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tablet computer
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{{About||the computer input device|Graphics tablet|other uses|Tablet (disambiguation){{!}}Tablet}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2018}}{{Redir|Tablet PC|the class of Microsoft Windows-based tablets|Microsoft Tablet PC}}{{Redir|Convertible (computer)|the IBM computer of this name|IBM PC Convertible}}File:Wikipedia Kindle Fire & iPad 1439.JPG|thumb|300px|Apple's iPad (left) and Amazon's Fire (right), two popular tablet computers.]]A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Tablets, being computers, do what other personal computers do, but lack some input/output (I/O) abilities that others have. Modern tablets largely resemble modern smartphones, the only differences being that tablets are relatively larger than smartphones, with screens {{convert|7|inch|cm}} or larger, measured diagonally,NEWS, Definition of: tablet computer,weblink Editors PC Magazine, April 17, 2010, PC Magazine, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100716184551weblink">weblink July 16, 2010, {{Citation |title=tablet computer – 1 dictionary result |url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tablet+computer |author=Editors Dictionary.com |access-date=April 17, 2010 |work=Dictionary.com |dead-url=no |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111108081844weblink |archive-date=November 8, 2011 |df=mdy-all}}WEB,weblink What makes a tablet a tablet? (FAQ), CNET.com, Erica Ogg, May 28, 2010, WEB,weblink Ulefone U7 7″ LTPS MTK6592 Octa-Core review, June 28, 2014, IReviewChinaPhone.com, Every device with diagonal equal 7" or longer is practically tablet PC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009041839weblink">weblink October 9, 2014, and may not support access to a cellular network.The touchscreen display is operated by gestures executed by finger or digital pen (stylus), instead of the mouse, trackpad, and keyboard of larger computers. Portable computers can be classified according to the presence and appearance of physical keyboards. Two species of tablet, the slate and booklet, do not have physical keyboards and usually accept text and other input by use of a virtual keyboard shown on their touchscreen displays. To compensate for their lack of a physical keyboard, most tablets can connect to independent physical keyboards by wireless Bluetooth or USB; 2-in-1 PCs have keyboards, distinct from tablets.The form of the tablet was conceptualized in the middle of the 20th century (Stanley Kubrick depicted fictional tablets in the 1968 science fiction film (2001: A Space Odyssey (film)|2001: A Space Odyssey)) and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In 2010,PRESS RELEASE,weblink iPad Available in US on April 3, Apple Inc., Apple, March 5, 2010, March 5, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110710012449weblink">weblink July 10, 2011, mdy-all, Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity. Thereafter tablets rapidly rose in ubiquity and soon became a large product categoryThe Dell Venue 8 7000 Series Review {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150324222137weblink |date=March 24, 2015}}. Anandtech. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. used for personal, educational and workplace applications, with sales stabilizing in the mid-2010s.WEB,weblink Tablets Are Dying. Do You Still Need One?, WEB,weblink The tablet is dead, says analyst, August 4, 2017, WEB,weblink Where have all the tablets gone?, April 10, 2016, {{TOC limit|limit=4}}

History

File:Telautograph-1888 electronic writing device.png|thumb|right|1888 telautographtelautographFile:2001interview.png|thumb|right|Wireless tablet device portrayed in the movie (2001: A Space Odyssey (film)|2001: A Space Odyssey) (1968)]]The tablet computer and its associated operating system began with the development of pen computing.{{YouTube|4xnqKdWMa_8|Notes on the History of Pen-based Computing}} Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat information display existed as early as 1888 with the telautograph,{{Citation |last=Gray |first=Elisha |coauthors= |title=Telautograph |work= |pages= |language= |publisher=United States Patent 386,815 (full image) |date=July 31, 1888 |url=http://www.freepatentsonline.com/386815.pdf |access-date=}} which used a sheet of paper as display and a pen attached to electromechanical actuators. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, or commercial products. In addition to many academic and research systems, several companies released commercial products in the 1980s, with various input/output types tried out.

Fictional and prototype tablets

Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of science fiction in the second half of the 20th century; all helped to promote and disseminate the concept to a wider audience.{{YouTube|JQ8pQVDyaLo|NewsPad depiction - 2001 A Space Odyssey}} Examples include: Further, real-life projects either proposed or created tablet computers, such as:
  • In 1968, computer scientist Alan Kay envisioned a KiddiComp;WEB, Why the iPhone makes 2008 seem like 1968 all over again,weblink Mike, Richards, Open2, January 23, 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111112071358weblink">weblink November 12, 2011, WEB,weblink Daddy, Are We There Yet? A Discussion with Alan Kay, Daniel H., Steinberg, O'Reilly Media, April 3, 2003, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130309041633weblink">weblink March 9, 2013, he developed and described the concept as a Dynabook in his proposal, A personal computer for children of all ages (1972),WEB, Kay, Alan, A Personal Computer for Children of All Ages,weblink 1972, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130315234559weblink">weblink March 15, 2013, which outlines functionality similar to that supplied via a laptop computer, or (in some of its other incarnations) a tablet or slate computer, with the exception of near eternal battery life. Adults could also use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children.
  • In 1979, the idea of a touchscreen tablet that could detect an external force applied to one point on the screen was patented in Japan by a team at Hitachi consisting of Masao Hotta, Yoshikazu Miyamoto, Norio Yokozawa and Yoshimitsu Oshima, who later received a US patent for their idea.US4389711A patent: Touch sensitive tablet using force detection {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170905152952weblink |date=September 5, 2017}}
  • In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus, later renamed ST-Pad. The ST-Pad was based on the TOS/GEM Atari ST Platform and prototyped early handwriting recognition. Shiraz Shivji's company Momentus demonstrated in the same time a failed x86 MS-DOS based Pen Computer with its own graphical user interface (GUI).WEB,weblink The Long Fail: A Brief History of Unsuccessful Tablet Computers, Harry, McCracken, January 27, 2010, August 18, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819090502weblink">weblink August 19, 2014,
  • In 1994, the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke and Kubrick's fictional work.WEB,weblink Technologies for the Information Society, Google, no,weblink November 23, 2016, Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the "NewsPad"; the project ended in 1997.NEWS, The Story of NewsPAD,weblink Editors Risc User Magazine, February 20, 2013, Risc User, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714221126weblink">weblink July 14, 2014,
  • During the November 2000 COMDEX, Microsoft used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating.WEB,weblink Bill Gates introduces Tablet PC, COMDEX, November 2000, December 6, 2000, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20001206171100weblink">weblink NEWS, Page, M.,weblink Microsoft Tablet PC Overview, TransmetaZone, December 21, 2000, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141016125019weblink">weblink October 16, 2014, mdy-all, WEB, Kuhn, Bradley M.,weblink Free software and cellphones, Free Software Foundation, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100916063446weblink">weblink September 16, 2010,
  • In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, which was developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, and Linux as its operating system.WEB,weblink Ericsson, CWC develop Linux handheld PC, January 12, 2001, August 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304071848weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Ericsson Forum - Infos and support, March 21, 2012, August 14, 2013, no,weblink March 5, 2016, mdy-all,

Early tablets

File:Apple Newton-IMG 0454-cropped.jpg|thumb|upright|Apple Newton MessagePadApple Newton MessagePadFollowing earlier tablet computer products such as the Pencept PenPad,{{Citation |title=Users Manual for Penpad 320 |publisher=Pencept, Inc. |pages=|date=June 15, 1984 |url=http://ruetersward.com/pens/biblio85.html#Pencept84d |access-date=|dead-url=no |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131215212926weblink |archive-date=December 15, 2013 |df=mdy-all}}{{Citation |title=Software Control at the Stroke of a Pen |publisher=Pencept, Inc. |pages=|year=1985 |url=http://www.open-video.org/details.php?videoid=8023&surrogate=storyboard |access-date=May 21, 2009 |dead-url=no |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070607011443weblink |archive-date=June 7, 2007 |df=mdy-all}} and the CIC Handwriter,{{Citation |title=Handwriter (R) GrafText (TM) System Model GT-5000 |publisher=Communication Intelligence Corporation |pages=|date=January 15, 1985 |url=http://ruetersward.com/pens/biblio85.html#CIC85 |access-date=|dead-url=no |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131215212926weblink |archive-date=December 15, 2013 |df=mdy-all}} in September 1989, GRiD Systems released the first commercially successful tablet computer, the GRiDPad.{{Citation |title=The BYTE Awards: GRiD System's GRiDPad |publisher=BYTE Magazine, Vol 15. No 1 |page=285 |date=January 12, 1990 |url=http://ruetersward.com/pens/biblio90.html#GridPad90a |access-date=|dead-url=no |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131215212928weblink |archive-date=December 15, 2013 |df=mdy-all}}WEB, Tablet history dates back two decades before iPad,weblink www.newsday.com, November 4, 2013, March 2, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306093653weblink">weblink March 6, 2016, mdy-all, All three products were based on extended versions of the MS-DOS operating system. In 1992, IBM announced (in April) and shipped to developers (in October) the 2521 ThinkPad, which ran the GO Corporation's PenPoint OS. Also based on PenPoint was AT&T's EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&T's own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the Apple Newton personal digital assistant in 1993. It used Apple's own new Newton OS, initially running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had specifically co-developed with Acorn Computers. The operating system and platform design were later licensed to Sharp and Digital Ocean, who went on to manufacture their own variants.In 1996, Palm, Inc. released the first of the Palm OS based PalmPilot touch and stylus based PDA, the touch based devices initially incorporating a Motorola Dragonball (68000) CPU. Also in 1996 Fujitsu released the Stylistic 1000 tablet format PC, running Microsoft Windows 95, on a 100 MHz AMD486 DX4 CPU, with 8 MB RAM offering stylus input, with the option of connecting a conventional Keyboard and mouse. Intel announced a StrongARMWEB, Intel to use StrongARM in Web Tablet,weblink Cnet, May 29, 2013, processor-based touchscreen tablet computer in 1999, under the name WebPAD. It was later re-branded as the "Intel Web Tablet".{{youtube|ihUjWMUUWHM|Intel Web Tablet}} In 2000, Norwegian company Screen Media AS and the German company Dosch & Amand Gmbh released the " FreePad".FreePad: Norway's alternative to Sweden's Screen Phone {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140518032254weblink |date=May 18, 2014}} Rick Lehrbaum, ZDNet. Retrieved May 17, 2014 It was based on Linux and used the Opera browser. Internet access was provided by DECT DMAP, only available in Europe and provided up to 10Mbit/s. The device had 16 MB storage, 32 MB of RAM and x86 compatible 166 MHz "Geode"-Microcontroller by National Semiconductor.WEB,weblink Freepad Information, March 28, 2017, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020208134326weblink">weblink February 8, 2002, The screen was 10.4" or 12.1" and was touch sensitive. It had slots for SIM cards to enable support of television set-up box. FreePad were sold in Norway and the Middle East; but the company was dissolved in 2003.File:Fujitsu Siemens Lifebook T3010.jpg|thumb|upright|A Fujitsu Siemens Lifebook tablet running Windows XPWindows XPIn April 2000, Microsoft launched the Pocket PC 2000, using their touch capable Windows CE 3.0 operating system.WEB, Microsoft Releases Pocket PC,weblink Microsoft, May 9, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140301090148weblink">weblink March 1, 2014, The devices were manufactured by several manufacturers, based on a mix of: x86, MIPS, ARM, and SuperH hardware. In 2002, Microsoft attempted to define the Microsoft Tablet PCMarkoff, John (August 30, 1999) "Microsoft brings in top talent to pursue old goal: the tablet {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161011235207weblink |date=October 11, 2016}}" The New York Times as a mobile computer for field work in business,WEB,weblink Tablet PC: Coming to an Office Near You?, datamation.com, September 8, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120722100527weblink">weblink July 22, 2012, mdy-all, though their devices failed, mainly due to pricing and usability decisions that limited them to their original purpose - such as the existing devices being too heavy to be held with one hand for extended periods, and having legacy applications created for desktop interfaces and not well adapted to the slate format.Bright, Peter Ballmer (and Microsoft) still doesn't get the iPad {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120508215131weblink |date=May 8, 2012}}, Ars Technica, 2010File:N800 frontside2.jpg|thumb|The Nokia N800Nokia N800Nokia had plans for an Internet tablet since before 2000. An early model was test manufactured in 2001, the Nokia M510, which was running on EPOC and featuring an Opera browser, speakers and a 10-inch 800×600 screen, but it was not released because of fears that the market was not ready for it.WEB,weblink Nokialla oli valmis tabletti 13 vuotta sitten tältä se näytti, digitoday.fi, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140416142618weblink">weblink April 16, 2014, Nokia entered the tablet space in May 2005 with the Nokia 770 running Maemo, a Debian-based Linux distribution custom-made for their Internet tablet line. The user interface and application framework layer, named Hildon, was an early instance of a software platform for generic computing in a tablet device intended for internet consumption.WEB,weblink Nokia's Great Lost Platform, Andrew, Orlowski, The Register, no,weblink August 10, 2017, But Nokia didn't commit to it as their only platform for their future mobile devices and the project competed against other in-house platforms and later replaced it with the Series 60.WEB,weblink Nokia's Great Lost Platform - Page 4, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121028192907weblink">weblink October 28, 2012, Nokia used the term internet tablet to refer to a portable information appliance that focused on Internet use and media consumption, in the range between a personal digital assistant (PDA) and an Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC). They made two mobile phones, the N900 that runs Maemo, and N9 that run Meego.WEB,weblink maemo.org - maemo.org: Home of the Maemo community, maemo.org, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140517191111weblink">weblink May 17, 2014, Before the release of iPad, Axiotron introducedWEB,weblink Axiotron and OWC Unveil the ModBook, Tiffany Boggs, TabletPCReview.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120104121807weblink">weblink January 4, 2012, an aftermarket, heavily modified Apple MacBook called Modbook, a Mac OS X-based tablet computer. The Modbook uses Apple's Inkwell for handwriting and gesture recognition, and uses digitization hardware from Wacom. To get Mac OS X to talk to the digitizer on the integrated tablet, the Modbook was supplied with a third-party driver.WEB, TableMagic,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129085921weblink">weblink November 29, 2014, Following the launch of the Ultra-mobile PC, Intel began the Mobile Internet Device initiative, which took the same hardware and combined it with a tabletized Linux configuration. Intel codeveloped the lightweight Moblin (mobile Linux) operating system following the successful launch of the Atom CPU series on netbooks. In 2010, Nokia and Intel combined the Maemo and Moblin projects to form MeeGo, a Linux-based operating system supports netbooks and tablets. The first tablet using MeeGo was the Neofonie WeTab launched September 2010 in Germany. The WeTab used an extended version of the MeeGo operating system called WeTab OS. WeTab OS adds runtimes for Android and Adobe AIR and provides a proprietary user interface optimized for the WeTab device. On September 27, 2011 the Linux Foundation announced that MeeGo would be replaced in 2012 by Tizen.WEB, Sousou, Imad, What's Next for MeeGo,weblinkweblink October 6, 2011, meego.com, September 28, 2011,

Modern tablets

File:IPad and iPad Pro.jpg|thumb|Apple's iPad and iPad ProiPad ProAndroid was the first of the 2000s-era dominating platforms for tablet computers to reach the market. In 2008, the first plans for Android-based tablets appeared. The first products were released in 2009. Among them was the Archos 5, a pocket-sized model with a 5-inch touchscreen, that was first released with a proprietary operating system and later (in 2009) released with Android 1.4. The Camangi WebStation was released in Q2 2009. The first LTE Android tablet appeared late 2009 and was made by ICD for Verizon. This unit was called the Ultra, but a version called Vega was released around the same time. Ultra had a 7-inch display while Vega's was 15 inches. Many more products followed in 2010. Several manufacturers waited for Android Honeycomb, specifically adapted for use with tablets, which debuted in February 2011.Apple is often credited for defining a new class of consumer device with the iPad,WEB,weblink The iPad's victory in defining the tablet: What it means, Infoworld, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118082258weblink">weblink January 18, 2012, which shaped the commercial market for tablets in the following years,NEWS,weblink Huffington Post, Jason, Gilbert, HP TouchPad Bites The Dust: Can Any Tablet Dethrone The IPad?, August 19, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111206215154weblink">weblink December 6, 2011, mdy-all, and was the most successful tablet at the time of its release. iPads and competing devices were tested by the US military in 2011WEB, Taking iPads into battle,weblink Los Angeles Times, June 30, 2013, and cleared for secure use in 2013.WEB, iPhones, iPads cleared for U.S. military use; DOD fortifies cloud,weblink Zack, Whittaker, May 17, 2013, ZDNet, Dec 30, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151208171555weblink">weblink December 8, 2015, Its debut in 2010 pushed tablets into the mainstream.Roger Kay on Intel and Microsoft, as quoted April 29, 2011: "Clearly, each one is looking at a post-PC world..." MarketWatch {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110502024418weblink |date=May 2, 2011}}
  • Kevin Parrish (October 28, 2010) "Microsoft's Ray Ozzie sees Post-PC world", Tom's Hardware US {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121126203343weblink |date=November 26, 2012}} "It's important that all of us ... form a realistic picture of what a post-PC world would actually look like ... Those who can envision a plausible future that's brighter than today will earn the opportunity to lead [in the market]." —Ray Ozzie's memo to Microsoft on the eve of his retirement.NEWS,weblink Forbes, Tim, Worstall, iPad: One of the Most Successful Products Ever, July 2, 2011, June 10, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130620130442weblink">weblink June 20, 2013, mdy-all, Samsung's Galaxy Tab and others followed, continuing the trends towards the features listed above. In March 2012, PC Magazine reported that 31% of U.S. Internet users owned a tablet, used mainly for viewing published content such as video and news.NEWS,weblink Survey: 31 Percent of U.S. Internet Users Own Tablets, Angela, Moscaritolo, PC Magazine, June 18, 2012, October 20, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014171620weblink">weblink October 14, 2012, The top-selling line of devices was Apple's iPad with 100 million sold between its release in April 2010 and mid-October 2012,NEWS,weblink Apple, Facing Competition, Introduces a Smaller iPad of no significant change, Brian X., Chen, The New York Times, October 23, 2012, October 24, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130216003800weblink">weblink February 16, 2013, mdy-all, but iPad market share (number of units) dropped to 36% in 2013 with Android tablets climbing to 62%. Android tablet sales volume was 121 million devices, plus 52 million, between 2012 and 2013 respectively.NEWS,weblink Android races past iOS to tablet number one, but there's no budging Apple from the top slot, Android is dominating tablet sales but Apple is still the biggest brand, November 21, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141106205700weblink">weblink November 6, 2014, Individual brands of Android operating system devices or compatibles follow iPad with Amazon's Kindle Fire with 7 million, and Barnes & Noble's Nook with 5 million.NEWS,weblink How Are 7-Inch Tablets Doing?, Brian X., Chen, The New York Times, October 19, 2012, October 20, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121022003458weblink">weblink October 22, 2012, mdy-all, WEB, Poeter, Damon,weblink Non-Apple Tablets Making Small Gains on iPad &124; News & Opinion, PCMag.com, December 27, 2012, July 8, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605213319weblink">weblink June 5, 2013, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Massacre of the tablets &124; FP Tech Desk &124; Financial Post, Business.financialpost.com, December 24, 2011, June 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130619060321weblink">weblink June 19, 2013,
The BlackBerry PlayBook was announced in September 2010 that ran the BlackBerry Tablet OS.{{YouTube|eAaez_4m9mQ|BlackBerry PlayBook preview}} {{YouTube|eAaez_4m9mQ|BlackBerry PlayBook announcement September 27, 2010}} The BlackBerry PlayBook was officially released to US and Canadian consumers on April 19, 2011. Hewlett Packard announced that the TouchPad, running WebOS 3.0 on a 1.2 GHz Qualcomm Snapdragon CPU, would be released in June 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced the discontinuation of the TouchPad, due to sluggish sales.PRESS RELEASE,weblink HP Webcast announcing the end of Touchpad, webOS devices, August 18, 2011, In 2013, the Mozilla Foundation announced a prototype tablet model with Foxconn which ran on Firefox OS.WEB,weblink Mozilla is testing the first Firefox OS tablet prototype, Valentina, Palladino, The Verge, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140201105652weblink">weblink February 1, 2014, Firefox OS was discontinued in 2016.Mozilla is stopping all commercial development on Firefox OS {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170116165653weblink |date=January 16, 2017}} The Canonical hinted that Ubuntu would be available on tablets by 2014.WEB, Ubuntu coming to tablets, phones and smart TVs by 2014,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111207121435weblink">weblink December 7, 2011, In February 2016 there was a commercial release of the BQ Aquaris Ubuntu tablet utilizing the Ubuntu Touch operating system.First Ubuntu 2-in-1: Aquaris M10 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160302011852weblink |date=March 2, 2016}}. Retrieved February 8, 2016. Canonical terminated support for the project due to lack of market interest on 5 April 2017WEB,weblink Ubuntu 18.04 To Ship with GNOME Desktop, Not Unity, 5 April 2017, Joey, Sneddon, OMG Ubuntu, 5 April 2017, WEB,weblink Growing Ubuntu for Cloud and IoT, rather than Phone and convergence, Mark, Shuttleworth, Canonical, 5 April 2017, and it was then adopted by the UBports as a community project.WEB,weblink Unity 8 And Ubuntu Touch Aren't Going Away Completely, UBports Team Will Keep Them Alive, 6 April 2017, Aditya, Tiwari, 7 April 2017, As of February 2014, 83% of mobile app developers were targeting tablets,W3C Interview: Vision Mobile on the App Developer Economy with Matos Kapetanakis and Dimitris Michalakos {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160629101713weblink |date=June 29, 2016}}. February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2015. but 93% of developers were targeting smartphones. By 2014 around 23% of B2B companies were said to have deployed tablets for sales-related activities, according to a survey report by Corporate Visions.WEB,weblink 1 in 4 B2B Companies Report Use of Tablets to Aid Sales-Related Activities, February 19, 2014, MarketingCharts, August 20, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140816111246weblink">weblink August 16, 2014, The iPad holds majority use in North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and most of the Americas. Android tablets are more popular in most of Asia (China and Russia an exception), Africa and Eastern Europe. In 2015 tablet sales did not increase. Apple remained the largest seller but its market share declined below 25%.WEB, iPad loses marketshare as tablet market shrinks,weblink Network World, January 3, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304120634weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, mdy-all, Samsung vice president Gary Riding said early in 2016 that tablets were only doing well among those using them for work. Newer models were more expensive and designed for a keyboard and stylus, which reflected the changing uses.NEWS,weblink The consumer tablet is dying; long live the business tablet, April 19, 2017, CTV News, April 19, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170420045732weblink">weblink April 20, 2017, As of early 2016, Android reigns over the market with 65%. Apple takes the number 2 spot with 26%, and Windows take a distant third with the remaining 9%.IDC releases Q2 tablet PC marketshare {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170109022946weblink |date=January 9, 2017}} In 2018, out of 4.4 billion computing devices Android accounted for 2 billion, iOS for 1 billion, and the remainder were PCs, in various forms (desktop, notebook, or tablet), running various operating systems (Windows, macOS, ChromeOS, Linux, etc.).Robin Harris (28 Nov 2018) The most popular PC is in your pocketIn late 2017, the iPad Pro received the iOS 11 update, adding the ability to run multiple windows, drag and drop from one app to another, and browse a user's files.The iPad is about to get more Useful - and confusing {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170905152952weblink |date=September 5, 2017}}

Types

File:Laplet, Phablet and Cricket.jpg|thumb|300px|Crossover tablet device types from 2014: Microsoft Surface Pro 3 laplet and Sony Xperia Z Ultra phabletphabletFile:1st gen Comparison iPad Mini & Google Nexus 7 & Kindle Fire Wikipedia screen 03 2013 6262.jpg|thumb|Comparison of several mini tablet computers: Amazon Kindle Fire (left), iPad Mini (center), and Google Nexus 7Google Nexus 7File:Galaxy Note.jpg|thumb|Samsung's Galaxy Note series were the first commercially successful phablets]]File:Microsoft Surface Pro 3 with Type Cover.jpg|thumb|Microsoft Surface Pro 3Microsoft Surface Pro 3File:Lenovo Yoga 3 Pro.jpg|thumb|Lenovo YogaLenovo YogaFile:Asus Transformer Pad TF701T Tablet and Keyboard Dock.png|thumb|Asus Transformer Pad, a 2-in-1 detachable tablet, powered by the Android operating systemoperating systemFile:Nvidia Shield Tablet.jpg|thumb|Nvidia Shield TabletShield TabletTablets can be loosely grouped into several categories by physical size, kind of operating system installed, input and output technology, and uses.WEB, Various Types of Tablets,weblink Pinig, September 11, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161003231411weblink">weblink October 3, 2016,

Slate

The size of a slate varies, but slates begin at 6 inches (approximately 15 cm).WEB, Franklin, Eric,weblink Tablets buying guide | Tablets - CNET Reviews, Reviews.cnet.com, October 30, 2012, June 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110923181058weblink">weblink September 23, 2011, Some models in the larger than 10-inch (25 cm) category include the Samsung Galaxy Tab Pro 12.2 at 12.2 inches (31 cm), the Toshiba Excite at 13.3 inches (33 cm)WEB, Franklin, Eric,weblink The Toshiba Excite 13 sports the largest tablet screen yet | Android Atlas - CNET Reviews, Reviews.cnet.com, April 10, 2012, June 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130711135643weblink">weblink July 11, 2013, and the Dell XPS 18 at 18.4 inches (47 cm).WEB, King, Charles, Dell’s XPS 18 is the latest ‘big tablet’ innovation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130317002150weblink">weblink March 17, 2013, TabTimes, June 30, 2013, As of March 2013, the thinnest tablet on the market was the Sony Xperia Tablet Z at only 0.27 inches (6.9 mm) thick.WEB,weblink Xperiaâ„¢ Tablet Z | Waterproof and dustproof tablet, Sony, March 26, 2013, December 15, 2014, On September 9, 2015, Apple released the iPad Pro with a {{convert|12.9|in|cm}} screen size, larger than the regular iPad.WEB,weblink iPad Pro, Apple, September 9, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150911210554weblink">weblink September 11, 2015,

Mini tablet

Mini tablets are smaller and weigh less than slates, with typical screen sizes between {{convert|7-8|in|cm}}. The first commercially successful mini tablets were introduced by Amazon.com (Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (Nook Tablet), and Samsung (Galaxy Tab) in 2011; and by Google (Nexus 7) in 2012. They operate identically to ordinary tablets but have lower specifications compared to them.On September 14, 2012, Amazon, Inc. released an upgraded version of the Kindle Fire, the Kindle Fire HD, with higher screen resolution and more features compared to its predecessor, yet remaining only 7 inches.NEWS, Kelly, Heather & Gross, Doug,weblink Amazon announces new wave of Kindles, CNN Tech, September 6, 2012, December 2, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121201234333weblink">weblink December 1, 2012, In October 2012, Apple released the iPad Mini with a 7.9 inch screen size, about 2 inches smaller than the regular iPad, but less powerful than the then current iPad 3.WEB,weblink Events, Apple, June 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130614024935weblink">weblink June 14, 2013, On July 24, 2013, Google released an upgraded version of the Nexus 7, with FHD display, dual cameras, stereo speakers, more color accuracy, performance improvement, built-in wireless charging, and a variant with 4G LTE support for AT&T, T-Mobile, and Verizon. In September 2013, Amazon further updated the Fire tablet with the Kindle Fire HDX. In November 2013, Apple released the iPad Mini 2, which remained at 7.9 inches and nearly matched the hardware of the iPad Air.

Phablet

Smartphones and tablets are similar devices, differentiated by the former typically having smaller screens and most tablets lacking cellular network capability. Since 2010, crossover touchscreen smartphones with screens larger than 5 inches have been released. That size is generally considered larger than a traditional smartphone, creating the hybrid category of the phablet by ForbesNEWS,weblink 5" Is the market ready for a 'phablet'?, Forbes, Roger, Kay, no,weblink July 29, 2017, and other publications. "Phablet" is a portmanteau of "phone" and "tablet".At the time of the introduction of the first phablets, they had screens of 5.3 to 5.5 inches, but as of 2017 screen sizes up to 5.5 inches are considered typical. Examples of phablets from 2017 and onward are the Samsung Galaxy Note series (newer models of 5.7 inches), the LG V10/V20 (5.7 inches), the Sony Xperia XA Ultra [6 inches], the Huawei Mate 9 (5.9 inches), and the Huawei Honor (MediaPad) X2 (7 inches).

2-in-1

{{anchor|Convertible}}{{anchor|Hybrid}}Distinct from tablets, 2-in-1 PCs all have physical keyboards, but they are either concealable by folding them back and under the touchscreen ("2-in-1 convertible") or detachable ("2-in-1 detachable"), but 2-in-1s typically also can display a virtual keyboard on their touchscreens when their physical keyboards are concealed or detached. Some 2-in-1s have processors and operating systems like those of laptops, while having the flexibility of operation as a tablet. A 2-in-1 PC is a hybrid or combination of a tablet and laptop computer that has features of both. An essential feature of a 2-in-1 is a desktop operating system, such as Windows 10, as opposed to a mobile operating system. Further, 2-in-1s may have typical laptop I/O ports, such as USB 3 and DisplayPort, and may connect to traditional PC peripheral devices and external displays. Thus, they are distinct from tablets, although they can operate just like them. Simple tablets are mainly used as media consumption devices, while 2-in-1s have capacity for both media consumption and content creation, and thus 2-in-1s are often called laptop or desktop replacement computers.WEB, Here Come the Hybrid ‘Laplets.’ Should You Care?,weblink Wired, August 13, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140813232312weblink">weblink August 13, 2014, There are two species of 2-in-1s:
  • Convertibles have a chassis design by which their physical keyboard may be concealed by flipping/folding the keyboard behind the chassis. Examples include 2-in-1 PCs of the Lenovo Yoga series.
  • Detachables or Hybrids have physical keyboards that may be detached from their chassis, even while the 2-in-1 is operating. Examples include 2-in-1 PCs of the Asus Transformer Pad and Book series, the iPad Pro, and the Microsoft Surface Book and Surface Pro.

Gaming tablet

{{anchor|Gaming}}Some tablets are modified by adding physical gamepad buttons such as D-pad and thumb sticks for better gaming experience combined with the touchscreen and all other features of a typical tablet computer. Most of these tablets are targeted to run native OS games and emulator games. Nvidia's Shield Tablet, with an {{convert|8|in|mm|adj=on}} display, and running Android, is an example. It runs Android games purchased from Google Play store. PC games can also be streamed to the tablet from computers with some higher end models of Nvidia-powered video cards. The Nintendo Switch hybrid console is also a gaming tablet that runs on Nintendo Switch system software, features detachable Joy-Con controllers with motion controls and three gaming modes: table-top mode using its kickstand, traditional docked/TV mode and handheld mode.

Booklet

Booklets are dual-touchscreen tablet computers with a clamshell design that can fold like a laptop. Examples include the Microsoft Courier, which was discontinued in 2010,WEB,weblink Denise, Dubie, Microsoft kills courier tablet project: Apple’s iPad influence likely crushes Microsoft tablet, NetworkWorld, April 29, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009095257weblink">weblink October 9, 2014, NEWS,weblink Mike, Keller, Microsoft Courier Tablet Canceled!: Gizmodo reports today that Microsoft’s much-hyped Courier tablet has been canceled., PC World, April 29, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006105743weblink">weblink October 6, 2014, the Sony Tablet P (which was considered a flop),WEB, The 8 biggest product flops of 2012 (#4),weblink Marketwatch, June 30, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730072420weblink">weblink July 30, 2013, and the Toshiba Libretto W100.

Customized business tablet

Customized business tablets are built specifically for a business customer's particular needs from a hardware and software perspective, and delivered in a business-to-business transaction. For example, in hardware, a transportation company may find that the consumer-grade GPS module in an off-the-shelf tablet provides insufficient accuracy, so a tablet can be customized and embedded with a professional-grade antenna to provide a better GPS signal. Such tablets may also be ruggedized for field use. For a software example, the same transportation company might remove certain software functions in the Android system, such as the internet browser, to reduce costs from needless cellular network data consumption of an employee, and add custom package management software. Other applications may call for a resistive touchscreen and other special hardware and software.(File:Ziosk games.jpg|thumb|Games on a Ziosk table ordering tablet at an Olive Garden restaurant)A table ordering tablet is a touchscreen tablet computer designed for use in casual restaurants.WEB, Tabletop tablets speed up restaurant service,weblink CBS News, December 16, 2016, September 22, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160510204310weblink">weblink May 10, 2016, Such devices allow users to order food and drinks, play games and pay their bill. Since 2013, restaurant chains including Chili's,NEWS,weblink Chili's To Install Tablets At Every Table: More Tips But A Cloudier Future For Servers, September 17, 2013, Konrad, Alex, Forbes, no,weblink July 6, 2017, Olive GardenNEWS,weblink Olive Garden rolls out tabletop tablets for ordering and payment, April 14, 2015, Lien, Tracey, Los Angeles Times, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160817070302weblink">weblink August 17, 2016, and Red RobinNEWS,weblink Red Robin to roll out tabletop tablets systemwide, February 13, 2015, Jennings, Lisa, Nation's Restaurant News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160716072412weblink">weblink July 16, 2016, have adopted them. As of 2014, the two most popular brands were Ziosk and Presto.NEWS, Huet, Ellen, Ordering a meal and more on tabletop tablets,weblink April 30, 2017, SFGate, April 14, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140614185459weblink">weblink June 14, 2014, The devices have been criticized by servers who claim that some restaurants determine their hours based on customer feedback in areas unrelated to service.NEWS,weblink Here’s How That Tablet On The Table At Your Favorite Restaurant Is Hurting Your Waiter, O'Donovan, Caroline, 21 June 2018, BuzzFeed News, 23 June 2018,

Hardware

System architecture

{{See also|Comparison of tablet computers}}Two major architectures dominate the tablet market,WEB,weblink Intel has ARM in its crosshairs, CBS Interactive, CNET, ARM Holdings' ARM architecture and Intel's and AMD's x86. Intel's x86, including x86-64 has powered the "IBM compatible" PC since 1981 and Apple's Macintosh computers since 2006. The CPUs have been incorporated into tablet PCs over the years and generally offer greater performance along with the ability to run full versions of Microsoft Windows, along with Windows desktop and enterprise applications. Non-Windows based x86 tablets include the JooJoo. Intel announced plans to enter the tablet market with its Atom in 2010.NEWS,weblink Intel shows pricing pressures for Atom due to competition from ARM, October 17, 2010, no,weblink October 19, 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink yes, November 27, 2010, Intel launches FPGA-equipped Atom, Gareth Halfacree, November 22, 2010, November 23, 2010, In October 2013, Intel's foundry operation announced plans to build FPGA-based quad cores for ARM and x86 processors.WEB,weblink Intel on track to build two chips with ARM inside, Brooke Crothers, November 3, 2013, ARM has been the CPU architecture of choice for manufacturers of smartphones (95% ARM), PDAs, digital cameras (80% ARM), set-top boxes, DSL routers, smart televisions (70% ARM), storage devices and tablet computers (95% ARM).WEB, Jeff Chu, December 18, 2012,weblink Where's ARM at CES?,weblink March 7, 2013, {{third-party-inline|date=May 2013}} This dominance began with the release of the mobile-focused and comparatively power-efficient 32-bit ARM610 processor originally designed for the Apple Newton in 1993 and ARM3-using Acorn A4 laptop in 1992. The chip was adopted by Psion, Palm and Nokia for PDAs and later smartphones, camera phones, cameras, etc. ARM's licensing model supported this success by allowing device manufacturers to license, alter and fabricate custom SoC derivatives tailored to their own products. This has helped manufacturers extend battery life and shrink component count along with the size of devices.The multiple licensees ensured that multiple fabricators could supply near-identical products, while encouraging price competition. This forced unit prices down to a fraction of their x86 equivalents. The architecture has historically had limited support from Microsoft, with only Windows CE available, but with the 2012 release of Windows 8, Microsoft announced added support for the architecture, shipping their own ARM-based tablet computer, branded the Microsoft Surface, as well as an x86-64 Intel Core i5 variant branded as Microsoft Surface Pro.WEB, Apple iPad Price, Features Say "ARM" All Over,weblink bnet, no,weblink August 23, 2010, NEWS,weblink ARM vs. Intel: How the Processor Wars Will Benefit Consumers, Tim Barjarin, July 16, 2012, no,weblink September 12, 2012, NEWS,weblink The Economist - Space invaders, America’s Intel and Britain's ARM have long dominated different bits of the global chip market. Now each is attacking the other’s stronghold, January 7, 2012, no,weblink September 12, 2012, WEB,weblink Processors, arm.com, no,weblink August 24, 2012, Intel tablet chip sales were 1 million units in 2012, and 12 million units in 2013.WEB,weblink John Morris, What we learned about Intel this week, November 22, 2014, 2014-11-22,weblink November 24, 2014, no, Intel chairman Andy Bryant has stated that its 2014 goal is to quadruple its tablet chip sales to 40 million units by the end of that year,WEB,weblink Intel Chairman: "We Seemed to Have Lost Our Way", November 21, 2013, November 21, 2013, no,weblink November 21, 2013, as an investment for 2015.WEB,weblink Ashraf, Eassa, Intel’s 40 Million Tablet Campaign Seems Negative for ARM, December 23, 2013, no,weblink December 22, 2013, WEB,weblink Behind in tablets, Intel pays firms to use its chips: Why is Intel confident that 40 million tablets will ship in 2014 with its Bay Trail processors? Here's one good reason., Brooke, Crothers, Intel is sacrificing 1.5% in fiscal year 2014 profit to increase its market share in tablet computers, January 18, 2014, April 17, 2014, no,weblink April 19, 2014, NEWS,weblink Intel's CEO says its costly tablet chip strategy has paid off, Noel, Randewich, September 9, 2014, In the second quarter, Intel's mobile and communications unit revenue fell to 51 million dollars, and lost 1.12 billion dollars in the quarter, September 9, 2014, no,weblink September 9, 2014, WEB,weblink Intel Probably Won’t Reach 70 Million Tablet Chips Next Year, CEO Says, Fried, Ina, November 20, 2014, November 22, 2014, no,weblink November 23, 2014, : Mobile operating losses will be approximately $4 billion, and $3.2 billion in 2014, and 2015, respectively.{{see also|Mobile Internet Device#Intel MID Platforms}}

Display

File:IFA 2010 Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin 18.JPG|Samsung Galaxy Tab demonstrating thumbA key component among tablet computers is touch input on a touchscreen liquid-crystal display (LCD). This allows the user to navigate easily and type with a virtual keyboard on the screen or press other icons on the screen to open apps or files. The first tablet to do this was the GRiDPad by GRiD Systems Corporation; the tablet featured both a stylus, a pen-like tool to aid with precision in a touchscreen device as well as an on-screen keyboard.Jeff Hawkins: WEB, Barnett, Shawn, Jeff Hawkins,weblink Pen Computing Magazine, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131105074923weblink">weblink November 5, 2013, The system must respond to on-screen touches rather than clicks of a keyboard or mouse. This operation makes precise use of our eye–hand coordination.WEB,weblink Best Buy: iPad cutting into laptop sales, CBS Interactive, CNET, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110617064236weblink">weblink June 17, 2011, WEB,weblink Notebook sales growth goes negative. Can we blame the iPad yet?, Fortune, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100918070945weblink">weblink September 18, 2010, WEB,weblink Apple’s Mac sales not slowed by iPad, Benjamin Pimentel, MarketWatch, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101015024402weblink">weblink October 15, 2010, Touchscreens usually come in one of two forms:
  • Resistive touchscreens are passive and respond to pressure on the screen. They allow a high level of precision, useful in emulating a pointer (as is common in tablet computers) but may require calibration. Because of the high resolution, a stylus or fingernail is often used. Stylus-oriented systems are less suited to multi-touch.
  • Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive devices. Because they require a conductive material, such as a fingertip, for input, they are not common among stylus-oriented devices but are prominent on consumer devices. Most finger-driven capacitive screens do not currently support pressure input (except for the iPhone 6S and later models), but some tablets use a pressure-sensitive stylus or active pen.WEB, Pro Pen for Surface Pro and Surface Pro 2 {{!, Handwriting on Surface Pro and Surface Pro 2|url=https://www.microsoft.com/surface/en-us/support/touch-mouse-and-search/pro-pen?os=windows-10|website=www.microsoft.com|access-date=December 31, 2015|dead-url=no|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151228212851weblink|archive-date=December 28, 2015|df=mdy-all}}
  • Some tablets can recognize individual palms, while some professional-grade tablets use pressure-sensitive films, such as those on graphics tablets. Some capacitive touch-screens can detect the size of the touched area and the pressure used.Buxton, Bill. Multitouch Overview {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121002204530weblink |date=October 2, 2012}}
Since mid-2010s, most tablets use capacitive touchscreens with multi-touch, unlike earlier resistive touchscreen devices which users needed styluses in order to perform inputs.There are also Electronic paper tablets such as Sony Digital Paper DPTS1 and reMarkable that use E ink for its display technology.

Handwriting recognition

File:人-red.png|thumb|upright|Chinese characters like this one meaning "person" can be written by handwriting recognition ((File:人-order.gif|20px|人 animation), Mandarin: rén, Korean: in, Japanese: jin, nin; hito, (Cantonese]]: jan4). The character has two strokes, the first shown here in brown, and the second in red. The black area represents the starting position of the writing instrument.)Some ARM powered tablets, such as the Galaxy Note 10, support a stylus and support handwriting recognition. Wacom and N-trig digital pens provide approximately 2500 DPI resolution for handwriting, exceeding the resolution of capacitive touch screens by more than a factor of 10. These pens also support pressure sensitivity, allowing for "variable-width stroke-based" characters, such as Chinese/Japanese/Korean writing, due to their built-in capability of "pressure sensing". Pressure is also used in digital art applications such as Autodesk Sketchbook.WEB,weblink China using keyboards versus tablet input, September 13, 2018, mdy-all, {{dead link|date=September 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB,weblink Annotated Bibliography in On-line Character Recognition, Pen Computing, Gesture User Interfaces and Tablet and Touch Computers, ruetersward.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131215212931weblink">weblink December 15, 2013, Apps exist on both iOS and Android platforms for handwriting recognition and in 2015 Google introduced its own handwriting input with support for 82 languages.WEB, Google releases new Handwriting Input keyboard with support for 82 languages,weblink Dan, Thorp-Lancaster, Apr 15, 2015, Android Central, Dec 30, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151218015826weblink">weblink December 18, 2015,

Other features

After 2007, with access to capacitive screens and the success of the iPhone, other features became common, such as multi-touch features (in which the user can touch the screen in multiple places to trigger actions and other natural user interface features, as well as flash memory solid state storage and "instant on" warm-booting; external USB and Bluetooth keyboards defined tablets.Most tablets released since mid-2010 use a version of an ARM processor for longer battery life. The ARM Cortex family is powerful enough for tasks such as internet browsing, light production work and mobile games.The Coming War: ARM versus x86 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101018002338weblink |date=October 18, 2010}} Mirror for: The Bright Side of News April 8, 2010Other features are: High-definition, anti-glare display, touchscreen, lower weight and longer battery life than a comparably-sized laptop, wireless local area and internet connectivity (usually with Wi-Fi standard and optional mobile broadband), Bluetooth for connecting peripherals and communicating with local devices, ports for wired connections and charging, for example USB ports, Early devices had IR support and could work as a TV remote controller, docking station, keyboard and added connectivity, on-board flash memory, ports for removable storage, various cloud storage services for backup and syncing data across devices, local storage on a local area network (LAN).
  • Speech recognition Google introduced voice input in Android 2.1 in 2009 and voice actions in 2.2 in 2010, with up to five languages (now around 40).WEB, First look: Google's new Voice Actions for Android,weblink JR, Raphael, Aug 12, 2010, Computerworld, Dec 30, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160421003717weblink">weblink April 21, 2016, Siri was introduced as a system-wide personal assistant on the iPhone 4S in 2011 and now supports nearly 20 languages. In both cases, the voice input is sent to central servers to perform general speech recognition and thus requires a network connection for more than simple commands.
  • Near field communication with other compatible devices including ISO/IEC 14443 RFID tags.

Software

Operating system

Tablets, like conventional PCs, use several different operating systems, though dual-booting is rare. Tablet operating systems come in two classes: Desktop OS-based tablets are currently thicker and heavier. They require more storage and more cooling and give less battery life. They can run processor-intensive graphical applications in addition to mobile apps, and have more ports.WEB, Microsoft Surface Pro review,weblink engadget, June 16, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130610065216weblink">weblink June 10, 2013, Mobile-based tablets are the reverse, and run only mobile apps. They can use battery life conservatively because the processor is significantly smaller. This allows the battery to last much longer than the common laptop.MAGAZINE,weblink Laptops vs. Tablets: The Ultimate Showdown, Westover, Brian, October 26, 2014, PCmag.com, In Q1 2018, Android tablets had 62% of the market, Apple's iOS had 23.4% of the market and Windows 10 had 14.6% of the market.NEWS,weblink Strategy Analytics: Tablet Market Falls 7 Percent in Q1 2018 while Top Vendors Play to Strengths, Strategy-Analytics, October 7, 2018,

Android

Android is a Linux-based operating system that Google offers as open source under the Apache license. It is designed primarily for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android supports low-cost ARM systems and others. The first tablets running Android were released in 2009.WEB, 9 Upcoming Tablet Alternatives to the Apple iPad,weblink Mashable, August 7, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100805003232weblink">weblink August 5, 2010, Vendors such as MotorolaWEB,weblink digits: Motorola Plans Tablet Device, September 16, 2010, marketwatch.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100928050045weblink">weblink September 28, 2010, and LenovoWEB,weblink Lenovo is waiting for Honeycomb, October 24, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101026013218weblink">weblink October 26, 2010, delayed deployment of their tablets until after 2011, when Android was reworked to include more tablet features.NEWS, The successor to Gingerbread, Android project Honeycomb is targeted for tablet computers, Daniel, Lyons, October 11, 2010, Newsweek, 49,
  • NEWS,weblink Google demonstrated Android Honeycomb Tablet, December 7, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101210072516weblink">weblink December 10, 2010,
  • Andy Rubin's demo of Motorola Honeycomb tablet Android 3.0 (Honeycomb), released in 2011 and later versions support larger screen sizes, mainly tablets, and have access to the Google Play service. Android includes operating system, middleware and key applications. Other vendors sell customized Android tablets, such as Kindle Fire and Nook, which are used to consume mobile content and provide their own app store, rather than using the larger Google Play system, thereby fragmenting the Android market.NEWS,weblink Google has lost control of Android, Wilcox, Joe, Beta News, April 28, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120913035225weblink">weblink September 13, 2012,

Chrome OS

Several devices that run Chrome OS came on the market in 2017-2019, as tablets, or as 2-in-1s with touchscreen and 360-degree hinge.WEB,weblink Gordon Gottsegen, 4 January 2018, Asus debuts new Chrome OS tablet, Chromebooks geared toward the classroom,

iOS

The iPad runs on iOS, which was created for the iPhone and iPod Touch. The first iPad was released in 2011. Although built on the same underlying Unix implementation as MacOS, its user interface is radically different. iOS is designed for fingers and has none of the features that required a stylus on earlier tablets. Apple introduced multi-touch gestures, such as moving two fingers apart or together to zoom in or out, also termed pinch to zoom.WEB, Six Years Ago, Apple Made a Crowd Gasp With Pinch to Zoom and Swiping,weblink June 12, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130704204324weblink">weblink July 4, 2013, iOS is built for the ARM architecture.WEB, Apple tablet rumors redux: 10.7-inch display, iPhone OS underneath,weblink Engadget, August 6, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100214065639weblink">weblink February 14, 2010,

Windows

Following Windows for Pen Computing for Windows 3.1 in 1991, Microsoft supported tablets running Windows XP under the Microsoft Tablet PC name.WEB,weblink Microsoft Tablet PC, Microsoft, Microsoft, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111206062347weblink">weblink December 6, 2011, Microsoft Tablet PCs were pen-based, fully functional x86 PCs with handwriting and voice recognition functionality.Tablet PC Brings the Simplicity of Pen and Paper to Computing: In a conversation with PressPass, Tablet PC general manager Alexandra Loeb discusses how the Tablet PC will bring... {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160514151506weblink |date=May 14, 2016}} Windows XP Tablet PC Edition provided pen support. Tablet support was added to both Home and Business versions of Windows Vista and Windows 7. Tablets running Windows could use the touchscreen for mouse input, hand writing recognition and gesture support. Following Tablet PC, Microsoft announced the Ultra-mobile PC initiative in 2006 which brought Windows tablets to a smaller, touch-centric form factor.WEB, Live from Steve Ballmer's CES 2010 keynote,weblink Engadget, August 4, 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100712220344weblink">weblink July 12, 2010, NEWS,weblink Initial Windows 7 tablets are slated to appear during holiday 2010 season, October 19, 2010, In 2008, Microsoft showed a prototype of a two-screen tablet called Microsoft Courier, but cancelled the project.In 2012, Microsoft released Windows 8, which features significant changes to various aspects of the operating system's user interface and platform which are designed for touch-based devices such as tablets. The operating system also introduced an application store and a new style of application optimized primarily for use on tablets.WEB,weblink Microsoft Betting BIG on Cloud with Windows 8 and Tablets, Einstein, Dave, October 11, 2012, Forbes, October 27, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121013024647weblink">weblink October 13, 2012, NEWS, Build: More Details On Building Windows 8 Metro Apps,weblink PC Magazine, February 10, 2012, Michael, Miller, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120217202913weblink">weblink February 17, 2012, Microsoft also introduced Windows RT, an edition of Windows 8 for use on ARM-based devices.WEB, Gara, Tom, What Does the ‘RT’ In Windows RT Stand For?,weblink Wall Street Journal, July 10, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130726135721weblink">weblink July 26, 2013, The launch of Windows 8 and RT was accompanied by the release of devices with the two operating systems by various manufacturers (including Microsoft themselves, with the release of Surface), such as slate tablets, hybrids, and convertibles.WEB, Best Windows 8 tablets: all the Windows 8 tablets we've reviewed,weblink Tech Radar, June 12, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130606030511weblink">weblink June 6, 2013, Released in July 2015, Windows 10 introduces what Microsoft described as "universal apps"; expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code‍—‌including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and Windows Holographic. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices‍—‌particularly on 2-in-1 PCs; both interfaces include an updated Start menu. Windows 10 replaced all earlier editions of Windows.One of the following Windows OSs will be discontinued: Windows Phone, Windows RT, and Windows 8 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131128065753weblink |date=November 28, 2013}} NEWS,weblink Microsoft aims to whittle Windows variants on mobile: A Microsoft official confirms the company is planning to trim the number of different versions of Windows in its portfolio, November 25, 2013, Mary Jo, Foley, November 25, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131128065006weblink">weblink November 28, 2013,

Hybrid OS operation

Several hardware companies have built hybrid devices with the possibility to work with both the Windows 10 and Android operating systems.WEB,weblink Scenes from the Sabu sentencing: "I’m not the same person you saw three years ago." Microsoft really is "all in" on the cloud, but is IT going to follow? Top ISPs threaten to innovate less, spend less on network upgrades Google and Microsoft are out to stop dual-boot Windows/Android devices, Ars Technica, March 14, 2014, June 2, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140604100749weblink">weblink June 4, 2014, mdy-all,

Application store

{{See also|App store}}Apps that do not come pre-installed with the system are supplied through online distribution. These sources, termed app stores, provide centralized catalogs of software and allow "one click" on-device software purchasing, installation and updates.Non-Apple Tablets Making Small Gains on iPad {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130605213319weblink |date=June 5, 2013}}, PC MagazineDamon Poeter (December 27, 2012).Massacre of the tablets {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130619060321weblink |date=June 19, 2013}}, Financial Post by Matt Hartley December 24, 2011Mobile device suppliers may adopt a "walled garden" approach, wherein the supplier controls what software applications ("apps") are available. Software development kits are restricted to approved software developers. This can be used to reduce the impact of malware, provide software with an approved content rating, control application quality and exclude competing vendors.This "vicious cycle" (slow hardware development masking slow hardware, causing slow response, causing slow software development, causing sluggish performance at an unrealistic price, causing sluggish sales) serves only to impede further software investment. "HP reboots to confront Tablet Effect" Barron's, August 20, 2011 Apple, Google, Amazon, Microsoft and Barnes & Noble all adopted the strategy. B&N originally allowed arbitrary apps to be installed,WEB, March 28, 2012,weblink fastcompany.com, Kindle Fire Vs. Nook Tablet: "Choice" And Trash Talk, Austin, Carr, December 17, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120122010755weblink">weblink January 22, 2012, WEB, March 28, 2012,weblink How to root the Nook Tablet, Eric, Mack, December 22, 2011, Gizmag.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120524182514weblink">weblink May 24, 2012, WEB, March 28, 2012, news.softpedia.com, November 17, 2011,weblink Sorin, Nita, Nook Tablet Can Sideload Android Apps without Needing Root, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120101125928weblink">weblink January 1, 2012, but, in December 2011, excluded third parties.WEB,weblink IT World, Peter, Smith, December 21, 2011, January 10, 2012, Kindle Fire and Nook Tablet both get 'upgraded' with reduced functionality, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120108015721weblink">weblink January 8, 2012, WEB,weblink PCPerspective.com, Tim, Verry, December 21, 2011, January 10, 2012, Kindle Fire and Nook Tablet Receive Root Access Killing Software Updates, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120815131453weblink">weblink August 15, 2012, WEB, March 28, 2012, The Verge,weblink Nook Tablet firmware update 1.4.1 disables sideloading apps, Joseph, Parishon, December 20, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120410081118weblink">weblink April 10, 2012, WEB, March 28, 2012,weblink Liliputing.com, B&N NOOK Tablet 1.4.1 update kills sideloading, lets you keep apps installed so far, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120410192045weblink">weblink April 10, 2012, JOURNAL, March 28, 2012, Seattle Times, Barnes & Noble's new Nook Tablet doesn't measure up to Kindle Fire: Barnes & Noble's latest digital tablet may be an upgrade to the Nook Color, but is not as strong as Amazon.com's Kindle Fire, Troy, Wolverton, San Jose Mercury News, November 25, 2011,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120316024209weblink">weblink March 16, 2012, Apple and IBM have agreed to cooperate in cross-selling IBM-developed applications for iPads and iPhones in enterprise-level accounts.WEB,weblink Arik, Hesseldahl, July 15, 2014, Apple and IBM Team Up to Push iOS in the Enterprise, July 15, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140715212719weblink">weblink July 15, 2014, Proponents of open source software say that it violates the spirit of personal control that traditional personal computers have always provided.Brown, Peter iPad is iBad for freedom {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111210083620weblink |date=December 10, 2011}}, Free Software Foundation, 2010Cherry, Steven The iPad Is Not a Computer {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120930102331weblink |date=September 30, 2012}}, IEEE Spectrum, 2010Conlon, Tom "The iPad’s Closed System: Sometimes I Hate Being Right" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100420043520weblink |date=April 20, 2010}}, Popular Science, 2010

Sales

Around 2010, tablet use by businesses jumped, as business began to use them for conferences, events, and trade shows. In 2012, Intel reported that their tablet program improved productivity for about 19,000 of their employees by an average of 57 minutes a day.WEB, Stevenson, Kim, Intel IT Performance Report,weblink Intel, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140611174808weblink">weblink June 11, 2014, In October 2012, display screen shipments for tablets began surpassing shipments for laptop display screens.WEB,weblink Tablet display shipments jump, top laptops in October, CBS Interactive, CNET, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121125003525weblink">weblink November 25, 2012, Tablets are increasingly used in the construction industry to look at blueprints, field documentation and other relevant information on the device instead of carrying around large amounts of paper.WEB, How Tablet Computers Changed the Construction Industry,weblink Fortune, January 10, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170111002021weblink">weblink January 11, 2017, As of the start of 2014, 44% of US online consumers own tablets,WEB,weblink US Tablet Ownership Update, January 2014, marketingcharts.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140731214403weblink">weblink July 31, 2014, a significant jump from 5% in 2011.WEB,weblink Two-thirds of Americans now have smartphones, Jon, Fingas, February 11, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140221225835weblink">weblink February 21, 2014, Tablet use has also become increasingly common among children. A 2014 survey found that mobiles were the most frequently used object for play among American children under the age of 12. Mobiles were used more often in play than video game consoles, board games, puzzles, play vehicles, blocks and dolls/action figures. Despite this, the majority of parents said that a mobile was "never" or only "sometimes" a toy.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140303191400weblink">weblink March 3, 2014, Touch Screens, The Michael Cohen Group, February 17, 2014, As of 2014, nearly two-thirds of American 2- to 10-year-olds have access to a tablet or e-reader.WEB,weblink Are Touchscreens Melting Your Kid's Brain? - WIRED, WIRED, no,weblink April 17, 2017, The large use of tablets by adults is as a personal internet-connected TV.NEWS,weblink More People Now Watch TV And Movies On Tablets In Bedrooms Than On TVs!, Business Insider, March 21, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140709020540weblink">weblink July 9, 2014, A 2015 study found that a third of children under five have their own tablet device.NEWS, Coughlan, Sean, Tablet computers 'widely used by under-fives',weblink BBC News, October 6, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151007155330weblink">weblink October 7, 2015, By 2017, tablet sales worldwide had surpassed sales of desktop computers,WEB,weblink Despite Steady Commercial Uptake, Personal Computing Device Market Expected to Decline at a -1.8% CAGR through 2022, According to IDC, February 28, 2018, International Data Corporation, IDC, and worldwide PC sales were flat for the first quarter of 2018.Worldwide PC shipments effectively flat in Q1 2018{| class="wikitable"|+ Unit sales – global tablet market!! 2010NEWS,weblink Gartner Says Apple Will Have a Free Run in Tablet Market Holiday Season as Competitors Continue to Lag, Gartner, September 22, 2011, May 23, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140524003055weblink">weblink May 24, 2014, mdy-all, ! 2011NEWS,weblink Gartner Says Worldwide Media Tablets Sales to Reach 119 Million Units in 2012, Gartner, April 10, 2012, May 23, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140524004147weblink">weblink May 24, 2014, mdy-all, ! 2012WEB,weblink Gartner, March 3, 2014, Gartner Says Worldwide Tablet Sales Grew 68 Percent in 2013, With Android Capturing 62 Percent of the Market, April 17, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140417073251weblink">weblink April 17, 2014, ! 2013! 2014NEWS,weblink Gartner Says Tablet Sales Continue to Be Slow in 2015, Gartner, January 5, 2015, February 8, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150208082554weblink">weblink February 8, 2015, mdy-all, ! 2015WEB,weblink IDC: Tablet shipments decline 10.1% in 2015, leaders Apple and Samsung both lose market share, February 1, 2016, ! 2016WEB,weblink Tablet Market Woes Continue as Growth in Detachable Tablets Takes Its First Vacation During the Holiday Season, According to IDC, February 2, 2017, International Data Corporation, ! 2017WEB,weblink Apple continues to dominate the tablet market as sales decline once again, Jon Russell, TechCrunch, ! 2018Q3
| Units (million)| 17.6| 60.0| 116.3| 195.4
Gartner estimate)230.1 (International Data Corporation>IDC estimate)| 206.8| 174.8| 163.5| 36.4
| Growth (%)
| 240.9| 93.8| 68.0| 10.5| -10.1 (IDC estimate)| -15.6| -6.5 |
2010 to 2014 figures are estimated by Gartner. 2014 to 2018 figures are estimated by IDC.URLHTTPS://WWW.ENGADGET.COM/2013/10/30/IDC-TABLET-SHARE-Q3-2013/, titleASUS and Samsung gain wide swaths of tablet market share in Q3, dateOctober 30, 2013, dead-urlno, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102170720weblink">weblink, archive-dateNovember 2, 2013, WEB, urlhttp:bgr.com/2013/10/31/ipad-market-share-analysis/, titleiPad Market share analysis, dateOctober 31, 2013, dead-urlno, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131205074743weblink">weblink archive-dateDecember 5, 2013, 02 Nov 2018 Tablet Market Sees Modest Decline of 8.6% as Slate and Detachable Categories Continue to Struggle, According to IDC">

By manufacturer{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center;"URLHTTPS://WWW.ENGADGET.COM/2013/10/30/IDC-TABLET-SHARE-Q3-2013/, titleASUS and Samsung gain wide swaths of tablet market share in Q3, dateOctober 30, 2013, dead-urlno, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102170720weblink">weblink, archive-dateNovember 2, 2013, WEB, urlhttp:bgr.com/2013/10/31/ipad-market-share-analysis/, titleiPad Market share analysis, dateOctober 31, 2013, dead-urlno, archive-urweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131205074743weblink">weblink archive-dateDecember 5, 2013, 02 Nov 2018 Tablet Market Sees Modest Decline of 8.6% as Slate and Detachable Categories Continue to Struggle, According to IDC

! |Vendor! |Q3 2012! |Q3 2013! |Q3 2014! |Q3 2015! |Q3 2016! |Q3 2017! |Q3 2018
Apple 40.2 29.7 22.1 19.6 21.5 25.9 26.6
Samsung 12.4 22.2 17.4 16.0 15.1 15.0 14.6
Others 47.3 49.1 60.9 64.4 63.4 59.2 58.8
Note: Others consists of small vendors with mostly less market share. 2017 and 2018 Data now breaks out Amazon, Huawei, and Lenovo: added into Others for consistency

By operating system

According to a survey conducted by the Online Publishers Association (OPA) now called Digital Content Next (DCN) in March 2012, it found that 72% of tablet owners had an iPad, while 32% had an Android tablet. By 2012, Android tablet adoption had increased. 52% of tablet owners owned an iPad, while 51% owned an Android-powered tablet (percentages do not add up to 100% because some tablet owners own more than one type).WEB,weblink Survey: 31 Percent of U.S. Internet Users Own Tablets, PCMAG, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014171620weblink">weblink October 14, 2012, By end of 2013, Android's market share rose to 61.9%, followed by iOS at 36%.WEB,weblink Android races past iOS to tablet number one, but there's no budging Apple from the top slot, ZDNet, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141106205700weblink">weblink November 6, 2014, By late 2014, Android's market share rose to 72%, followed by iOS at 22.3% and Windows at 5.7%.Apple rules global tablet market with 22.3% share: Strategy Analytics {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161011235234weblink |date=October 11, 2016}} As of early 2016, Android has 65% marketshare, Apple has 26% and Windows has 9% marketshare. In Q1 2018, Android tablets had 62% of the market, Apple's iOS had 23.4% of the market and Windows 10 had 14.6% of the market.NEWS,weblink Strategy Analytics: Tablet Market Falls 7 Percent in Q1 2018 while Top Vendors Play to Strengths, Strategy-Analytics, October 7, 2018,

Use

Sleep

The blue wavelength of light from back-lit tablets may impact one's ability to fall asleep when reading at night, through the suppression of melatonin.WEB, Blue Light Blues? Three Apps to Fix Screen Tint – And Jet Lag, Johnson, Russ,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131229125919weblink">weblink yes, December 29, 2013, A New Doman, December 24, 2013, Experts at Harvard Medical School suggest limiting tablets for reading use in the evening. Those who have a delayed body clock, such as teenagers, which makes them prone to stay up late in the evening and sleep later in the morning, may be at particular risk for increases in sleep deficiencies.WEB, E-readers 'damage sleep and health,' doctors warn,weblink December 22, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141223230934weblink">weblink December 23, 2014, A PC app such as F.lux and Android apps such as CF.lumenWEB, Alternative to,weblink CF.Lumen, January 3, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151218201919weblink">weblink December 18, 2015, and TwilightWEB,weblink Androidegis, 2013, Rehman, Abdur Rehman ·, Keep you healthy sleep using Android Devices – Twilight Health App Review, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304070702weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, attempt to decrease the impact on sleep by filtering blue wavelengths from the display. iOS 9.3 includes Night Shift that shifts the colors of the device's display to be warmer during the later hours.WEB, A better experience every day. And night.,weblink Apple, April 17, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417211949weblink">weblink April 17, 2016,

By plane

Because of, among other things, electromagnetic waves emitted by this type of device, the use of any type of electronic device during the take-off and landing phases was totally prohibited on board commercial flights. On 13 November 2013, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) announced that the use of mobile terminals could be authorized on the flights of European airlines during these phases from 2014 onwards, on the condition that the cellular functions are deactivated ("airplane" mode activated).PRESS RELEASE,weblink EASA allows use of Electronic Devices on board, 13 November 2013, European Aviation Safety Agency, EASA then formally confirmed this information on December 11, 2013.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}} Tablets, e-readers, smartphones, MP3 players, and portable gaming consoles are affected by these announcements.

Tourism

Some French historical monuments are equipped with digital tactile tablets called "HistoPad".WEB,weblink La réalité augmentée de l’Histopad révolutionne la Conciergerie - Les Echos, www.lesechos.fr, fr, 2018-09-24, It is an application integrated with an IPad Mini offering an interaction in augmented and virtual reality with several pieces of the visit, the visitor being able to take control of his visit in an interactive and personalized way.

Professional use for specific sectors

Some professionals - for example, in the construction industry, insurance experts, lifeguards or surveyors - use so-called rugged shelf models in the field that can withstand extreme hot or cold shocks or climatic environments. even hardened. In addition, via satellite Iridium type of connectivity, this type of tablet, such as Thorium XWEB,weblink Thorium X - Rugged Iridium tablet, Group, CLS, www.thoriumxtablet.com, en-US, 2018-09-24, for example, can be used in areas where there is no connectivity. United States Army helicopter pilots are moving to tablets as electronic flight bags, where the advantages are “Money saving, synchronization [of large groups of users], and relevance [of information]” – Chief Warrant Officer 5 Steve Donahue.WEB,weblink Sgt. Ashton Hofmeister, 6 February 2019, Combat aviation brigade transitions to electronic flight bags,

See also

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References

{{Reflist}}

External links

  • {{Commons-inline|Tablet computers}}
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