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{{redirects here|1=WIFI|2=the radio station|3=WIFI (AM)}}{{redirect|Wireless Internet|mobile wireless Internet|Mobile broadband}}

{{Antennas|systems}}Wi-Fi or WiFi ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|w|aɪ|f|aɪ}}'Why-Fi' or 'Wiffy'? How Americans Pronounce Common Tech Terms Megan Garber Jun 23, 2014) is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. Wi{{nbh}}Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing.WEB,weblink What is Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11x)? A Webopedia Definition,, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-03-08, Devices that can use Wi-Fi technology include personal computers, video-game consoles, smartphones and tablets, digital cameras, smart TVs, digital audio players and modern printers. Wi-Fi compatible devices can connect to the Internet via a WLAN and a wireless access point. Such an access point (or hotspot) has a range of about {{convert|20|m|ft|abbr=off|sp=us}} indoors and a greater range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres achieved by using multiple overlapping access points.(File:Wi-Fi.gif|thumb|Depiction of a device sending information wirelessly to another device, both connected to the local network, in order to print a document)Wi-Fi most commonly uses the {{convert|2.4|GHz|cm}} UHF and {{convert|5.8|GHz|cm|sigfig=1}} SHF ISM radio bands, these bands are subdivided into multiple channels. Each channel can be time-shared by multiple networks. These wavelengths work best for line-of-sight. Many common materials absorb or reflect them, which further restricts range, but can tend to help minimise interference between different networks in crowded environments. At close range, some versions of Wi-Fi, running on suitable hardware{{dn|date=July 2018}} can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbps.Anyone within range with a wireless network interface controller can attempt to access a network; because of this, Wi-Fi is more vulnerable to attack (called eavesdropping) than wired networks. Wi-Fi Protected Access is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. Security features of Wi-Fi Protected Access have included stronger protections and new security practices as the security landscape has changed over time.


In 1971, ALOHAnet connected the Hawaiian Islands with a UHF wireless packet network. ALOHAnet and the ALOHA protocol were early forerunners to Ethernet, and later the IEEE 802.11 protocols, respectively.A 1985 ruling by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission released the ISM band for unlicensed use.WEB,weblink txt, Authorization of Spread Spectrum Systems Under Parts 15 and 90 of the FCC Rules and Regulations, Federal Communications Commission of the USA, June 18, 1985, 2007-08-31, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2007, These frequency bands are the same ones used by equipment such as microwave ovens and are subject to interference.In 1991, NCR Corporation with AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11, intended for use in cashier systems, under the name WaveLAN.The Australian radio-astronomer Dr John O'Sullivan with his colleagues Terence Percival, Graham Daniels, Diet Ostry, and John DeaneWEB, Ross Greenwood,weblink So just what’s the big idea anyway?,, November 3, 2014, no,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2015, developed a key patent used in Wi-Fi as a by-product of a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) research project, "a failed experiment to detect exploding mini black holes the size of an atomic particle".WEB, Phil Mercer,weblink Wi-fi, dual-flush loos and eight more Australian inventions, BBC News, August 11, 2012, no,weblink" title="">weblink January 2, 2016, Dr O'Sullivan and his colleagues are credited with inventing Wi-Fi.WEB, WATCH: 5G WiFi Will Help Integrate Wireless Networking Into Everyday Lives,weblink, 11 June 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2016, WEB, European Inventor Award: High-speed wireless networking,weblink, 11 June 2017, no,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2017, In 1992 and 1996, CSIRO obtained patents{{patent|EP|0599632}} for a method later used in Wi-Fi to "unsmear" the signal.NEWS, David, Sygall,weblink How Australia's top scientist earned millions from Wi-Fi, The Sydney Morning Herald, December 7, 2009, no,weblink" title="">weblink September 17, 2011, The first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, and provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, and this proved to be popular.In 1999, the Wi-Fi Alliance formed as a trade association to hold the Wi-Fi trademark under which most products are sold.WEB, Wi-Fi Alliance: Organization, Official industry association Web site,weblink August 23, 2011, no,weblink" title="">weblink September 3, 2009, Wi-Fi uses a large number of patents held by many different organizations.IEEE-SA – IEEE 802.11 and Amendments Patent Letters of Assurance {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-04-10 }} In April 2009, 14 technology companies agreed to pay CSIRO $1 billion for infringements on CSIRO patents.NEWS,weblink CSIRO to reap 'lazy billion' from world's biggest tech companies, Moses, Asher, June 1, 2010, The Age, 8 June 2010, Melbourne, no,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2010, This led to Australia labeling Wi-Fi as an Australian invention,WEB,weblink World changing Aussie inventions – Australian Geographic, Australian Geographic, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-12-15, though this has been the subject of some controversy.WEB,weblink How the Aussie government "invented WiFi" and sued its way to $430 million, Ars Technica, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-05-08, NEWS,weblink CBS News, Australia's Biggest Patent Troll Goes After AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-06, CSIRO won a further $220 million settlement for Wi-Fi patent-infringements in 2012 with global firms in the United States required to pay the CSIRO licensing rights estimated to be worth an additional $1 billion in royalties.WEB,weblink Australian scientists cash in on Wi-Fi invention, The Sydney Morning Herald, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-01, WEB,weblink CSIRO wins legal battle over wi-fi patent, ABC News, In 2016, the wireless local area network Test Bed was chosen as Australia's contribution to the exhibition A History of the World in 100 Objects held in the National Museum of Australia.NEWS,weblink CSIRO Wi-Fi invention to feature in upcoming exhibition at National Museum of Australia, Sibthorpe, Clare, 4 August 2016, The Canberra Times, 4 August 2016, no,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2016,


The name Wi-Fi, commercially used at least as early as August 1999,WEB, Statement of Use, s/n 75799629, US Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Status and Document Retrieval,weblink August 23, 2005, 2014-09-21, first used the Certification Mark … as early as August 1999, no,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2015, was coined by the brand-consulting firm Interbrand. The Wi-Fi Alliance had hired Interbrand to create a name that was "a little catchier than 'IEEE 802.11b Direct Sequence'."WEB,weblink, WiFi isn't short for "Wireless Fidelity", 2005-11-08, 2012-12-21, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-12-21, WEB,weblink Wi-Fi Planet, Wireless Fidelity' Debunked, 2007-04-27, 2007-08-31,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2007, Phil Belanger, a founding member of the Wi-Fi Alliance who presided over the selection of the name "Wi-Fi", has stated that Interbrand invented Wi-Fi as a pun upon the word hi-fi.WEB,weblink WiFi isn't short for "Wireless Fidelity", November 8, 2005, May 26, 2017, Doctorow, Cory Doctorow, Cory, Boing Boing, no,weblink" title="">weblink June 20, 2017, Interbrand also created the Wi-Fi logo. The yin-yang Wi-Fi logo indicates the certification of a product for interoperability.The Wi-Fi Alliance used the nonsense advertising slogan "The Standard for Wireless Fidelity" for a short time after the brand name was created.WEB,weblink Securing Wi-Fi Wireless Networks with Today’s Technologies, February 6, 2003, Wi-Fi Alliance, June 25, 2015, no,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2015, WEB,weblink WPA Deployment Guidelines for Public Access Wi-Fi Networks, 2004-10-28, Wi-Fi Alliance, 2009-11-30, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2007, The name was, however, never officially "Wireless Fidelity".WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-11-15, no,weblink 2016-11-16, Nevertheless, the Wi-Fi Alliance was also called the "Wireless Fidelity Alliance Inc" in some publicationsBOOK, HTC S710 User Manual, 2006, High Tech Computer Corp., 2, Wi-Fi is a registered trademark of the Wireless Fidelity Alliance, Inc., and the IEEE's own website has stated "WiFi is a short name for Wireless Fidelity".WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-10-16, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-08-29, (originally published 2006)Non-Wi-Fi technologies intended for fixed points, such as Motorola Canopy, are usually described as fixed wireless. Alternative wireless technologies include mobile phone standards, such as 2G, 3G, 4G, and LTE.The name is sometimes written as WiFi, Wifi, or wifi, but these are not approved by the Wi-Fi Alliance.

Wi-Fi ad-hoc mode

Wi-Fi nodes operating in ad-hoc mode refers to devices talking directly to each other without the need to first talk to an access point (also known as base station). Ad-hoc mode was first invented and realized by Chai K. Toh in his 1996 invention of Wi-Fi ad-hoc routing, implemented on Lucent WaveLAN 802.11a wireless on IBM ThinkPads over a size nodes scenario spanning a region of over a mile. The success was recorded in Mobile Computing magazine (1999)WEB,weblink Mobile Computing Magazines and Print Publications,, 2017-12-19, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-04-26, and later published formally in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2002JOURNAL,weblink Evaluating the Communication Performance of an Ad Hoc Mobile Network, IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, 1, 3, 2002, no,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-08-05, and ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, 2001.JOURNAL,weblink Experimenting with an Ad Hoc Wireless Network on Campus: Insights & Experiences, ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, 28, 3, 2001,

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