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{{short description|Multi-purpose mobile device}}{{Redirect|Smartphones|the song by Trey Songz|SmartPhones (song)}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2016}}File:Fotos produzidas pelo Senado (30554309793).jpg|thumb|300px|Two smartphones: a Samsung Galaxy J5 (left) and an iPhone 6SiPhone 6SSmartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, internet (including web browsing"A Survey of Techniques for Improving Efficiency of Mobile Web Browsing", CPE, 2018 over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones typically include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer, gyroscope and accelerometer, and support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and satellite navigation.Early smartphones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant (PDA) devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, and the immaturity of wireless data services; these issues were eventually resolved with advances in MOSFET (MOS transistor), lithium-ion battery and mobile network technologies. In the 2000s, NTT DoCoMo's i-mode platform, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, and Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models often featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, and emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet. Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, and offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, and use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services.Improved hardware and faster wireless communication (due to standards such as LTE) have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.WEB, Worldwide smartphone user base hits 1 billion,weblink CNet, July 26, 2013, Don Reisinger, October 17, 2012, Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013.NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, Smartphones now outsell 'dumb' phones, April 29, 2013, April 29, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink August 1, 2013, dead, mdy-all, {{TOC limit|4}}


{{See also|Mobile operating system#Timeline}}


The development of the smartphone was enabled by advances in MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor device fabrication. The MOSFET (MOS transistor), invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, is the basic building block of computing devices such as smartphones.BOOK, Sahay, Shubham, Kumar, Mamidala Jagadesh, Junctionless Field-Effect Transistors: Design, Modeling, and Simulation, 2019, John Wiley & Sons, 9781119523536,weblink WEB, Remarks by Director Iancu at the 2019 International Intellectual Property Conference,weblink United States Patent and Trademark Office, June 10, 2019, 20 July 2019, MOSFET scaling, where MOS transistors get smaller with decreasing power consumption, enabled very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology, with MOS transistor counts in integrated circuit chips increasing at an exponential pace, as predicted by Moore's law. Continuous MOSFET scaling eventually made it possible to build portable smart devices such as smartphones during the 1990s{{ndash}}2000s. A typical smartphone is built from billions of tiny MOSFETs as of 2019, used in integrated circuits such as microprocessors and memory chips,BOOK, Colinge, Jean-Pierre, Greer, James C., Nanowire Transistors: Physics of Devices and Materials in One Dimension, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 9781107052406, 2,weblink as power devices, and as thin-film transistors (TFTs)BOOK, Kimizuka, Noboru, Yamazaki, Shunpei, Physics and Technology of Crystalline Oxide Semiconductor CAAC-IGZO: Fundamentals, 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 9781119247401, 217,weblink in mobile displays.WEB, Thin Film Transistor - an overview,weblink ScienceDirect, 18 August 2019, Advances in MOSFET power electronic technology also enabled the development of digital wireless mobile networks, which are essential to the smartphone. The wide adoption of power MOSFET, LDMOS (lateral diffused MOS) and RF CMOS (radio frequency CMOS) devices led to the development and proliferation of digital wireless mobile networks in the 1990s, with further advances in MOSFET technology leading to increasing bandwidth during the 2000s.BOOK, Baliga, B. Jayant, B. Jayant Baliga, Silicon RF Power MOSFETS, 2005, World Scientific, 9789812561213,weblink BOOK, Asif, Saad, 5G Mobile Communications: Concepts and Technologies, 2018, CRC Press, 9780429881343, 128-134,weblink JOURNAL, O'Neill, A., Asad Abidi Recognized for Work in RF-CMOS, IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Newsletter, 2008, 13, 1, 57–58, 10.1109/N-SSC.2008.4785694,weblink 1098-4232, Most of the essential elements of wireless mobile networks are built from MOSFETs, including the mobile transceivers, base station modules, routers, RF power amplifiers, telecommunication circuits, RF circuits, and radio transceivers, in networks such as 2G, 3G, and 4G.Another important enabling factor was the lithium-ion battery, which became indispensable as an energy source for smartphones.JOURNAL, Williams, R. K., Darwish, M. N., Blanchard, R. A., Siemieniec, R., Rutter, P., Kawaguchi, Y., The Trench Power MOSFET—Part II: Application Specific VDMOS, LDMOS, Packaging, and Reliability, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2017, 64, 3, 692–712, 10.1109/TED.2017.2655149, 0018-9383, The lithium-ion battery was invented by John Goodenough, Rachid Yazami and Akira Yoshino in the 1980s,WEB, IEEE Medal for Environmental and Safety Technologies Recipients,weblink IEEE Medal for Environmental and Safety Technologies, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 29 July 2019, and commercialized by Sony and Asahi Kasei in 1991.WEB,weblink Keywords to understanding Sony Energy Devices – keyword 1991, keyword 1991, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all,


File:IBM Simon Personal Communicator.png|thumb|upright|IBM SimonIBM SimonIn the early 1990s, IBM engineer Frank Canova realised that chip-and-wireless technology was becoming small enough to use in handheld devices.NEWS, Sager, Ira, Before IPhone and Android Came Simon, the First Smartphone,weblink 18 August 2019,, Bloomberg News, 29 June 2012, The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.WEB,weblink Before IPhone and Android Came Simon, the First Smartphones, Sager, Ira, June 29, 2012, Bloomberg L.P, Bloomberg Businessweek, June 30, 2012, Simon was the first smartphone. Twenty years ago, it envisioned our app-happy mobile lives, squeezing the features of a cell phone, pager, fax machine, and computer into an 18-ounce black brick., NEWS, Schneidawind, John, Poindexter putting finger on PC bugs; Big Blue unveiling, November 23, 1992, USA Today, 2B, WEB, Connelly, Charlotte, World's first 'smartphone' celebrates 20 years,weblink BBC News, BBC News, August 16, 2014, A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock, and notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news.History of first touchscreen smartphone {{webarchive |url= |date=May 1, 2016 }} Spinfold.comThe IBM Simon was manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric, which integrated features from its own wireless personal digital assistant (PDA) and cellular radio technologies.BOOK, Jin, Dal Yong, Smartland Korea: Mobile Communication, Culture, and Society, 2017, University of Michigan Press, 9780472053377, 34-35,weblink It featured a liquid-crystal display (LCD) and PC Card support.WEB, Nochkin, Alexandr, July 10, 2013,weblink IBM Simon. The first smartphone in the World. What's inside., June 5, 2017,, IBM blog, Russian, The Simon was commercially unsuccessful, particularly due to its bulky form factor and limited battery life,WEB, First Smartphone Turns 20: Fun Facts About Simon,weblink Time (magazine), Time, 18 August 2019, 18 August 2014, using NiCad batteries rather than the nickel–metal hydride batteries commonly used in mobile phones in the 1990s, or lithium-ion batteries used in modern smartphones.BOOK, Mostefaoui, Ghita K., Tariq, Faisal, Mobile Apps Engineering: Design, Development, Security, and Testing, 2018, CRC Press, 9781351681438, 16,weblink The term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator.WEB,weblink Designing a GUI for Business Telephone users, Savage, Pamela, January 1995, Association of Computing Machinery, September 13, 2014, ...It is at this point that early usability test participants met impasse. The switch connected to our "smart phone" is expecting the typical "dumb end-point"... AT&T's PhoneWriter was demonstrated at the 1993 Comdex Computer Show..., {{primary inline|date=September 2016}}

PDA/phone hybrids

Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC. These operating systems would later evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware. The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. PDA and mobile phone manufacturers competed in reducing the size of devices. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity.In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it. It had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, and to create and receive text messages, emails and faxes. It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows.(File:Nokia-9110-9000.jpg|thumb|The Nokia 9000 Communicator (right) and the updated 9110 model (left))In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks. The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications; text-based Web browsing; and could send and receive faxes. When closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone.In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Qualcomm's pdQ Smartphone, Qualcomm, Subsequent landmark devices included:
  • The Ericsson R380 (December 2000)WEB, Ericsson R380 / R380s {{!, Device Specs |url= |website=PhoneDB |date={{date|25 Jan 2008}} |accessdate={{date|9/29/2019}}}} by Ericsson Mobile Communications,WEB,weblink PDA Review: Ericsson R380 Smartphone,, April 27, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 12, 2011, mdy-all, the first phone running the operating system later named Symbian (it ran EPOC Release 5, which was renamed Symbian OS at Release 6). It had PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus.NEWS,weblink Ericsson R380 World Review & Rating, PC Magazine, April 24, 2001, Bruce, Brown, While it was marketed as a "smartphone",WEB,weblink Ericsson Introduces The New R380e, Mobile Magazine, April 27, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2012, dead, mdy-all, users could not install their own software on the device.
  • The Kyocera 6035 (February 2001),WEB, Kyocera QCP 6035 {{!, Device Specs |url= |website=PhoneDB |date={{date|29 Feb 2008}} |accessdate={{date|29 Sep 2019}}}} a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem.WEB,weblink Kyocera QCP 6035 Smartphone Review,, March 16, 2001, September 7, 2011, NEWS, Segan, Sascha,weblink Kyocera Launches First Smartphone In Years &124; News & Opinion,, March 23, 2010, September 7, 2011,
  • The Nokia 9210 Communicator (June 2001),WEB, Nokia 9210 Communicator Device Specs,weblink PhoneDB, 16 Oct 2007, 28 Sep 2019, the first phone running Symbian (Release 6) with Nokia's Series 80 platform (v1.0). This was the first Symbian phone platform allowing the installation of additional applications. Like the Nokia 9000 Communicator it's a large clamshell device with a full physical QWERTY keyboard inside.
  • Handspring's Treo 180 (2002), the first smartphone that fully integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built into the OS. The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead.WEB,weblink Handspring Treo Communicator 180,, 2016-02-01,weblink" title="">weblink June 17, 2016, dead, mdy-all,

Japanese cell phones

In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new mobile internet platform which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kilobits per second, and access web services available through the platform such as online shopping. NTT DoCoMo's i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to use the slower data speeds available. The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001, and ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally.JOURNAL, Rose, Frank, Pocket Monster: How DoCoMo's wireless Internet service went from fad to phenom - and turned Japan into the first post-PC nation, Wired, Sep 2001, 9, 9,weblink January 24, 2014, Japanese cell phones increasingly diverged from global standards and trends to offer other forms of advanced services and smartphone-like functionality that were specifically tailored to the Japanese market, such as mobile payments and shopping, near-field communication (NFC) allowing mobile wallet functionality to replace smart cards for transit fares, loyalty cards, identity cards, event tickets, coupons, money transfer, etc., downloadable content like musical ringtones, games, and comics, and 1seg mobile television.BOOK, Barnes, Stuart J, Huff, Sid L., Rising Sun: iMode and the Wireless Internet, Vol. 46, No. 1, November 1, 2003, Communications of the ACM, 79–84, WEB, Anwar, Sayid Tariq, NTT DoCoMo and M-Commerce: A Case Study in Market Expansion and Global Strategy,weblink The American Graduate School of International Management, February 16, 2014, Phones built by Japanese manufacturers used custom firmware, however, and didn't yet feature standardized mobile operating systems designed to cater to third-party application development, so their software and ecosystems were akin to very advanced feature phones. As with other feature phones, additional software and services required partnerships and deals with providers.The degree of integration between phones and carriers, unique phone features, non-standardized platforms, and tailoring to Japanese culture made it difficult for Japanese manufacturers to export their phones, especially when demand was so high in Japan that the companies didn't feel the need to look elsewhere for additional profits.NEWS,weblink Why Japan's Smartphones Haven't Gone Global, Tabuchi, Hiroko, The New York Times, 2018-10-06, NEWS, Budmar, Patrick,weblink Why Japanese smartphones never went global, PC World AU, 11 July 2012, 2018-10-06, en-AU, NEWS, Devin Stewart, Slowing Japan's Galapagos Syndrome,weblink 'Galapagos syndrome', a phrase originally coined to describe Japanese cell phones that were so advanced they had little in common with devices used in the rest of the world, could potentially spread to other parts of society. Indeed signs suggest it is happening already., Huffington Post, April 29, 2010, 2010-06-24, The rise of 3G technology in other markets and non-Japanese phones with powerful standardized smartphone operating systems, app stores, and advanced wireless network capabilities allowed non-Japanese phone manufacturers to finally break in to the Japanese market, gradually adopting Japanese phone features like emojis, mobile payments, NFC, etc. and spreading them to the rest of the world.

Early smartphones

File:BlackBerry_8820,_BlackBerry_Bold_9900_and_BlackBerry_Classic.jpg|thumb|Several BlackBerryBlackBerryPhones that made effective use of any significant data connectivity were still rare outside Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in 2002, which saw moderate success among U.S. consumers as the T-Mobile Sidekick. Later, in the mid-2000s, business users in the U.S. started to adopt devices based on Microsoft's Windows Mobile, and then BlackBerry smartphones from Research In Motion. American users popularized the term "CrackBerry" in 2006 due to the BlackBerry's addictive nature.NEWS, Info Addicts Are All Thumbs: Crackberry Is the 2006 Word of the Year,weblink January 24, 2014, PR Newswire, November 1, 2006, In the U.S., the high cost of data plans and relative rarity of devices with Wi-Fi capabilities that could avoid cellular data network usage kept adoption of smartphones mainly to business professionals and "early adopters."Outside the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was seeing success with its smartphones based on Symbian, originally developed by Psion for their personal organisers, and it was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Initially, Nokia's Symbian smartphones were focused on business with the Eseries,WEB,weblink The Nokia E Series Range of Smartphones,, 27 September 2010, 6 September 2017, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing consumer-focused smartphones, popularized by the entertainment-focused Nseries. Until 2010, Symbian was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system.WEB, Schroeder, Stan,weblink Smartphones in 2009: Symbian Dominates, iPhone, RIM and Android Rising Fast, Mashable, 23 February 2010, 3 September 2013,

Form factor and operating system shifts

File:IPhone_1st_Gen.svg|thumb|upright|The original Apple iPhone; its introduction led to the rise of smartphones that feature large touchscreen software interfaces without physical keypads]]The touchscreen PDA-derived nature of adapted operating systems like Palm OS, the "Pocket PC" versions of what was later Windows Mobile, and the UIQ interface that was originally designed for pen-based PDAs on Symbian OS devices resulted in some early smartphones having stylus-based interfaces. These allowed for virtual keyboards and/or handwriting input, thus also allowing easy entry of Asian characters.WEB, Whitwam, Ryan,weblink How Steve Jobs killed the stylus and made smartphones usable, ExtremeTech, 4 April 2018, By the mid-2000s, the majority of smartphones had a physical QWERTY keyboard. Most used a "keyboard bar" form factor, like the BlackBerry line, Windows Mobile smartphones, Palm Treos, and some of the Nokia Eseries. A few hid their full physical QWERTY keyboard in a sliding form factor, like the Danger Hiptop line. Some even had only a numeric keypad using T9 text input, like the Nokia Nseries and other models in the Nokia Eseries. Resistive touchscreens with stylus-based interfaces could still be found on a few smartphones, like the Palm Treos, which had dropped their handwriting input after a few early models that were available in versions with Grafitti instead of a keyboard.The late 2000s and early 2010s saw a shift in smartphone interfaces away from devices with physical keyboards and keypads to ones with large finger-operated capacitive touchscreens.WEB, Elgan, Mike, How iPhone Changed the World,weblink Cult of Mac, {{date, July 2, 2011, |accessdate={{date|10/17/2019}}}}The first phone of any kind with a large capacitive touchscreen was the LG Prada, announced by LG in December 2006.PRESS RELEASE,weblink LG, Prada to Start Selling Mobile Phone at Start of Next Year, December 11, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2007, This was a fashionable feature phone created in collaboration with Italian luxury designer Prada with a 3" 240x400 pixel screen.NEWS,weblink Vintage Mobiles: LG Prada - First mobile with a capacitive touchscreen (May 2007), Temple, Stephen, History of GMS: Birth of the mobile revolution, In January 2007 Apple Computer introduced the iPhone.VIDEO, Jobs, Steve, January 19, 2007,weblink Macworld San Francisco 2007 Keynote Address, San Francisco, Apple, Inc., dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2010, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Macworld Expo Keynote Live Update, Peter, Cohen, March 13, 2007, Macworld, July 21, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2010, PRESSRELEASE, Apple Reinvents the Phone with iPhone,weblink Apple Inc., {{date, Jan 09, 2007, |accessdate={{date|Oct 16, 2019}}}} It had a 3.5" capacitive touchscreen with twice the common resolution of most smartphone screens at the time,WEB, Louis, Tristan, The iPhone is here,weblink, {{date, January 9, 2007, |accessdate={{date|10/16/2019}}}} and introduced multi-touch to phones, which allowed gestures such as "pinching" to zoom in or out on photos, maps, and web pages. The iPhone was notable as being the first device of its kind targeted at the mass market to abandon the use of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical of contemporary smartphones, instead using a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction.The iPhone's operating system was also a shift away from previous ones that were adapted from PDAs and feature phones, to one powerful enough to avoid using a limited, stripped down web browser requiring pages specially formatted using technologies such as WML, cHTML, or XHTML that previous phones supported and instead run a version of Apple's Safari browser that could easily render full websitesNEWS, Walter S. Mossberg, Katherine Boehret, Walter Mossberg, The iPhone Is a Breakthrough Handheld Computer,weblink The Mossberg Solution, {{date, June 26, 2007, |quote=The iPhone is the first smart phone we've tested with a real, computer-grade Web browser, a version of Apple's Safari. It displays entire Web pages, in their real layouts, and allows you to zoom in quickly by either tapping or pinching with your finger.}}NEWS, Levy, Steven, First Look: Test Driving the iPhone,weblink Newsweek, {{date, 6/25/07, |accessdate={{date|10/16/2019}} |quote=Web-browsing is where the iPhone leaves competitors in the dust. It does the best job yet of compressing the World Wide Web on a palm-size device. The screen can nicely display an entire Web page, and by dragging, tapping, pinching and stretching your fingers you can zero in on the part of the page you want to read. Web pages you wouldn't dare go to on other phones are suddenly accessible}}NEWS, Ed Baig, iPhone Review,weblink USA Today, {{date, June 26, 2007, |accessdate={{date|10/16/2019}} |quote=This is the closest thing to the real-deal Internet that I've seen on a pocket-size device ... IPhone runs Apple's Safari browser. You can view full Web pages, then double-tap the screen to zoom in. Or pinch to make text larger. Sliding your finger moves the page around. Rotating iPhone lets you view a page widescreen.}} not specifically designed for phones.WEB, Shea, Dave, iMobile,weblink, {{date, January 09, 2007, |accessdate={{date|10/16/2019}} |quote=It doesn't run a stripped-down mobile browser that delivers a sub-par experience, it runs Safari - a customized version with special UI tweaks, but that's still WebKit under the hood. It will render your site the same way your desktop does.}}Later Apple shipped a software update that gave the iPhone a built-in on-device App Store allowing direct wireless downloads of third-party software.WEB, Geoff, Duncan, Apple confirms iPhone SDK coming next year,weblink Digital Trends, October 17, 2007, June 11, 2017, WEB, Steve Jobs confirms native iPhone SDK by February,weblink AppleInsider, October 17, 2007, June 11, 2017, This kind of centralized App Store and free developer toolsWEB, Jim, Dalrymple, Apple unveils iPhone SDK,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, March 6, 2008, June 11, 2017, WEB, Ryan, Block, Ryan Block, Live from Apple's iPhone SDK press conference,weblink Engadget, AOL, March 6, 2008, June 11, 2017, quickly became the new main paradigm for all smartphone platforms for software development, distribution, discovery, installation, and payment, in place of expensive developer tools that required official approval to use and a dependence on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms.The advantages of a design with software powerful enough to support advanced applications and a large capacitive touchscreen affected the development of another smartphone OS platform, Android, with a more BlackBerry-like prototype device scrapped in favor of a touchscreen device with a slide-out physical keyboard, as Google's engineers thought at the time that a touchscreen could not completely replace a physical keyboard and buttons.WEB, The Day Google Had to 'Start Over' on Android,weblink The Atlantic, 20 December 2013, WEB,weblink Google Buys Android for Its Mobile Arsenal, Elgin, Ben, 17 August 2005, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2011, live, 2012-02-20, WEB,weblink Google is working on a mobile OS, and it's due out shortly, Block, Ryan, Engadget, 28 August 2007, 2012-02-17, Android is based around a modified Linux kernel, again providing more power than mobile operating systems adapted from PDAs and feature phones. The first Android device, the HTC Dream, was released in September 2008,WEB,weblink All T-Mobile retail stores to carry G1, CNET, CBS Interactive, 17 June 2013, with both a 3.2" capacitive touchscreen and a hardware keyboard that was revealed when the user slid the screen open. By 2010 the majority of Android phones were touchscreen-only.The iPhone and later touchscreen-only Android devices together popularized the smartphone form factor based on a large capacitive touchscreen as the sole means of interaction, and led to the decline of earlier, keyboard- and keypad-focused platforms. Other smartphone manufacturers soon started projects to replace their existing operating systems with new ones that could support touch interfaces on larger screens and web browsers that could render full web pages. Microsoft, for instance, discontinued Windows Mobile and started a new touchscreen-oriented OS from scratch, called Windows Phone. Nokia abandoned Symbian and partnered with Microsoft to use Windows Phone on its smartphones. Palm replaced their Palm OS with webOS. BlackBerry Limited, formerly known as Research In Motion and known for phones with a full qwerty keyboard below the screen, made a new platform for touchscreen phones based on QNX, BlackBerry 10.By the mid-2010s, almost all smartphones were touchscreen-only and had discarded legacy mobile operating systems for more recently developed ones that were more powerful.

Developments in the 2010s

File:Apple iPhone X - front (8121).jpg|thumb|The iPhone XiPhone XFile:Huawei P30 Pro Rückseite.jpg|thumb|The Huawei P30 features three rear-facing camera lenses with (Leica Camera|Leica]] opticsWEB,weblink Huawei P30 Pro: The new benchmark for smartphone zoom, DPReview, 2019-04-10, )In the early 2010s, larger smartphones with screen sizes of at least 5.5 inches diagonal, dubbed "phablets", began to achieve popularity, with the 2011 Samsung Galaxy Note series gaining notably wide adoption.WEB,weblink 1 million Galaxy Notes shipped worldwide, US fans throw money at their screens, Mat Smith, Engadget, December 29, 2011, WEB, Samsung: 10M Galaxy Notes sold in nine months,weblink CNET, 18 January 2013, In 2013, Huawei launched the Huawei Mate series and it sports a 6.1-inch HD (1280 x 720) IPS+ LCD display, which was considered to be quite large back in the day.History Of The Huawei Mate Flagships May 2, 2019.


The first smartphone with a fingerprint reader was the Motorola Atrix 4G in 2011.WEB,weblink Fingerprint Scanner On Phones: History & Evolution, But Do We Really Need That?, Web cusp, In September 2013, the iPhone 5S was unveiled as the first smartphone on a major U.S. carrier since the Atrix to feature this technology.WEB,weblink Apple's new iPhone will read your fingerprint, The Verge, Casey, Newton, September 10, 2013, September 11, 2013,


In 2012, Samsung introduced the Galaxy S3 (GT-i9300) with retrofittable wireless charging, pop-up video playback, 4G-LTE variant (GT-i9305) quad-core processor.


In 2013, Fairphone launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturingNEWS, Why is Apple so shifty about how it makes the iPhone?,weblink September 24, 2013, The Guardian, September 23, 2013, George Monbiot, followed by Shiftphone in 2015.WEB,weblink So gut ist das erste Fairphone aus Deutschland, Schröder, Horst, 4 April 2016,, 5 September 2018, In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection.WEB, Quasar IV Encrypted Ninja Smartphone Goes Into Production, Despite Indiegogo Failure,weblink TechCrunch, Verizon Media, October 10, 2013, Darrell Etherington, October 10, 2013, Some companies began to release smartphones incorporating flexible displays to create curved form factors, such as the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex.WEB, Samsung's Galaxy Round is the first phone with a curved display,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 21 March 2017, WEB, LG G Flex appears on the FCC with AT&T-friendly LTE,weblink Engadget, 9 March 2014, WEB, LG G Flex announced with vertically curved 6-inch 720p screen, 'self-repairing' back cover,weblink Engadget, Verizon Media, 9 March 2014, In October 2013, Motorola Mobility announced Project Ara, a concept for a modular smartphone platform that would allow users to customize and upgrade their phones with add-on modules that attached magnetically to a frame.WEB, Byford, Sam, Motorola reveals ambitious plan to build modular smartphones,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 29 October 2013, 29 October 2013, WEB, Musil, Steven, Motorola unveils Project Ara for custom smartphones,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, 29 October 2013, 29 October 2013, Ara was retained by Google following its sale of Motorola Mobility to Lenovo,WEB, Pierce, David, Project Ara Lives: Google's Modular Phone Is Ready for You Now,weblink Wired (magazine), Wired, 20 May 2016, but was shelved in 2016.WEB, Google confirms the end of its modular Project Ara smartphone,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 2 September 2016, That year, LG and Motorola both unveiled smartphones featuring a limited form of modularity for accessories; the LG G5 allowed accessories to be installed via the removal of its battery compartment,WEB, LG G5 hands-on—LG may have made the most innovative phone of MWC,weblink Ars Technica, 21 February 2016, while the Moto Z utilizes accessories attached magnetically to the rear of the device.WEB, Motorola's new Moto Z ditches the headphone jack, adds hot-swapping magnetic modular accessories,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, 9 June 2016,


By 2014, 1440p displays began to appear on high-end smartphones.WEB,weblink Do you really need a 4K smartphone screen?, Steve Dent, February 18, 2014, In 2015, Sony released the Xperia Z5 Premium, featuring a 4K resolution display, although only images and videos could actually be rendered at that resolution (all other software is upscaled from 1080p).WEB, Sony's 4K smartphone shows most content in 1080p,weblink Engadget, 21 March 2017, Microsoft, expanding upon the concept of Motorola's short-lived "Webtop", unveiled functionality for its Windows 10 operating system for phones that allows supported devices to be docked for use with a PC-styled desktop environment.WEB, Inside Microsoft's Plan to Unlock the Full Power of Your Phone,weblink, 21 March 2017, WEB, Miller, Ross, Microsoft's new Display Dock transforms your Windows 10 mobile into a PC,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 6, 2015, Other major technologies began to trend in 2016, including a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies.WEB, 7 exciting smartphone trends to watch in 2016: VR, super-fast LTE, and more,weblink PC World, 21 March 2017, As of 2015, the global median for smartphone ownership was 43%.NEWS, This map shows the percentage of people around the world who own smartphones,weblink Business Insider, Statista forecast that 2.87 billion people would own smartphones in 2020.WEB, Number of smartphone users worldwide 2014-2020 {{!, Statista|url=|website=Statista|accessdate=23 May 2017}}


Samsung and LG used to be the “last standing” manufacturers to offer flagship devices with user-replaceable batteries.But in 2015, Samsung succumbed to the minimalism trend set by Apple, introducing the Galaxy S6 with a non-user-replaceable battery.In addition, Samsung was criticised for pruning long-standing features such as MHL, MicroUSB 3.0, water resistance and MicroSD card support, of which the latter two came back in 2016 with the Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge.


New trends for smartphone displays began to emerge in 2017, with both LG and Samsung releasing flagship smartphones (LG G6 and Galaxy S8), utilizing displays with taller aspect ratios than the common (16:9) ratio, and a high screen-to-body ratio, also known as “bezel-less design”. These designs allow the display to have a larger diameter, but with a slimmer width than 16:9 displays with an equivalent screen size.WEB, LG G6 With 5.7-Inch FullVision Display, Google Assistant Launched at MWC 2017,weblink Gadgets360, NDTV, 26 February 2017, WEB, The LG G6 is sleek, solid, and surprisingly sensible,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 26 February 2017, NEWS,weblink This is the Samsung Galaxy S8, coming April 21st, The Verge, 2018-10-04, Another trend popularized that year were displays that contained tab-like cut-outs at their top-centre—colloquially known as a "notch"—to contain the front-facing camera, and sometimes other sensors typically located along the top bezel of a device. These designs allow for "edge-to-edge" displays that take up nearly the entire height of the device, with little to no bezel along the top. This design characteristic was popularized by the Essential Phone (which featured a circular tab for its camera) and iPhone X (which used a wider tab to contain a camera and facial scanning system).NEWS,weblink Google thankfully bans Android phones with three notches or other exotic configurations, PCWorld, 2018-10-04, NEWS,weblink Why do Android phones want a notch?, Mathur, Vishal, 2018-04-29, Livemint, 2018-10-04, NEWS,weblink What was the first phone with a notch? Answer may surprise you, Petrov, Daniel, Phone Arena, 2018-10-04, WEB, Samuel, Axon, How app developers and designers feel about the iPhone X—and the notch,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, November 25, 2017, December 4, 2017, In 2018, the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced, followed in 2019 by an implementation using an ultrasonic sensor on the Samsung Galaxy S10.NEWS,weblink I tried the first phone with an in-display fingerprint sensor, The Verge, 2018-10-04, WEB,weblink Samsung officially announces the Galaxy S10 and S10 Plus, starting at $899, Seifert, Dan, 2019-02-20, The Verge, 2019-02-20, In 2019, 4.7-inches to 5.5 inches have become the industry standard size, with most companies abandoning smaller, under 4.7-inch displays.9 Best Small Android Smartphones Available Today July 9, 2019.(File:Flexible_display.jpg|thumb|An example of a flexible display)Smartphones with foldable displays were theorized as possible once manufacturing costs and production processes were feasible.WEB,weblink Bendable smartphones aren't coming anytime soon, King, Ian, 2013-12-15, The Sydney Morning Herald, 2019-02-05, In November 2018, the startup company Royole unveiled the first commercially available foldable smartphone, the Royole FlexPai. Also that month, Samsung presented a prototype phone featuring an "Infinity Flex Display" at its developers conference, with a smaller, outer display on its "cover", and a larger, tablet-sized display when opened. Samsung stated that it also had to develop a new polymer material to coat the display as opposed to glass.WEB,weblink The foldable phones are coming, Warren, Tom, 2018-11-08, The Verge, 2019-02-05, WEB,weblink We tried the world's first folding phone, and it actually works, Statt, Nick, 2018-11-05, The Verge, 2019-02-05, WEB,weblink This is Samsung's foldable smartphone, Warren, Tom, 2018-11-07, The Verge, 2019-02-05, Early examples of foldable phones from other manufacturers became the subject of rumors in early 2019;WEB,weblink How Much Would You Pay for a Foldable Smartphone?, Swearingen, Jake, 2019-01-29, Intelligencer, 2019-02-05, WEB,weblink Xiaomi's folding phone is the best we've seen so far, Warren, Tom, 2019-01-23, The Verge, 2019-02-05, Samsung officially announced the Galaxy Fold, based on the previously-demonstrated prototype, in February 2019 for an originally-scheduled release in late-April.WEB,weblink Samsung's foldable phone is finally official—meet the Galaxy Fold, Dunn, Jeff, 2019-02-20, Ars Technica, en-us, 2019-02-23,

Convergence with other devices

{{see also|Technological convergence}}The rise in popularity of touchscreen smartphones and mobile apps distributed via app stores along with rapidly advancing network, mobile processor, and storage technologies led to a convergence where separate mobile phones, organizers, and portable media players were replaced by a smartphone as the single device most people carried.WEB, Smartphones Sales Finally Overtake Feature Phones: 10 Reasons Why,weblink eWeek, 2013-08-15, Don, Reisinger, WEB,weblink Gartner Says Smartphone Sales Grew 46.5 Percent in Second Quarter of 2013 and Exceeded Feature Phone Sales for First Time, Rob van der Meulen & Janessa Rivera, 14 August 2013, WEB,weblink Smartphones Outsell Feature Phones, for the First Time, Cyrus Farivar, 14 August 2013, BOOK, CompTIA Strata Study Guide, Andrew Smith, Faithe Wempen, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-97742-2, 140, July 5, 2012,weblink WEB,weblink Smartphones Heavily Decrease Sales of iPod, MP3 Players, Tom's Hardware, 30 December 2012, WEB,weblink PMP needs to merge with cellphone, says Smartwork exec, Yu, Emily, EE Times Asia, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2008, dmy-all, 3 October 2007,

Feature range coverage

Initally, cameras in mobile phones had a low performance and insufficient image and video quality, that could not compete with budget pocket cameras and fullfill user's needs.Nokia 6111 (2005-06) review on GSM Arena.Over time, advances in digital camera sensors, on-device image processing software and hardware performance more gradually led to improved image and video quality, achieving 720p video recording in 2009, 1080p video recording in 2011, and even 2160p video recording in 2013.This led to smartphones replacing simpler cameras (low-budget pocket cameras) for photographs and video recording due to sufficient performance that can fullfill most customers requirements.WEB,weblink Smartphones killing point-and-shoots, now take almost 1/3 of photos, December 22, 2011, The built-in GPS capabilites and mapping apps on smartphones largely replaced stand-alone satellite navigation devices, and paper maps became less common. Mobile gaming on smartphones greatly grew in popularity,WEB, Wijman, Tom, Mobile Revenues Account for More Than 50% of the Global Games Market as It Reaches $137.9 Billion in 2018,weblink, Newzoo, 30 April 2018, 12 July 2018, allowing many people to use them in place of handheld game consoles, and some companies tried creating game console/phone hybrids based on phone hardware and software.WEB,weblink Xperia Play {{!, PlayStation certified Android mobile |accessdate={{Date |2011-02-14|mdy}} |publisher=Sony Ericsson |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=August 8, 2011 }}WEB,weblink Android handheld of the future. Not today., Lowe, Scott, IGN, July 30, 2013, July 31, 2013, People frequently have chosen not to get fixed-line telephone service in favor of smartphones.NEWS,weblink Milestone for cellphones vs. landline phones, CBS News, 4 May 2017, 30 May 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2017, WEB,weblink The Daily — Residential Telephone Service Survey, 2013, Statistics Canada, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-10-23, Music streaming apps and services have grown rapidly in popularity, serving the same use as listening to music stations on a terrestrial or satellite radio. Streaming video services are easily accessed via smartphone apps and can be used in place of watching television. People have often stopped wearing wristwatches in favor of checking the time on their smartphones, and many use the clock features on their phones in place of alarm clocks.WEB, Why Are Alarm Clocks Still a Thing?,weblink, Motherboard, 16 August 2018, en-us, 10 April 2015, Additionally, in many lesser technologically developed regions smartphones are people's first and only means of Internet access due to their portability,WEB,weblink ICT Facts and Figures 2005, 2010, 2016, Telecommunication Development Bureau, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 2015-05-24, with personal computers being relatively uncommon outside of business use. The cameras on smartphones can be used to photograph documents and send them via email or messaging in place of using fax (facsimile) machines. Payment apps and services on smartphones allow people to make less use of wallets, purses, credit and debit cards, and cash. Mobile banking apps can allow people to deposit checks simply by photographing them, eliminating the need to take the physical check to an ATM or teller. Guide book apps can take the place of paper travel and restaurant/business guides, museum brochures, and dedicated audio guide equipment.


Central processing unit

Smartphones have central processing units (CPUs), similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments.The performance of mobile CPU depends not only on the clock rate (generally given in multiples of hertz)WEB
, CPU Frequency
, CPU World Glossary
, CPU World
, 25 March 2008
, 1 January 2010, but also on the memory hierarchy. Because of these challenges, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications.


(File:Livraria do Senado (22622160063).jpg|thumb|A smartphone touchscreen)One of the main characteristics of smartphones is the screen. Depending on the device's design, the screen fills most or nearly all of the space on a device's front surface. Many smartphone displays have an aspect ratio of (16:9), but taller aspect ratios became more common in 2017.Screen sizes are measured in diagonal inches. Phones with screens larger than 5.2 inches are often called "phablets". Smartphones with screens over 4.5 inches in size are commonly difficult to use with only a single hand, since most thumbs cannot reach the entire screen surface; they may need to be shifted around in the hand, held in one hand and manipulated by the other, or used in place with both hands. Due to design advances, some modern smartphones with large screen sizes and "edge-to-edge" designs have compact builds that improve their ergonomics, while the shift to taller aspect ratios have resulted in phones that have larger screen sizes whilst maintaining the ergonomics associated with smaller 16:9 displays.WEB, Don't call it a phablet: the 5.5" Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge is narrower than many 5.2" devices,weblink PhoneArena, 3 April 2017, WEB, We're gonna need Pythagoras' help to compare screen sizes in 2017,weblink The Verge, 3 April 2017, WEB, The Samsung Galaxy S8 will change the way we think about display sizes,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 3 April 2017, Liquid-crystal displays are the most common; others are IPS, LED, OLED, and AMOLED displays. Some displays are integrated with pressure-sensitive digitizers, such as those developed by Wacom and Samsung,JOURNAL, Ward, J. R., Phillips, M. J., 1987-04-01, Digitizer Technology: Performance Characteristics and the Effects on the User Interface, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 7, 4, 31–44, 10.1109/MCG.1987.276869, 0272-1716, and Apple's Force Touch system.


Some audio quality enhancing features, such as Voice over LTE and HD Voice have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long distance calls.WEB,weblink Why Mobile Voice Quality Still Stinks—and How to Fix It, Jeff Hecht,, WEB,weblink Why Is Cell Phone Call Quality So Terrible?, Elena Malykhina,, Audio quality can be improved using a VoIP application over WiFi.WEB,weblink What's the Best Mobile VoIP App?, Alan Henry, Gawker Media, Lifehacker, Cellphones have small speakers so that the user can use a speakerphone feature and talk to a person on the phone without holding it to their ear. The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear.


(File:USB battery charger.jpg|thumb|A high-capacity portable battery charger)By the end of 2017, smartphone battery life has become generally adequate;WEB, 6 phones with the best battery life,weblink October 31, 2017, however, earlier smartphone battery life was poor due to the weak batteries that could not handle the significant power requirements of the smartphones' computer systems and color screens.WEB, J.D. Power and Associates Reports: Smartphone Battery Life has Become a Significant Drain on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty,weblink September 11, 2014, WEB, James, Kendrick,weblink The secret behind poor smartphone battery life, ZDNet, August 4, 2014, November 2, 2017, NEWS,weblink Peak Battery: Why Smartphone Battery Life Still Stinks, and Will for Years,, April 1, 2013, Smartphone users purchase additional chargers for use outside the home, at work, and in cars and by buying portable external "battery packs". External battery packs include generic models which are connected to the smartphone with a cable, and custom-made models that "piggyback" onto a smartphone's case. In 2016, Samsung had to recall millions of the Galaxy Note 7 smartphones due to an explosive battery issue.WEB,weblink Refurbished version of ill-fated Galaxy Note 7 will soon be available overseas, May 5, 2017, For consumer convenience, wireless charging stations have been introduced in some hotels, bars, and other public spaces.NEWS,weblink The Most Impactful New iPhone Feature May Be the Most Boring, WIRED, 2017-09-22, en-US,


A wide range of accessories are sold for smartphones, including cases, screen protectors, power charging cables, wireless power stations, USB On-The-Go adapters (for connecting USB drives and or, in some cases, a HDMI cable to an external monitor), add-on batteries, headphones, combined headphone-microphones (which, for example, allow a person to privately conduct calls on the device without holding it to the ear), and Bluetooth-enabled powered speakers that enable users to listen to media from their smartphones wirelessly.Cases range from relatively inexpensive rubber or soft plastic cases which provide moderate protection from bumps and good protection from scratches to more expensive, heavy-duty cases that combine a rubber padding with a hard outer shell. Some cases have a "book"-like form, with a cover that the user opens to use the device; when the cover is closed, it protects the screen. Some "book"-like cases have additional pockets for credit cards, thus enabling people to use them as wallets.Accessories include products sold by the manufacturer of the smartphone and compatible products made by other manufacturers.


Mobile operating systems

A mobile operating system (or mobile OS) is an operating system for phones, tablets, smartwatches, or other mobile devices.Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use; usually including, and most of the following considered essential in modern mobile systems; a touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi Protected Access, Wi-Fi, Global Positioning System (GPS) mobile navigation, video- and single-frame picture cameras, speech recognition, voice recorder, music player, near field communication, and infrared blaster. By Q1 2018, over 383 million smartphones were sold with 85.9 percent running Android, 14.1 percent running iOS and a negligible number of smartphones running other OSes.WEB,weblink Gartner Says Worldwide Sales of Smartphones Returned to Growth in First Quarter of 2018, May 29, 2018, Gartner, Inc., Gartner, August 25, 2018, Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, and in general smartphone use (even without tablets) exceeds desktop use.Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities (e.g., smartphones) contain two mobile operating systems{{snd}}the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.Thom Holwerda, OSNews, November 12, 2013, The second operating system hiding in every mobile phone {{webarchive|url= |date=November 13, 2013 }}

Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term "app" is a short-form of the term "software application".WEB,weblink What The Heck Is An "App"?, Small Business, Trends, Business Insider,

Application stores

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear. Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market (later renamed to the Google Play Store) and RIM's BlackBerry App World and Android-related app stores like F-Droid. In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development.W3C Interview: Vision Mobile on the App Developer Economy with Matos Kapetanakis and Dimitris Michalakos {{webarchive |url= |date=June 29, 2016 }}. February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2015.


Since 1996, smartphone shipments have had positive growth. In November 2011, 27% of all photographs created were taken with camera-equipped smartphones.WEB, Smartphones killing point-and-shoots, now take almost 1/3 of photos,weblink GIGAOM, GIGAOM, June 27, 2013, Erica Ogg, December 22, 2011, In September 2012, a study concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop online.WEB, comScore: 4 Out Of 5 Smartphone Owners Use Device To Shop; Amazon Is The Most Popular Mobile Retailer,weblink TechCrunch, AOL Inc, June 27, 2013, Leena Rao, September 19, 2012, Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013. Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013, up 38% from 2012's 725 million, while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013, up from 42% in 2012.WEB, Worldwide Smartphone Shipments Top One Billion Units for the First Time, According to IDC, IDC, January 2014,weblink January 27, 2014, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2014, ( via Wayback) In Q1 2016 for the first time the shipments dropped by 3 percent (:wikt:year-over-year|year on year). The situation was caused by the maturing China market.WEB,weblink It's not just Apple: Global smartphone market shrinks for the first time ever, Daniel van Boom, April 27, 2016, ">

By manufacturer{| class"wikitable"|+ Worldwide smartphones producers market share

!|Source!|Date!|Samsung !|Huawei !|Apple Inc. !|Xiaomi!|Oppo !|Others!|Reference
Gartner > PUBLISHER = GARTNER, November 11, 2018,
In 2011, Samsung had the highest shipment market share worldwide, followed by Apple. In 2013, Samsung had 31.3% market share, a slight increase from 30.3% in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3%, a decrease from 18.7% in 2012. Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5% each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40%, the same as the previous years figure. Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9%; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36–92%.WEB,weblink Smartphone sales may have topped 1 billion in 2013, depending on who you ask, Engadget, Jon Fingas, January 28, 2014, In Q1 2014, Samsung had a 31% share and Apple had 16%.WEB,weblink Xiaomi breaks into global top 10 for smartphone shipments, kicks out HTC, Steven Millward, May 13, 2014, September 9, 2014, Tech In Asia, In Q4 2014, Apple had a 20.4% share and Samsung had 19.9%.NEWS,weblink Apple beats Samsung in Q4 smartphone sales, Brett Molina and Marco della Cava, USA TODAY, March 3, 2015, USA TODAY, In Q2 2016, Samsung had a 22.3% share and Apple had 12.9%. In Q1 2017, IDC reported that Samsung was first placed, with 80 million units, followed by Apple with 50.8 million, Huawei with 34.6 million, Oppo with 25.5 million and Vivo with 22.7 million.WEB,weblink 6 of the world's top 10 smartphone brands are Chinese, Frank Hersey, 2017-07-04, 2017-07-07, technode, Samsung's mobile business is half the size of Apple's, by revenue. Apple business increased very rapidly in the years 2013 to 2017.WEB, Dunn, Jeff, 2017-02-28, Samsung introduced 10 times as many phones as Apple last year, but its mobile division made half as much revenue,weblink Business Insider,

By operating system

{{further|Mobile operating system#By operating system}}


{{see also|Mobile phone#Use}}


A 2012 University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common among owners of smartphones.WEB,weblink SMARTPHONES make TEENS have SEX with STRANGERS,, 2016-01-18, A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect sleep cycles.NEWS, Colaner, Seth, Your Tablet and Smartphone Could Be Ruining Your Sleep,weblink January 22, 2014, August 27, 2012, Some persons might become psychologically attached to smartphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the devices.Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Chavez, A. (2014). Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 290-297. A "smombie" (a combination of "smartphone" and "zombie") is a walking person using a smartphone and not paying attention as they walk, possibly risking an accident in the process, an increasing social phenomenon.NEWS,weblink Walkers hit by curse of the smombie, The Sunday Times, UK, Mark, Hookham, Isabel, Togoh, Alex, Yeates, 21 February 2016, 23 February 2016, The issue of slow-moving smartphone users led to the temporary creation of a "mobile lane" for walking in Chongqing, China.NEWS,weblink Chongqing's 'mobile lane', Celia, Hatton, BBC, BBC News, UK, 15 September 2014, 23 February 2016, The issue of distracted smartphone users led the city of Augsburg, Germany to embed pedestrian traffic lights in the pavement.Rick Noack (April 25, 2016) This city embedded traffic lights in the sidewalks so that smartphone users don’t have to look up The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 May 2016.

Mobile banking and payment

{{see also|Branchless banking|Contactless payment}}(File:Mobile payment 01.jpg|thumb|Mobile payment system.)In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies.Branchless banking has been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank, Bank Mandiri.NEWS,weblink Branchless banking to start in Bali, The Jakarta Post, 13 April 2012, 4 June 2012, Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet.WEB,weblink "Zidisha Set to "Expand" in Peer-to-Peer Microfinance", Microfinance Focus, Feb 2010,, 7 February 2010, 4 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 September 2012, Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999, the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe and Smart.Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication (NFC).WEB,weblink Mobile Payments: Look to Korea, Feig, Nancy,, 25 June 2007, 29 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2010, Enabling contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators, and retail merchants.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 24 January 2010, NFC mobile phone set to explode, Ready, Sarah,, 10 November 2009, 29 January 2011, WEB,weblink VISA Testing NFC Memory Cards for Wireless Payments, Tofel, Kevin C.,, 20 August 2010, 21 January 2011,

While driving

File:Hand held phones.JPG|thumb|right|A New York CityNew York City(File:Range Rover mapping app.jpg|thumb|A user consulting a mapping app on a phone)Mobile phone use while driving—including calling, text messaging, playing media, web browsing, gaming, using mapping apps or operating other phone features—is common but controversial, since it is widely considered dangerous due to what is known as distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 995 people were killed by drivers distracted by phones. In March 2011 a US insurance company, State Farm Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving.NEWS, Quit Googling yourself and drive: About 20% of drivers using Web behind the wheel, study says, Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2011,weblink Many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free calling on a mobile phone (which uses a speakerphone) is banned. In other countries including the UK and France and in many US states, only the use of calling on handheld phones is banned, while hands-free use is permitted.A 2011 study reported that over 90% of college students surveyed text (initiate, reply or read) while driving.JOURNAL, The Choice to Text and Drive in Younger Drivers: Behaviour May Shape Attitude, Atchley, Paul, January 2011, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 10.1016/j.aap.2010.08.003, Stephanie, Atwood, Boulton, Aaron, 43, 134–142, The scientific literature on the danger of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or texting while driving, is limited. A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting.WEB,weblink Text messaging not illegal but data clear on its peril, Due to the complexity of smartphones that began to grow more after, this has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav.File:NocellphonesSouthsidePlaceTX.JPG|thumb|A sign along Bellaire Boulevard in Southside Place, Texas ((Greater Houston]]) states that using mobile phones while driving is prohibited from 7:30 am to 9:00 am and from 2:00 pm to 4:15 pm)A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of phone use while cycling and its effects on behavior and safety.JOURNAL, de Waard, Dick, Schepers, Paul, Ormel, Wieke, Brookhuis, Karel, Mobile phone use while cycling: Incidence and effects on behaviour and safety, Ergonomics, 53, 1, January 2010, 30–42, 10.1080/00140130903381180, 20069479, 11370/1ad6e9a1-37c9-44fb-8978-65dbdce42456,weblink In 2013 a national survey in the US reported the number of drivers who reported using their phones to access the Internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four.WEB,weblink Drivers still Web surfing while driving, survey finds, A study conducted by the University of Vienna examined approaches for reducing inappropriate and problematic use of mobile phones, such as using phones while driving.JOURNAL,weblink Reaching the Mobile Respondent: Determinants of High-Level Mobile Phone Use Among a High-Coverage Group, Social Science Computer Review, 10.1177/0894439309353099, Accidents involving a driver being distracted by being in a call on a phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. In the United Kingdom, from 27 February 2007, motorists who are caught using a handheld phone while driving will have three penalty points added to their license in addition to the fine of £60.WEB,weblink BBC NEWS - UK - UK Politics - Drivers face new phone penalties,, This increase was introduced to try to stem the increase in drivers ignoring the law.WEB,weblink BBC NEWS - UK - Magazine - Careless talk,, Japan prohibits all use of phones while driving, including use of hands-free devices. New Zealand has banned handheld phone use since 1 November 2009. Many states in the United States have banned text messaging on phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law.NEWS,weblink CNN, Illinois to ban texting while driving -, May 12, 2010, August 6, 2009, As of July 2010, 30 states had banned texting while driving, with Kentucky becoming the most recent addition on July 15.NEWS,weblink Texting while driving ban, other new Kentucky laws take effect today, Stephanie, Steitzer, The Courier-Journal, July 14, 2010, July 15, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2013, Public Health Law Research maintains a list of distracted driving laws in the United States. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1992, when first law was passed through December 1, 2010. The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated (e.g., texting versus talking, hands-free versus handheld calls, web browsing, gaming), targeted populations, and exemptions.WEB,weblink Distracted Driving Laws, Public Health Law Research, 2011-07-15, 2014-06-27,


A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface{{nsmdns}}and possibly the hardware{{nsmdns}}of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple Inc., Samsung, Microsoft, Nokia, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others. The conflict is part of the wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations. To secure and increase market share, companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers. Since the 2010s the number of lawsuits, counter-suits, and trade complaints based on patents and designs in the market for smartphones, and devices based on smartphone OSes such as Android and iOS, has increased significantly. Initial suits, countersuits, rulings, license agreements, and other major events began in 2009 as the smartphone market stated to grow more rapidly by 2012.


Some apps allows for sending and receiving facsimile (Fax), over a smartphone, including facsimile data (composed of raster bi-level graphics) generated directly and digitally from document and image file formats.


With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications. These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice.JOURNAL, Yetisen, A. K., Martinez-Hurtado, J. L., etal, 2014, The regulation of mobile medical applications, Lab on a Chip, 14, 5, 833–840, 10.1039/C3LC51235E, 24425070,


Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store.Mobile Malware Development Continues To Rise, Android Leads The Way.BOOK, 8th International Conference on Trust, Privacy & Security in Digital Business (TRUSTBUS-2011), 2011, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 49–61, Mylonas Alexios, Tsoumas Bill, Dritsas Stelios, Gritzalis Dimitris, Often, malware is hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through third-party app stores.WEB,weblink The Mother Of All Android Malware Has Arrived, Android Police, March 6, 2011, WEB, Perez, Sarah,weblink Android Vulnerability So Dangerous, Owners Warned Not to Use Phone's Web Browser,, February 12, 2009, August 8, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 10, 2011, mdy-all, Malware risk also comes from what is known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated.WEB,weblink Lookout, Retrevo warn of growing Android malware epidemic, note Apple's iOS is far safer,, August 3, 2011, January 5, 2012, As well, one out of three robberies in 2012 in the United States involved the theft of a mobile phone. An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices.WEB,weblink Plea urges anti-theft phone tech, The San Francisco Examiner, In 2014, Apple's "Find my iPhone" and Google's "Android Device Manager" can locate, disable, and wipe the data from phones that have been lost or stolen. With BlackBerry Protect in OS version 10.3.2, devices can be rendered unrecoverable to even BlackBerry's own Operating System recovery tools if incorrectly authenticated or dissociated from their account.WEB,weblink Getting started with Anti-Theft Protection in BlackBerry 10 OS version 10. - Inside BlackBerry Help Blog,, 2016-01-18, Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013–2016, detail the capabilities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones (including iOS and Android).WEB,weblink Vault 7: Wikileaks reveals details of CIA's hacks of Android, iPhone Windows, Linux, MacOS, and even Samsung TVs, Computing (magazine), Computing, 7 March 2017, NEWS,weblink How the CIA Can Hack Your Phone, PC, and TV (Says WikiLeaks), Greenberg, Andy, 2017-03-07, WIRED, en-US, Guidelines for mobile device security were issued by NISTJOURNAL,weblink Guidelines for Managing the Security of Mobile Devices in the Enterprise, June 21, 2013, Murugiah P. Souppaya, Karen A. Scarfone, Special Publication (NIST SP) - 800-124 Rev 1, 10.6028/NIST.SP.800-124r1, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and many other organizations. For conducting a private, in-person meeting, at least one site recommends that the user switch the smartphone off and disconnect the battery.WEB,weblink Use Your Smartphone As Securely As Possible, Security in-a-box,


Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the blue light and brightly lit screen, which affects melatonin levels and sleep cycles. In an effort to alleviate these issues, several apps that change the color temperature of a screen to a warmer hue based on the time of day to reduce the amount of blue light generated have been developed for Android, while iOS 9.3 integrated similar, system-level functionality known as "Night Shift". Amazon released a feature known as "blue shade" in their Fire OS "Bellini" 5.0 and later. It has also been theorized that for some users, addicted use of their phones, especially before they go to bed, can result in "ego depletion". Many people also use their phones as alarm clocks, which can also lead to loss of sleep.WEB, Stop your gadgets from keeping you awake at night,weblink CNET, 1 June 2016, Kalsbeek, Andries (2012). The Neurobiology of Circadian Timing Elsevier. pp. 382.WEB, Luisa Dillner,weblink Should I keep my smartphone and tablet out of my bedroom?, The Guardian, June 17, 2014, WEB,weblink Are smartphones disrupting your sleep?, ScienceDaily, June 17, 2014, NEWS, Mahesh Sharma,weblink Switching off your smartphone at night makes you more productive,, June 17, 2014,

Bokeh cameras

Smaller pocket cameras have difficulty producing bokeh in images, but nowadays, some smartphones have dual-lens cameras that reproduce the bokeh effect easily, and can even rearrange the level of bokeh after shooting. This works by capturing multiple images with different focus settings, then combining the background of the main image with a macro focus shot.The iPhone 7 Plus debuted with a dual-lens camera in the back of the smartphone.WEB,weblink Here's what 'bokeh' is, and how the iPhone 7 Plus fakes it, March 30, 2018, More advanced smartphones may come with 'quad cameras', or two dual-lens cameras such as the Honor 9 Lite smartphone. The back and front of the smartphone each have a 13MP main lens and a 2MP lens for capturing depth information.WEB,weblink Honor 9 Lite review: four lenses on a budget, ABHISHEK BAXI, March 30, 2018, February 8, 2018, The Evercoss U50A Max smartphone has 4 cameras, and costs less than $100.WEB,weblink Saingi Nova 2i, Evercoss U50A Max Usung 4 Kamera, Khoirunnisa, March 30, 2018, February 20, 2018, Huawei P20 Pro smartphone with triple lenses in the back of the smartphone has been launched as bokeh camera smartphone with optical zoom. First lens has 40MP RGB, second lens has 20MP monochrome and third lens has 8MP RGB telephoto 3x. The zoom can be enhanced to 5x with combination of the optical zoom and megapixel lens 40MP RGB to produce undeteriorated (optical+digital) zoom or digital zoom without loss of quality.WEB,weblink Huawei P20 Pro review, Andy Boxall, June 4, 2018, The advantage of using multiple cameras is utilizing more of the horizontal space in a mobile phone, which is more abundant than the thickness, the latter being more abundant in real cameras that feature physical optical zoom.

See also

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External links

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