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social media
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{{short description|Internet services for sharing personal information and ideas}}(File:Social media icon.png|alt=|thumb|Pictured are various social media icons.)Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available introduces challenges of definition; however, there are some common features:JOURNAL, Obar, Jonathan A., Wildman, Steve, Social media definition and the governance challenge: An introduction to the special issue, Telecommunications Policy, 2015, 39, 9, 745–750, 10.1016/j.telpol.2015.07.014, 2647377,
  1. Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.JOURNAL, Kaplan Andreas M., Haenlein Michael, 2010, Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media,weblink Business Horizons, 53, 1, 61, 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003,
  2. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media.
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.
Users usually access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people interact and communicate or stand with the votes. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals."JOURNAL, Kietzmann, Jan H., Kristopher Hermkens, Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media, Business Horizons, 2011, 54, 3, 241–251, 10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005,weblink Submitted manuscript, These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media (e.g., magazines and newspapers) and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting, Radio broadcasting in many ways, including quality,JOURNAL, Agichtein, Eugene, Carlos Castillo. Debora Donato, Aristides Gionis, Gilad Mishne, Finding high-quality content in social media, WISDOM – Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 2008, 183–193,weblink reach, frequency, interactivity, usability, immediacy, and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system (many sources to many receivers).BOOK, Pavlik & MacIntoch, John and Shawn, 2015, Converging Media 4th Edition, New York, NY, Oxford University Press, 189, 978-0-19-934230-3, This is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a mono-logic transmission model (one source to many receivers), such as a newspaper which is delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Weibo, Twitter, Tumblr, Telegram, Reddit, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, MeWe, and VK.Observers have noted a range of positive and negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments.

History

File:Interface Message Processor Front Panel.jpg|thumb|left|240px|Front panel of the late-1960s-era ARPANETARPANETSocial media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country.WEB, The definitive history of social media,weblink The Daily Dot, online, September 11, 2016, 2018-02-05, The PLATO system launched in 1960, which was developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowd-sourced online newspaper and blog; and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers.(File:The IMP Log The Very First Message Sent on the Internet (6293913865).jpg|thumb|right|200px|IMP log for the first message sent over the Internet, using ARPANET.)ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette (or "netiquette") described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.WEB, Stacy, Christopher C., September 7, 1982, Getting Started Computing at the AI Lab, Working Paper 235, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory,weblink no,weblink 2019-03-23, ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980.A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS), known as Community Memory, had already appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, and similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone.WEB, Benj Edwards, The Lost Civilization of Dial-Up Bulletin Board Systems,weblink The Atlantic, online, November 4, 2016, 2018-02-05,
Message forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. When the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks.
GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997. According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the very first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users.WEB,weblink Then and now: a history of social networking sites, www.cbsnews.com, CBS news, 2018-01-26, Open Diary was launched in October 1998; LiveJournal in April 1999; Ryze in October 2001; Friendster in March 2002; the corporate and job-oriented site LinkedIn in May 2003; hi5 in June 2003; MySpace in August 2003; Orkut in January 2004; Facebook in February 2004; Yahoo! 360° in March 2005; Bebo in July 2005; the text-based service Twitter, in which posts, called "tweets", were limited to 140 characters, in July 2006; Tumblr in February 2007; and Google+ in July 2011.WEB, Then and now: a history of social networking sites,weblink CBS News, online, February 4, 2014, 2018-02-05, WEB, History and Different Types of Social Media,weblink University of Southern California, online, 2018-02-05, WEB, Barbara Ortutay, Beyond Facebook: A look at social network history,weblink Associated Press, online, May 19, 2012, 2018-05-11,

Definition and classification

The variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them. However, marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media includes the following 13 types of social media: blogs, business networks, collaborative projects, enterprise social networks, forums, microblogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, and virtual worlds.The idea that social media are defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad, as this would suggest that fundamentally different technologies like the telegraph and telephone are also social media.JOURNAL, Schejter, A.M., Tirosh, N., "Seek the meek, seek the just": Social media and social justice, Telecommunications Policy, 2015, 39, 9, 796–803, 10.1016/j.telpol.2015.08.002, The terminology is unclear, with some early researchers referring to social media as social networks or social networking services in the mid 2000s.JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 1, 210–30, 2007, boyd, danah m., Ellison, Nicole B., A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four common features unique to then-current social media services:
  1. Social media are Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.
  2. User-generated content (UGC) is the lifeblood of the social media organism.
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups.
In 2019, Merriam-Webster defined "social media" as "forms of electronic communication (such as websites for social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos)"WEB,weblink Definition of SOCIAL MEDIA, File:Importance of social media for different corporate functions.png|thumb|Classification of social media and overview of how important different types of social media (e.g. blogs) are for each of a company's operational functions (e.g. marketingmarketingThe development of social media started off with simple platforms such as sixdegrees.com.BOOK, Kirkpatrick, David, The Facebook effect: the real inside story of Mark Zuckerberg and the world's fastest-growing company, 2011, Virgin, London, Unlike instant messaging clients, such as ICQ and AOL's AIM, or chat clients like IRC, iChat or Chat Television, sixdegrees.com was the first online business that was created for real people, using their real names. The first social networks were short-lived, however, because their users lost interest. The Social Network Revolution has led to the rise of networking sites. ResearchWEB, Nielsen Company, Social Networks Blogs Now Account for One in Every Four and a Half Minutes Online,weblink Nielsen, 2015-04-30, shows that the audience spends 22% of their time on social networks, thus proving how popular social media platforms have become. This increase is because of the widespread daily use of smartphones.WEB,weblink Cell phones, Metzger, Justin, April 4, 2016, Social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself and form friendships as well as the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.JOURNAL, O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin, Clarke-Pearson, Kathleen, Media, Council on Communications and, April 1, 2011, The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families,weblink Pediatrics, en, 127, 4, 800–804, 10.1542/peds.2011-0054, 0031-4005, 21444588, Networked individuals create, edit, and manage content in collaboration with other networked individuals. This way they contribute to expanding knowledge. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.

Mobile social media

(File: Young people texting on smartphones using thumbs.JPG|thumb|The heavy usage of smartphones among young people relates to the significant percentage of social media users who are from this demographic.)Mobile social media refer to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Mobile social media are a useful application of mobile marketing because the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content can assist companies with marketing research, communication, and relationship development.JOURNAL, Kaplan, Andreas M., If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4x4, Business Horizons, March–April 2012, 55, 2, 129–139, 10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.009, Mobile social media differ from others because they incorporate the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages (time-sensitivity). According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be differentiated among four types:
  1. Space-timers (location and time sensitive): Exchange of messages with relevance mostly for one specific location at one specific point in time (e.g. Facebook Places WhatsApp; Foursquare)
  2. Space-locators (only location sensitive): Exchange of messages, with relevance for one specific location, which is tagged to a certain place and read later by others (e.g. Yelp; Qype, Tumblr, Fishbrain)
  3. Quick-timers (only time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices to increase immediacy (e.g. posting Twitter messages or Facebook status updates)
  4. Slow-timers (neither location nor time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g. watching a YouTube video or reading/editing a Pseudopedia article)

Elements and function

Viral content

Some social media sites have potential for content posted there to spread virally over social networks. The term is an analogy to the concept of viral infections, which can spread rapidly from person to person. In a social media context, content or websites that are "viral" (or which "go viral") are those with a greater likelihood that users will reshare content posted (by another user) to their social network, leading to further sharing. In some cases, posts containing popular content or fast-breaking news have been rapidly shared and reshared by a huge number of users. Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users reshare content, such as Twitter's retweet button, Pinterest's pin function, Facebook's share option or Tumblr's reblog function. Businesses have a particular interest in viral marketing tactics because a viral campaign can achieve widespread advertising coverage (particularly if the viral reposting itself makes the news) for a fraction of the cost of a traditional marketing campaign, which typically uses printed materials, like newspapers, magazines, mailings, and billboards, and television and radio commercials. Nonprofit organizations and activists may have similar interests in posting content on social media sites with the aim of it going viral. A popular component and feature of Twitter are retweeting. Twitter allows other people to keep up with important events, stay connected with their peers, and can contribute in various ways throughout social media.ARXIV, 1106.0346, Entropy-based Classification of 'Retweeting' Activity on Twitter, Ghosh, Rumi, June 2011, cs.SI, When certain posts become popular, they start to get retweeted over and over again, becoming viral. Hashtags can be used in tweets, and can also be used to take count of how many people have used that hashtag.

Bots

Social media can enable companies to get in the form of greater market share and increased audiences.JOURNAL, Castronovo, Cristina, 2012, Social Media in Alternative Marketing Communication Model, Journal of Marketing Development & Competitivness, 6, 117–136, Internet bots have been developed which facilitate social media marketing. Bots are automated programs that run over the Internet.WEB,weblink the definition of bots, Dictionary.com, 2017-05-11, Chatbots and social bots are programmed to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on social media platforms.Rodrigo, S. and Abraham, J. (2012). Development and Implementation of a Chat Bot in a Social Network. 2012 Ninth International Conference on Information Technology - New Generations. A new industry of bot providers has been created.WEB,weblink Global chatbot market 2015-2024 {{!, Statistic|website=Statista|language=en|access-date=2017-05-11}} Social bots and chatbots have created an analytical crisis in the marketing industryJOURNAL,weblink Data Not Seen: The uses and shortcomings of social media metrics, First Monday, 18, 10, Baym, Nancy K., October 7, 2013, as they make it difficult to differentiate between human interactions and automated bot interactions. Some bots are negatively affecting their marketing data causing a "digital cannibalism" in social media marketing. Additionally, some bots violate the terms of use on many social mediums such as Instagram, which can result in profiles being taken down and banned.WEB,weblink Terms of Use {{!, Instagram Help Center|website=help.instagram.com|language=en|access-date=2017-06-26}}"Cyborgs", a combination of a human and a bot,Stone-Gross, B., Holz, T., Stringhini, G., & Vigna, G. (2011). The Underground Economy of Spam: A Botmaster's Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam Campaigns. LEET, 11, 4-4.House, A. (2014). The Real Cyborgs. Retrieved from:weblink are used to spread fake news or create a marketing "buzz".Schreckinger, B.,. "Inside Trump's 'cyborg' Twitter army", Politico, September 30, 2016 (retrieved May 10, 2017) Cyborgs can be bot-assisted humans or human-assisted bots.Chu, Z., Gianvecchio, S., Wang, H., & Jajodia, S. (2012). Detecting automation of Twitter accounts: Are you a human, bot, or cyborg?. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 9(6), 811-824. An example is a human who registers an account for which they set automated programs to post, for instance, tweets, during their absence.There has been speculation{{by whom|date=May 2019}} that social media has become perceived as a trustworthy source of information by a large number of people.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}} The continuous interpersonal connectivity on social media, for example, may lead to people regarding peer recommendations as indicators of the reliability of information sources. This trust can be exploited by marketers, who can utilize consumer-created content about brands and products to influence public perceptions.WEB, Dickey, Irene J., Lewis, William F., The Evolution (Revolution) of Social Media and Social Networking as a Necessary Topic in the Marketing Curriculum: A Case for Integrating Social Media into Marketing Classes,weblink University of Dayton, Department of Management and Marketing – eCommons, 2017-11-14, 2010, Management and Marketing Faculty Publications, Paper 32, NEWS, Confessore, Nicholas, The Follower Factory,weblink The New York Times, January 27, 2018, Evgeny Morozov, a 2009–2010 Yahoo fellow at Georgetown University, contended that information uploaded to Twitter may have little relevance to the masses of people who do not use Twitter. In an article for the magazine Dissent titled "Iran: Downside to the 'Twitter Revolution'", Morozov wrote:{{blockquote |[B]y its very design Twitter only adds to the noise: it's simply impossible to pack much context into its 140 characters. All other biases are present as well: in a country like Iran it's mostly pro-Western, technology-friendly and iPod-carrying young people who are the natural and most frequent users of Twitter. They are a tiny and, most important, extremely untypical segment of the Iranian population (the number of Twitter users in Iran — a country of more than seventy million people — was estimated at less than twenty thousand before the protests).JOURNAL, Morozov, Evgeny, Iran: Downside to the 'Twitter Revolution', Dissent (American magazine), Dissent, Fall 2009, 56, 4, 10–14, 10.1353/dss.0.0092,weblink }}In contrast, in the United States (where Twitter originated), the social network had 306 million accounts {{as of|2012|lc=y}}.Media Bistro (2012). The number of accounts, though sizable in proportion to the U.S. population{{synthesis inline|date=May 2019}} of 314.7 million in 2012,"U.S. POPClock Projection". United States Census Bureau. 2012. may not be fairly comparable, since an undisclosed number of Twitter users operate multiple accounts.{{original research inline|date=May 2019}}Professor Matthew Auer of Bates College casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that social media are open and participatory. He also speculates on the emergence of "anti-social media" used as "instruments of pure control."JOURNAL, Auer, Matthew R., 2011, The Policy Sciences of Social Media, Policy Studies Journal, 39, 4, 709–736, 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00428.x, 1974080,

Criticism of data harvesting on Facebook

On April 10, 2018, in a hearing held in response to revelations of data harvesting by Cambridge Analytica, Mark Zuckerberg, the Facebook chief executive, faced questions from senators on a variety of issues, from privacy to the company's business model and the company's mishandling of data. This was Mr. Zuckerberg's first appearance before Congress, prompted by the revelation that Cambridge Analytica, a political consulting firm linked to the Trump campaign, harvested the data of an estimated 87 million Facebook users to psychologically profile voters during the 2016 election. Zuckerburg was pressed to account for how third-party partners could take data without users’ knowledge. Lawmakers grilled the 33-year-old executive on the proliferation of so-called fake news on Facebook, Russian interference during the 2016 presidential election and censorship of conservative media.NEWS,weblink Mark Zuckerberg Testimony: Senators Question Facebook’s Commitment to Privacy, Times, The New York, 2018-06-13, en,

Critique of activism

For Malcolm Gladwell, the role of social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, in revolutions and protests is overstated.WEB,weblink Malcolm Gladwell, Small Changes – Why the revolution will not be tweeted, October 4, 2010, 2012-11-15, On one hand, social media make it easier for individuals, and in this case activists, to express themselves. On the other hand, it is harder for that expression to have an impact. Gladwell distinguishes between social media activism and high risk activism, which brings real changes. Activism and especially high-risk activism involves strong-tie relationships, hierarchies, coordination, motivation, exposing oneself to high risks, making sacrifices. Gladwell discusses that social media are built around weak ties and he argues that "social networks are effective at increasing participation — by lessening the level of motivation that participation requires". According to him "Facebook activism succeeds not by motivating people to make a real sacrifice, but by motivating them to do the things that people do when they are not motivated enough to make a real sacrifice".Disputing Gladwell's theory, in the study "Perceptions of Social Media for Politics: Testing the Slacktivism Hypothesis," Kwak and colleagues conducted a survey which found that people who are politically expressive on social media are also more likely to participate in offline political activity.JOURNAL, Kwak, Nojin, Lane, Daniel S, Weeks, Brian E, Kim, Dam Hee, Lee, Slgi S, Bachleda, Sarah, April 1, 2018, Perceptions of Social Media for Politics: Testing the Slacktivism Hypothesis, Human Communication Research, 44, 2, 197–221, 10.1093/hcr/hqx008, 0360-3989,

Ownership of content

Social media content is generated through social media interactions done by the users through the site. There has always been a huge debate on the ownership of the content on social media platforms because it is generated by the users and hosted by the company. Added to this is the danger to security of information, which can be leaked to third parties with economic interests in the platform, or parasites who comb the data for their own databases.WEB,weblink Jones, Harvey, Soltren, José Hiram, Facebook: Threats to Privacy, MIT Computer Science & Artificial Intelligence Lab, 2005, 2018-04-04, The author of Social Media Is Bullshit, Brandon Mendelson, claims that the "true" owners of content created on social media sites only benefits the large corporations who own those sites and rarely the users that created them.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130713090935weblink">weblink yes, 2013-07-13, Chapter 5: There Is Nothing New Under The Sun (Excerpt From Social Media Is Bullshit),

Privacy

Privacy rights advocates warn users on social media about the collection of their personal data. Some information is captured without the user's knowledge or consent through electronic tracking and third party applications. Data may also be collected for law enforcement and governmental purposes, by social media intelligence using data mining techniques. Data and information may also be collected for third party use. When information is shared on social media, that information is no longer private. There have been many cases in which young persons especially, share personal information, which can attract predators. It is very important to monitor what you share, and to be aware of who you could potentially be sharing that information with. Teens especially share significantly more information on the internet now than they have in the past. Teens are much more likely to share their personal information, such as email address, phone number, and school names.WEB,weblink Teens, Social Media, and Privacy, Madden, Mary, etal, May 21, 2013, Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, 2016-11-29, Studies suggest that teens are not aware of what they are posting and how much of that information can be accessed by third parties.There are arguments that "privacy is dead" and that with social media growing more and more, some heavy social media users appear to have become quite unconcerned with privacy. Others argue, however, that people are still very concerned about their privacy, but are being ignored by the companies running these social networks, who can sometimes make a profit off of sharing someone's personal information. There is also a disconnect between social media user's words and their actions. Studies suggest that surveys show that people want to keep their lives private, but their actions on social media suggest otherwise. Another factor is ignorance of how accessible social media posts are. Some social media users who have been criticized for inappropriate comments stated that they did not realize that anyone outside their circle of friends would read their post; in fact, on some social media sites, unless a user selects higher privacy settings, their content is shared with a wide audience.According to a 2016 article diving into the topic of sharing privately and the effect social media has on expectations of privacy, "1.18 billion people will log into their Facebook accounts, 500 million tweets will be sent, and there will be 95 million photos and videos posted on Instagram" in a day. Much of the privacy concerns individuals face stem from their own posts on a form of social network. Users have the choice to share voluntarily, and has been ingrained into society as routine and normative. Social media is a snapshot of our lives; a community we have created on the behaviors of sharing, posting, liking, and communicating. Sharing has become a phenomenon which social media and networks have uprooted and introduced to the world.NEWSPAPER,weblink We Want Privacy, but Can't Stop Sharing, Murphy, Kate, October 4, 2014, The New York Times, The idea of privacy is redundant; once something is posted, its accessibility remains constant even if we select who is potentially able to view it. People desire privacy in some shape or form, yet also contribute to social media, which makes it difficult to maintain privacy.JOURNAL, Mills, Max, Sharing Privately, Journal of Media Law, 9, 45–71, 10.1080/17577632.2016.1272235, 2017, Mills offers options for reform which include copyright and the application of the law of confidence; more radically, a change to the concept of privacy itself.A 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that 91% of Americans "agree" or "strongly agree" that people have lost control over how personal information is collected and used by all kinds of entities. Some 80% of social media users said they were concerned about advertisers and businesses accessing the data they share on social media platforms, and 64% said the government should do more to regulate advertisers.NEWS,weblink Americans’ complicated feelings about social media in an era of privacy concerns, March 27, 2018, Pew Research Center, 2018-06-13, en-US, According to the wall street journal published on February 17, 2019 According to the UK law, Facebook did not protect certain aspects of the user data.Stephen Fidler and Georgia Wells,“U.K.Lawmakers Rebuke Facebook in Call for Social-Media Regulation", The Wall Street Journal, February 17, 2019

Criticism of commercialization

The commercial development of social media has been criticized as the actions of consumers in these settings has become increasingly value-creating, for example when consumers contribute to the marketing and branding of specific products by posting positive reviews. As such, value-creating activities also increase the value of a specific product, which could, according to the marketing professors Bernad Cova and Daniele Dalli, lead to what they refer to as "double exploitation".JOURNAL, Cova, Bernard, Dalli, Daniele, 2009, Working consumers: the next step in marketing theory?, Marketing Theory, 10.1177/1470593109338144, 9, 3, 315–339,weblink Companies are getting consumers to create content for the companies' websites for which the consumers are not paid.As social media usage has become increasingly widespread, social media has to a large extent come to be subjected to commercialization by marketing companies and advertising agencies.BOOK,weblink Marketing fads and fashions – exploring digital marketing practices and emerging organisational fields, Pihl, Christofer, Gothenburg University, 2011, Gothenburg, Christofer Laurell, a digital marketing researcher, suggested that the social media landscape currently consists of three types of places because of this development: consumer-dominated places, professionally dominated places and places undergoing commercialization.BOOK,weblink Commercialising social media: a study of fashion (blogo)spheres, Laurell, Christofer, Stockholm University, 2014, As social media becomes commercialized, this process have been shown to create novel forms of value networks stretching between consumer and producerJOURNAL, Pihl, Christofer, 2013, When customers create the ad and sell it –a value network approach, Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 10.1080/21639159.2013.763487, 23, 2, 127–143, in which a combination of personal, private and commercial contents are created.JOURNAL, Pihl, Christofer, Sandström, Christian, 2013, Value creation and appropriation in social media –the case of fashion bloggers in Sweden, International Journal of Technology Management, 10.1504/IJTM.2013.052673, 61, 3/4, 309,

Debate over addiction

As one of the biggest preoccupations among adolescents is social media usage, researchers have begun using the term "F.A.D.," or "Facebook addiction disorder," a form of internet addiction disorder.WEB,weblink Facebook Addiction Disorder — The 6 Symptoms of F.A.D., adweek.com, May 2, 2011, 2011-05-02, FAD is characterized by a compulsive use of the social networking site Facebook, which generally results in physical or psychological complications. The disorder, although not classified in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) or by the World Health Organization, has been the subject of several studies focusing on the negative effects on the psyche. One German study, published in 2017, investigated a correlation between extensive use of the social networking site and narcissism; the results were published in the journal PLoS One. According to the findings: "FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms)."Brailovskaia, J (2017). Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) among German students—A longitudinal approach PLOS One, 12(12), 2423-2478. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0189719 While these issues regarding social media addiction are continuous and increasing, there are ways to help reduce and curb one's social media obsessions. Turning off notifications (temporary or long-term) is one solution that is deemed beneficial in attempts to lessen social media addiction by resolving issues of distraction, for those who struggle with the habit of constantly refreshing social media platforms and checking for new notifications.WEB,weblink Portion-Control in Social Media? How Limiting Time Increases Well-Being, read, Suzanne Kane Last updated: December 6, 2018 ~ 4 min, December 6, 2018, World of Psychology, en-US, 2019-04-29,

Debate over use in academic settings

Having social media in the classroom was a controversial topic in the 2010s. Many parents and educators have been fearful of the repercussions of having social media in the classroom.WEB, Kist, W., 2012, Class get ready to tweet: Social media in the classroom. Our children,weblink files.eric.ed.gov, There are concerns that social media tools can be misused for cyberbullying or sharing inappropriate content. As result, cell phones have been banned from some classrooms, and some schools have blocked many popular social media websites. Many schools have realized that they need to loosen restrictions, teach digital citizenship skills, and even incorporate these tools into classrooms. Some schools permit students to use smartphones or tablet computers in class, as long as the students are using these devices for academic purposes, such as doing research. Using Facebook in class allows for integration of multimodal content such as student-created photographs and video and URLs to other texts, in a platform that many students are already familiar with. Twitter can be used to enhance communication building and critical thinking and it provides students with an informal "back channel"), and extend discussion outside of class time.

Censorship by governments

File:Thai-coup-detat-2014-social-media-banner.jpg|thumb|Banner in BangkokBangkokSocial media often features in political struggles to control public perception and online activity. In some countries, Internet police or secret police monitor or control citizens' use of social media. For example, in 2013 some social media was banned in Turkey after the Taksim Gezi Park protests. Both Twitter and YouTube were temporarily suspended in the country by a court's decision. A new law, passed by Turkish Parliament, has granted immunity to Telecommunications Directorate (TİB) personnel. The TİB was also given the authority to block access to specific websites without the need for a court order.WEB, Salih Sarıkaya, Social Media Ban In Turkey: What Does It Mean? by Salih Sarıkaya,weblink October 30, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006012638weblink">weblink 2014-10-06, Yet TİB's 2014 blocking of Twitter was ruled by the constitutional court to violate free speech.NEWSPAPER,weblink Turkey's Twitter ban violates free speech: constitutional court, Reuters, April 2, 2014, More recently, in the 2014 Thai coup d'état, the public was explicitly instructed not to 'share' or 'like' dissenting views on social media or face prison. In July of that same year, in response to WikiLeaks' release of a secret suppression order made by the Victorian Supreme Court, media lawyers were quoted in the Australian media to the effect that "anyone who tweets a link to the Wikileaks report, posts it on Facebook, or shares it in any way online could also face charges".NEWS,weblink Social media users could be charged for sharing Wikileaks story, Mex Cooper, Brisbane Times, July 30, 2014,

Self-censorship by social media platforms

Deplatforming is a form of Internet censorship in which controversial speakers or speech are suspended, banned, or otherwise shut down by social media platforms and other service providers that normally provide a venue for free expression. As early as 2015, platforms such as Reddit began to enforce selective bans based, for example, on terms of service that prohibit "hate speech".JOURNAL, You Can't Stay Here: The Efficacy of Reddit's 2015 Ban Examined Through Hate Speech, Eshwar, Chandrasekharan, Umashanti, Pavalanathan, etal, Proc. ACM Hum.-Comput. Interact., 1, 2, November 2017, 10.1145/3134666, Article 31, y,weblink According to technology journalist Declan McCullagh, "Silicon Valley's efforts to pull the plug on dissenting opinions" have included, {{as of|2018|lc=yes}}, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube "devising excuses to suspend ideologically disfavored accounts."MAGAZINE, Deplatforming Is a Dangerous Game, Declan, McCullagh, February 2019, Reason (magazine), Reason,weblink no,weblink 2019-03-31, Law professor Glenn Reynolds dubbed 2018 the "Year of Deplatforming", in an August 2018 article in The Wall Street Journal. According to Reynolds, in 2018 "the internet giants decided to slam the gates on a number of people and ideas they don't like. If you rely on someone else's platform to express unpopular ideas, especially ideas on the right, you're now at risk."NEWS, When Digital Platforms Become Censors, Glenn Harlan, Reynolds, August 18, 2018, The Wall Street Journal,weblink no,weblink 2019-03-30, Reynolds cited Alex Jones, Gavin McInnes and Dennis Prager as prominent 2018 victims of deplatforming based on their political views, noting, "Extremists and controversialists on the left have been relatively safe from deplatforming."

See also

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References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, The Wealth of Networks, Benkler, Yochai, Yochai Benkler, 2006, Yale University Press, New Haven, 978-0-300-11056-2, 61881089, The Wealth of Networks,
  • BOOK, Social Media: A Critical Introduction, Fuchs, Christian, 2014, Sage, London, Christian Fuchs (sociologist), 978-1-4462-5731-9,
  • BOOK, Gentle, Anne, 2012, Conversation and Community: The Social Web for Documentation, XML Press, Laguna Hills, CA, 978-1-937434-10-6, 794490599, 2nd,
  • JOURNAL, 10.1080/08838151.2017.1309417, 'You too, Second Screeners?' Second Screeners' Echo Chambers During the 2016 U.S. Elections Primaries, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 61, 2, 291–308, 2017, Hayat, Tsahi, Samuel-Azran, Tal,
  • BOOK, Everything Bad Is Good for You, Johnson, Steven Berlin, Steven Berlin Johnson, 2005, Riverhead Books, New York, 978-1-57322-307-2, 57514882, Everything Bad Is Good for You,
  • BOOK, Jue, Arthur L., Jackie Alcalde Marr, Mary Ellen Kassotakis, Social media at work : how networking tools propel organizational performance, 2010, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 978-0-470-40543-7, 1st,
  • BOOK, Lardi, Kamales, Fuchs, Rainer, 2013, Social Media Strategy – A step-by-step guide to building your social business, vdf, Zurich, 978-3-7281-3557-5, 1st,
  • BOOK, Li, Charlene, Bernoff, Josh, 2008, Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies, Harvard Business Press, Boston, 978-1-4221-2500-7, 423555651, Groundswell (book),
  • BOOK, McHale, Robert, Garulay, Eric, 2012, Navigating Social Media Legal Risks: Safeguarding Your Business,weblink Que, 978-0-7897-4953-6,
  • BOOK, Piskorski, MikoÅ‚aj Jan, Mikolaj Piskorski, 2014, A Social Strategy: How We Profit from Social Media, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-15339-1,
  • BOOK, Powell, Guy R., Groves, Steven W., Dimos, Jerry, 2011, ROI of Social Media: How to improve the return on your social marketing investment, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 978-0-470-82741-3, 0470827416,
  • BOOK, Rheingold, Howard, Smart mobs: The next social revolution, 2002, Perseus Pub., Cambridge, MA, 978-0-7382-0608-0, 288, 1st printing,
  • BOOK, Scoble, Robert, Robert Scoble, Israel, Shel, Shel Israel, 2006, Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 978-0-471-74719-2, 61757953, Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers,
  • BOOK, Shirky, Clay, Clay Shirky, 2008, Here Comes Everybody, Penguin Press, New York, 978-1-59420-153-0, 458788924, Here Comes Everybody,
  • NEWS, Psychology Tomorrow,weblink September 7, 2015, How Social Media Affects Our Relationships, Siegel, Alyssa,
  • BOOK, Surowiecki, James, James Surowiecki, 2004, The Wisdom of Crowds, Anchor Books, New York, 978-0-385-72170-7, 156770258, The Wisdom of Crowds,
  • BOOK, Tapscott, Don, Don Tapscott, Williams, Anthony D., Anthony D. Williams (author), 2006, Wikinomics, Portfolio, New York, 978-1-59184-138-8, 318389282, Wikinomics,
  • BOOK, Watts, Duncan J., Six degrees: The science of a connected age, 2003, Vintage, London, 978-0-09-944496-1, 368,
  • WEB, Tedesco, Laura Anne, October 2000, Lascaux (ca. 15,000 B.C.), Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Agozzino, Alisa, 2012, Building A Personal Relationship Through Social Media: A Study Of Millenial Students' Brand Engagement, Ohio Communication Journal, 50, 181–204,
  • JOURNAL, 10.1108/IntR-06-2013-0115, The power of prediction with social media, Internet Research, 23, 5, 528–543, 2013, Schoen, Harald, Gayo-Avello, Daniel, Takis Metaxas, Panagiotis, Mustafaraj, Eni, Strohmaier, Markus, Gloor, Peter, 10.1.1.460.3885,
  • JOURNAL,weblink Mateus, Samuel, 2012, Social Networks Scopophilic dimension – social belonging through spectatorship,
  • WEB,weblink Jordan, Kasteler, 2017, How to use SEO data in your social media strategy,
  • BOOK, Schrape, JF, 2017, Reciprocal irritations: Social media, mass media and the public sphere,weblink New Modes of Shaping Social Change?, 138–150, 10.4337/9781786438386.00016, 978-1-78643-838-6,
  • JOURNAL, O'Keeffe, G.S., Clarke-Pearson, K., 2011, The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families,weblink Pediatrics, 127, 4, 800–804, 10.1542/peds.2011-0054, 21444588,
  • JOURNAL, Blankenship, M, 2011, How social media can and should impact higher education,weblink The Education Digest, 76, 7, 39,
  • Al-Rahmi, Mugahed, Waleed.Othman, Shahizan, Mohd. "The Impact of Social Media use on Academic Performance among university students: A Pilot Study". Journal of Information Systems Research and Innovation, pp. 1–10
  • JOURNAL, 10.1007/s12103-016-9380-4, Effectiveness of Police Social Media Use, American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42, 3, 489–501, 2016, Beshears, Michael L.,

External links

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