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{{Distinguish|Babr|Babar (disambiguation){{!}}Babar}}{{short description|1st Mughal Emperor}}{{Use Indian English|date=July 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2015}}

Mughal emperors>Badshah of the Mughal EmpireBabur|caption = Illustration of BaburMughal emperors>Mughal Emperor20 April 1526 â€“ 26 December 1530}}Ibrahim Lodhi (as Delhi Sultanate>Sultan of Delhi)|successor = Humayun|succession5 = Ruler of Ferghana|reign5 = 1494 - 1497|reign-type5 = 1st reign|reign6 = 1498 - 1500|reign-type6 = 2nd reign|succession2 = Ruler of Samarqand|reign2 = 1497 - 1498|reign-type2 = 1st reign|reign3 = 1500 - 1501|reign-type3 = 2nd reign|reign4 = 1511 - 1512|reign-type4 = 3rd reign|succession1 = Ruler of Kabul|reign1 = 1504 - 1530148314|df=y}}|birth_place = Andijan, Timurid Empire (present-day Uzbekistan)df=yes12148314}}|death_place = Agra, Mughal Empire (present-day India)|burial_place = Kabul, Bagh-e Babur (present-day Afghanistan)| spouse = Maham Begum| spouse-type = Consort|spouses = Aisha Sultan BegumZainab Sultan BegumMasuma Sultan BegumBibi MubarikaGulrukh BegumDildar BegumGulnar AghachaNazgul Aghacha| spouses-type = WivesHumayunKamran MirzaAskari MirzaHindal MirzaAhmad MirzaShahrukh MirzaBarbul MirzaAlwar MirzaFaruq MirzaFakhr-un-Nissa>Fakhr-un-Nissa BegumIshan Daulat BegumMeher Jahan BegumMasuma Sultan BegumGulzar BegumGulrukh BegumGulbadan BegumGulchehra BegumAltun Bishik (alleged)|full name = Zahir-ud-din Muhammad BaburTimurid dynasty>Barlas TimuridUmar Sheikh Mirza, Emir>Ê¿AmÄ«r of Ferghana Valley|mother = Qutlugh Nigar Khanum|religion = Sunni IslamChristine Isom-Verhaaren, Allies with the Infidel, (I.B. Tauris, 2013), 58.Mughal emperors>Mughal}}{{Campaignbox Babur}}Babur (|lit=tiger|translit=Bābur}};{{sfnp|EB|1878}} 14 February 1483{{spaced ndash}}26 December 1530), born ZahÄ«r ud-DÄ«n Muhammad, was the founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur (Tamerlane) from what is now Uzbekistan.F. Lehmann: ẒahÄ«r-al-DÄ«n Moḥammad Bābor. In Encyclopædia Iranica. Online Ed. December 1988 (updated August 2011). "Bābor, ẒahÄ«r-al-DÄ«n Moḥammad (6 Moḥarram 886-6 Jomādā I 937/14 February 1483 â€“ 26 December 1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman who escaped the bloody political arena of his Central Asian birthplace to found the Mughal Empire in South Asia. His origin, milieu, training, and education were steeped in Muslim culture and so Bābor played significant role for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Islam in India, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results."Robert L. Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, p. 20. "The Mughals-Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis â€“ strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India".Babur was born in Andijan, in the Fergana Valley, in modern Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, governor of Fergana and great-great grandson of Timur. Babur ascended the throne of Fergana in its capital Akhsikent in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both the regions went in vain as he was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani Khan. In 1504, he conquered Kabul, which was under the rule of the infant heir of Ulugh Beg II. Babur formed a partnership with Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly conquered lands to the Sheybanids.After losing Samarkand for the third time, Babur turned his attention to South Asia. At that time, the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the subcontinent was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Afghan Lodi dynasty, whereas Rajputana was ruled by a Hindu Rajput Confederacy, led by Rana Sanga of Mewar. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE and founded the Mughal empire. He faced opposition from Rana Sanga, who first invited Babur to defeat Ibrahim Lodi and then consolidated his forces against the battle weakened forces of Babur. The Rana was defeated in the Battle of Khanwa.Babur married several times. Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. Babur died in 1530 in Agra and was succeeded by Humayun. He was first buried in Agra but, as per his wishes, his remains were moved to Kabul and reburied. Being a patrilineal descendant of Timur, Babur considered himself a Timurid and Chagatai Turkic.{{citation |last=Richards |first=John F. |title=The Mughal Empire |url= |year=1995 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=6 |isbn=978-0-521-56603-2}} He is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Many of his poems have also become popular folk songs. He wrote the Baburnama in Chaghatai Turkic which was translated into Persian during Akbar's reign.{{anchor|Etymology|Word}}


Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn is Arabic for "Defender of the Faith" (of Islam), and Muhammad honours the Islamic prophet.The difficulty of pronouncing the name for his Central Asian Turco-Mongol army may have been responsible for the greater popularity of his nickname Babur,{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}} also variously spelled Baber,{{sfnp|EB|1878}} Babar,{{sfnp|EB|1911}} and Bābor. The name is generally taken in reference to the Persian babr, meaning "tiger".{{sfnp|EB|1878}} The word repeatedly appears in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh and was borrowed into the Turkic languages of Central Asia.{{sfnp|EB|1911}}Thumb, Albert, Handbuch des Sanskrit, mit Texten und Glossar, German original, ed. C. Winter, 1953, Snippet, p. 318 Thackston argues for an alternate derivation from the PIE word "beaver", pointing to similarities between the pronunciation Bābor and the Russian bobr (, "beaver").BOOK, The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library, 0-375-76137-3, 2002, Babur, Emperor of Hindustan, translated, edited and annotated by W. M. Thackston,weblink Babur bore the royal titles Badshah and al-ṣultānu 'l-ʿazam wa 'l-ḫāqān al-mukkarram pādshāh-e ġāzī. He and later Mughal emperors used the title of mirza and gurkhan as regalia.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}


(File:Babur's Genealogical Order.jpg|thumb|Babur Family Tree)(File:Emperor babur.jpg|200px|thumb|17th-century portrait of Babur)Babur's memoirs form the main source for details of his life. They are known as the Baburnama and were written in Chaghatai Turkic, his mother-tongue,BOOK, Babur Nama: Journal of Emperor Babur, 2006, Penguin Books India, Mumbai, 978-0-14-400149-1, xviii, Dilip Hiro, Preface,weblink though, according to Dale, "his Turkic prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology or word formation and vocabulary."BOOK, Stephen Frederic, Dale, The garden of the eight paradises: Bābur and the culture of Empire in Central Asia, Afghanistan and India (1483–1530), Brill, 2004, 15, 150, 90-04-13707-6, Baburnama was translated into Persian during the rule of Babur's grandson Akbar.Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in the city of Andijan, Andijan Province, Fergana Valley, contemporary Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza,WEB, On the occasion of the birth of Babar Padishah (the son of Omar Shaikh),weblink Mirza Muhammad Haidar, University of Washington, Silk Road Seattle, 7 November 2006, ruler of the Fergana Valley, the son of Abū Saʿīd Mirza (and grandson of Miran Shah, who was himself son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan (and great-great grandson of Tughlugh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa I, who was the great-great-great grandson of Chaghatai Khan, the second-born son of Genghis Khan).BOOK, Babur, Babur Nama, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-400149-1, vii, Babur hailed from the Barlas tribe, which was of Mongol origin and had embraced TurkicWEB,weblink Bābur (Mughal emperor), Encyclopædia Britannica, 29 August 2016, and Persian culture. They had also converted to Islam centuries earlier and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Aside from the Chaghatai language, Babur was equally fluent in Persian, the lingua franca of the Timurid elite.WEB,weblink Iran: The Timurids and Turkmen, Encyclopædia Britannica, 29 August 2016, Hence, Babur, though nominally a Mongol (or Moghul in Persian language), drew much of his support from the local Turkic and Iranian people of Central Asia, and his army was diverse in its ethnic makeup. It included Persians (known to Babur as "Sarts" and "Tajiks"), ethnic Afghans, Arabs, as well as Barlas and Chaghatayid Turko-Mongols from Central Asia.BOOK, Central Asia in Historical Perspective, Manz, Beatrice Forbes, The Symbiosis of Turk and Tajik, Boulder, Colorado & Oxford, 1994, 58, 0-8133-3638-4,

Ruler of Central Asia

As ruler of Fergana

In 1494, eleven-year-old Babur became the ruler of Fergana, in present-day Uzbekistan, after Umar Sheikh Mirza died "while tending pigeons in an ill-constructed dovecote that toppled into the ravine below the palace".MAGAZINE, Babur, the first Moghul emperor: Wine and tulips in Kabul,weblink The Economist, 16 December 2010, 80–82, 12 June 2015, During this time, two of his uncles from the neighbouring kingdoms, who were hostile to his father, and a group of nobles who wanted his younger brother Jahangir to be the ruler, threatened his succession to the throne.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}} His uncles were relentless in their attempts to dislodge him from this position as well as from many of his other territorial possessions to come.BOOK, Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World, Lal, Ruby, 0-521-85022-3, 25 September 2005, 69, It was over these possessions, provinces controlled by uncles, or cousins of varying degrees, that Babur fought with close and distant relatives for much of his life., Babur was able to secure his throne mainly because of help from his maternal grandmother, Aisan Daulat Begum, although there was also some luck involved.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}}Most territories around his kingdom were ruled by his relatives, who were descendants of either Timur or Genghis Khan, and were constantly in conflict.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}} At that time, rival princes were fighting over the city of Samarkand to the west, which was ruled by his paternal cousin.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}} Babur had a great ambition to capture the city.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} In 1497, he besieged Samarkand for seven months before eventually gaining control over it.BOOK, Ewans, Martin, September 2002, Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics,weblink HarperCollins, 26–27, 0-06-050508-7, Babur, while still in his teens, conceived the ambition of conquering Samarkand. In 1497, after a seven months' siege, he took the city, but his supporters gradually deserted him and Ferghana was taken from him in his absence. Within a few months he was compelled to retire from Samarkand ... Eventually he retook Samarkand, but was again forced out, this time by an Usbek leader, Shaibani Khan ... Babur decided in 1504 to trek over the Hindu Kush to Kabul, where the current ruler promptly retreated to Kandahar and left him in undisputed control of the city., He was fifteen years old and for him the campaign was a huge achievement.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}} Babur was able to hold the city despite desertions in his army, but he later fell seriously ill.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}} Meanwhile, a rebellion back home, approximately {{convert|350|km|mi}} away, amongst nobles who favoured his brother, robbed him of Fergana. As he was marching to recover it, he lost Samarkand to a rival prince, leaving him with neither.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}} He had held Samarkand for 100 days, and he considered this defeat as his biggest loss, obsessing over it even later in his life after his conquests in India.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=18–20}}In 1501, Babur laid siege to Samarkand once more, but was soon defeated by his most formidable rival, Muhammad Shaybani, Khan of the Uzbeks.WEB,weblink After being driven out of Samarkand in 1501 by the Uzbek Shaibanids ..., The Memoirs of Babur, 8 November 2006, University of Washington, Silk Road Seattle, Samarkand, his lifelong obsession, was lost again. He tried to reclaim Fergana but lost it too and, escaping with a small band of followers, he wandered to the mountains of central Asia and took refuge with hill tribes. Thus, during the ten years since becoming the ruler of Fergana, Babur suffered many short-lived victories and was without shelter and in exile, aided by friends and peasants.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}} He finally stayed in Tashkent, which was ruled by his maternal uncle. Babur wrote, "During my stay in Tashkent, I endured much poverty and humiliation. No country, or hope of one!"{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}} For three years Babur concentrated on building a strong army, recruiting widely amongst the Tajiks of Badakhshan in particular. By 1502, he had resigned all hopes of recovering Fergana; he was left with nothing and was forced to try his luck someplace else.BOOK, Mahajan, V.D., History of medieval India, 2007, S Chand, New Delhi, 81-219-0364-5, 10th, 428–29,

At Kabul

File:Coin of Babur, as ruler of Kabul.jpg|thumb|right|Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of KabulKabulKabul was ruled by Babur's paternal uncle Ulugh Beg II, who died leaving only an infant as heir.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}} The city was then claimed by Mukin Begh, who was considered to be a usurper and was opposed by the local populace. In 1504, Babur was able to cross the snowy Hindu Kush mountains and capture Kabul from the remaining Arghunids, who were forced to retreat to Kandahar. With this move, he gained a new kingdom, re-established his fortunes and would remain its ruler until 1526. In 1505, because of the low revenue generated by his new mountain kingdom, Babur began his first expedition to Hindustan; in his memoirs, he wrote, "My desire for Hindustan had been constant. It was in the month of Shaban, the Sun being in Aquarius, that we rode out of Kabul for Hindustan". It was a brief raid across the Khyber Pass.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}}In the same year, Babur united with Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqarah of Herat, a fellow Timurid and distant relative, against their common enemy, the Uzbek Shaybani.BOOK, Perspectives on Persian Painting: Illustrations to Amir Khusrau's Khamsah, Brend, Barbara, 20 December 2002, 0-7007-1467-7, Routledge (UK), 188, However, this venture did not take place because Husayn Mirza died in 1506 and his two sons were reluctant to go to war.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}} Babur instead stayed at Herat after being invited by the two Mirza brothers. It was then the cultural capital of the eastern Muslim world. Though he was disgusted by the vices and luxuries of the city,{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} he marvelled at the intellectual abundance there, which he stated was "filled with learned and matched men".BOOK, The Sewing Circles of Herat: A Personal Voyage Through Afghanistan, Lamb, Christina, 153, 0-06-050527-3, HarperCollins, February 2004,weblink He became acquainted with the work of the Chagatai poet Mir Ali Shir Nava'i, who encouraged the use of Chagatai as a literary language. Nava'i's proficiency with the language, which he is credited with founding,BOOK, Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time, Hickmann, William C., 19 October 1992, 0-691-01078-1, 473, Eastern Turk Mir Ali Shir Neva'i (1441–1501), founder of the Chagatai literary language, may have influenced Babur in his decision to use it for his memoirs. He spent two months there before being forced to leave because of diminishing resources; it later was overrun by Shaybani and the Mirzas fled.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}}Babur became the only reigning ruler of the Timurid dynasty after the loss of Herat, and many princes sought refuge from him at Kabul because of Shaybani's invasion in the west.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} He thus assumed the title of Padshah (emperor) among the Timurids—though this title was insignificant since most of his ancestral lands were taken, Kabul itself was in danger and Shaybani continued to be a threat.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} Babur prevailed during a potential rebellion in Kabul, but two years later a revolt among some of his leading generals drove him out of Kabul. Escaping with very few companions, Babur soon returned to the city, capturing Kabul again and regaining the allegiance of the rebels. Meanwhile, Shaybani was defeated and killed by Ismail I, Shah of Shia Safavid Persia, in 1510.BOOK, Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Doniger, Wendy, 0-87779-044-2, September 1999, 539, Merriam-Webster,weblink Babur and the remaining Timurids used this opportunity to reconquer their ancestral territories. Over the following few years, Babur and Shah Ismail formed a partnership in an attempt to take over parts of Central Asia. In return for Ismail's assistance, Babur permitted the Safavids to act as a suzerain over him and his followers.BOOK, The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege in Vienna, Sicker, Martin, 0-275-96892-8, August 2000, 189, Ismail was quite prepared to lend his support to the displaced Timurid prince, Zahir ad-Din Babur, who offered to accept Safavid suzerainty in return for help in regaining control of Transoxiana., Thus, in 1513, after leaving his brother Nasir Mirza to rule Kabul, he managed to take Samarkand for the third time; he also took Bokhara but lost both again to the Uzbeks.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} Shah Ismail reunited Babur with his sister Khānzāda, who had been imprisoned by and forced to marry the recently deceased Shaybani.JOURNAL, Erdogan, Eralp, July 2014, Babür İmparatorluğu'nun Kuruluş Safhasında Şah İsmail ile Babür İttifakı,weblink Journal of History Studies, 6, 4, 31–39, tr, Babur returned to Kabul after three years in 1514. The following 11 years of his rule mainly involved dealing with relatively insignificant rebellions from Afghan tribes, his nobles and relatives, in addition to conducting raids across the eastern mountains.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} Babur began to modernise and train his army despite it being, for him, relatively peaceful times.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}}

Foreign relations

{{Mughal}}File:Meeting between Babur and Sultan 'Ali Mirza near Samarqand.jpg|thumb|upright|The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near SamarkandSamarkandThe Safavid army led by Najm-e Sani massacred civilians in Central Asia and then sought the assistance of Babur, who advised the Safavids to withdraw. The Safavids, however, refused and were defeated during the Battle of Ghazdewan by the warlord Ubaydullah Khan.BOOK, Stuart Cary Welch, The Emperors' Album: Images of Mughal India, Metroplitian Museum of Art, 978-0-87099-499-9, 33, Babur's early relations with the Ottomans were poor because the Ottoman Sultan Selim I provided his rival Ubaydullah Khan with powerful matchlocks and cannons. In 1507, when ordered to accept Selim I as his rightful suzerain, Babur refused and gathered Qizilbash servicemen in order to counter the forces of Ubaydullah Khan during the Battle of Ghazdewan. In 1513, Selim I reconciled with Babur (fearing that he would join the Safavids), dispatched Ustad Ali Quli the artilleryman and Mustafa Rumi the matchlock marksman, and many other Ottoman Turks, in order to assist Babur in his conquests; this particular assistance proved to be the basis of future Mughal-Ottoman relations.BOOK,weblink Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ..., Naimur Rahman, Farooqi, 2008, 25 March 2014, From them, he also adopted the tactic of using matchlocks and cannons in field (rather than only in sieges), which would give him an important advantage in India.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}}

Formation of the Mughal Empire

File:Babar 936.jpg|thumb|Babur's coin, based on Bahlol Lodhi's standard, Qila Agra, AHAHBabur still wanted to escape from the Uzbeks, and he chose what is nowadays Pakistan as a refuge instead of Badakhshan, which was to the north of Kabul. He wrote, "In the presence of such power and potency, we had to think of some place for ourselves and, at this crisis and in the crack of time there was, put a wider space between us and the strong foe-man."{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}} After his third loss of Samarkand, Babur gave full attention to the conquest of North Hindustan, launching a campaign; he reached the Chenab River, now in Pakistan, in 1519. Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfill the legacy of his ancestor Timur, since it used to be part of his empire.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}} At the time, parts of the north were under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim.BOOK, Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam, History of medieval India : from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D., 2002, Atlantic Publ., New Delhi, 81-269-0123-3, 89–90,weblink He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne, but the ambassador was detained at Lahore and released months later.Babur started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 but found that Daulat Khan Lodi had been driven out by forces sent by Ibrahim Lodi.Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, (Har-Anand, 2009), 27. When Babur arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and his army was routed. In response, Babur burned Lahore for two days, then marched to Dibalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi, as governor.{{harvtxt|Chandra|2009|p=27-8}} Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan Lodi, and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi.{{harvtxt|Chandra|2009|p=28}} He easily defeated and drove off Alam's army and Babur realised Lodi would not allow him to occupy the Punjab.

First battle of Panipat

File:1526-First Battle of Panipat-Ibrahim Lodhi and Babur.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)Battle of Panipat (1526)In November 1525 Babur got news at Peshawar that Daulat Khan Lodi had switched sides, and he drove out Ala-ud-Din.{{clarify|reason=who drove out Ala-ud-Din? Babur or Lodi?|date=June 2015}} Babur then marched onto Lahore to confront Daulat Khan Lodi, only to see Daulat's army melt away at their approach. Daulat surrendered and was pardoned. Thus within three weeks of crossing the Indus River Babur had become the master of Punjab.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}Babur marched on to Delhi via Sirhind. He reached Panipat on 20 April 1526 and there met Ibrahim Lodi's numerically superior army of about 100,000 soldiers and 100 elephants. In the battle that began on the following day, Babur used the tactic of Tulugma, encircling Ibrahim Lodi's army and forcing it to face artillery fire directly, as well as frightening its war elephants. Ibrahim Lodi died during the battle, thus ending the Lodi dynasty.Babur wrote in his memoirs about his victory:After the battle, Babur occupied Delhi and Agra, took the throne of Lodi, and laid the foundation for the eventual rise of Mughal rule in Hindustan. However, before he became the ruler, he had to fend off challengers, such as Rana Sanga.{{harvtxt|Mahajan|2007|p=438}}

Battle of Khanwa

File:Babur visiting the Urvah valley in Gwalior 1.jpg|thumb|upright|Babur and the Mughal army at the Urvah valley in GwaliorGwaliorThe Battle of Khanwa was fought between Babur and the Rajput ruler Rana Sanga on 17 March 1527. Rana Sanga wanted to overthrow Babur, whom he considered to be a foreigner, and also to extend the Rajput territories by annexing Delhi and Agra. He was supported by Afghan chiefs who felt Babur had been deceptive by refusing to fulfil promises made to them. Upon receiving news of Rana Sangha's advance towards Agra, Babur took a defensive position at Khanwa (currently in the Indian state of Rajasthan), from where he hoped to launch a counterattack later. According to K.V. Krishna Rao, Babur won the battle because of his "superior generalship" and modern tactics: the battle was one of the first in Hindustan that featured cannons. Rao also notes that Rana Sanga faced "treachery" when the Hindu chief Silhadi joined Babur's army with a garrison of 6,000 soldiers.BOOK, K. V. Krishna, Rao, Prepare Or Perish: A Study of National Security, 978-81-7212-001-6, Lancer Publishers, 453,

Battle of Chanderi

This battle took place in the aftermath of the Battle of Khanwa. On receiving news that Rana Sanga had made preparations to renew the conflict with him, Babur decided to isolate the Rana by inflicting a military defeat on one of his staunchest allies, Medini Rai, who was the ruler of Malwa.WEB, Lane-pool, Stanley,weblink Babar, 182-183, 1899, 12 June 2015, BOOK, Satish, Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206–1526), 2, Har-Anand Publications, 2006, {{page needed|date=March 2019}}Upon reaching Chanderi, on 20 January 1528, Babur offered Shamsabad to Medini Rao in exchange for Chanderi as a peace overture, but the offer was rejected. The outer fortress of Chanderi was taken by Babur's army at night, and the next morning the upper fort was captured. Babur himself expressed surprise that the upper fort had fallen within an hour of the final assault. Medini Rai organized a Jauhar ceremony during which women and children within the fortress immolated themselves. A small number of soldiers also collected in Medini Rao's house and proceeded to kill each other in collective suicide. This sacrifice does not seem to have impressed Babur who does not express a word of admiration for the enemy in his autobiography.

Personal life and relationships

There are no descriptions about Babur's physical appearance, except from the paintings in the translation of the Baburnama prepared during the reign of Akbar.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=21–23}} In his autobiography, Babur claimed to be strong and physically fit, and claimed to have swum across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River in North India.BOOK, Elliot, Henry Miers, John Dowson (ed.), The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians, The Muhammadan Period,weblinkpf?file=80201014&ct=56, 2 April 2008, 1867–1877, Trubner, London, ... and on the same journey, he swam twice across the Ganges, as he said he had done with every other river he had met with., Unlike his father, he had (:wikt:ascetic|ascetic) tendencies and did not have any great interest in women. In his first marriage, he was "bashful" towards Aisha Sultan Begum, later losing his affection for her.BOOK,, Memoirs of ZehÄ«r-ed-DÄ«n Muhammed Bābur Emperor of Hindustan, Written by himself, in the Chaghatāi TÅ«rki, Translated by John Leyden and William Erskine, Annotated and Revised by Lucas King, Oxford University Press, 1921, The Memoirs of Babur, Volume 1, chpt. 71,weblink Ä€isha Sultan Begum, the daughter of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, to whom I had been betrothed in the lifetime of my father and uncle, having arrived in Khujand, I now married her, in the month of Shābān. In the first period of my being a married man, though I had no small affection for her, yet, from modesty and bashfulness, I went to her only once in ten, fifteen, or twenty days. My affection afterwards declined, and my shyness increased; in so much, that my mother the Khanum, used to fall upon me and scold me with great fury, sending me off like a criminal to visit her once in a month or forty days., 2 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2008, yes, Babur showed similar shyness in his interactions with Baburi, a boy in his camp with whom he had an infatuation around this time, reccounting that: "Occasionally Baburi came to me, but I was so bashful that I could not look him in the face, much less converse freely with him. In my excitement and agitation I could not thank him for coming, much less complain of his leaving. Who could bear to demand the ceremonies of fealty?"{{harvtxt|Babur, Thackston|2002|p=89}} However, Babur acquired several more wives and concubines over the years, and as required for a prince, he was able to ensure the continuity of his line.File:Babur crossing the Indus in the heat of battle.jpg|thumb|upright|Babur crossing the Indus RiverIndus RiverBabur's first wife, Aisha Sultan Begum, was his paternal cousin, the daughter of Sultan Ahmad Mirza, his father's brother. She was an infant when betrothed to Babur, who was himself five years old. They married eleven years later, {{circa|1498–99}}. The couple had one daughter, Fakhr-un-Nissa, who died within a year in 1500. Three years later, after Babur's first defeat at Fergana, Aisha left him and returned to her father's household.BOOK, Babur Nama:Journal of Emperor Babur, Penguin, 362, 978-0-14-400149-1, Babur, 2006, Babur, Dilip Hiro, Dilip Hiro, Babur's wives and children, {{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}} In 1504, Babur married Zaynab Sultan Begum, who died childless within two years. In the period 1506–08, Babur married four women, Maham Begum (in 1506), Masuma Sultan Begum, Gulrukh Begum and Dildar Begum. Babur had four children by Maham Begum, of whom only one survived infancy. This was his eldest son and heir, Humayun. Masuma Sultan Begum died during childbirth; the year of her death is disputed (either 1508 or 1519). Gulrukh bore Babur two sons, Kamran and Askari, and Dildar Begum was the mother of Babur's youngest son, Hindal. Babur later married Mubaraka Yusufzai, a Pashtun woman of the Yusufzai tribe. Gulnar Aghacha and Nargul Aghacha were two Circassian slaves given to Babur as gifts by Tahmasp Shah Safavi, the Shah of Persia. They became "recognized ladies of the royal household."During his rule in Kabul, when there was a time of relative peace, Babur pursued his interests in literature, art, music and gardening.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=27–29}} Previously, he never drank alcohol and avoided it when he was in Herat. In Kabul, he first tasted it at the age of thirty. He then began to drink regularly, host wine parties and consume preparations made from opium.{{sfn|Eraly|2007|pp=24–26}} Though religion had a central place in his life, Babur also approvingly quoted a line of poetry by one of his contemporaries: "I am drunk, officer. Punish me when I am sober". He quit drinking for health reasons before the Battle of Khanwa, just two years before his death, and demanded that his court do the same. But he did not stop chewing narcotic preparations, and did not lose his sense of irony. He wrote, "Everyone regrets drinking and swears an oath (of abstinence); I swore the oath and regret that."Pope, Hugh (2005). Sons of the Conquerors, Overlook Duckworth, pp. 234–35.

Death and legacy

File:Babur and Humayun.jpg|upright|Babur and his heir thumbBabur died in Agra at the age of 47 on {{OldStyleDate|5 January|1531|26 December 1530}} and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. He was first buried in Agra but, as per his wishes, his mortal remains were moved to Kabul and reburied in Bagh-e Babur in Kabul sometime between 1539–1544.{{citation |last=Necipoğlu |first=Gülru |title=Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World |url= |year=1997 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=90-04-10872-6 |page=135}}{{harvtxt|Mahajan|2007|p=438}}File:Navoi Square (Formerly Bobur Square) - Where 2005 Massacre Took Place - Andijon - Uzbekistan (7544000842).jpg|thumb|Bobur SquareBobur SquareIt is generally agreed that, as a Timurid, Babur was not only significantly influenced by the Persian culture, but also that his empire gave rise to the expansion of the Persianate ethos in India.For example, F. Lehmann states in the Encyclopædia Iranica:}}Although all applications of modern Central Asian ethnicities to people of Babur's time are anachronistic, Soviet and Uzbek sources regard Babur as an ethnic Uzbek.ENCYCLOPEDIA
, A. M.
, Prokhorov
, Great Soviet Encyclopedia
, Babur
, 16 September 2013
, Russian
, 1969–1978
, Soviet Encyclopedia
, Moscow
, yes
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 16 September 2013
, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ibrohim, Muminov, Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia, Bobur, Uzbek, 1972, Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia, 2, Tashkent, 287–95, BOOK, Bobur, Zahiriddin Muhammad, Boburnoma, 1989, Yulduzcha, Tashkent, 3, Aʼzam Oʻktam, Uzbek, About This Edition, At the same time, during the Soviet Union Uzbek scholars were censored for idealising and praising Babur and other historical figures such as Ali-Shir Nava'i.BOOK, Soviet Central Asia, 1991, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 978-0-8133-7907-4, 147, William Fierman,weblink File:1842 tomb of Babur by Charles Masson.png|thumb|The tomb of the first Mughal Emperor Babur in 176x176pxBabur is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan.WEB,weblink Grandeur and Eternity: Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur in Minds of People Forever, Embassy of Uzbekistan in Korea., 22 February 2011, 14 February 2012, On 14 February 2008, stamps in his name were issued in the country to commemorate his 525th birth anniversary.WEB, The country's history on postage miniatures,weblink Uzbekistan Today, 12 June 2015, yes,weblink 14 June 2015, dmy, Many of Babur's poems have become popular Uzbek folk songs, especially by Sherali Jo'rayev.NEWS, Sherali Joʻrayev: We Haven't Stopped. We Still Exist,weblink 13 April 2007, BBC's Uzbek Service, Uzbek, 8 October 2013, Some sources claim that Babur is a national hero in Kyrgyzstan too.Dust in the Wind: Retracing Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western Pilgrimage by 經典雜誌編著, Zhihong Wang, p. 121 In October 2005, Pakistan developed the Babur Cruise Missile, named in his honour.One of the enduring features of Babur's life was that he left behind the lively and well-written autobiography known as Baburnama. Quoting Henry Beveridge, Stanley Lane-Poole writes:{{harvtxt|Lane-Poole|1899|p=12-3}}In his own words, "The cream of my testimony is this, do nothing against your brothers even though they may deserve it." Also, "The new year, the spring, the wine and the beloved are joyful. Babur make merry, for the world will not be there for you a second time."BOOK, Sen, Sailendra Nath, 2013, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, 151, 978-93-80607-34-4, File:Tombstone of Babur.JPG|thumb|Tombstone of Babur in Bagh-e Babur, Kabul, 177x177px

Babri Masjid

Babri Masjid ("Babur's Mosque") in Ayodhya, is said to have been constructed on the orders of Mir Baqy, one of the commanders of his army. In 2003, by the order of an Indian Court, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was asked to conduct a more indepth study and an excavation to ascertain the type of structure that was beneath the mosque.JOURNAL, Ratnagar, Shereen, April 2004, Archaeology at the Heart of a Political Confrontation: The Case of Ayodhya,weblink Current Anthropology, 45, 2, 239–59, 10.1086/381044, The excavation was conducted from 12 March 2003 to 7 August 2003, resulting in 1360 discoveries. The ASI submitted its report to the Allahabad high court.NEWS,weblink ASI submits report on Ayodhya excavation,, PTI, 22 August 2003, 20 June 2012, The summary of the ASI report indicated the presence of a 10th-century temple under the mosque.NEWS,weblink Suryamurthy, R, ASI findings may not resolve title dispute, The Tribune, 26 August 2003, weblink" title="">Prasannan, R. (7 September 2003) "Ayodhya: Layers of truth" The Week (India), from Web Archive The ASI team said that, human activity at the site dates back to the 13th century BCE. The next few layers date back to the Shunga period (second-first century BCE) and the Kushan period. During the early medieval period (11–12th century CE), a huge but short-lived structure of nearly 50 metres north-south orientation was constructed. On the remains of this structure, another massive structure was constructed: this structure had at least three structural phases and three successive floors attached with it. The report concluded that it was over the top of this construction that the disputed structure was constructed during the early 16th century.NEWS,weblink Proof of temple found at Ayodhya: ASI report,, PTI, 25 August 2003, 20 June 2012,


{{ahnentafelalign=center |boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, Mughal Emperor|2= 2. Umar Shaikh Mirza II, King of FerghanaEdward James Rapson, Sir Wolseley Haig, Sir Richard Burn, The Cambridge History of India Vol.IV (1937), p. 3|3= 3. Qutlugh Nigar Khanum Abu Sa'id Mirza, Timurid Dynasty>Timurid Sultan |5= 5. Shah Sultan BegumB. S. Chandrababu, L. Thilagavathi, Woman, Her History and Her Struggle for Emancipation (2009), p. 201|6= 6. Yunus Khan, Khan of Moghulistan|7= 7. Aisan Daulat BegumRama Shanker Avasthy, The Mughal Emperor Humayun (1967), p. 25|8= 8. Muhammad MirzaJohn E Woods, The Timurid Dynasty (1990), p. 35|9= 9. Shah Islam|10= |11= Uwais Khan, Khan of MoghulistanMORRIS ROSSABIURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=GXEJBQAAQBAJ&PG=PA48&LPG=PA48#V=ONEPAGE&Q&F=FALSEPUBLISHER=BRILLPAGES=48, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (2008), p. 65{{harvtxt>Lalp=107}}Dughlat, Rossp=86}}|15= }}




  • EB9, cs2, Baber, 3, {{harvid, EB, 1878, |page=179 }}
  • EB1911, cs2, Baber, 3, {{harvid, EB, 1911, |page=92 }}
  • {{citation |title=Cambridge History of India |volume=Vol. III & IV, |chapter='Turks and Afghan' and 'The Mughal Period' |location=Cambridge |year=1928}}
  • {{citation |first=Abraham |last=Eraly |authorlink=Abraham Eraly |title=Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls |url=|year=2007 |publisher=Penguin Books Limited |isbn=978-93-5118-093-7}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Alam, Muzaffar, Muzaffar Alam, Subrahmanyan, Sanjay, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 1998, The Mughal State, 1526–1750, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-563905-6,
  • Thackston Jr., W.M., The Baburnama, (New York) 2010.
  • BOOK, Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern South and Central Asia, London, I.B. Tauris, 2012, Lisa, Balabanlilar,
  • Gascoigne, Bamber The Great Moghuls (London) 1971. (Last revised 1987)
  • Gommans, Jos Mughal Warfare (London) 2002
  • Gordon, Stewart. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East" Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, 2008. {{ISBN|0-306-81556-7}}.
  • BOOK, Hasan, Mohibbul, Babur: Founder of the Mughal Empire in India, 1985, Manohar Publications, New Delhi,
  • Irvine, William The Army of the Indian Moghuls. (London) 1902. (Last revised 1985)
  • Jackson, Peter The Delhi Sultanate. A Political and Military History (Cambridge) 1999
  • Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire (Cambridge) 1993

External links

  • {{Gutenberg author | id=42838}}
  • {{Internet Archive author}}
  • {{worldcat id|lccn-n50-53659}}
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