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Qatar
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{{Other places}}{{pp-pc1}}{{Coord|25|30|N|51|15|E|type:country_region:QA|display=title}}{{EngvarB|date=June 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2018}}{{short description|Sovereign state in Western Asia}}







factoids
''{{translDawlat Qatar}}''| image_flag = Flag of Qatar.svg| image_coat = Emblem of Qatar.svg| symbol_type = Emblem| national_motto =As-Salam al-Amiri{{nbsp>2}}{{smalltransliteration)"Amiri Salute"}}(File:National anthem of Qatar.ogg>center)| image_map = QAT orthographic.svg| map_caption = Location and extent of Qatar (dark green) on the Arabian Peninsula.| image_map2 = Qatar - Location Map (2013) - QAT - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Doha25N31type:city}}| largest_city = capitalDemographics of Qatar>Qatari 88.4% non-Qatari| ethnic_groups_year = 2015| official_languages = ArabicEnglish Language>EnglishDemographics of Qatar>QatariHereditary monarchyHTTPS://MOFA.GOV.QA/EN/QATAR/HISTORY-OF-QATAR/GENERAL-INFORMATION, General Information, List of emirs of Qatar>EmirTamim bin Hamad Al Thani>Tamim bin HamadList of prime ministers of Qatar>Prime MinisterAbdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani>Abdullah bin NasserConsultative Assembly of Qatar>Consultative Assembly| established_event1 = Qatar National Day| established_date1 = 18 December 1878| established_event2 = Declared independence| established_date2 = 1 September 1971| established_event3 = Independence from the United Kingdom| established_date3 = 3 September 1971| area_km2 = 11,581| area_rank = 158th | area_sq_mi = 4,467.6| percent_water = 0.8PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND STATISTICS, 31 January 2017, PUBLISHER=QSA.GOV.QA URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=9 JULY 2010, | population_estimate_year = 2017| population_estimate_rank = 140th| population_census_year = 2010| population_census_rank = 148th| population_density_km2 = 176| population_density_sq_mi = 455 | population_density_rank = 76thARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180504102017/HTTP://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2018/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=68&PR.Y=12&SY=2017&EY=2018&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=453&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A=PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF), April 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 51st| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $128,702| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 1st| GDP_nominal = $183.807 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 56th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $66,202| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 6th| Gini = 41.1 | Gini_year = 2007| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK ACCESSDATE=22 JANUARY 2013, | Gini_rank =| HDI = 0.856 | HDI_year = 2018| HDI_change = increaseYEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 37thQatari riyal>Riyal| currency_code = QARArabia Standard Time>AST| utc_offset = +3| utc_offset_DST =| time_zone_DST =ACCESSDATE=5 JUNE 2017, | calling_code = +974.qa |قطر.}}| conventional_short_name =| religion = Islam}}Qatar ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|t|ɑːr}},Pronunciation adopted by Qatar Airways' advertisements, such as Qatar Airways: the Art of Flight Redefined {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Qatar.ogg|ˈ|k|ɑː|t|ɑːr}}, {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɑː|t|ər}} or {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Qatar-2.ogg|k|ə|ˈ|t|ɑːr}};WEB,weblink CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, CS, 28 March 2010, {{transl|ar|Qaṭar}} {{IPA-ar|ˈqɑtˤɑr|}}; local vernacular pronunciation: {{IPA-ar|ˈɡɪtˤɑr|}}),WEB,weblink Encyclopaedia of Islam, Johnstone, T. M., Ķaṭar, 2008, Brill Online, 22 January 2013, {{Subscription required|date=January 2013}}NEWS,weblink How do you say 'Qatar'? Senate hearing has the answer, Washington Post, 12 June 2014, 12 March 2015, officially the State of Qatar ( {{transl|ar|Dawlat Qaṭar}}), is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed.BBC News, How democratic is the Middle East?, 9 September 2005.United States Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011: Qatar, 2011.WEB,weblink US State Dept's Country Political Profile – Qatar, NEWS, Gardener, David,weblink Qatar shows how to manage a modern monarchy, Financial Times, NEWS,weblink The World Factbook, CIA Factbook, NEWS,weblink Canada – Qatar Bilateral Relations, Government of Canada, Its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain.In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates.WEB,weblink Population of Qatar by nationality – 2017 report, 7 February 2017, Islam is the official religion of Qatar.WEB, The Constitution,weblink 29 October 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041024231923weblink">weblink 24 October 2004, The country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of very high human development and is widely regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development.WEB,weblink Qatar human development, Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130112042847weblink">weblink 12 January 2013, Indices & Data | Human Development Reports, United Nations Development Programme, 14 March 2013, 27 June 2013, Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status. Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.WEB,weblink IFES Election Guide – Elections: Qatar Referendum Apr 29 2003, www.electionguide.org, 5 June 2017, WEB,weblink Qatar 2003, www.princeton.edu, 5 June 2017,weblink 10 October 2017, dead, dmy-all, In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, and reportedly supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring.NEWS, Dagher, Sam,weblink Tiny Kingdom's Huge Role in Libya Draws Concern, Online.wsj.com, 17 October 2011, 30 December 2013, WEB,weblink Qatar: Rise of an Underdog, Politicsandpolicy.org, 30 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170610115944weblink">weblink 10 June 2017, dead, WEB, Ian Black in Tripoli,weblink Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels, Theguardian.com, 30 December 2013, For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, and has been identified as a middle power.WEB,weblink Middle Powers: Squeezed out or Adaptive?, Public Diplomacy Magazine, Cooper, Andrew F., 12 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317144416weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Mediation and Qatari Foreign Policy, Kamrava, Mehran, 12 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131007183501weblink">weblink 7 October 2013, Qatar is currently the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain, and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has also proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border, effectively turning Qatar into an island.

Etymology

Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.BOOK, Casey, Paula, Vine, Peter, The heritage of Qatar, Immel Publishing, 1992, 17, WEB,weblink History of Qatar, Qatar Statistics Authority, 11 May 2015, A century later, Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara.WEB,weblink Maps, Qatar National Library, 11 May 2015, The map also referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula. The term 'Catara' (inhabitants, Cataraei)BOOK, Hazlitt, William, The Classical Gazetteer: A Dictionary of Ancient Geography, Sacred and Profane,weblink Whittaker & co., 1851, was exclusively used until the 18th century, after which 'Katara' emerged as the most commonly recognised spelling.WEB,weblink About us, Katara, 11 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150722071207weblink">weblink 22 July 2015, Eventually, after several variations - 'Katr', 'Kattar' and 'Guttur' - the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name.BOOK, Rahman, Habibur, The Emergence of Qatar: The Turbulent Years 1627-1916, 2010, Routledge, London, 9780710312136, 1, In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced {{IPA-ar|ˈqɑtˤɑr|}}, while in the local dialect it is {{IPA-ar|ˈɡitˤar|}}.

History

Antiquity

File:Excavated site on Al Khor Island.jpg|thumb|Excavation of a Kassite dye site on Al Khor IslandAl Khor IslandHuman habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula.Toth, Anthony. "Qatar: Historical Background." A Country Study: Qatar (Helen Chapin Metz, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 1993). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period (c. 6500–3800 BC) have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements.BOOK, Khalifa, Haya, Rice, Michael, Bahrain Through the Ages: The Archaeology,weblink Routledge, 978-0710301123, 1986, 79, 215, Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment.WEB,weblink History of Qatar, www.qatarembassy.or.th, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Qatar. London: Stacey International, 2000, 9 January 2015, BOOK, Rice, Michael, Archaeology of the Persian Gulf,weblink Routledge, 978-0415032681, 206, 232–233, 1994, Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.BOOK, Magee, Peter, The Archaeology of Prehistoric Arabia,weblink Cambridge Press, 2014, 50, 178, 9780521862318, Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast.BOOK, Sterman, Baruch, Rarest Blue: The Remarkable Story Of An Ancient Color Lost To History And Rediscovered,weblink Lyons Press, 2012, 21–22, 978-0762782222, In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf.BOOK, Cadène, Philippe, Atlas of the Gulf States,weblink BRILL, 2013, 978-9004245600, 10, Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye.WEB,weblink Qatar – Early history, globalsecurity.org, 17 January 2015, Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians.BOOK, Gillman, Ian, Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim, Christians in Asia Before 1500,weblink University of Michigan Press, 87, 121, 1999, 978-0472110407, Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era.BOOK, Commins, David, The Gulf States: A Modern History,weblink I. B. Tauris, 16, 2012, 978-1848852785, Habibur Rahman, p. 33 During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as 'Beth Qatraye' (Syriac for "house of the Qataris").WEB,weblink AUB academics awarded $850,000 grant for project on the Syriac writers of Qatar in the 7th century AD, American University of Beirut, 31 May 2011, 12 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150528053210weblink">weblink 28 May 2015, The region was not limited to Qatar; it also included Bahrain, Tarout Island, Al-Khatt, and Al-Hasa.BOOK, Kozah, Mario, Abu-Husayn, Abdulrahim, Al-Murikhi, Saif Shaheen, The Syriac Writers of Qatar in the Seventh Century, Gorgias Press LLC, 2014, 24, 978-1463203559, In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, and accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.WEB,weblink Bahrain, maritimeheritage.org, 17 January 2015, {{better source|date=June 2017}} After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs{{which|date=June 2017}} led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire.BOOK, Allen James Fromherz, Fromherz, Allen, 13 April 2012, Qatar: A Modern History, Georgetown University Press, 44, 60, 98, 978-1-58901-910-2,

Early and late Islamic period (661–1783)

File:Abbasids850.png|thumb|Abbasid CaliphateAbbasid CaliphateQatar was described as a famous horse and camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period.BOOK, Rahman, Habibur, The Emergence Of Qatar, Routledge, 2006, 34, 978-0710312136, In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading.BOOK, A political chronology of the Middle East,weblink Routledge / Europa Publications, 2001, 192, 978-1857431155, BOOK, Page, Kogan, Middle East Review 2003–04: The Economic and Business Report,weblink Kogan Page Ltd, 169, 2004, 978-0749440664, Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, and an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period.BOOK, Qatar, 2012 (The Report: Qatar),weblink Oxford Business Group, 2012, 233, 978-1907065682, BOOK, Casey, Paula, Vine, Peter, The heritage of Qatar, Immel Publishing, 1992, 184–185, When the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar.BOOK, Russell, Malcolm, The Middle East and South Asia 2014,weblink Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 151, 2014, 978-1475812350, Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine striped woven cloaks and their skills in improvement and finishing of spears.WEB,weblink History, qatarembassy.net, 18 January 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150217204727weblink">weblink 17 February 2015, Much of Eastern Arabia was controlled by the Usfurids in 1253, but control of the region was seized by the prince of Ormus in 1320.BOOK, Larsen, Curtis, Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society (Prehistoric Archeology and Ecology series),weblink University of Chicago Press, 1984, 978-0226469065, 54, Qatar's pearls provided the kingdom with one of its main sources of income.BOOK, Althani, Mohamed, Jassim the Leader: Founder of Qatar,weblink Profile Books, 2013, 16, 978-1781250709, In 1515, Manuel I of Portugal vassalised the Kingdom of Ormus. Portugal went on to seize a significant portion of Eastern Arabia in 1521.BOOK, Gillespie, Carol Ann, Bahrain (Modern World Nations),weblink Chelsea House Publications, 2002, 31, 978-0791067796, In 1550, the inhabitants of Al-Hasa voluntarily submitted to the rule of the Ottomans, preferring them to the Portuguese.BOOK, Anscombe, Frederick, The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar,weblink Columbia University Press, 1997, 12, 978-0231108393, Having retained a negligible military presence in the area, the Ottomans were expelled by the Bani Khalid tribe in 1670.BOOK, Potter, Lawrence, The Persian Gulf in History,weblink Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 262, 978-0230612822,

Bahraini and Saudi rule (1783–1868)

File:Map of Catura (Qatar) 1794 (cropped).jpg|thumb|A 1794 map depicting Catura in the Historical region of BahrainHistorical region of BahrainIn 1766, the Utub tribe of Al Khalifa migrated from Kuwait to Zubarah in Qatar.BOOK, Heard-Bey, Frauke, From Tribe to State. The Transformation of Political Structure in Five States of the GCC,weblink 39, 978-88-8311-602-5, 2008, 'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [1000] (1155/1782), p. 1001 By the time of their arrival, the Bani Khalid exercised weak authority over the peninsula, not withholding that the largest village was ruled by a distant kin of the Bani Khalid.BOOK, Crystal, Jill, Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar,weblink Cambridge University Press, 1995, 27, 978-0521466356, In 1783, Qatar-based Bani Utbah clans and allied Arab tribes invaded and annexed Bahrain from the Persians. The Al Khalifa imposed their authority over Bahrain and extended their area of jurisdiction to Qatar.File:Qatar, Zubarah (10), ruined city.JPG|thumb|A partially restored section of the ruined town of ZubarahZubarahFollowing the swearing in of Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz as crown prince of the Wahhabi in 1788, he moved to expand his empire eastward towards the Persian Gulf and Qatar. After defeating the Bani Khalid in 1795, the Wahhabi were attacked on two fronts. The Ottomans and Egyptians assaulted the western front, while the Al Khalifa in Bahrain and the Omanis launched an attack against the eastern front.BOOK, Casey, Michael S., The History of Kuwait (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations),weblink Greenwood, 37–38, 2007, 978-0313340734, WEB,weblink 'Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf. Vol I. Historical. Part IA & IB. J G Lorimer. 1915' [843] (998/1782), qdl.qa, 13 January 2014, Upon being made aware of advancements by the Egyptians on the western frontier in 1811, the Wahhabi amir reduced his garrisons in Bahrain and Zubarah in order to re-position his troops. Said bin Sultan of Muscat capitalised on this opportunity and raided the Wahhabi garrisons on the eastern coast, setting fire to the fort in Zubarah. The Al Khalifa were effectively returned to power thereafter.As punishment for piracy, an East India Company vessel bombarded Doha in 1821, destroying the town and forcing hundreds of residents to flee. In 1825, the House of Thani was established with Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani as the first leader.WEB,weblink Qatar, Teachmideast.org, 27 June 2013, Although Qatar had the legal status of a dependency, there was a popular sentiment of resentment against the Al Khalifa. In 1867, the Al Khalifa, along with the ruler of Abu Dhabi, sent a massive naval force to Al Wakrah in an effort to crush the Qatari rebels. This resulted in the maritime Qatari–Bahraini War of 1867–1868, in which Bahraini and Abu Dhabi forces sacked and looted Doha and Al Wakrah.BOOK, Katar'da Osmanlilar 1871–1916, Kursun, Zekeriya, Turk Tarih Kurumu, 2004, The Bahraini hostilities were in violation of the 1820 Anglo-Bahraini Treaty. The joint incursion, however, in addition to the Qatari counter-attack, prompted British political agent Lewis Pelly to impose a settlement in 1868. His mission to Bahrain and Qatar and the resulting peace treaty were milestones because they implicitly recognised the distinctness of Qatar from Bahrain and explicitly acknowledged the position of Mohammed bin Thani. In addition to censuring Bahrain for its breach of agreement, the British protectorate asked to negotiate with a representative from Qatar, a role which Mohammed bin Thani was selected to fulfil. The results of the negotiations left the nation with a new-found sense of political identity, although it did not gain an official standing as a protectorate until 1916.

The Ottoman period (1871–1915)

File:Qatar in Stielers Handatlas 1891 59.JPG|thumb|Qatar in an 1891 Adolf StielerAdolf Stieler(File:Olddoha2-771x410.jpg|thumb|left|Old city of Doha, January 1904.)Under military and political pressure from the governor of the Ottoman Vilayet of Baghdad, Midhat Pasha, the ruling Al Thani tribe submitted to Ottoman rule in 1871.JOURNAL, Rogan, Eugene, November 1999, Review of The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar by Frederick F. Anscombe; The Blood-Red Arab Flag: An Investigation into Qasimi Piracy, 1797–1820 by Charles E. Davies; The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia and the Gulf, 1745–1900 by Hala Fattah, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 26, 2, 339–342, 195948, 10.1080/13530199908705688, Murphey, Rhoads, Masalha, Nur, Durac, Vincent, Hinnebusch, Raymond, The Ottoman government imposed reformist (Tanzimat) measures concerning taxation and land registration to fully integrate these areas into the empire. Despite the disapproval of local tribes, Al Thani continued supporting Ottoman rule. Qatari-Ottoman relations, however, soon stagnated, and in 1882 they suffered further setbacks when the Ottomans refused to aid Al Thani in his expedition of Abu Dhabi-occupied Khawr al Udayd. In addition, the Ottomans supported the Ottoman subject Mohammed bin Abdul Wahab who attempted to supplant Al Thani as kaymakam of Qatar in 1888.Habibur Rahman, pgs.143–144 This eventually led Al Thani to rebel against the Ottomans, whom he believed were seeking to usurp control of the peninsula. He resigned as kaymakam and stopped paying taxes in August 1892.Habibur Rahman, pgs.150–151In February 1893, Mehmed Hafiz Pasha arrived in Qatar in the interests of seeking unpaid taxes and accosting Jassim bin Mohammed's opposition to proposed Ottoman administrative reforms. Fearing that he would face death or imprisonment, Jassim retreated to Al Wajbah (10 miles west of Doha), accompanied by several tribe members. Mehmed's demand that Jassim disband his troops and pledge his loyalty to the Ottomans was met with refusal. In March, Mehmed imprisoned Jassim's brother and 13 prominent Qatari tribal leaders on the Ottoman corvette Merrikh as punishment for his insubordination. After Mehmed declined an offer to release the captives for a fee of 10,000 liras, he ordered a column of approximately 200 troops to advance towards Jassim's Al Wajbah Fort under the command of Yusuf Effendi, thus signalling the start of the Battle of Al Wajbah.Effendi's troops came under heavy gunfire by a sizable troop of Qatari infantry and cavalry shortly after arriving to Al Wajbah. They retreated to Shebaka fortress, where they were again forced to draw back from a Qatari incursion. After they withdrew to Al Bidda fortress, Jassim's advancing column besieged the fortress, resulting in the Ottomans' concession of defeat and agreement to relinquish their captives in return for the safe passage of Mehmed Pasha's cavalry to Hofuf by land.Habibur Rahman, p. 152 Although Qatar did not gain full independence from the Ottoman Empire, the result of the battle forced a treaty that would later form the basis of Qatar's emerging as an autonomous country within the empire.WEB,weblink Battle of Al Wajbah, Qatar Visitor, 2 June 2007, 22 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117024415weblink">weblink 17 January 2013,

British period (1916–1971)

File:Al Zubarah (6989829695).jpg|thumb|left|Zubarah FortZubarah FortBy the Anglo-Turkish Convention of 1913, the Ottomans agreed to renounce their claim to Qatar and withdraw their garrison from Doha. However, with the outbreak World War I, nothing was done to carry this out and the garrison remained in the fort at Doha, although its numbers dwindled as men deserted. In 1915, with the presence of British gunboats in the harbour, Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (who was pro-British) persuaded the remainder to abandon the fort and, when British troops approached the following morning, they found it deserted.WEB, Amiri Diwan – Shaikh Abdullah Bin Jassim Al Thani,weblink Diwan.gov.qa, 28 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120210053313weblink">weblink 10 February 2012, BOOK, Zahlan, Rosemarie Said, The Creation of Qatar, 1979, Croom Helm, Abingdon, 978-1-138-18167-0, 74, 27 May 2019,weblink Qatar became a British protectorate on 3 November 1916, when the United Kingdom signed a treaty with Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani to bring Qatar under its Trucial System of Administration. While Abdullah agreed not to enter into any relations with any other power without prior consent of the British government, the latter guaranteed the protection of Qatar from aggression by sea and provide its 'good offices' in the event of an attack by land - this latter undertaking was left deliberately vague.BOOK, Zahlan, Rosemarie Said, The Creation of Qatar, 1979, Croom Helm, Abingdon, 978-1-138-18167-0, 73–85, 27 May 2019,weblink On 5 May 1935, while agreeing an oil concession with the British oil company, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, Abdullah signed another treaty with the British government which granted Qatar protection against internal and external threats. Oil reserves were first discovered in 1939. Exploitation and development were, however, delayed by World War II.BOOK, Morton, Michael Quentin, Empires and Anarchies: A History of Oil in the Middle East, 2017, Reaktion Books, London, 978-1-78023-810-4, 139–140, 27 May 2019,weblink File:British stamp overprinted for use in Qatar 1 April 1957.jpg|right|thumb|upright|A British Wilding seriesWilding seriesThe focus of British interests in Qatar changed after the Second World War with the independence of India, the creation of Pakistan in 1947 and the development of oil in Qatar. In 1949, the appointent of the first British political officer in Doha, John Wilton, signifed a strengthening of Anglo-Qatari relations.Wilton, John, unpublished memoir, ‘Qatar and Sharjah, 1949–1952’, Special Collections, University of Exeter Library, Exeter. Oil exports began in 1949, and oil revenues became the country's main source of revenue, the pearl trade having gone into decline. These revenues were used to fund the expansion and modernisation of Qatar's infrastructure. When Britain officially announced in 1968 that it would withdraw from the Persian Gulf in three years' time, Qatar joined talks with Bahrain and seven other Trucial States to create a federation. Regional disputes, however, persuaded Qatar and Bahrain to withdraw from the talks and become independent states separate from the Trucial States, which went on to become the United Arab Emirates.

Independence and aftermath (1971–present)

On 3 November 1916, the sheikh of Qatar entered into treaty relations with the United Kingdom.BOOK, Said Zahlan, Rosemarie, The Creation of Qatar, 1979, Croom Helm, Abingdon, 0-06-497965-2, 144, The treaty reserved foreign affairs and defence to the United Kingdom but allowed internal autonomy. On 3 September 1971, those "special treaty arrangements" that were "inconsistent with full international responsibility as a sovereign and independent state" were terminated.Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Kuwait regarding relations between the United ... Exchange of Notes concerning the Termination of Special Treaty Relations ... Northern Ireland and the State of Qatar, 3 September 1971 This was done under an agreement reached between the Ruler of Qatar and the Government of the United Kingdom.A Treaty of Friendship and an Exchange of Notes, each entered into on 3 September 1971File:Corniche Doha Qatar.jpg|thumb|left|Traditional dhows in front of the West Bay skyline as seen from the Doha CornicheDoha CornicheIn 1991, Qatar played a significant role in the Gulf War, particularly during the Battle of Khafji in which Qatari tanks rolled through the streets of the town and provided fire support for Saudi Arabian National Guard units that were engaging Iraqi Army troops. Qatar allowed coalition troops from Canada to use the country as an airbase to launch aircraft on CAP duty and also permitted air forces from the United States and France to operate in its territories.In 1995, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani seized control of the country from his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, with the support of the armed forces and cabinet, as well as neighbouring statesNEWS, New Qatari emir Sheikh Tamim 'set to announce reshuffle',weblink BBC News, 26 June 2013, 26 June 2013, and France.nouvelobs.com: "Qatar : "S'ils pouvaient, ils achèteraient la Tour Eiffel", 7 April 2013 Under Emir Hamad, Qatar has experienced a moderate degree of liberalisation, including the launch of the Al Jazeera television station (1996), the endorsement of women's suffrage or right to vote in municipal elections (1999), drafting its first written constitution (2005) and inauguration of a Roman Catholic church (2008). In 2010, Qatar won the rights to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, making it the first country in the Middle East to be selected to host the tournament. The Emir announced Qatar's plans to hold its first national legislative elections in 2013. They were scheduled to be held in the second half of 2013, but were postponed in June 2013 and may be delayed until 2019. The legislative council will also host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly for the first time in April 2019.WEB,weblink 140th Assembly and related meetings, 2018-01-04, Inter-Parliamentary Union, en, 2019-03-31, In 2003, Qatar served as the US Central Command headquarters and one of the main launching sites of the invasion of Iraq.WEB,weblink Qatar (01/10), State.gov, 28 March 2010, In March 2005, a suicide bombing killed a British teacher at the Doha Players Theatre, shocking the country, which had not previously experienced acts of terrorism. The bombing was carried out by Omar Ahmed Abdullah Ali, an Egyptian resident in Qatar who had suspected ties to Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.NEWS, Coman, Julian, Egyptian Suicide Bomber Blamed for Attack in Qatar, The Independent, 21 March 2005, NEWS,weblink The Advent of Terrorism in Qatar, 25 March 2005, Forbes, Oxford, Analytica, In 2011, Qatar joined NATO operations in Libya and reportedly armed Libyan opposition groups.NEWS,weblink Qatar Timeline, BBC News, 14 June 2012, 7 January 2013, It is also currently a major funder of weapons for rebel groups in the Syrian civil war.NEWS,weblink Qatar bankrolls Syrian revolt with cash and arms, Roula Khalaf, Abigail Fielding Smith, yes, Financial Times, 16 May 2013, 3 June 2013, Qatar is pursuing an Afghan peace deal and in January 2012 the Afghan Taliban said they were setting up a political office in Qatar to facilitate talks. This was done in order to facilitate peace negotiations and with the support of other countries including the United States and Afghanistan. Ahmed Rashid, writing in the Financial Times, stated that through the office Qatar has "facilitated meetings between the Taliban and many countries and organisations, including the US state department, the UN, Japan, several European governments and non-governmental organisations, all of whom have been trying to push forward the idea of peace talks. Suggestions in September 2017 by the presidents of both the United States and Afghanistan have reportedly led to protests from senior officials of the American State Department.NEWS, Ahmed Rashid, Ahmed, Why closing the Taliban's Qatar office would be an erro,weblink 30 October 2017, Financial Times, 4 October 2017, In June 2013, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar after his father handed over power in a televised speech.NEWS, In Surprise, Emir of Qatar Plans to Abdicate, Handing Power to Son,weblink 26 June 2013, NYTimes.com, Rod, Nordland, 24 June 2013, Sheikh Tamim has prioritised improving the domestic welfare of citizens, which includes establishing advanced healthcare and education systems, and expanding the country's infrastructure in preparation for the hosting of the 2022 World Cup.NEWS,weblink The World factbook, CIA.Gov, 20 June 2014, 20 June 2014, Qatar participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings."Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region". CNN. 27 March 2015.The increased influence of Qatar and its role during the Arab Spring, especially during the Bahraini uprising in 2011, worsened longstanding tensions with Saudi Arabia, the neighboring United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Bahrain.{{citation needed|date=September 2018}} In June 2017, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain cut off diplomatic relations with Qatar, citing the country's alleged support of groups they considered to be extremist.WEB, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain break diplomatic ties with Qatar over 'terrorism',weblink The Guardian, The Guardian, 5 June 2017, This has resulted in increased Qatari economic and military ties with Turkey and Iran.Qatar is expected to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup from 21 November to 18 December, becoming the first Arab country to do so.WEB, Paul Rhys in Doha,weblink Blatter reaches out to Arabia, Aljazeera.com, 30 December 2013,

Politics

File:Donald Trump meets with the Emir of Qatar (Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani), May 2017.jpg|thumb|Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani with U.S. President Donald TrumpDonald TrumpQatar is either a constitutional or an absolute monarchy ruled by the Al Thani family.NEWS,weblink BBC NEWS – Middle East – How democratic is the Middle East?, news.bbc.co.uk, 5 June 2017, WEB,weblink Documents, www.state.gov, The Al Thani dynasty has been ruling Qatar since the family house was established in 1825. In 2003, Qatar adopted a constitution that provided for the direct election of 30 of the 45 members of the Legislative Council.JOURNAL, Jennifer, Lambert, 2011, Political Reform in Qatar: Participation, Legitimacy and Security,weblink Middle East Policy Council, 19, 1, NEWS, Qatar to hold advisory council elections in 2013,weblink 1 November 2011, Reuters, Reuters (UK edition), 4 March 2012, The constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with almost 98% in favour.The eighth Emir of Qatar is Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, whose father Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani handed power to him on 25 June 2013.NEWS, Qatari emir Sheikh Hamad hands power to son Tamim,weblink 25 June 2013, BBC, 25 June 2013, The Emir has the exclusive power to appoint and remove the prime minister and cabinet ministers who, together, constitute the Council of Ministers, which is the supreme executive authority in the country.WEB, Council of Ministers,weblink Embassy of the State of Qatar in Washington DC, 4 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100612090451weblink">weblink 12 June 2010, The Council of Ministers also initiates legislation. Laws and decrees proposed by the Council of Ministers are referred to the Advisory Council (Majilis Al Shura) for discussion after which they are submitted to the Emir for ratification. A Consultative Assembly has limited legislative authority to draft and approve laws, but the Emir has final say on all matters. The current Council is composed entirely of members appointed by the Emir, as no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body. Legislative elections have been postponed until at least 2019.NEWS,weblink Legislative elections in Qatar postponed until at least 2019, 17 June 2016, Doha News, 26 May 2017, en-US, The Council will also host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly for the first time, in April 2019.Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions.WEB, The People Want Reform… In Qatar, Too., Jadaliyya,weblink

Sharia law

{{See also|Human rights in Qatar}}According to Qatar's Constitution, Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation,WEB, The Permanent Constitution of the State of Qatar,weblink Government of Qatar, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006075128weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, WEB, Constitution of Qatar,weblink According to Article 1: Qatar is an independent Arab country. Islam is its religion and Sharia law is the main source of its legislation., although in practice, Qatar's legal system is a mixture of civil law and Sharia law.WEB, The World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency,weblink WEB,weblink Qatar, US Department of State, Sharia law is applied to family law, inheritance, and several criminal acts (including adultery, robbery and murder). In some cases, Sharia-based family courts treat a female's testimony as being worth half that of a man.WEB, Qatar Gender Equality Profile,weblink UNICEF, Codified family law was introduced in 2006. Islamic polygyny is permitted.Judicial corporal punishment is common in Qatar due to the Wahhabi interpretation of Sharia Law, although in Qatar it had originally been a Hanbali school of mainstream Sunnism. Flogging is employed as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. Article 88 of Qatar's criminal code declares that the penalty for adultery is 100 lashes, and in 2006, a Filipino woman received that punishment.WEB, Filipino woman gets 100 lashes for giving birth in Qatar,weblink In 2010, at least 18 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to receive between 40 and 100 lashes for offences involving "illicit sexual relations" or alcohol consumption.WEB, Qatar,weblink Amnesty International, In 2011, at least 21 people (mostly foreign nationals) were sentenced to between 30 and 100 lashes for the same reasons,WEB, Qatar,weblink Amnesty International, and in 2012, six expatriates were sentenced to either 40 or 100 lashes.WEB, Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 – Qatar,weblink Amnesty International, 19 March 2014, Only Muslims considered medically fit are liable to have such sentences carried out. In April 2013, a Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for alcohol consumption,MAGAZINE, Qatar sentences man to 40 lashes for drinking alcohol,weblink Arabian Business, WEB, Qatar sentences man to lashes for drinking alcohol,weblink Al Akhbar, WEB, Qatar court orders lashing of Muslim barber over drinking alcohol,weblink Al Arabiya, and in June 2014, a Muslim expatriate was sentenced to 40 lashes for consuming alcohol and driving under the influence.MAGAZINE, Indian expat sentenced to 40 lashes in Qatar for drink-driving,weblink Arabian Business, Stoning is a legal punishment in Qatar,NEWS, Special report: The punishment was death by stoning. The crime? Having a mobile phone,weblink and apostasy and homosexuality are crimes punishable by the death penalty, however the death penalty hasn't been carried out for either.NEWS, Jenifer Fenton,weblink Religious law, prison for "blasphemy", severe sexual inequalilty: Qatar's human rights review, WEB, What are the worst countries in the world to be gay?,weblink Blasphemy can result in up to seven years in prison, while proselytising can incur a 10-year sentence.WEB,weblink General Laws and Regulations in Qatar, OnlineQatar, Davies Krish, 9 April 2019, Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim customers.NEWS, Alex Delmar-Morgan,weblink Qatar, Unveiling Tensions, Suspends Sale of Alcohol, Wall Street Journal, 7 January 2012, 17 January 2012, NEWS, Jenifer Fenton,weblink Qatar's Impromptu Alcohol Ban, The Arabist, 16 January 2012, 17 January 2012, Muslims are not allowed to consume alcohol, and those caught consuming it are liable to flogging or deportation. Non-Muslim expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal consumption. The Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of Qatar Airways) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders of liquor licences.WEB, Qatar Distribution Company,weblink Qatar Loving, WEB,weblink Purchasing Alcohol in Qatar, Qatar Visitor, 2 June 2007, 1 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110501044507weblink">weblink 1 May 2011, Qatari officials have also indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup.NEWS, Qatar would 'welcome' Israel in 2022, Tamara, Walid,weblink The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, 11 November 2009, 10 August 2013, Until 2011, restaurants on the Pearl-Qatar (a man-made island near Doha) were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks. In December 2011, however, Pearl restaurants were told to stop selling alcohol.NEWS, James M. Dorsey,weblink Debate Questions Emir's Powers To Shape Qatar's Positioning As Sports Hub And Sponsor of Revolts – Analysis, The Eurasia Review, 17 January 2012, 17 January 2012, No explanation was given for the ban, though speculation included encouraging a more pious image before a significant election and rumours of a financial dispute between the government and resort developers. The alcohol ban was later lifted.NEWS,weblink Alcohol ban lifted for new hotel on The Pearl-Qatar, Arabian Business, 19 June 2017, en, In 2014, a modesty campaign was launched to remind tourists of the country's restrictive dress code.NEWS, Elgot, Jessica, 'Leggings Are Not Pants' Qatar's New Modesty Campaign Aimed At Westerners',weblink Huffington Post, 28 May 2014, Female tourists were advised not to wear leggings, miniskirts, sleeveless dresses, or short or tight clothing in public. Men were warned against wearing only shorts and singlets.WEB,weblink Qatar Bans Tourists from Wearing Leggings in Public, Aningtias Jatmika, 29 May 2014,

Human rights

(File:Migrant workers in West Bay Doha.jpg|thumb|Migrant workers in Doha.)According to the U.S. State Department, expatriate workers from nations throughout Asia and parts of Africa voluntarily migrate to Qatar as low-skilled labourers or domestic servants, but some subsequently face conditions indicative of involuntary servitude. Some of the more common labour rights violations include beatings, withholding of payment, charging workers for benefits for which the employer is responsible, restrictions on freedom of movement (such as the confiscation of passports, travel documents, or exit permits), arbitrary detention, threats of legal action, and sexual assault.BOOK, Human Trafficking Report 2011, 21 January 2012, June 2011, Country Narratives, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, United States Department of State,weblink Many migrant workers arriving for work in Qatar have paid exorbitant fees to recruiters in their home countries.{{As of|2014}}, certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code allows punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions. The UN Committee Against Torture found that these practices constituted a breach of the obligations imposed by the UN Convention Against Torture.JOURNAL, Kelly, Tobias, 2009, The UN Committee against Torture: Human Rights Monitoring and the Legal Recognition of Cruelty, Human Rights Quarterly, 313, 3, 777–800, 10.1353/hrq.0.0094,weblink REPORT, 25 July 2006, Conclusions and Recommendations: Qatar,weblink UN Committee Against Torture, U.N. Doc. CAT/C/QAT/CO/1, 9 January 2012, "Certain provisions of the Criminal Code allow punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions by judicial and administrative authorities. These practices constitute a breach of the obligations imposed by the Convention. The Committee notes with interest that authorities are presently considering amendments to the Prison Act that would abolish flogging." (Par. 12), Qatar retains the death penalty, mainly for threats against national security such as terrorism. The use of the death penalty is rare and no state executions have taken place in Qatar since 2003.WEB,weblink Death penalties in the world -Qatar, 2014, In Qatar, homosexual acts are illegal and can be punished by death.NEWS,weblink LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds, The Independent, 17 May 2016, Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers' ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police authorities, and deny permission to leave the country. As a result, sponsors may restrict workers' movements and workers may be afraid to report abuses or claim their rights. According to the ITUC, the visa sponsorship system allows the exaction of forced labour by making it difficult for a migrant worker to leave an abusive employer or travel overseas without permission.WEB, International unions warn Qatar's work visa system allows employers to use forced labour,weblink ITUC-CSI-IGB, Qatar also does not maintain wage standards for its immigrant labourers. Qatar commissioned international law firm DLA Piper to produce a report investigating the immigrant labour system. In May 2014 DLA Piper released over 60 recommendations for reforming the kafala system including the abolition of exit visas and the introduction of a minimum wage which Qatar has pledged to implement.WEB,weblink Qatar government admits almost 1,000 fatalities among migrants, Owen Gibson, 14 May 2014, In May 2012, Qatari officials declared their intention to allow the establishment of an independent trade union.WEB, Qatar to allow trade union, scrap 'sponsor' system,weblink Al Arabiya, 1 May 2012, 12 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812174719weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, dead, dmy-all, Qatar also announced it will scrap its sponsor system for foreign labour, which requires that all foreign workers be sponsored by local employers. Additional changes to labour laws include a provision guaranteeing that all workers' salaries are paid directly into their bank accounts and new restrictions on working outdoors in the hottest hours during the summer.NEWS,weblink Qatar Announces New Labour Law Reforms Amid Workers' Rights Outcry, International Business Times, Wilson, Nigel, 21 July 2014, 12 March 2015, New draft legislation announced in early 2015 mandates that companies that fail to pay workers' wages on time could temporarily lose their ability to hire more employees.WEB,weblink Firms in Qatar who fail to pay workers on time could face suspensions, Doha News, Walker, Lesley, 15 January 2015, 12 March 2015, In October 2015 Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within one year.WEB, Doha News,weblink Qatar's Emir signs into law kafala changes (updated), 27 October 2015, Peter Kovessy, Critics claim that the changes could fail to address some labour rights issues.WEB,weblink Qatar's inaction on labor reform a 'human rights disaster', Amnesty, 1 December 2015, Russia Today, RT, WEB,weblink 8 November 2015, Human Rights Watch, Qatar: New reforms Won't Protect Migrant Workers, NEWS, Qatar complicit in 'modern slavery' despite reforms – unions,weblink Chris Arsenault, 28 October 2015, Reuters, The country enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection with the 1999 elections for a Central Municipal Council.BOOK, Hugh, Miles, Al-Jazeera, 2005,weblink These elections—the first ever in Qatar—were deliberately held on 8 March 1999, International Women's Day.In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities.NEWS, Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?,weblink The Diplomat, 15 July 2019, However, in August 2019, Qatar told the UNHRC president that it decided to withdraw from the joint letter.NEWS,weblink Qatar retracts support for China's detention of Uighur Muslims, Sanchez, Raf, 2019-08-21, The Telegraph, 2019-08-22, en-GB, 0307-1235, Human rights activists praised Qatar's decision.WEB,weblink Activists hail Qatar withdrawal from pro-China text over Uighurs, www.aljazeera.com, 2019-08-22,

Foreign relations

File:Secretary Pompeo Meets With Qatari Minister of Foreign Affairs Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani (40723423453).jpg|thumb|Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al Thani with U.S. Secretary of State Mike PompeoMike PompeoAs a small country with larger neighbours, Qatar seeks to project influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty.JOURNAL, Boghardt, Lori Plotkin, Qatar Is a U.S. Ally. They Also Knowingly Abet Terrorism. What's Going On?, New Republic, 6 October 2014,weblink 7 October 2014, Two overarching goals have driven Qatari policy. One has been to maximize Qatar's influence on the regional and international stage. This originally reflected the personal ambition of the former ruler and current emir's father, Shaykh Hamad bin Khalifa al Thani, and his foreign minister and eventual prime minister, Shaykh Hamad bin Jassim al Thani. The two men directed foreign policy until the father abdicated in favor of his son, Emir Tamim bin Hamad al Thani, in July 2013. The second objective has been to preserve the security of the ruling family and state., The history of Qatar's alliances provides insight into the basis of their policy. Between 1760 and 1971, Qatar sought formal protection from the high transitory powers of the Ottomans, British, the Al-Khalifas from Bahrain, the Arabians, and the Wahhabis from Saudi Arabia.BOOK, H Rahman, The Emergence of Qatar,weblink 26 June 2013, 2005, Routledge, 978-0-7103-1213-6, {{page needed|date=June 2013}} Qatar's rising international profile and active role in international affairs has led some analysts to identify it as a middle power. Qatar was an early member of OPEC and a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). It is a member of the Arab League. The country has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.File:Embassy of Qatar, Washington, D.C..jpg|thumb|left|Embassy of Qatar in Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C.Qatar also has bilateral relationships with a variety of foreign powers. Qatar is a strategic ally of China, with relationship between the two countries growing stronger.NEWS, Qatar, China enjoy strong ties based on respect,weblink Gulf-Times, 11 July 2018, ar, NEWS, Commentary: Isolated Qatar pivots towards China, as its ties with Gulf states wane,weblink Channel NewsAsia, It also hosts the Al Udeid Air Base, a joint U.S.-British base, which acts as the hub for all American and British air operations in the Persian Gulf.WEB, Qatar relies on US base amid Gulf tensions,weblink FT.com, 16 June 2013, It has allowed American and British forces to use an air base to send supplies to Iraq and Afghanistan.NEWS,weblink For Qatar, relations with West are a balancing act, New York Times, 4 March 2008, 30 January 2011, Janine, Zacharia, According to leaked documents published in The New York Times, Qatar's record of counter-terrorism efforts was the "worst in the region". The cable suggested that Qatar's security service was "hesitant to act against known terrorists out of concern for appearing to be aligned with the U.S. and provoking reprisals".Qatar has mixed relations with its neighbours in the Persian Gulf region. Qatar signed a defence co-operation agreement with Iran,WEB,weblink Qatar and Saudi Arabia sign defense agreement, Tehrantimes.com, 25 February 2010, 2 October 2010, with whom it shares the largest single non-associated gas field in the world. It was the second nation, the first being France, to have publicly announced its recognition of the Libyan opposition's National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya amidst the 2011 Libyan civil war.NEWS,weblink Al Jazeera, 28 March 2011, 29 March 2011, Qatar recognizes Libyan rebels after oil deal, In 2014, Qatar's relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates came to a boiling point over Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood and reportedly funding extremist groups in Syria.NEWS, Kirkpatrick, David D., Qatar's Support of Islamists Alienates Allies Near and Far,weblink 5 June 2015, The New York Times, 7 September 2014, This culminated in the three aforementioned countries withdrawing their ambassadors from Qatar in March 2014.WEB,weblink GCC's 2014 Crisis: Causes, Issues and Solutions, Islam Hassan, 31 March 2015, Al Jazeera Research Center, 4 June 2015, Qatar was also involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels.NEWS, Norton, Ben, CIA and Saudi weapons for Syrian rebels fueled black market arms trafficking, report says,weblink Salon.com, 28 June 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160927015605weblink">weblink 27 September 2016, File:Flag of Qatar in Libya.jpg|right|thumb|Qatar's flag in Libya after the Libyan Civil War; Qatar played an influential role during the Arab SpringArab SpringIn recent years, Qatar has been using Islamist militants in a number of countries including Egypt, Syria, Libya, Somalia and Mali to further its foreign policy. Courting Islamists from the Muslim Brotherhood to Salafist groups has served as a power amplifier for the country, as it believes since the beginning of the Arab Spring that these groups represented the wave of the future.NEWS, New York Times, Mark Mazzetti, C.J. Chivers, Eric Schmitt,weblink Taking Outsize Role in Syria, Qatar Funnels Arms to Rebels, 30 June 2013, 21 January 2014, {{citation|title=U.S.-Qatar Alliance Strains Coalition Against Islamic State|author=Jay Solomon |publisher=Wall Street Journal|date=10 October 2014}} David Cohen, the Under Secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the U.S. Treasury, said that Qatar is a "permissive jurisdiction for terrorist financing."NEWS, ISIS: Can coalition cut off funding of world's wealthiest terror group?, John Defterios,weblinkCNN, 27 October 2014, There is evidence that these groups supported by Qatar include the hard-line Islamic militant groups active in northern Syria. {{as of|2015}}, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Turkey are openly backing the Army of Conquest,"'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime". Yahoo News. 28 April 2015."Gulf allies and 'Army of Conquest'". Al-Ahram Weekly. 28 May 2015. an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly includes an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar ash-Sham.NEWS,weblink Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria, Kim Sengupta, The Independent, 12 May 2015, Qatar supported the democratically elected President Mohamed Morsi with diplomatic support and the state-owned Al Jazeera network before he was deposed in a military coup led by Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.WEB, The Daily Beast,weblink Qatar Sends Aid Money to Help Egypt, TheDailyBeast.com, 4 November 2013, MAGAZINE, The Al-Jazeera Effect, Foreign Policy, 9 February 2011,weblink Qatar offered Egypt a $7.5 billion loan during the year he was in power.WEB, Reuters,weblink Egypt Returns $2 Billion to Qatar in Sign of Growing Tensions, Voanews.com, 30 December 2013, Qatar's alignment with Hamas, first reported in early 2012,bbc.com: "Hamas political leaders leave Syria for Egypt and Qatar", 28 February 2012 has drawn criticism from Israel, the United States, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, "who accuse Qatar of undermining regional stability by supporting Hamas."WEB,weblink Gaza conflict spotlights role of Qatar, the Hamas-funding U.S. ally, 28 July 2014, 30 July 2014, The Foreign Minister of Qatar has denied supporting Hamas and corrected their alleged claims, stating "We do not support Hamas but we support the Palestinians."WEB,weblink Al Attiyah to CNN: Israel doesn't want peace, 28 July 2014, 26 October 2014, Following a peace agreement, Qatar pledged $1 billion in humanitarian aid to Gaza.WEB,weblink Qatar pledges $1 billion for Gaza rebuilding at Cairo conference, 12 October 2014, 26 October 2014, File:Combined Air Operations Center 151007-F-MS415-019.jpg|thumb|left|The US Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq, Syria, AfghanistanAfghanistanQatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic conferences. The 11th annual Doha Forum recently brought in key thinkers, professionals of various backgrounds, and political figures from all over the world to discuss democracy, media and information technology, free trade, and water security issues. In addition, the forum has featured the Middle East Economic Future conference since 2006.WEB,weblink Enriching the Middle East's Economic Future Conferences, Qatar Conferences, 12 March 2015, In more recent times, Qatar has hosted peace talks between rival factions across the globe. Notable among these include the Darfur Agreement. The Doha Declaration is the basis of the peace process in Darfur and it has achieved significant gains on the ground for the African region. Notable achievements included the restoration of security and stability, progress made in construction and reconstruction processes, return of displaced residents and uniting of Darfur people to face challenges and push forward the peace process.WEB,weblink Sudan Minister Lauds Doha Declaration For Initiating Darfur Peace Process, Qatar Chronicle, 9 June 2013, 22 June 2013, Qatar donated £88.5million in funds to finance recovery and reconstruction in Darfur.WEB,weblink Qatar donates $88.5 Million for Darfur, 24 September 2014, 21 September 2014, In June 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt and Yemen broke diplomatic ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of supporting terrorism,NEWS, Six nations cut diplomatic ties to Qatar as Arab rift deepens,weblink Hurriyet Daily News, 5 June 2017, escalating a dispute over Qatar's support of the Muslim Brotherhood, considered a terrorist organization by those 5 Arab nations. Saudi Arabia explained the move to be a necessary measure in protecting the kingdom's security. Qatari troops were also removed from the military coalition in Yemen. Egypt closed its airspace and seaports to all Qatari transportation.NEWS, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt and Bahrain break diplomatic ties with Qatar over 'terrorism',weblink The Guardian, 5 June 2017, NEWS, Yemen cuts diplomatic ties with Qatar: state news agency,weblink reuters, 5 June 2017, In June 2018, Saudi Arabia announced a bid to construct a waterway, Salwa Canal, on their border with Qatar which shall in effect turn the latter into an island country.WEB,weblink To 'make Qatar an island' Saudi Arabia plans to dig canal along border: Report {{!, Free Press Kashmir|website=freepresskashmir.com|language=en-GB|access-date=20 June 2018}}NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia to turn Qatar into an island by digging massive canal – report, RT International, 20 June 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia moves ahead with Salwa canal plan, Chief, Habib Toumi, Bureau, 19 June 2018, GulfNews, 20 June 2018, NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia sets bidding deadline for Salwa Canal that will make Qatar island, DailySabah, 20 June 2018, NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia is building a canal to turn Qatar into an island, 20 June 2018, AMN - Al-Masdar News {{!, المصدر نيوز|access-date=20 June 2018|language=en-US}}Two years after the diplomatic crisis, Jordan took a step towards restoring its relations with Qatar. In July 2019, Amman appointed a new ambassador to Qatar, who was withdrawn in 2017 in support of the Gulf-Arab allies._WEB,weblink Jordan appoints new ambassador to Qatar, two years after downgrading ties, 16 July 2019, SRN News,

Military

File:Dassault Mirage 2000-5 participating in Odyssey Dawn (cropped).jpg|right|thumb|A Qatari Dassault Mirage 2000 flying over LibyaLibyaThe Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. The country maintains a modest military force of approximately 11,800 men, including an army (8,500), navy (1,800) and air force (1,500). Qatar's defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4.2% of gross national product in 1993, and 1.5% of gross domestic product in 2010, the most recent year available in the SIPRI statistical database.WEB,weblink Military expenditure by country as percentage of gross domestic product, 2003–2016, SIPRI, Qatar has recently signed defense pacts with the United States and United Kingdom, as well as with France earlier in 1994. Qatar plays an active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation Council; the other five members are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, the UAE, and Oman. The presence of the large Al Udeid Air Base, operated by the United States and several other UN nations, provides a guaranteed source of defense and national security. In 2008 Qatar spent US$2.3 billion on military expenditures, 2.3% of the gross domestic product.WEB,weblink The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 29 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328072123weblink">weblink 28 March 2010, Qatari special forces have been trained by France and other Western countries, and are believed to possess considerable skill.MAGAZINE, The Strange Power of Qatar by Hugh Eakin,weblink The New York Review of Books, 16 June 2013, They also helped the Libyan rebels during the 2011 Battle of Tripoli.(File:US, allied armed forces respond to terrorist threat scenario 130428-F-CJ989-005.jpg|left|thumb|Qatar Armed Forces during joint exercises with the U.S. military)The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) found that in 2010–14 Qatar was the 46th-largest arms importer in the world. SIPRI writes that Qatar's plans to transform and significantly enlarge its armed forces have accelerated. Orders in 2013 for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were followed in 2014 by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the US, and 2 tanker aircraft from Spain.WEB, Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014,weblink www.sipri.org, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 18 March 2015, SIPRI Fact Sheet, March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319023856weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, In 2015, Qatar was the 16th largest arms importer in the world, and in 2016, it was the 11th largest, according to SIPRI.WEB,weblink TIV of arms imports to the top 50 largest importers, 2016-2016, SIPRI, Qatar's military participated in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis. In 2015, Al Jazeera America reported: "Numerous reports suggest that the Saudi-led coalition against opposition groups in Yemen has indiscriminately attacked civilians and used cluster bombs in civilian-populated areas, in violation of international law."WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia uses terrorism as an excuse for human rights abuses, Al Jazeera America, 3 December 2015, Many civilians have been killed and the large parts of the infrastructure in this region is now destroyed.WEB,weblink Yemen crisis: Who is fighting whom?, 28 March 2017, 5 June 2017, www.bbc.com, Hospitals have also been bombed by the Saudis and those operating with them.WEB,weblink Airstrike Hits Doctors Without Borders Hospital in Yemen, 5 June 2017, WEB,weblink Yemen conflict: MSF hospital destroyed by air strikes, 27 October 2015, 5 June 2017, www.bbc.com, Qatar was suspended from the coalition in Yemen due to the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis.

Administrative divisions

(File:Qatar, administrative divisions - Nmbrs - colored 2015.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Municipalities of Qatar as of 2014)Since 2014, Qatar has been divided into eight municipalities (Arabic: baladiyah).WEB, Qatar Municipalities, Qatar Ministry of Municipality and Environment,weblink 8 August 2017,
  1. Al Shamal
  2. Al Khor
  3. Al-Shahaniya
  4. Umm Salal
  5. Al Daayen
  6. Doha
  7. Al Rayyan
  8. Al Wakrah
For statistical purposes, the municipalities are further subdivided into 98 zones ({{As of|2015|lc=y}}),WEB,weblink 2015 Population census, Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics, April 2015, 8 August 2017, which are in turn subdivided into blocks.WEB, Population By Gender, Municipality And Zone, March 2004,weblink General Secretariat for Development Planning,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061212202517weblink">weblink 12 December 2006,

Geography

{{Multiple image
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}}The Qatari peninsula protrudes {{convert|100|mi|km|sigfig=2|order=flip}} into the Persian Gulf, north of Saudi Arabia. It lies between latitudes 24° and 27° N, and longitudes 50° and 52° E. Most of the country consists of a low, barren plain, covered with sand. To the southeast lies the Khor al Adaid ("Inland Sea"), an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. There are mild winters and very hot, humid summers.The highest point in Qatar is Qurayn Abu al Bawl at {{convert|103|m|ft}}WEB, Qatar,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, CIA World Factbook, 8 February 2012, 4 March 2012, in the Jebel Dukhan to the west, a range of low limestone outcroppings running north-south from Zikrit through Umm Bab to the southern border. The Jebel Dukhan area also contains Qatar's main onshore oil deposits, while the natural gas fields lie offshore, to the northwest of the peninsula.

Biodiversity and environment

{{See also|Wildlife of Qatar}}{{Multiple image
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}}Qatar signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 21 August 1996.WEB,weblink List of Parties, Convention on Biological Diversity, 8 December 2012, It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 18 May 2005.WEB,weblink National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. State of Qatar, Convention on Biological Diversity, 9 December 2012, A total of 142 fungal species have been recorded from Qatar.BOOK, A. H. Moubasher, Soil Fungi in Qatar and Other Arab Countries, 1993, Centre for Scientific and Applied Research, University of Qatar, i–xvi, 570 pp., 86 plates, 978-99921-21-02-3, A book recently produced by the Ministry of Environment documents the lizards known or believed to occur in Qatar, based on surveys conducted by an international team of scientists and other collaborators.The Lizards Living in Qatar. 2014. First edition, Published in Doha (Qatar), 2014, 5 June (World Environment Day). 570 pages. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140708101506weblink |date=8 July 2014 }}For two decades, Qatar has had the highest per-capita carbon dioxide emissions in the world, at 49.1 metric tons per person in 2008.WEB,weblink CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita), Data.worldbank.org, 7 January 2013, Qataris are also some of the highest consumers of water per capita per day, using around 400 litres.NEWS,weblink Qatar to use biofuels? What about the country's energy consumption?, The Guardian, Fred, Pearce, 14 January 2010, London, In 2008 Qatar launched its National Vision 2030 which highlights environmental development as one of the four main goals for Qatar over the next two decades. The National Vision pledges to develop sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and global environment.WEB, Qatar National Vision 2030,weblink Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113150935weblink">weblink 13 November 2012,

Climate

{{Weather box|location = Qatar|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan high C = 22|Feb high C = 23|Mar high C = 27|Apr high C = 33|May high C = 39|Jun high C = 42|Jul high C = 42|Aug high C = 42|Sep high C = 39|Oct high C = 35|Nov high C = 30|Dec high C = 25|Jan low C = 14|Feb low C = 15|Mar low C = 17|Apr low C = 21|May low C = 27|Jun low C = 29|Jul low C = 31|Aug low C = 31|Sep low C = 29|Oct low C = 25|Nov low C = 21|Dec low C = 16|Jan precipitation mm = 12.7|Feb precipitation mm = 17.8|Mar precipitation mm = 15.2|Apr precipitation mm = 7.6|May precipitation mm = 2.5|Jun precipitation mm = 0|Jul precipitation mm = 0|Aug precipitation mm = 0|Sep precipitation mm = 0|Oct precipitation mm = 0|Nov precipitation mm = 2.5|Dec precipitation mm = 12.7|source 1 =weblink|date=Jan 2016}}

Economy

(File:Doha City, UNCTAD XIII (7115124733).jpg|thumb|Commercial district in Doha.)Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused on fishing and pearl hunting. A report prepared by local governors of Ottoman Empire in 1892 states that total income from pearl hunting in 1892 is 2,450,000 kran. After the introduction of the Japanese cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's pearling industry crashed. Oil was discovered in Qatar in 1940, in Dukhan Field.JOURNAL, The Qatar Oil Discoveries, Rasoul Sorkhabi, GEO ExPro Magazine, 7, 1, 2010,weblink The discovery transformed the state's economy. Now, the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens. With no income tax, Qatar (along with Bahrain) is one of the countries with the lowest tax rates in the world. The unemployment rate in June 2013 was 0.1%.NEWS, New Hope for Democracy in a Dynastic Land,weblink NYTimes.com, 26 June 2013, Rod, Nordland, 25 June 2013, Corporate law mandates that Qatari nationals must hold 51% of any venture in the Emirate.{{As of|2016}}, Qatar has the fourth highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the International Monetary Fund.WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP), IMF, October 2016, It relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers compose 86% of the population and 94% of the workforce.Bill Crane (20 April 2015). Gravediggers of the Gulf. Jacobin. Retrieved 20 April 2015.WEB, Qatar: Migrant Construction Workers Face Abuse,weblink Human Rights Watch, Qatar has been criticized by the International Trade Union Confederation.Robert Tuttle (22 May 2014). World Cup Host Qatar Ranked Among Worst Places to Work by Unions. Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 July 2014. The economic growth of Qatar has been almost exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries, which began in 1940.WEB,weblink Qatar tourist guide, 14 February 2012, Qatar is the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas. In 2012, it was estimated that Qatar would invest over $120 billion in the energy sector in the next ten years.WEB,weblink Doing Business in Qatar: 2012 Country Commercial Guide for U.S. Companies, US & Foreign Commercial Service And US Department of State, 7 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116235824weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, The country was a member state of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), having joined in 1961, and having left in January 2019.WEB, OPEC Member Countries,weblink Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 20 January 2019, File:P1000015 - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|High-rise buildings in DohaDohaIn 2012, Qatar retained its title of richest country in the world (according to per capita income) for the third time in a row, having first overtaken Luxembourg in 2010. According to the study published by the Washington-based Institute of International Finance, Qatar's per capita GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) was $106,000 (QR387,000) in 2012, helping the country retain its ranking as the world's wealthiest nation. Luxembourg came a distant second with nearly $80,000 and Singapore third with per capita income of about $61,000. The research put Qatar's GDP at $182bn in 2012 and said it had climbed to an all-time high due to soaring gas exports and high oil prices. Its population stood at 1.8 million in 2012. The same study published that Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), with assets of $115bn, was ranked 12th among the richest sovereign wealth funds in the world.WEB,weblink The World's Richest Countries, Forbes, File:QatarCentralBankOffice.jpg|right|thumb|Qatar Central Bank's office in DohaDohaEstablished in 2005, Qatar Investment Authority is the country's sovereign wealth fund, specializing in foreign investment.WEB, Kortekaas, Vanessa,weblink New Qatar emir shakes up sovereign wealth fund, Financial Times, 28 October 2013, 30 December 2013, Due to billions of dollars in surpluses from the oil and gas industry, the Qatari government has directed investments into United States, Europe, and Asia Pacific. {{As of|2013}}, the holdings were valued at $100 billion in assets. Qatar Holding is the international investment arm of QIA. Since 2009, Qatar Holding has received $30–40bn a year from the state. {{As of|2014}}, it has investments around the world in Valentino, Siemens, Printemps, Harrods, The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen Group, Royal Dutch Shell, Bank of America, Tiffany, Agricultural Bank of China, Sainsbury's, BlackBerry,WEB,weblink Qatar Holding LLC Among Investors in BlackBerrys $1 Billion Convertible Debt, Berryreview.com, 6 November 2013, 30 December 2013, and Santander Brasil.WEB, Hall, Camilla,weblink Qatar fund quietly builds $1bn Bank of America stake, Financial Times, 30 October 2013, 30 December 2013, WEB, Hall, Camilla,weblink Qatar: what's next for the world's most aggressive deal hunter?, Financial Times, 4 July 2013, 30 December 2013, The country has no taxes, but authorities have announced plans to levy taxes on junk food and luxury items. The taxes would be implemented on goods that harm the human body – for example fast food, tobacco products, and soft drinks. The rollout of these initial taxes is believed to be due to the fall in oil prices and a deficit that the country faced in 2016. Additionally, the country has seen job cuts in 2016 from its petroleum companies and other sectors in the government.WEB,weblink Taxes on junk food, luxury items to be rolled out in Qatar soon, 16 February 2017, 5 June 2017, WEB,weblink layoffs Archives – Doha News, Doha News, 5 June 2017,

Energy

File:ORYX GTL Plant - Qatar.jpg|thumb|Oryx GTL plant in Qatar]]{{As of|2012}}, Qatar has proven oil reserves of 15 billion barrels and gas fields that account for more than 13% of the global resource. As a result, it is the richest state per-capita in the world. None of its 2 million residents live below the poverty line and less than 1% are unemployed.WEB, Simon Lincoln Reader,weblink Qatar shows how money can solve most problems, Bdlive.co.za, 12 November 2013, 30 December 2013, Qatar's economy was in a downturn from 1982 to 1989. OPEC quotas on crude oil production, the lower price for oil, and the generally unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. In turn, the Qatari government's spending plans had to be cut to match lower income. The resulting recessionary local business climate caused many firms to lay off expatriate staff. With the economy recovering in the 1990s, expatriate populations, particularly from Egypt and South Asia, have grown again.(File:Qatar Export Treemap.png|thumb|Graphical depiction of Qatar's product exports in 28 color-coded categories (2011).)Oil production will not remain at the peak level of 500,000 barrels (80,000 m³) per day for long as the national oil fields are projected to be largely depleted by 2023. Large natural gas reserves have, however, been located off Qatar's northeast coast. Qatar's proved reserves of gas are the third-largest in the world, exceeding 250 trillion cubic feet (7,000 km³). The economy was boosted in 1991 by completion of the $1.5-billion Phase I of North Field gas development. In 1996, the Qatargas project began exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Japan. Further phases of North Field gas development costing billions of dollars are in various stages of planning and development.Qatar's heavy industrial projects, all based in Umm Said, include a refinery with a 50,000 barrels (8,000 m³) per day capacity, a fertiliser plant for urea and ammonia, a steel plant, and a petrochemical plant. All these industries use gas for fuel. Most are joint ventures between European and Japanese firms and the state-owned Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC). The US is the major equipment supplier for Qatar's oil and gas industry, and US companies are playing a major role in North Field gas development.Qatar's National Vision 2030 has made investment in renewable resources a major goal for the country over the next two decades. Qatar pursues a vigorous programme of "Qatarisation", under which all joint venture industries and government departments strive to move Qatari nationals into positions of greater authority. Growing numbers of foreign-educated Qataris, including many educated in the US, are returning home to assume key positions formerly occupied by expatriates. To control the influx of expatriate workers, Qatar has tightened the administration of its foreign manpower programmes over the past several years. Security is the principal basis for Qatar's strict entry and immigration rules and regulations.

Transport

File:Hamad International Airport Doha Qatar 6.jpg|thumb|left|Hamad International AirportHamad International AirportWith a fast-expanding population and substantial economic growth over the past decade, a reliable and extensive transportation network is becoming increasingly necessary within Qatar. So far the government, the primary transport developer, has done well in terms of keeping up with demand for new transportation options. In 2008 the Public Works Authority (Ashghal), one of the bodies that oversees infrastructure development, underwent a major reorganisation in order to streamline and modernise the authority in preparation for major project expansions across all segments in the near future. Ashghal works in tandem with the Urban Planning and Development Authority (UPDA), the body that designed the transportation master plan, instituted in March 2006 and running to 2025.As driving is the primary mode of transport in Qatar, the road network is a major focus of the plan. Project highlights in this segment include the multibillion-dollar Doha Expressway and the Qatar Bahrain Causeway, which will connect Qatar to Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and is considered a milestone in regional interconnectivity.File:QTR A7-APA A380!137 EDHI 16-04-14.jpg|thumb|Qatar Airways Airbus A380, Qatar Airways, one of the world's largest airlines, links over 150 international destinations from its base in DohaDohaMass-transit options, such as a Doha metro, light-rail system and more extensive bus networks, are also under development to ease road congestion. In addition, the railway system is being significantly expanded and could eventually form an integral part of a GCC-wide network linking all the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The airport, too, is expanding capacity to keep up with rising visitor numbers.Hamad International Airport is the international airport of Doha. In 2014, it replaced the former Doha International Airport as Qatar's principal airport. In 2016, the airport was named the 50th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, serving 37,283,987 passengers, a 20.2% increase from 2015.Hamad Port is Qatar's main seaport, located south of Doha in the Umm Al-Houl area. Construction of the port began in 2010; it became operational in December 2016. It was officially opened in September 2017, and is expected to become fully operational by 2020.WEB,weblink Qatar's emir officially inaugurates Hamad Port, Al Jazeera, 5 September 2017, 5 September 2017, Capable of handling up to 7.8 million tonnes of products annually, the bulk of trade which passes through the port consists of food and building materials.NEWS,weblink Gulf crisis a "blessing in disguise" for Qatar seaport, John Davison, Reuters, 15 June 2017, 23 July 2017, On the northern coast, Ras Laffan Port serves as the most extensive LNG exporting facility in the world.WEB,weblink Qatar strengthens port facilities, capacity and transport links, Oxford Business Group, 2016, 6 October 2018,

Demographics

{{wide image|The Doha city skyline, featuring post-modern structures, view from Al Corniche.jpg|1000px|Skyline of Doha}}The number of people in Qatar fluctuates considerably depending on the season, since the country relies heavily on migrant labour. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million, with non-Arab foreigners making up a vast majority of Qatar's population. Only 313,000 of the population (12%) were Qatari citizens, while the remaining 2.3 million (88%) were expatriates.The combined number of South Asians (from the countries of the Indian subcontinent including Sri Lanka) by themselves represent over 1.5 million people (60%) of Qatar's population. Among these, Indians are the largest community, numbering 650,000 in 2017, followed by 350,000 Nepalis, 280,000 Bangladeshis, 145,000 Sri Lankans, and 125,000 Pakistanis. The contingent of expatriates which are not of South Asian origin represent around 28% of Qatar's population, of which the largest group is 260,000 Filipinos and 200,000 Egyptians, plus many other nationalities (including nationals of other Arab countries, Europeans, etc.).File:Pearl-Qatar Doha Qatar 11Nov2017 SkySat.jpg|thumb|left|Residential buildings at the Pearl ]]Qatar's first demographic records date back to 1892, and were conducted by Ottoman governors in the region. Based on this census, which includes only the residents in cities, the total population in 1892 was 9,830.The 2010 census recorded the total population at 1,699,435. In January 2013, the Qatar Statistics Authority estimated the country's population at 1,903,447, of which 1,405,164 were males and 498,283 females.WEB, Population structure,weblink Qatar Statistics Authority, 31 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518121404weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, At the time of the first census, held in 1970, the population was 111,133.WEB, History of Census in Qatar,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100420182258weblink">weblink dead, 20 April 2010, Qatar Statistics Authority, 16 June 2013, The population has tripled in the decade to 2011, up from just over 600,000 people in 2001, leaving Qatari nationals as less than 15% of the total population.NEWS, Qatar's delicate balancing act,weblink BBC News, 23 May 2013, 16 January 2013, The influx of male labourers has skewed the gender balance, and women are now just one-quarter of the population.Projections released by Qatar Statistical Authority indicates that the total population of Qatar could reach 2.8 million by 2020. Qatar's National Development Strategy (2011–16) had estimated that the country's population would reach 1.78m in 2013, 1.81m in 2014, 1.84m in 2015 and 1.86m in 2016 – the yearly growth rate being merely 2.1%. But the country's population has soared to 1.83 million by the end of 2012, showing 7.5% growth over the previous year.WEB, Population rise will push up rents,weblink The Peninsula Qatar, 5 January 2013, Pandit, Mobin,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131029212225weblink">weblink 29 October 2013, Qatar's total population hit a record high of 2.46 million in November 2015, an increase of 8.5% from the previous year, far exceeding official projections.WEB, Kovessy, Peter, Though many leave Qatar, there are more people here than ever,weblink DohaNews.Co, Doha News, 17 January 2016,

Religion

(File:Alwakhra Masjid.jpg|thumb|Mosque in Qatar)Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country.WEB, Report on International Religious Freedom – Qatar,weblink US Department of State, The official state religion follows the conservative Wahhabi tradition of the Hanbali school of Islam, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140821170612weblink">weblink 21 August 2014, Most Qatari citizens belong to the Salafi Muslim movement of Wahhabism,WEB, Tiny Qatar's growing global clout,weblink BBC, 30 April 2011, 12 March 2015, NEWS, Qatar's modern future rubs up against conservative traditions,weblink Reuters, 27 September 2012, NEWS, Rising power Qatar stirs unease among some Mideast neighbors,weblink Reuters, 13 June 2013, 12 February 2013, and between 5–15% of Muslims in Qatar follow Shia Islam with other Muslims sects being very small in number.WEB, 2011 Report on International Religious Freedom – Qatar,weblinkMuslim, 13.8% Christians>Christian, 13.8% Hindu, and 3.1% Buddhist; other religions and religiously unaffiliated people accounted for the remaining 1.6%.RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION BY COUNTRY>URL=HTTP://WWW.PEWFORUM.ORG/UPLOADEDFILES/TOPICS/RELIGIOUS_AFFILIATION/GLOBALRELIGION-TABLES.PDFPUBLISHER=PEW FORUMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130309232331/HTTP://WWW.PEWFORUM.ORG/UPLOADEDFILES/TOPICS/RELIGIOUS_AFFILIATION/GLOBALRELIGION-TABLES.PDFURL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation according to Qatar's Constitution.The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners. Since 2008, Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground donated by the government,WEB,weblink Christians to Welcome Qatar's First Christian Church, Christianpost.com, 24 February 2008, 22 January 2013, though foreign missionary activity is officially discouraged.WEB,weblink CIA The World Fact Book, State.gov, 29 June 2006, 28 March 2010, Active churches include the Mar Thoma Church, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Anglican Church of the Epiphany.WEB,weblink Report on Qatar, Cumorah Project, 12 March 2015, WEB,weblink The Anglican Centre in Qatar, Epiphany-qatar.org, 22 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116235828weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, BOOK, David B. Barrett, George Thomas Kurian, Todd M. Johnson, World Christian encyclopedia: a comparative survey of churches and religions in the modern world, 1, 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-510318-2, 617, There are also two Mormon wards.

Languages

Arabic is the official language of Qatar, with Qatari Arabic the local dialect. Qatari Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English is commonly used as a second language,BOOK, Baker, Colin, Jones, Sylvia Prys, Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education,weblink Multilingual Matters, 1998, 429, 978-1853593628, and a rising lingua franca, especially in commerce, to the extent that steps are being taken to try to preserve Arabic from English's encroachment.NEWS, Guttenplan, D. D., Battling to Preserve Arabic From English's Onslaught,weblink The New York Times, 24 November 2013, 11 June 2012, English is particularly useful for communication with Qatar's large expatriate community. In the medical community, and in situations such as the training of nurses to work in Qatar, English acts as a lingua franca.WEB,weblink Listening instruction and patient safety: Exploring medical English as a lingua franca (MELF) for nursing education, Gregory, Tweedie, Robert, Johnson, 6 January 2018, Reflecting the multicultural make-up of the country, many other languages are also spoken, including Persian, Baluchi, Brahui, Hindi, Malayalam, Urdu, Pashto, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Nepali, Sinhalese, Bengali, Tagalog, and Indonesian.WEB, Qatar Facts,weblink First Qatar Orthodontic Conference, 23 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140712062300weblink">weblink 12 July 2014, dead, In 2012, Qatar joined the international French-speaking organisation of La Francophonie (OIF) as a new associate member, but in December 2013, the French daily Le Monde revealed that Qatar, which has very few native French speakers, had not yet paid any contribution to the OIF,WEB,weblink Le Qatar ne paie pas ses contributions à la francophonie, Martine, Jacot, 23 December 2013, 5 June 2017, Le Monde, while the outgoing Administrator of the OIF complained in 2015 that Qatar had not kept any of the promises it made when it joined the organisation and had never paid its annual membership fees.WEB,weblink Clément Duhaime : "Le Qatar n'a pas tenu ses promesses" à l'OIF - JeuneAfrique.com, 22 April 2015, 5 June 2017,

Culture

{{See also|List of festivals in Qatar}}
Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia, being significantly influenced by Islam. Qatar National Day, hosted annually on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a sense of national identity.BOOK, Kamrava, Mehran, Qatar: Small State, Big Politics,weblink Cornell University Press, 2013, 978-0801452093, It is observed in remembrance of Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani's succession to the throne and his subsequent unification of the country's various tribes.WEB, Qatar National Day 2011,weblink Time Out Doha, 29 November 2011, 12 March 2015, WEB,weblink Everything you need to know about Qatar National Day 2012, Doha News, 10 December 2012, 18 February 2015, Since 1 July 2008, Hamad Bin Abdulaziz Al-Kawari has been the Minister for Culture, Arts and Heritage of Qatar.

Arts and museums

File:Museum of Islamic arts SOP.jpg|thumb|Museum of Islamic Art, DohaMuseum of Islamic Art, DohaSeveral senior members of Qatar's ruling Al Thani family are noted collectors of Islamic and contemporary art.The Museum of Islamic Art, opened in 2008, is regarded as one of the best museums in the region.NEWS, Art in Qatar: A Smithsonian in the sand,weblink The Economist, 16 June 2013, 1 January 2011, This, and several other Qatari museums, like the (Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art|Arab Museum of Modern Art), falls under the Qatar Museums Authority (QMA) which is led by Sheikha Al-Mayassa bint Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the sister of the ruling Emir of the State of Qatar, and the prominent collector and art patron Sheikh Hassan bin Mohammed Al Thani.WEB, QMA Board of Trustees,weblink Qatar Museums Authority, 12 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402092712weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, The QMA also sponsors artistic events abroad, such as major exhibitions by Takahashi Murakami in Versailles (2010) and Damien Hirst in London (2012).Qatar is the world's biggest buyer in the art market by value.NEWS, Qatar revealed as the world's biggest contemporary art buyer,weblink The Art Newspaper, 16 June 2013, The Qatari cultural sector is being developed to enable the country to reach world recognition to contribute to the development of a country that comes mainly from its resources from the gas industry.WEB, Bohas, Alexander, The Political Trump-Cards of Cultural Potency Qatar's Policy of 'Cultural Grandeur',weblink Chaos International, 13 April 2013, The National Museum of Qatar was opened to the public on 28 March 2019.New Qatar National Museum…a journey in a world of fantasy!{{Dead link|date=October 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Literature

File:Sign for Oxygen Park in Education City.jpg|thumb|Qatar National LibraryQatar National LibraryQatari literature traces its origins back to the 19th century. Originally, written poetry was the most common form of expression. Abdul Jalil Al-Tabatabai and Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Uthaymeen, two poets dating back to the early 19th century, formed the corpus of Qatar's earliest written poetry. Poetry later fell out of favor after Qatar began reaping the profits from oil exports in the mid-20th century and many Qataris abandoned their Bedouin traditions in favor of more urban lifestyles.WEB,weblink الشعر في قطر علي امتداد مائة سنة, Al Jasra Cultural and Social Club, Hassan Tawfiq, Arabic, 1 May 2015, 29 August 2018, Due to the increasing number of Qataris who began receiving formal education during the 1950s and other significant societal changes, 1970 witnessed the introduction of the first short story anthology, and in 1993 the first locally authored novels were published. Poetry, particularly the predominant nabati form, retained some importance but would soon be overshadowed by other literary types. Unlike most other forms of art in Qatari society, females have been involved in the modern literature movement on a similar magnititude to males.BOOK,weblink Modern Arabic Literature, Muḥammad Muṣṭafá Badawī, Muhammad Mustafa Badawi, M. M. Badawi, María Rosa Menocal, Raymond P. Scheindlin & Michael Sells, Cambridge University Press, 3, 448, 1992, 9780521331975,

Media

File:Al Jazeera English Newsdesk.jpg|thumb|The news desk of Al Jazeera EnglishAl Jazeera EnglishQatar's media was classified as "not free" in the 2014 Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House. TV broadcasting in Qatar was started in 1970.BOOK, Barrie Gunter, Roger Dickinson, News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries,weblink 8 February 2014, 6 June 2013, A&C Black, 978-1-4411-0239-3, 33, Al Jazeera is a main television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Al Jazeera initially launched in 1996 as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has since expanded into a global network of several speciality TV channels known collectively as the Al Jazeera Media Network.It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship, particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of Qatar.BOOK, Blanchard, Christoper, Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations,weblink Congressional Research Service, 2014, 17, 9781437987089, Criticism of the government, Emir and ruling family in the media is illegal. According to article 46 of the press law "The Emir of the state of Qatar shall not be criticised and no statement can be attributed to him unless under a written permission from the manager of his office."NEWS, Awaiting a Modern Press Law in Qatar,weblink New York Times, 16 June 2013, Richard J., Roth, 8 May 2013, Journalists are also subject to prosecution for insulting Islam.WEB,weblink Qatar Freedom of the Press, Freedom House, 19 January 2015, In 2014, a Cybercrime Prevention Law was passed. The law is said to restrict press freedom, and carries prison sentences and fines for broad reasons such as jeopardising local peace or publishing false news.WEB,weblink New cybercrime law could have serious consequences for press freedom in Qatar, cpj.org, 27 September 2014, 19 January 2015, The Gulf Center for Human Rights has stated that the law is a threat to freedom of speech and has called for certain articles of the law to be revoked.WEB,weblink Qatar: New Cyber Crime Law poses real threat to Freedom of Expression, gc4hr.org, 17 September 2014, 19 January 2015, Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. There are currently seven newspapers in circulation in Qatar, with four being published in Arabic and three being published in English.BOOK, The Report: Qatar 2010,weblink Oxford Business Group, 2010, 237, 9781907065446, There are also newspapers from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka with editions printed from Qatar.In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Qatar is the highest ranked Middle Eastern country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. Qatar ranked number 23 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from 2013.WEB,weblink NRI Overall Ranking 2014, World Economic Forum, 28 June 2014,

Music

The music of Qatar is based on Bedouin poetry, song and dance. Traditional dances in Doha are performed on Friday afternoons; one such dance is the Ardah, a stylised martial dance performed by two rows of dancers who are accompanied by an array of percussion instruments, including al-ras (a large drum whose leather is heated by an open fire), tambourines and cymbals with small drums. Other percussion instruments used in folk music include galahs (a tall clay jar) and tin drinking cups known as tus or tasat, usually used in conjunction with a tabl, a longitudinal drum beaten with a stick.WEB,weblink Heritage and Culture, Qatar e-Gov, 26 April 2015, String instruments, such as the oud and rebaba, are also commonly used.WEB,weblink Arts and Culture, Embassy of Qatar in London, 25 June 2015,

Sport

File:2015 Ladies Tour of Qatar Cucinotta winning stage 1.jpg|thumb|2015 Ladies Tour of Qatar2015 Ladies Tour of QatarAssociation football is the most popular sport in Qatar, both in terms of players and spectators.WEB,weblink Qatar – a Sporting Nation, Qatar e-Government, 12 March 2015, Shortly after the Qatar Football Association became affiliated with FIFA in 1970, one of the country's earliest international accolades came in 1981 when the Qatar national under-20 team's emerged as runners-up to West Germany in that year's edition of the FIFA World Youth Championship after being defeated 4–0 in the final. At the senior level, Qatar has played host to two editions of the AFC Asian Cup; the first coming being the 9th edition in 1988 and the second being the 15th edition held in 2011.WEB,weblink Fox Sports brings you everything you need to know – and a few things you don't – about the Asian Cup, Fox Sports, Gibbes, Martin, Schiller, Emma, 4 January 2011, 12 March 2015, For the first time in the country's history, the Qatar national football team won the AFC Asian Cup in the 2019 edition hosted in the UAE, beating Japan 3–1 in the final. They won all seven of their matches, conceding only a single goal throughout the tournament.WEB,weblink Qatar stun Japan with 3-1 win to be crowned Asian Cup champions, 1 February 2019, Guardian, 5 February 2019, On 2 December 2010, Qatar won their bid to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, despite never previously qualifying for the FIFA World Cup Finals.NEWS, Russia, Qatar win 2018 and 2022 World Cups, Paul Radford, Reuters, 2 December 2010,weblink 2 December 2010, Local organisers are planning to build 9 new stadiums and expand 3 existing stadiums for this event. Qatar's winning bid for the 2022 World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the Persian Gulf region as it was the first time a country in the Middle East had been selected to host the tournament. However, the bid has been embroiled in much controversy, including allegations of bribery and interference in the investigation of the alleged bribery. European football associations have also objected to the 2022 World Cup being held in Qatar for a variety of reasons, from the impact of warm temperatures on players' fitness, to the disruption it might cause in European domestic league calendars should the event be rescheduled to take place during winter.WEB,weblink Europe's Top Leagues protest against 2022 winter World Cup in Qatar, Qatar Chronicle, 12 August 2013, 21 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130817110819weblink">weblink 17 August 2013, dead, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Fifa wants Qatar 2022 postponed to Winter, Qatar Chronicle, 20 July 2013, 21 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141110211907weblink">weblink 10 November 2014, dead, dmy-all, In May 2014, Qatari football official Mohammed bin Hammam was accused of making payments totalling £3m to officials in return for their support for the Qatar bid.WEB,weblink BBC Sport – Qatar World Cup: '£3m payments to officials' corruption claim, Bbc.co.uk, 1 June 2014, However, a FIFA inquiry into the bidding process in November 2014 cleared Qatar of any wrongdoing.WEB,weblink World Cup inquiry clears Qatar but criticises English FA, BBC, 13 November 2014, 12 March 2015, File:2009 Emir of Qatar Cup Final - DSC 0518 (3581777008).jpg|thumb|Qatar Emir CupQatar Emir CupThe Guardian, a British national daily newspaper, produced a short documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing emirate for 2022".NEWS, Pattisson, Pete, Revealed: Qatar's World Cup 'slaves',weblink 26 September 2013, The Guardian, 25 September 2013, So entrenched is this exploitation that the Nepalese ambassador to Qatar, Maya Kumari Sharma, recently described the emirate as an "open jail"., A 2014 investigation by The Guardian reports that migrant workers who have been constructing luxurious offices for the organisers of the 2022 World Cup have not been paid in over a year, and are now "working illegally from cockroach-infested lodgings."NEWS,weblink Qatar World Cup: migrants wait a year to be paid for building offices, The Guardian, Booth, Robert, Pattisson, Pete, 28 July 2014, 12 March 2015, For 2014, Nepalese migrants involved in constructing infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup died at a rate of one every two days.Owen Gibson and Pete Pattisson (23 December 2014). Death toll among Qatar's 2022 World Cup workers revealed. The Guardian. Retrieved 29 May 2015. The Qatar 2022 organising committee have responded to various allegations by claiming that hosting the World Cup in Qatar would act as a "catalyst for change" in the region.WEB,weblink Qatar hits back at allegations of bribery over 2022 World Cup, Gibson, Owen, The Guardian., 14 June 2014, 12 March 2015, Though football is the most popular sport, other team sports have experienced considerable success at senior level. In 2015, the national handball team emerged as runners-up to France in the World Men's Handball Championship as hosts, however the tournament was marred by numerous controversies regarding the host nation and its team.WEB,weblink Match report, International Handball Federation, 12 March 2015, Further, in 2014, Qatar won the world championship in men's 3x3 basketball.WEB,weblink 2014 FIBA 3x3 World Championships, International Basketball Federation, 13 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151031210632weblink">weblink 31 October 2015, Khalifa International Tennis and Squash Complex in Doha hosted the WTA Tour Championships in women's tennis between 2008 and 2010. Doha holds the WTA Premier tournament Qatar Ladies Open annually. Since 2002, Qatar has hosted the annual Tour of Qatar, a cycling race in six stages. Every February, riders are racing on the roads across Qatar's flat land for six days. Each stage covers a distance of more than 100 km, though the time trial usually is a shorter distance. Tour of Qatar is organised by the Qatar Cycling Federation for professional riders in the category of Elite Men.WEB,weblink The homepage of Tour of Qatar, Letour.fr, 1 December 1994, 22 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116235824weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, The Qatar Army Skydiving Team has several different skydiving disciplines placing among the top nations in the world. The Qatar National Parachute team performs annually during Qatar's National Day and at other large events, such as the 2015 World Handball Championship.WEB,weblink Skydive Mag – Incredible Demo at Doha, Chris, Gay, 5 June 2017, Doha four times was the host of the official FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship and three times host FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Doha one time Host Asian Volleyball Championship.WEB,weblink QVA – Qatar Volleyball Association, QVA, 5 June 2017,

Education

(File:UNESCO Institute for Statistics Literacy Rate Qatar population plus 15 1985-2015.png|thumb|left|UNESCO Institute for Statistics Literacy Rate Qatar population plus 15 1985–2015)File:Qatar university main area.jpg|thumb|Qatar UniversityQatar UniversityFile:QatarUniversityEastView.jpg|thumb|right|Qatar UniversityQatar UniversityQatar hired the RAND Corporation to reform its K–12 education system. Through Qatar Foundation, the country has built Education City, a campus which hosts local branches of the Weill Cornell Medical College, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Northwestern's Medill School of Journalism, Texas A&M's School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts and other Western institutions.WEB,weblink The Education City contracts: A case study from VCU in Qatar, Anderson, Nick, 6 December 2015, Washington Post, 14 March 2018, The illiteracy rate in Qatar was 3.1% for males and 4.2% for females in 2012, the lowest in the Arab-speaking world, but 86th in the world.WEB, In the occasion of Literacy Arab Day, Qatar has the Lowest Illiteracy Rates in 2012,weblink Qatar Statistics Authority, 8 January 2013, 26 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924083746weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dead, Citizens are required to attend government-provided education from kindergarten through high school.WEB,weblink Qatar constitution, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130918053402weblink">weblink 18 September 2013, Qatar University, founded in 1973, is the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education.WEB,weblink Our history, Qatar University, 12 March 2015, WEB,weblink SPECIAL REPORT: UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST, Hendengren, Adam, Your Middle East, 25 June 2013, 12 June 2015, In November 2002, emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani created The Supreme Education Council.WEB,weblink World Data on Education – Qatar, UNESCO, 21 July 2015, The Council directs and controls education for all ages from the pre-school level through the university level, including the "Education for a New Era" initiative which was established to try to position Qatar as a leader in education reform.JOURNAL, National student research fairs as evidence for progress in Qatar's Education for a New Era, Margery K., Anderson, Tarfa Nasser Alnaimi, Shaikha Hamad Alhajri, 1 November 2010, Improving Schools, 13, 3, 235–248, 10.1177/1365480210390083, WEB,weblink Education for a New Era, 25 March 2008, Supreme Education Council, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050913005112weblink">weblink 13 September 2005, According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are Qatar University (1,881st worldwide), Texas A&M University at Qatar (3,905th) and Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (6,855th).WEB, Qatar,weblink Ranking Web of Universities, 26 February 2013, In 2008, Qatar established the Qatar Science & Technology Park in Education City to link those universities with industry. Education City is also home to a fully accredited international Baccalaureate school, Qatar Academy. In addition, two Canadian institutions, the College of the North Atlantic (headquarters in Newfoundland and Labrador) and the University of Calgary, have inaugurated campuses in Doha. Other for-profit universities have also established campuses in the city.WEB,weblink NHL Stenden University Qatar, 22 May 2009, live, In 2009, under the patronage of H.H. Sheikha Mozah Al Missned, the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) was established with the aim of transforming education through innovation.In 2012, Qatar was ranked third from the bottom of the 65 OECD countries participating in the PISA test of maths, reading and skills for 15- and 16-year-olds, comparable to Colombia or Albania, despite having the highest per capita income in the world.BOOK, PISA 2012 Results in Focus, OECD, 2014, 5, WEB,weblink Key findings – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Oecd.org, 30 December 2013, As part of its national development strategy, Qatar has outlined a 10-year strategic plan to improve the level of education.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150424210419weblink">weblink 24 April 2015, dead, Furthermore, the government has launched educational outreach programs, such as Al-Bairaq. Al-Bairaq was launched in 2010 aims to provide high school students with an opportunity to experience a research environment in the Center for Advanced Materials in Qatar University. The program encompasses the STEM fields and languages.WEB,weblink Welcome to Al-Bairaq World, Qu.edu.qa, 6 March 2014, 14 July 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140419220638weblink">weblink 19 April 2014,

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

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