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2013, As the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata is home to not only the offices of the local governing agencies, but also the West Bengal Legislative Assembly; the state secretariat, which is housed in the Writers' Building; and the Calcutta High Court. Most government establishments and institutions are housed in the centre of the city in B. B. D. Bagh (formerly known as Dalhousie Square). The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. It was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William which was established in 1774. The Calcutta High Court has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Kolkata has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the City Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.WEB, City Sessions Court, Calcutta,weblink Calcutta High Court, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2012, WEB, Civil Court, Kolkata,weblink Calcutta High Court, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2011, WEB, Presidency Small Causes Court,weblink Calcutta High Court, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2011, The Kolkata Police, headed by a police commissioner, is overseen by the West Bengal Ministry of Home Affairs.WEB, Home Department, Government of West Bengal,weblink Government of West Bengal, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2012, WEB, Setup of Kolkata Police,weblink Kolkata Police, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, The Kolkata district elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 11 representatives to the state legislative assembly.WEB,weblink Notification: order no. 18, Delimitation Commission, 15 February 2006, Election Commission of India, New Delhi, 12–25, 11 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 August 2011,

Utility services

File:Kolkatavsnl.JPG|thumb|A telecommunications tower belonging to services provider Tata CommunicationsTata CommunicationsThe Kolkata Municipal Corporation supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Hooghly River;WEB, KMC functions,weblink Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 9 December 2011, live,weblink 4 January 2012, most of it is treated and purified at the Palta pumping station located in North 24 Parganas district.NEWS, Raj legacy mainstay of water supply,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 July 2012, 9 December 2011, Times of India, Times News Network, TNN, 3 September 2003, New Delhi, Roughly 95% of the 4,000 tonnes of refuse produced daily by the city is transported to the dumping grounds in Dhapa, which is east of the town.WEB, Master plan on solid waste management,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 4 March 2011, Kolkata Environmental Improvement Project, Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 9 December 2011, NEWS, Gon Chaudhuri, S. P., KMC has no alternative to overburdened Dhapa,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, 9 December 2011, Times of India, 28 December 2008, New Delhi, To promote the recycling of garbage and sewer water, agriculture is encouraged on the dumping grounds.WEB
, Sound practices composting: sound technical options
, International source book on environmentally sound technologies for municipal solid waste management
, United Nations Environment Programme
, 26 April 2006
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 11 May 2006
, Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.WEB, Gaia: Environmental Information System,weblink Calcutta: not 'the city of joy', 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2006, dmy-all, In 1856 the Bengal Government appointed George Turnbull to be the Commissioner of Drainage and Sewerage to improve the city's sewerage. Turnbull's main job was to be the Chief Engineer of the East Indian Railway Company responsible for building the first railway 541 miles from Howrah to Varanasi (then Benares).Electricity is supplied by the privately operated Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation, or CESC, to the city proper; the West Bengal State Electricity Board supplies it in the suburbs.NEWS, Power cuts, soaring heat leave city boiling,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 July 2012, 9 December 2011, Times of India, TNN, 2 August 2011, New Delhi, NEWS, Power crisis raises fear of dark Diwali in Bengal,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 July 2012, 9 December 2011, Times of India, TNN, 18 October 2011, New Delhi, Fire services are handled by the West Bengal Fire Service, a state agency.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 October 2010, Fire and emergency services, Government of West Bengal, 6 December 2011, {{As of|2012}}, the city had 16 fire stations.NEWS, CM in firefighting mode—six new fire stations, better coordination between agencies,weblink The Telegraph, Kolkata, 3 January 2012, 26 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2014, dmy-all, State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.WEB, Annual report 2010–11,weblink Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 13 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2012, {{rp|25–26}}{{rp|179}} with Kolkata being the first city in India to have cell phone and 4G connectivity, the GSM and CDMA cellular coverage is extensive.NEWS, Kolkata connects India to 4G era,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 January 2013, 25 June 2012, Times of India, 11 April 2012, New Delhi, NEWS, City of the third revolution â€“ First 4G service to be launched in Calcutta,weblink 25 June 2012, The Telegraph, 4 April 2012, Kolkata, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 May 2012, {{As of|2010}}, Kolkata has 7 percent of the total Broadband internet consumers in India; BSNL, VSNL, Tata Indicom, Sify, Airtel, and Reliance are among the main vendors.WEB, Recommendations on national broadband plan,weblink Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 25 June 2012, 22, 8 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2013, WEB, The Indian telecom services performance indicators October â€“ December 2011,weblink Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 25 June 2012, 122–126, 13 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2012,

Military and diplomatic establishments

The Eastern Command of the Indian Army is based in the city. Being one of India's major city and the largest city in eastern and north-eastern India, Kolkata hosts diplomatic missions of many countries such as Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, People's Republic of China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States. The U.S Consulate in Kolkata is the US Department of State's second oldest Consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.WEB, About the Consulate {{!, Kolkata, India – Consulate General of the United States |url= | |accessdate=30 December 2015 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=25 October 2015 }}


File:Kolkata transport.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|The Kolkata tram system is the oldest operating electric tram system in Asia]]File:Traffic in Kolkata.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|A road in Kolkata showing buses, taxis, auto rickshawauto rickshawFile:Kolkata Airport Terminal (14668163978).jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.9|The terminal of the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport ]]File:KolkataMetro3000siries.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|The Kolkata MetroKolkata MetroPublic transport is provided by the Kolkata Suburban Railway, the Kolkata Metro, trams, rickshaws, and buses. The suburban rail network reaches the city's distant suburbs.According to a 2013 survey conducted by the International Association of Public Transport, in terms of a public transport system, Kolkata ranks among the top of the six Indian cities surveyed.NEWS, Hemalata, Karthikeyan, Kolkata tops Indian cities in public transport: Study,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 December 2013, 20 December 2013, Times of India, 18 December 2013, WEB, The future of urban mobility 2.0,weblink International Association of Public Transport, 20 December 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2014, The Kolkata Metro, in operation since 1984, is the oldest underground mass transit system in India.WEB
, Kolkata Metro
, About Kolkata Metro
, 1 September 2007
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 20 August 2007
, It spans the north–south length of the city and covers a distance of {{Convert|27|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}. {{As of|2009}}, five Metro rail lines were under construction.NEWS, Circle of Metro commute surveys propose changes to plan, Mandal, Sanjay,weblink The Telegraph, 29 July 2010, 3 December 2011, Kolkata, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, Kolkata has four long-distance railway stations, located at Howrah (the largest railway complex in India), Sealdah, Chitpur and Shalimar, which connect Kolkata by rail to most cities in West Bengal and to other major cities in India.NEWS,weblink New station flag-off: amenities added, The Telegraph, 20 February 2006, 2 September 2007, Kolkata, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Seventeen of the Indian Railways regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway.WEB, Indian Railway's zones and their divisions with headquarters,weblink 25 February 2012, Centre For Railway Information Systems, Indian Railways, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2012, Kolkata has rail and road connectivity with Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.NEWS, Kolkata-Dhaka bus service resumes,weblink Hindustan Times, New Delhi, IANS, 7 December 2011, 30 May 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2012, WEB, International bus service,weblink Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation, 7 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 February 2012, WEB, Maitree Express,weblink High Commission of India, Dhaka, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2011, (File:20181128 122914000 iOS.jpg|thumb|300x300px|The yellow taxi remains a favourite despite the foray of the Ubers and Olas in the transport market)Buses, which are the most commonly used mode of transport, are run by government agencies and private operators.BOOK, Geography of transport development in India, Vaidya, Balkrishna, 2003, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, 978-81-7022-957-5, 142–55, 465, Kolkata is the only Indian city with a tram network, which is operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company.NEWS, Reaching India,weblink 27 February 2012, Times Internet Limited, New Delhi, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2007, The slow-moving tram services are restricted to certain areas of the city. Water-logging, caused by heavy rains that fall during the summer monsoon, can interrupt transportation networks.NEWS, Heavy rainfall throws city out of gear,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, Times of India, TNN, 7 August 2011, 26 February 2012, New Delhi, NEWS, Heavy rains paralyse normal life in Kolkata,weblink 26 February 2012, The Hindu, Press Trust of India, 6 August 2011, Chennai, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2014, Hired public conveyances include auto rickshaws, which often ply specific routes, and yellow metered taxis. Almost all of Kolkata's taxis are antiquated Hindustan Ambassadors by make; newer air-conditioned radio taxis are in service as well.NEWS, Cruise in a cool cab,weblink 7 December 2011, The Telegraph, 30 November 2008, Kolkata, Samhita L., Chakraborty, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, WEB, Getting around in Kolkata,weblink Lonely Planet, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2012, In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws and hand-pulled rickshaws are patronised by the public for short trips.WEB, Calvin, Trillin, India's rickshaws,weblink National Geographic, 11 February 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2012, Due to its diverse and abundant public transportation, privately owned vehicles are not as common in Kolkata as in other major Indian cities.WEB, National Institute of Urban Affairs,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2005, Table E2 registered motor vehicles in million-plus cities, 1991 to 1996 (As on 31 March), 26 April 2006, The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years.WEB, UNESCAP,weblink Traffic accident characteristics of Kolkata, 5 July 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2006, {{As of|2004}}, after adjusting for population density, the city's "road space" was only 6% compared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai.NEWS,weblink Call to ensure traffic discipline in Kolkata, The Hindu Business Line, Chennai, 5 September 2004, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, The Kolkata Metro has somewhat eased traffic congestion, as has the addition of new roads and flyovers. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation, and various private operators. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat.NEWS, Bandyopadhyay, Krishnendu, Bus-stand shift still on paper,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, Times of India, 7 December 2011, 22 September 2011, New Delhi, The Kolkata–Delhi and Kolkata–Chennai prongs of the Golden Quadrilateral, and National Highway 34 start from the city.WEB, Physical infrastructure,weblink West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, located in Dum Dum some {{Convert|16|km|abbr=on}} north-east of the city centre, operates domestic and international flights. In 2013, the airport was upgraded to handle increased air traffic.NEWS, AAI to modernise Chennai, Kolkata airports by fiscal end,weblink 7 December 2011, Economic Times, Press Trust of India, 26 August 2011, New Delhi,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, live, NEWS, Gupta, Jayanta, From March 15, all flights from new terminal in Kolkata,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 11 April 2013, 11 March 2013, Times of India, 5 March 2013, New Delhi, The Port of Kolkata, established in 1870, is India's oldest and the only major river port.WEB, Port facilities in India,weblink Indian Bureau of Mines, Government of India, 6–4, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2011, The Kolkata Port Trust manages docks in Kolkata and Haldia.WEB,weblink Salient physical features, 9 June 2007, Kolkata Port Trust, Kolkata Port Trust, India, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2007, The port hosts passenger services to Port Blair, capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; freighter service to ports throughout India and around the world is operated by the Shipping Corporation of India.WEB, How to reach Andaman and Nicobar,weblink Andaman and Nicobar Administration, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2009, Ferry services connect Kolkata with its twin city of Howrah, located across the Hooghly River.NEWS, Fogged out: flights, train services hit,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 24 January 2012, Times of India, 15 January 2011, TNN, Ferry services between Howrah and Kolkata were also disrupted due to poor visibility., New Delhi, NEWS, No pollution scan on river ferries yet,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 24 January 2012, TNN, Times of India, 2 August 2009, New Delhi, The route from North Bengal to Kolkata is set to become cheaper and more efficient for people travelling by bus. Through April 2017 to March 2018, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation (NBSTC) will be introducing a fleet of rocket buses equipped with bio-toilets for the bus route.WEB,weblink Premium Rocket Buses to be introduced in Bengal, The Economic Times, Tasmayee Laha Roy, 19 March 2017, 22 March 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 March 2017,


{{See also|Health care in Kolkata}}File:Mchbuilding.JPG|thumb|left|Calcutta Medical CollegeCalcutta Medical CollegeFile:IPGMER SSKM Woodburn.jpg|thumb|left|IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata is the largest hospital in West BengalWest Bengal{{As of|2011}}, the health care system in Kolkata consists of 48 government hospitals, mostly under the Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, and 366 private medical establishments;WEB, Medical institutions and sanctioned no. of beds in districts of West Bengal as on 30.11.2011,weblink Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, 1 March 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2012, these establishments provide the city with 27,687 hospital beds. For every 10,000 people in the city, there are 61.7 hospital beds,The population (4,486,679) and hospital beds (27,687) have been used to derive this rate. which is higher than the national average of 9 hospital beds per 10,000.WEB, Hospital beds,weblink World Health Organistation, 31 January 2012, XLS, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2012, Ten medical and dental colleges are located in the Kolkata metropolitan area which act as tertiary referral hospitals in the state.WEB, Shah, Mansi, Waiting for health care: a survey of a public hospital in Kolkata,weblink Centre for Civil Society, 31 January 2012, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 August 2011, WEB, Husain, Zakir, Ghosh, Saswata, Roy, Bijoya, Socio economic profile of patients in Kolkata: a case study of RG Kar and AMRI,weblink Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata, 31 January 2012, 19–20, July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2013, The Calcutta Medical College, founded in 1835, was the first institution in Asia to teach modern medicine.NEWS,weblink Calcutta Medical College, Calcutta, 20 October 2007, Mitra, Dola, 20 April 2005, The Telegraph, Kolkata, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2007, dmy-all, However, These facilities are inadequate to meet the healthcare needs of the city.NEWS, Mitra, Prithvijit, On hospital floor for 12 days,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 10 July 2012, 31 January 2012, Times of India, 9 April 2011, New Delhi, WEB, Mamata inducts two new ministers,weblink 31 January 2012, Sify, 16 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2013, NEWS, Kolkata woman gives birth on road, dies after no admission by hospitals,weblink 31 January 2012, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, 13 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, More than 78% in Kolkata prefer the private medical sector over the public medical sector,{{rp|109}} due to the overburdening of the public health sector, the lack of a nearby facility, and excessive waiting times at government facilities.{{rp|61}}According to the Indian 2005 National Family Health Survey, only a small proportion of Kolkata households were covered under any health scheme or health insurance.WEB, Gupta, Kamla, Health and living conditions in eight Indian cities,weblink National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005–06, International Institute for Population Sciences; Calverton, Maryland, US, 1 February 2012, Arnold, Fred, Lhungdim, H., Mumbai, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2012, {{rp|41}} The total fertility rate in Kolkata was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed.{{rp|45}} In Kolkata, 77% of the married women used contraceptives, which was the highest among the cities surveyed, but use of modern contraceptive methods was the lowest (46%).{{rp|47}} The infant mortality rate in Kolkata was {{nowrap|41 per 1,000}} live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was {{nowrap|49 per 1,000}} live births.{{rp|48}}Among the surveyed cities, Kolkata stood second (5%) for children who had not had any vaccinations under the Universal Immunization Programme {{as of|2005|lc=on}}.{{rp|48}} Kolkata ranked second with access to an anganwadi centre under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme for 57% of the children between 0 and 71 months.{{rp|51}} The proportion of malnourished, anaemic and underweight children in Kolkata was less in comparison to other surveyed cities.{{rp|54–55}}About 18% of the men and 30% of the women in Kolkata are obese—the majority of them belonging to the non-poor strata of society.{{rp|105}} In 2005, Kolkata had the highest percentage (55%) among the surveyed cities of anaemic women, while 20% of the men in Kolkata were anaemic.{{rp|56–57}} Diseases like diabetes, asthma, goitre and other thyroid disorders were found in large numbers of people.{{rp|57–59}} Tropical diseases like malaria, dengue and chikungunya are prevalent in Kolkata, though their incidence is decreasing.WEB, Malaria, dengue down in Kolkata,weblink 26 February 2012,, 13 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2012, NEWS, KMC wins battle against malaria, dengue,weblink 26 February 2012, The Statesman, 7 October 2011, Kolkata, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2013, Kolkata is one of the districts in India with a high number of people with AIDS; it has been designated a district prone to high risk.WEB, Annual report 2009–10, Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India,weblink 106, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2011, WEB, Annual Report 2009–10,weblink West Bengal State AIDS Prevention & Control Society, 1 February 2012, 10, live,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2011, As of 2014, because of higher air pollution, the life expectancy of a person born in the city is four years fewer than in the suburbs.WEB,weblink Act today to curb pollution, say docs – The Times of India,, 25 July 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2017,


File:IIMKolkata.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Indian Institute of Management CalcuttaIndian Institute of Management CalcuttaFile:Nujsfront.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|West Bengal National University of Juridical SciencesWest Bengal National University of Juridical SciencesFile:University of Calcutta cropped.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|alt=Large white columned building, with palm trees in frontFile:Amity University, Kolkata.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of the Amity University, KolkataAmity University, KolkataFile:Presidency University - Kolkata 7404.JPG|left|thumb|upright=0.9|Presidency University, KolkataPresidency University, KolkataKolkata's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Urdu and Hindi are also used, particularly in central Kolkata.WEB, Annual Report 2007––2008,weblink Department of School Education, Government of West Bengal, 10 December 2011, 69, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2012, dmy-all, WEB, List of schools in Kolkata,weblink West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, 10 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2011, dmy-all, Schools in Kolkata follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available. Some Kolkata schools, for example La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, South Point School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School, and Loreto House, have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.WEB, India's Best Schools, 2014,weblink, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2015, File:Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Kolkata Campus.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Indian Institute of Foreign TradeIndian Institute of Foreign Trade{{As of|2010}}, the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government.WEB, Annual report of the Department of Higher Education 2009–2010,weblink Department of Higher Education, Government of West Bengal, 2010, 124–27, 10 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, The colleges are each affiliated with a university or institution based either in Kolkata or elsewhere in India. Aliah University which was founded in 1780 as Mohammedan College of Calcutta is the oldest post-secondary educational institution of the city.WEB,weblink ALIAH UNIVERSITY, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2011, The University of Calcutta, founded in 1857, is the first modern university in South Asia.WEB, Annual report of the Department of Higher Education 2009–2010,weblink Department of Higher Education, Government of West Bengal, 2010, 129, 26 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, Presidency College, Kolkata (formerly Hindu College between 1817 and 1855), founded in 1855, was one of the oldest and most eminent colleges in India. It was affiliated with the University of Calcutta until 2010 when it was converted to Presidency University, Kolkata in 2010. Bengal Engineering and Science University (BESU) is the second oldest engineering institution of the country located in Howrah.NEWS, Singh, Shiv Sahay, BESU's bid for upgrade gets catalyst in Didi,weblink 18 August 2013, Indian Express, 6 August 2010, New Delhi, An Institute of National Importance, BESU was converted to India's first IIEST. Jadavpur University is known for its arts, science, and engineering faculties.WEB,weblink Universities with potential for excellence, University Grants Commission, Government of India, 12 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2010, The Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, which was the first of the Indian Institutes of Management, was established in 1961 at Joka, a locality in the south-western suburbs. Kolkata also houses the prestigious Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which was started here in the year 2006.NEWS, Q&A: Shekhar Chaudhury, director, IIM Calcutta, Garg, Swati,weblink Business Standard, Kolkata, 12 May 2011, 15 January 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2012, dmy-all, The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences is one of India's autonomous law schools,NEWS, NLUs, a preferred recruitment destination,weblink 17 January 2012, The Hindu, 12 March 2007, Chennai, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 November 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, Ghosh, Shuvobroto, An eye on law,weblink 17 January 2012, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 18 January 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2011, and the Indian Statistical Institute is a public research institute and university. State owned Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, West Bengal (MAKAUT, WB), formerly West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT) is the largest Technological University in terms of student enrollment and number of Institutions affiliated by it. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute and University of Engineering & Management (UEM).Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in Kolkata include physicists Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha,WEB,weblink Some of the distinguished alumni of the University of Calcutta, University of Calcutta, 29 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 November 2011, and Jagadish Chandra Bose;WEB,weblink Some of our distinguished teachers, University of Calcutta, 29 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 November 2011, chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy; statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain; physician Upendranath Brahmachari; educator Ashutosh Mukherjee;BOOK, Petitjean, Patrick, Science and empires: historical studies about scientific development and European expansion, 1992, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 978-0-7923-1518-6, Jami, Cathérine, Moulin, Anne Marie, 62, and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore,BOOK, Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967, 1999, World Scientific, Amsterdam, 978-981-02-3413-3,weblink Frenz, Horst, 3 February 2012, 134, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2012, C. V. Raman, and Amartya Sen.WEB,weblink Professor Amartya Sen, President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University, 29 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, Kolkata houses many premier research institutes like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences (SNBNCBS), Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC) and Indian Centre for Space Physics. Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman did his groundbreaking work in Raman effect in IACS.


File:Victoria Memorial at night.jpg|thumb|Victoria MemorialVictoria MemorialKolkata is known for its literary, artistic, and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought.BOOK, The autobiography of an unknown Indian, Chaudhuri, Nirad C., Nirad C. Chaudhuri, 2001, New York Review of Books, New York, 978-0-940322-82-0, 269,weblink Kolkata has been called the "City of Furious, Creative Energy"BOOK, Surajit, Sinha, Surajit Chandra Sinha, Cultural profile of Calcutta,weblink 1972, Indian Anthropological Society, Kolkata, B000GL2BEG, 7, as well as the "cultural [or literary] capital of India".WEB,weblink Calcutta: habitat of the Indian intellectual, Reeves, Philip, 5 April 2007, NPR, 29 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2011, BOOK, Allen, Noble, Costa, Frank, Dutt, Ashok, Kent, Robert, Regional development and planning for the 21st century : new priorities, new philosophies, 1990, Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, UK, 978-1-84014-800-8, 282, 396, The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city.WEB,weblink Kolkata culture: Para, Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal, 9 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2011, Typically, each para has its own community club and, on occasion, a playing field. Residents engage in addas, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.NEWS, Trachtenberg, P.,weblink The chattering masses, The New York Times, New York, 15 May 2005, 26 April 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2016, NEWS, Mukherjee Pandey, Jhimli, Presidency old-timers to relive days of canteen adda,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 23 January 2012, Times of India, 1 November 2008, New Delhi, The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures, and propaganda.NEWS, 'Nah. Didi can't hatch this egg, Premankur, Biswas,weblink Indian Express, New Delhi, 17 April 2011, 25 January 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2011, dmy-all, NEWS, Chakraborty, Ajanta, Bite missing from graffiti, the fun's gone from the elections,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 13 July 2012, 23 January 2012, Times of India, 11 April 2011, New Delhi, File:Indian Museum Interior View.jpg|thumb|The Indian MuseumIndian MuseumKolkata has many buildings adorned with Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architectural motifs. Several well-maintained major buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures";WEB, Graded list of heritage buildings,weblink Kolkata Municipal Corporation, 24 January 2012, 2009, live,weblink 22 December 2015, dmy-all, others are in various stages of decay.NEWS, Mukherjee Pandey, Jhimli, Heritage buildings need restoration, not mere repairs,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 17 July 2012, 24 January 2012, Times of India, 4 September 2011, New Delhi, NEWS, Out of elite list, cradle of Bengal Renaissance falling apart,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 16 July 2012, 24 January 2012, Times of India, TNN, 26 June 2011, New Delhi, Established in 1814 as the nation's oldest museum, the Indian Museum houses large collections that showcase Indian natural history and Indian art.NEWS, Mandal, Caesar, Gardeners to guard museum?,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 24 January 2012, 14 August 2010, Times of India, New Delhi, Marble Palace is a classic example of a European mansion that was built in the city. The Victoria Memorial, a place of interest in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. The National Library of India is the leading public library in the country while Science City is the largest science centre in the Indian subcontinent.Welcome to Science City {{webarchive|url= |date=26 January 2017 }}. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 November 2010.(File:India Education .jpg|thumb|The National Library of India|alt=Large white rectangular building with tall arched windows)The popularity of commercial theatres in the city has declined since the 1980s.BOOK, Bhattacharya, Malini, Jasodhara, Bagchi, The changing status of women in West Bengal, 1970–2000: the challenge ahead,weblink 10 February 2012, 2005, Sage Publications, New Delhi, 978-0-7619-3242-0, Culture, live,weblink 2 January 2016, {{rp|99}}NEWS,weblink Chowringhee revisited, De, Hemchhaya, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 31 May 2009, 9 March 2012, ... most people say that Bengali commercial theatre died in the 1980s ..., live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2014, Group theatres of Kolkata, a cultural movement that started in the 1940s contrasting with the then-popular commercial theatres, are theatres that are not professional or commercial, and are centres of various experiments in theme, content, and production;THESIS, Cand.polit., Nandikar: Staging Globalisation in Kolkata and Abroad,weblink Geir, Heierstad, 2003, University of Oslo, 9 March 2012, 39–48, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2006, group theatres use the proscenium stage to highlight socially relevant messages.{{rp|99}}BOOK, Theatre Histories: An Introduction, Phillip, Zarilli, Bruce, McConachie, Gary Jay, Williams, Sorgenfrei, Carol Fisher, Williams, Gary Jay, Routledge, 2010, 2006, Abingdon, UK, 978-0-415-46223-5, 429–430,weblink 9 March 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2013, Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal.NEWS, Chakraborty, Ajanta, Meet the new Mamata Banerjee,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, 23 January 2012, Times of India, 5 July 2011, The jatra industry based out of Kolkata's Chitpur Road has gone through a severe blow with the growth of video parlours., New Delhi, NEWS, Niyogi, Subhro, Red alert For Jatra,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 23 January 2012, Times of India, 26 October 2010, New Delhi, Kolkata is the home of the Bengali cinema industry, dubbed "Tollywood" for Tollygunj, where most of the state's film studios are located.JOURNAL, Bhaskar, Sarkar, The melodramas of globalization, Cultural Dynamics, 20, 1, 31–51 [34], March 2008, 10.1177/0921374007088054, Its long tradition of art films includes globally acclaimed film directors such as Academy Award-winning director Satyajit Ray, Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha, and contemporary directors such as Aparna Sen, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Goutam Ghose and Rituparno Ghosh.BOOK, Gooptu, Sharmistha, Bengali cinema: 'an other nation', 2010, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 978-0-415-57006-0, 2, 172, 181, 187,weblink 24 January 2012, live,weblink 2 January 2016, dmy-all, During the 19th and 20th centuries, Bengali literature was modernised through the works of authors such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam, and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay.BOOK, Mittra, Sitansu Sekhar, Bengal's Renaissance, 2001, Academic Publishers, Kolkata, 978-81-87504-18-4, 80–100, Coupled with social reforms led by Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, and others, this constituted a major part of the Bengal Renaissance.BOOK, Dutt, R.C., Cultural heritage of Bengal, 1962, Punthi Pustak, Kolkata, cited in BOOK, Sengupta, Nitish K., History of the Bengali-speaking people, 2001, UBS Publishers' Distributors, New Delhi, 978-81-7476-355-6, 211–12, The middle and latter parts of the 20th century witnessed the arrival of post-modernism, as well as literary movements such as those espoused by the Kallol movement, hungryalists and the little magazines.MAGAZINE, India: The hungry generation,weblink Time (magazine), Time, New York, 24 January 2012, 20 November 1964, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2012, Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books.JOURNAL, Hollick, Julian Crandall, July 1991, Amid Calcutta's poverty, there's no dearth of cultural wealth, Smithsonian, 22, 4, 32–41, 0037-7333, File:Making of Durga Idol in Kumartuli , kolkata.jpg|thumb|Making of Durga idol in Kumartuli, Kolkata.Kumartuli, Kolkata.Kalighat painting originated in 19th century Kolkata as a local style that reflected a variety of themes including mythology and quotidian life.BOOK, A history of Indian painting: the modern period, Chaitanya, Krishna, Abhinav Publications, 1994, New Delhi, 112–118, 978-81-7017-310-6, The Government College of Art and Craft, founded in 1864, has been the cradle as well as workplace of eminent artists including Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, and Nandalal Bose.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 May 2010, A journey through 145 years, Government College of Art and Craft, 29 January 2012, The art college was the birthplace of the Bengal school of art that arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the prevalent academic art styles in the early 20th century.BOOK, Art and nationalism in colonial India, 1850–1922: occidental orientations, Mitter, Partha, 1994, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 978-0-521-44354-8, How the past was salvaged by Swadeshi artists, 267–306,weblink 8 March 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2013, BOOK, Atlas of world art, Onians, John, John Onians, 2004, Laurence King Publishing, London, 978-1-85669-377-6, 304,weblink 8 March 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2013, The Academy of Fine Arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions. The city is recognised for its appreciation of Rabindra sangeet (songs written by Rabindranath Tagore) and Indian classical music, with important concerts and recitals, such as Dover Lane Music Conference, being held throughout the year; Bengali popular music, including baul folk ballads, kirtans, and Gajan festival music; and modern music, including Bengali-language adhunik songs.BOOK, Shepherd, John, Continuum encyclopedia of popular music of the world, 3–7, 2005, Continuum, London, 978-0-8264-7436-0, 70–71, Since the early 1990s, new genres have emerged, including one comprising alternative folk–rock Bengali bands.JOURNAL, Dorin, Stéphane, La globalisation du rock vue de Calcutta, Volume!, 2005, 4, 1, 144–45, The globalization of rock to Calcutta, French, 10.4000/volume.1714, dmy-all, Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism.{{rp|105}} Key elements of Kolkata's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machher jhol,JOURNAL, de Graaf, G. J., Latif, Abdul, April–June 2002, Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: a case study from Bangladesh, Aquaculture Asia, 7, 2, 5–7, 10 February 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2012, dmy-all, which can be accompanied by desserts such as roshogolla, sandesh, and a sweet yoghurt known as mishti dohi. Bengal's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of ilish, a fish that is a favourite among Calcuttans. Street foods such as beguni (fried battered eggplant slices), kati roll (flatbread roll with vegetable or chicken, mutton, or egg stuffing), phuchka (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce) and Indian Chinese cuisine from Chinatown are popular.NEWS, Sen, Elora, Sen, Sarbani,weblink Some images are synonymous with Kolkata, India Today, Noida, India, 2 January 2009, 3 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2012, live, NEWS, Saha, Subhro, Resurrected, the kathi roll: face-off resolved, Nizam's set to open with food court,weblink The Telegraph, Kolkata, 18 January 2006, 26 October 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 February 2006, dmy-all, NEWS, Niyogi, Subhro, Kolkata's mind-boggling variety of street food,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, 26 February 2012, Times of India, 7 May 2011, New Delhi, NEWS, Roy, Anirban, Street food as yummy and cheap as it gets,weblink 26 February 2012, India Today, Noida, India, 7 December 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2012, live, Though Bengali women traditionally wear the sari, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.NEWS, Yengkhom, Sumati, This Puja, buzz over western clothes,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 11 July 2012, 23 January 2012, Times of India, 23 September 2010, New Delhi, Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is Kolkata's most important and largest festival; it is an occasion for glamorous celebrations and artistic decorations.BOOK, Foulston, Lynn, Abbott, Stuart, Hindu goddesses: beliefs and practices, 2009, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, UK, 978-1-902210-43-8, 156, BOOK, Bhowmik, Dulal, 2012, Durga Puja,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2015, The Bengali New Year, known as Poila Boishak, as well as the harvest festival of Poush Parbon are among the city's other festivals; also celebrated are Kali Puja, Diwali, Holi, Jagaddhatri Puja, Saraswati Puja, Rathayatra, Janmashtami, Maha Shivratri, Vishwakarma Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Ganesh Chathurthi, Makar Sankranti, Gajan, Kalpataru Day, Bhai Phonta, Maghotsab, Eid, Muharram, Christmas, Buddha Purnima and Mahavir Jayanti. Cultural events include the Rabindra Jayanti, Independence Day(15 August), Republic Day(26 January), Kolkata Book Fair, the Dover Lane Music Festival, the Kolkata Film Festival, Nandikar's National Theatre Festival, Statesman Vintage & Classic Car Rally and Gandhi Jayanti.File:Dance with Rabindra Sangeet - Kolkata 2011-11-05 6669.JPG|alt=Four women wearing saree in different dancing poses|Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath TagoreFile:Sandesh_-_Oberoi_Grand_-_Kolkata_2013-05-23_8046.JPG|alt=Sandesh varieties|Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhenaFile:Durga Puja DS.jpg|alt=Picture of a many-armed goddess with long black hair and a crown|A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festivalFile:Kolkatatemple.jpg|Dakshineswar Kali Temple, a Hindu temple


{{See also|Kolkata in the media|List of Bengali-language television channels}}File:Akashvani Bhawan Kolkata 2.jpg|thumb|Akashvani Bhawan, the head office of state-owned alt=A five storied building in cream colour with multiple columns in frontThe first newspaper in India, the Bengal Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780.BOOK, Eaman, Ross, The A to Z of Journalism,weblink 2 August 2013, 12 October 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7067-3, 86, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2014, Among Kolkata's widely circulated Bengali-language newspapers are Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Ei Samay Sangbadpatra, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Dainik Statesman and Ganashakti.WEB, Areawise analysis for the period July/December 2007 to January â€“ June 2010,weblink Audit Bureau of Circulations, XLS, 17 June 2012, {{Dead link|date=August 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} The Statesman and The Telegraph are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from Kolkata. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Kolkata include The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age. As the largest trading centre in East India, Kolkata has several high-circulation financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.WEB, International Trade Administration,weblink Business development mission to India 29 November â€“ 5 December 2006, 13 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2007, dmy-all, Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Odia, Punjabi, and Chinese languages, are read by minorities.BOOK, Banerjee, Himadri, Gupta, Nilanjana, Mukherjee, Sipra, Calcutta mosaic: essays and interviews on the minority communities of Calcutta,weblink 29 January 2012, 2009, Anthem Press, New Delhi, 978-81-905835-5-8, 9–10, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2013, Major periodicals based in Kolkata include Desh, Sananda, Saptahik Bartaman, Unish-Kuri, Anandalok, and Anandamela. Historically, Kolkata has been the centre of the Bengali little magazine movement.JOURNAL, Little magazines of Bengal, Asiaweek, 1984, 10, 27–39, 42, harv, JOURNAL, Nag, Dulali, 1997, Little magazines in Calcutta and a postsociology of India, Contributions to Indian Sociology, 31, 1, 109–11, 10.1177/006996679703100106, All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM radio stations in the city.WEB, Radio stations,weblink All India Radio, 8 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2011, Kolkata has 12 local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.WEB, Radio stations in West Bengal, India,weblink Asiawaves, 8 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2012, India's state-owned television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,WEB, Doordarshan,weblink Ministry of Broadcasting, Government of India, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2012, while a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services, or internet-based television.NEWS, CalTel launches IPTV in Kolkata, invests Rs 700 cr in 07-08,weblink 24 January 2012, Press Trust of India, Outlook India, New Delhi, 1 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2013, NEWS, CAS on brink of blackout,weblink 24 January 2012, Times of India, 14 August 2011, TNN, New Delhi, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2013, NEWS, Direct-to-home comes home,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 July 2012, 24 January 2012, Times of India, TNN, 9 October 2003, New Delhi, Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels include ABP Ananda, Tara Newz, Kolkata TV, 24 Ghanta, News Time and Channel 10.WEB, Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by dable operators/ multi system operators/ DTH licensees in India,weblink Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India, 24 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 September 2012,


{{See also|Football in Kolkata|Kolkata Marathon|Kolkata derby}}File:Salt Lake Stadium Indian Super League Opener.jpg|thumb|Salt Lake Stadium during Indian Super LeagueIndian Super LeagueThe most popular sports in Kolkata are football and cricket. Unlike most parts of India, the residents show significant passion for football.NEWS,weblink Forget cricket, football is catching fast in India, Khosla, Varuni, Sharma, Ravi Teja, The Economic Times, 13 June 2014, 20 September 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2014, live, The city is home to top national football clubs such as Mohun Bagan A.C., East Bengal F.C., and the Mohammedan Sporting Club.WEB, Mohun Bagan vs East Bengal: India's all-consuming rivalry,weblink FIFA, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 November 2011, NEWS, Bhabani, Soudhriti, Argentine football superstar Messi charms Kolkata,weblink 7 December 2011, India Today, Noida, India, 1 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2012, live, Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia.WEB, Football in Bengal,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 December 2011, Indian Football Association, 7 December 2011, Mohun Bagan A.C., one of the oldest football clubs in Asia, is the only organisation to be dubbed a "National Club of India".BOOK, Soccer in South Asia: empire, nation, diaspora, 2001, Frank Cass Publishers, London, 978-0-7146-8170-2, 17, Dineo, Paul, Mills, James, WEB, India strive for improvement,weblink FIFA, 15 February 2007, 7 December 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, Football matches between Mohun Bagan and East Bengal, dubbed as the Kolkata derby, witness large audience attendance and rivalry between patrons.WEB,weblink Mohun Bagan vs East Bengal: India's all-consuming rivalry, FIFA, 21 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2013, dead, File:KKR vs PUNE WARRIORS 5th May 2012.jpg|thumb|A Twenty20 cricket match between Kolkata Knight Riders and Pune Warriors during Indian Premier League at the alt=|leftAs in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city.NEWS, What happened to para cricket?,weblink 20 January 2002, TNN, Times of India, 7 December 2011, New Delhi, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2013, NEWS, Para cricket tourney gets off to a cracking start,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2012, 7 December 2011, TNN, Times of India, 22 January 2011, New Delhi, Kolkata has the Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Kolkata also has an Indian Super League franchise known as Atlético de Kolkata. Tournaments, especially those involving cricket, football, badminton, and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis. The Maidan, a vast field that serves as the city's largest park, hosts several minor football and cricket clubs and coaching institutes.NEWS, FIFA president visits big three of Kolkata maidan,weblink 16 April 2007, The Hindu, 7 December 2011, Chennai, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2013, Eden Gardens, which has a capacity of 68,000 {{As of|2017|lc=y}},WEB
, Eden Gardens
, 22 August 2017
, Indian Premier League
, live
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 20 June 2017
, dmy-all
, hosted the final match of the 1987 Cricket World Cup. It is home to the Bengal cricket team and the Kolkata Knight Riders.The multi-use Salt Lake Stadium, also known as Yuva Bharati Krirangan, is India's largest stadium by seating capacity. Most matches of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup were played in the Salt Lake Stadium including both Semi-final matches and the Final match. Kolkata also accounted for 45% of total attendance in 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup with an average of 55,345 spectators.NEWS,weblink Kolkata accounted for 45% of total attendance in FIFA U-17 World Cup: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, Indian Express, 30 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2017, 30 October 2017, The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.BOOK, Desai, Ashwin, Blacks in whites: a century of cricket struggles in KwaZulu-Natal, 2000, University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, 978-1-86914-025-0, 38, NEWS, Mukherji, Raju, Seven years? Head start,weblink The Telegraph, 14 March 2005, 26 October 2006, Kolkata, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, Kolkata's Netaji Indoor Stadium served as host of the 1981 Asian Basketball Championship, where India's national basketball team finished 5th, ahead of teams that belong to Asia's basketball elite, such as Iran. The city has three 18-hole golf courses. The oldest is at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, the first golf club built outside the United Kingdom.BOOK, Bohn, Michael K., Money golf: 600 Years of bettin' on birdies, 2008, Potomac Books, Dulles, Virginia, US, 978-1-59797-032-7, 34, BOOK, Uschan, Michael V., Golf, Lucent Books, San Diego, US, 978-1-56006-744-3, 16, 2000, The other two are located at the Tollygunge Club and at Fort William. The Royal Calcutta Turf Club hosts horse racing and polo matches.NEWS, Himatsingka, Anuradha, Royal Calcutta Turf Club in revival mode,weblink 7 December 2011, Economic Times, 9 January 2011, New Delhi, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 January 2012, dmy-all, The Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world.BOOK, Singh, Jaisal, Polo in India, 2007, New Holland Publishers, London, 978-1-84537-913-1, 12, BOOK, Jackson, Joanna, A Year in the life of Windsor and Eton, 2011, Frances Lincoln, London, 978-0-7112-2936-5, 80, WEB,weblink History of polo, 30 August 2007, Hurlingham Polo Association, dead,weblink 27 April 2006, The Calcutta Racket Club is a squash and racquet club in Kolkata. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the Indian subcontinent.WEB,weblink Sri Lanka Squash Federation history,, 25 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2012, WEB,weblink The City of Wonders – Indian Link, 10 September 2010,, 25 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2013, The Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946.WEB, About AITA,weblink All India Tennis Association, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 November 2011, JOURNAL, Das Sharma, Amitabha, Young turks rule the roost, 7 April 2011, 34, 14,weblink 27 February 2012, Sportstar Weekly (The Hindu), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2011, In the period 2005–2007, Sunfeast Open, a tier-III tournament on the Women's Tennis Association circuit, was held in the Netaji Indoor Stadium; it has since been discontinued.NEWS, Das Gupta, Amitava, Sunfeast Open seeks date shift,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 July 2012, 25 January 2012, Times of India, 15 February 2008, New Delhi, NEWS, AITA's no to private players,weblink 25 January 2012, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 2 September 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 3 November 2013, dmy-all, The Calcutta Rowing Club hosts rowing heats and training events. Kolkata, considered the leading centre of rugby union in India, gives its name to the oldest international tournament in rugby union, the Calcutta Cup.WEB, Rugby thrives in India,weblink 30 December 2008, International Rugby Board, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 June 2014, WEB, About CCFC,weblink Calcutta Cricket & Football Club, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, Nag, Shivani, Kolkata watches as rugby legacy vanishes year after year,weblink 29 September 2010, Indian Express, New Delhi, 7 December 2011, The Automobile Association of Eastern India, established in 1904,WEB, About AAEI,weblink Automobile Association of Eastern India, 7 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2011, dmy-all, JOURNAL, July–December 1904, The automobile movement in India, The Horseless Age, 14, 9, 202,weblink 7 February 2012, live,weblink 2 January 2016, and the Bengal Motor Sports Club are involved in promoting motor sports and car rallies in Kolkata and West Bengal.NEWS, India, Bhutan in car rally,weblink The Telegraph, Kolkata, 7 December 2011, 6 February 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, dmy-all, WEB, About Bengal Motor Sports Club,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2012, Bengal Motor Sports Club, 7 December 2011, The Beighton Cup, an event organised by the Bengal Hockey Association and first played in 1895, is India's oldest field hockey tournament; it is usually held on the Mohun Bagan Ground of the Maidan.NEWS, O'Brien, Barry,weblink All hail hockey on history high, 25 February 2012, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 4 December 2004, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2012, NEWS,weblink Indian Airlines lift Beighton Cup, 2 April 2012, Sport, The Hindu, Chennai, India, 11 April 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2012, dmy-all, Athletes from Kolkata include Sourav Ganguly, Pankaj Roy and Jhulan Goswami, who are former captains of the Indian national cricket team; Olympic tennis bronze medalist Leander Paes, golfer Arjun Atwal, and former footballers Sailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, P. K. Banerjee, and Subrata Bhattacharya.

Sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in India}}
  • {{flagicon|Bangladesh}} Dhaka, BangladeshNEWS, Mazumdar, Jaideep, A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata learn from her sister?,weblink 17 November 2013, Times of India, 17 November 2013, New Delhi,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2014, live,
  • {{flagicon|China}} Kunming, China (October 2013)NEWS, Agreement on the establishment of Sister City Relations between Kolkata, Republic of India and Kunming, People's Republic of China,weblink 23 October 2013, 17 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2018, live,
  • {{flagicon|Greece}} Thessaloniki (21 January 2005)NEWS,weblink The Twinning of Thessaloniki and Calcutta, 21 January 2005, 17 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2018, live,
  • {{flagicon|Italy}} Naples, Italy
  • {{flagicon|Pakistan}} Karachi, PakistanNEWS, Islamabad to get new sister city,weblink 17 March 2018, Dawn, 5 January 2016,weblink 18 March 2018, live,
  • {{flagicon|South Korea}} Incheon, South KoreaWEB,weblink Incheon Metropolitan City – Incheon City – Sister Cities, Incheon Metropolitan City,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2017, live,
  • {{flagicon|Ukraine}} Odessa, UkraineWEB, Sister Cities, Official site of Odessa,weblink 17 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2018, live,
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Jersey City, United States
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Long Beach, United States
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Dallas, United States

See also




Further reading

  • BOOK, Chaudhuri, S, 1990, Calcutta: the living City, I and II, Oxford University Press, Kolkata, 978-0-19-562585-1,
  • BOOK

, Dutta
, Krishna
, 2003
, Calcutta: a cultural and literary history
, 978-1-902669-59-5
, Signal Books
, Oxford, UK
  • BOOK

, Mitra
, A
, 1976
, Calcutta diary
, Frank Cass
, London
, 978-0-7146-3082-3
  • BOOK

, Mukherjee
, SC
, 1991
, The changing face of Calcutta: an architectural approach
, Kolkata
, Government of West Bengal
, B0000D6TXX,
  • BOOK

, Roy
, A
, 2002
, City requiem, Calcutta: gender and the politics of poverty
, University of Minnesota Press
, Minneapolis, US
, 978-0-8166-3932-8
  • BOOK

, Thomas
, Frederic C.
, 1997
, Calcutta poor: elegies on a city above pretense
, M.E. Sharpe
, Armonk, New York City
, 978-1-56324-981-5
  • BOOK

, Lapierre
, Dominique
, 1985
, La cité de la joie (The City of Joy)
, Arrow
, Kolkata
, 978-0-09-914091-7
  • BOOK, Singh, Malvika, 2011, Kolkata: A Soul City (Historic and Famed Cities of India), Academic Foundation, 110, 978-81-7188-886-3,
  • BOOK, Hazra, Indrajit, 1 December 2013, Grand Delusions: A Short Biography of Kolkata, Aleph Book Company, 156, 978-93-82277-28-6,
  • BOOK, Ghosh, Amitav, 22 April 2009, Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery, Penguin India, 200, 978-0-14-306655-2,
  • BOOK, Deb, Binaya Krishna, 1905, The Early History and Growth of Calcutta,weblink Harvard University, Romesh Chandra Ghose, 278,
  • BOOK, Chaudhuri, Sukanta, 1990, Calcutta, the Living City: The past, the University of Michigan, Oxford University Press, 292, 978-0-19-562718-3,
  • BOOK, Roy, Ananya, 1 October 2002, City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and Politics of Poverty, University of Minnesota Press, 352, 978-0-8166-3933-5,
  • BOOK, Chatterjee, Jayabrato, Khullar, Rupinder, 1 January 2004, Kolkata: the dream city, the University of Michigan, UBS Publishers' Distributors, 93, 978-81-7476-471-3,
  • BOOK, Moorhouse, Geoffrey, 1971, Calcutta,weblink Penguin Books India, 393, 978-0-14-009557-9,
  • BOOK, Chatterjee, Partha, 2012, The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power, Princeton University Press, 425, 978-0-691-15201-1,
  • BOOK, Chattopadhyay, Swati, 2005, Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny, Psychology Press, 314, 978-0-415-34359-6,
  • BOOK, Dey, Ishita, Samaddar, Ranabir, 2016, Beyond Kolkata: Rajarhat and the Dystopia of Urban Imagination, Routledge, 304, 9781134931378,
  • BOOK, Husain, Zakir, Dutta, Mousumi, 2013, Women in Kolkata's IT Sector: Satisficing Between Work and Household, Springer Science & Business Media, 133, 9788132215936,
  • BOOK, Bose, Pablo Shiladitya, 2015, Urban Development in India: Global Indians in the Remaking of Kolkata, Routledge, 178, 9781317596738,
  • BOOK, Ray, Raka, Qayum, Seemin, 2009, Cultures of Servitude: Modernity, Domesticity, and Class in India, Stanford University Press, 255, 9780804760713,
  • BOOK, Ghosh, Anindita, Claiming the City: Protest, Crime, and Scandals in Colonial Calcutta, c. 1860-1920, Oxford University Press, 340, 978-0199464791, 2016,
  • BOOK, Sanyal, Shukla, 2014, Revolutionary Pamphlets, Propaganda and Political Culture in Colonial Bengal, Cambridge University Press, 219, 9781107065468,
  • BOOK, Busteed, Henry Elmsley, 1888, Echoes from Old Calcutta: Being Chiefly Reminiscences of the Days of Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey, Asian Educational Services, 359, 9788120612952,
  • BOOK, Fruzzetti, Lina, Östör, Ákos, 2003, Calcutta Conversations, Orient Blackswan, 242, 9788180280092,
  • BOOK, Richards, E. P., 2014, The Condition, Improvement and Town Planning of the City of Calcutta and Contiguous Areas: The Richards Report, Routledge, 492, 9781317617006,
  • BOOK, Chatterjee, Arnab, Yarlagadda, Sudhakar, 2007, Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys-Kolkata I, Springer Science & Business Media, 248, 9788847003897,
  • BOOK, Sarkar, Tanika, Calcutta: The Stormy Decades, Social Science Press, 486, 978-9383166077, 2015,
  • BOOK, Choudhury, Ranabir Ray, A City in the Making: Aspects of Calcutta's Early Growth, Niyogi Books, 564, 978-9385285288, 2016,
  • BOOK, Banerjee, Sumanta, 2016, Memoirs of Roads: Calcutta from Colonial Urbanization to Global Modernization, Oxford University Press, 192, 978-0199468102,

External links

{hide}Geographic location
|Centre = Kolkata
|North = Sikkim
|East = AssamBangladesh
|South = Bay of Bengal
|West = BiharJharkhand
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