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{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2017}}

|other_name = Chungking, Ch’ung-ch’ing0.1em}}}}Direct-administered municipalities of China>Municipality|total_type = Municipality|image_skyline = Chongqing montage newest 2013.pngJiefangbei CBD Skyline, the Temple of the White Emperor (Baidicheng), the Egongyan Bridge, the Qutang Gorge, and the Great Hall of the People (Chongqing)>Great Hall of the People|image_seal= frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000frame-lat=29.558|frame-long=107.50}}|image_map1 = Chongqing in China (+all claims hatched).svg|map_caption1 = Location of Chongqing Municipality within China|subdivision_type = CountryChina>People's Republic of China|established_title = Settled|established_date = c. 316 BCCounty-level division>County-level - Township-levelList of administrative divisions of Chongqing>25 districts, 13 counties1259 towns, townships, and subdistrictsDirect-administered municipalities of China>MunicipalityParty chief of the Communist Party of China>CPC Secretary|leader_name = Chen Min'er|leader_title1 = Mayor|leader_name1 = Tang Liangzhi|leader_title2 = Congress chairmanZhang Xuan (politician)张轩|lt=Zhang Xuan}}|leader_title3 = Conference chairmanWang Jiong (politician)>Wang Jiong|area_total_km2 = 82403|area_land_km2 = |area_water_km2 = | area_blank1_title = Core districts|area_blank1_km2 = 5,472.8PUBLISHER = MINISTRY OF COMMERCE OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA URL-STATUS = DEAD ARCHIVEDATE = 5 AUGUST 2013, dmy, | elevation_max_m = 1709.4| elevation_m = 244|elevation_footnotes = |population_total = 30,484,300|population_footnotes =WEB,weblink access-date=16 February 2019,weblink
, 17 February 2019, live, dmy-all, |population_as_of = 2016|population_density_km2 = auto
Total urban population in the municipality.}}WEB
, zh:2015年重庆常住人口3016.55万人 继续保持增长态势
, In 2015, Chongqing’s resident population of 30,165,500 people continued to grow
, Chongqing News
, zh
, 28 January 2016
, 2016-02-13
, Archived copy
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 29 January 2016
, live
, dmy-all
, |population_density_urban_km2 = auto|population_density_metro_km2 = auto|population_metro_footnotes =|population_blank1_title=Core districtsACCESSDATE=20 JULY 2019 IFENG.COM >LANGUAGE=ZH-CN, |population_density_blank1_km2 = autoChina Standard Time>CST|utc_offset = +8293010600region:CN-50|display=it}}List of postal codes in China>Postal code|postal_code = 4000 00 – 4099 00Telephone numbers in China>23|blank_name = GDPTRANS-TITLE=STATISTICAL COMMUNIQUE OF THE 2017 NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF CHONGQING LANGUAGE=ZH ACCESSDATE=2018-06-22 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180622140146/HTTP://WWW.CQ.XINHUANET.COM/2018-03/17/C_1122549767.HTM URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, |blank1_name =  - TotalRenminbi>CNY 2.04 trillionUS$ 304.02 billion (18th)|blank2_name =  - Per capitaList of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita>10th)Human Development Index>HDI (2016)YEAR = 2013 UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA >LANGUAGE = ZH TITLE = ARCHIVED COPY ARCHIVE-DATE = 29 NOVEMBER 2013 DF = DMY-ALL, (17th) – highVehicle registration plates of China>Licence plate prefixesCN-CQ)|blank5_name_sec1 = Abbreviationc = 渝 labels = no }}|blank1_name_sec2 = City flowerCamellia japonica>CamelliaHTTP://EN.CQ.GOV.CN/ABOUTCHONGQING/1914.HTM >TITLE = CITY FLOWER ACCESSDATE = 2013-12-10 ARCHIVE-DATE = 30 JUNE 2012 DF = DMY-ALL, |blank2_name_sec2 = City treeFicus lacorHTTP://EN.CQ.GOV.CN/ABOUTCHONGQING/1914.HTM WEBSITE = EN.CQ.GOV.CN ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120630163656/HTTP://EN.CQ.GOV.CN/ABOUTCHONGQING/1914.HTM URL-STATUS = DEAD, dmy-all, |website = {{zh icon}}}}

pic Chongqing_(Chinese_characters).svg
piccap "Chongqing" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|picupright = 0.5|order = st
|sic = Cong2-qin4({{IPA-all|tsʰoŋ˨˩ tɕʰin˨˩˦|}})
|w = Chʻung2-chʻing4
|gr = Chorngchinq
|bpmf = ㄔㄨㄥˊ   ã„‘ㄧㄥˋ
|psp = Chungking
|mi = {{IPAc-cmn|ch|ong|2|.|q|ing|4}}|j = Cung4hing3
|ci = {{IPAc-yue|c|ung|4|.|h|ing|3}}
|y = Chùhnghing|wuu = Zon上-chin去|poj = Tiông-khèng
|tl = Tiông-khìng|h = Tshùng-khin|l = "Doubled Celebration"|showflag = psic
}}Chongqing ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|tʃ|ÊŠ|Å‹|ˈ|tʃ|ɪ|Å‹}}, also {{IPAc-en|US|ËŒ|tʃ|ɔː|Å‹|-|,_|ËŒ|tʃ|uː|Å‹|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Chongqing, 8 April 2019, "Chongqing" {{Webarchive|url= |date=8 April 2019 }} (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Chongqing, 8 April 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Chongqing, 8 April 2019, Chinese: {{IPAc-cmn|AUD|Chongqing.ogg|ch|ong|2|.|q|ing|4}}), alternately romanised as Chungking,{{NoteTag|Ch'ungk'ing, Ch'ung K'ing, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as Ch'ung-ch'ing, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan and in Western academic literature.}} is a major city in southwest China. Administratively, it is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the People's Republic of China (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality located far away from the coast.WEB,weblink China's Direct-Controlled Municipalities,, 14 March 1997, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2012, live, dmy-all, It is the largest city proper in the world.Chongqing was a municipality during the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945); during this period, Chongqing was listed as one of the world's four anti-fascist command centers, along with Washington, D.C., London and Moscow.WEB,weblink World War II remains,, 2018-12-29,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2018, live, dmy-all, The current municipality was recreated on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China.WEB,weblink zh:关于提请审议设立重庆直辖市的议案的说明_中国人大网, Explanation on the proposal to consider the establishment of a municipality directly under the Central Government of China,, 2018-07-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2016, live, dmy-all, The Chongqing administrative municipality has a population of over 30 million, spread over an area the size of Austria.NEWS,weblink Which is the world's biggest city?, BBC News, 2012-01-29, Alexander, Ruth, 31 August 2018,weblink 6 August 2018, live, dmy-all, The city of Chongqing made of 9 urban and suburban districts has a population of 8,518,000 as of 2016. According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality,WEB, zh:最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查),weblink, 2012, 2014-05-28, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2015, live, dmy-all, and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, and four autonomous counties.The official abbreviation of the city, "{{transl|zh|pinyin|Yú}}" (), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997.WEB,weblink Chongqing's Official Abbreviation,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2016, dead, dmy-all, This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River.Chongqing has a significant history and culture. Being one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megalopolises".WEB,weblink EIU Report,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2015,


Ancient history

Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba.This new capital was first named Jiangzhou ().BOOK, Chongqing & The Three Gorges, Kim Hunter Gordon, Jesse Watson, 2011,weblink 38–40, 978-7-5022-5215-1,

Imperial era

Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang's rule during the Qin dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, and under the control of Han dynasty emperors.Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Northern and Southern dynasties to Chu Prefecture (), then in 581 AD (Sui dynasty) to Yu Prefecture (), and later in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture ().WEB,weblink Chongqing's History with the State of Ba, Chongqing Municipal Government, 6 December 2007, 2 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2012, live, dmy-all, The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, and the city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong (Central Yu). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" ({{zh |s=双重喜庆 |t=雙重喜慶 |p=shuāngchóng xǐqìng }}, or chongqing in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.In 1362, (Yuan dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebel leader, established the Daxia Kingdom () at Chongqing for a short time.WEB,weblink Ming Yuzhen Information,, 2012-07-02,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2016, live, dmy-all, In 1621 (Ming dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang () was established by She Chongming () with Chongqing as its capital.BOOK,weblink Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries, and Human Geographies in Chinese History, Nicola di Cosmo, Don J. Wyatt, 2003-07-03, 2012-07-02, 9780203987957, In 1644, after the fall of the Ming dynasty to a rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province, in part by causing many people to flee to safety elsewhere. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of the Qing emperor.WEB,weblink The last Qing (Manchu) Dynasty 1644 - 1912 of China, 2015-08-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 November 2016, dmy, The last Manchu dynastyIn 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing.WEB,weblink UK Consulate Page,, 30 December 2004, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2013, dmy-all, The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.WEB,weblink Chongqing Opens Itself To Foreigners,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2012, dead, dmy-all, The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896–1904.WEB,weblink French Consulate Page,, 30 December 2004, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2013, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Japanese Consulate Page,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2012, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink US Consulate Page,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2012, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink German Consulate Page,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2013, dmy-all,

Provisional capital of the Republic of China

(File:China from the Eyes of the Flying Tigers 1944-1945 57.jpg|thumb|left|A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944)During and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, from Nov 1937 to May 1946, it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After Britain, the United States, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-08-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2016, dmy, Chiang Kai-shek & Stilwell, Joseph The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.WEB,weblink WWII Era History of Chongqing,, 23 October 1944, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2013, dmy-all,

Municipality status

(File:A Sunset View of Chongqing Central Business District.jpg|thumb|right|A sunset view of Chongqing Central Business District and Hongya Cave, taken in 2017)On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the Sub-provincial city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the four National Central/Core cities, the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.WEB,weblink Chongqing becomes 5th National Central city,, 10 February 2010, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 18 May 2013, live, dmy-all, On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment.WEB,weblink Establishment of the Liangjiang New Area,, 25 November 2013, 2013-12-10,


(File:Txu-oclc-10552568-nh48-12.jpg|thumb|left|Map of Chongqing (labeled as CH’UNG-CH’ING (CHUNGKING) ) and nearby areas (1954))

Physical geography and topography

(File:Chongqing Map.png|thumb|Topography of Chongqing)Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Tibetan Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poems throughout Chinese history including the famous Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North by Li Shangyin.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-08-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 August 2016, dmy, Bashan Poems The municipality reaches a maximum width of {{convert|470|km}} from east to west, and a maximum length of {{convert|450|km|abbr=on}} from north to south.WEB,weblink Location of Chongqing,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2012, live, dmy-all, It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-08-06, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2016, dmy, Chongqing's bordering provincesChongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains stand in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River valley, with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by a large geological massif, of mountains and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights.WEB, Mountains in Sichuan and Chongqing,weblink Chongqing Topography,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, dmy-all, Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Longshuixia Gap (), with its natural arch-bridges, has made the region a popular tourist attraction. The Yangtze River runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of {{convert|665|km|abbr=on}}, cutting through the Wu Mountains at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges: the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges.WEB,weblink The Three Gorges Corp,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, live, dmy-all, Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing.WEB, Yangtze River,weblink Chinese National Tourism Office, US Chinese Embassy, 2014-03-31,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, live, dmy-all, The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers".WEB, Ryan, Murphy,weblink Trip to Chongqing,, 28 December 2010, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2013, live, dmy-all, The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram.WEB,weblink Poems of Li Bai,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2012, live, dmy-all, Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area. Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-08-19, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, Chongqing Mountains DataZhongliang Mountains (中梁山) and Tongluo Mountains (铜锣山) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Chongqing's urban area. The highest point in downtown is the top of Eling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River and Jialing River apart for some more kilometres. The elevation of Eling Hill is {{convert|379|m|abbr=off}}. The lowest point is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is {{convert|160|m|abbr=off}}. The average height of the area is {{convert|259|m|abbr=off}}. However, there are several high mountains outside central Chongqing, such as the Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of {{convert|1709.4|m|abbr=off}}, in Jiangjin.


All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.
Annual average : {{convert|18.39|°C|1}}
January average : {{convert|7.9|°C|1}}
July and August average : {{convert|28.3|°C|1}}
Historical Temperature range : From {{convert|−1.8|°C|0}} on 15 December 1975 to {{convert|43.0|°C|0}} on 15 August 2006WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 13 October 2012, zh:无标题文档, 2016-10-16, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Extreme Temperatures Around the World, 2010-08-28,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2010, dead, dmy-all
Total annual hours of sunshine : 955
Annual precipitation : {{convert|1108|mm|1}}
Chongqing has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), bordering on a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and for most of the year experiences very high relative humidity, with all months above 75%. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze river, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of {{convert|33|to|34|°C|°F|0}} in July and August in the urban area.WEB
, zh:中国气象局 国家气象信息中心
, Guangzhou Popular Science News Net ()
, zh-Hans
, 12 September 2007
, 2014-11-12
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 18 March 2013
, dmy
, Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from {{convert|−1.8|°C|0}} on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of {{convert|-2.5|°C|0}} was set on 8 February 1943) to {{convert|43.0|°C|0}} on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of {{convert|44.0|°C|0}} was set on 8 and 9 August 1933).WEB,weblink Extreme Temperatures Around the World, 2013-05-22,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2010, dead, dmy-all, As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.{{Weather box|location = Chongqing (Shapingba District, 1981–2010)|metric first = Y|single line = Y|collapsed = |Jan high C = 10.3|Feb high C = 12.9|Mar high C = 17.7|Apr high C = 23.0|May high C = 27.2|Jun high C = 29.4|Jul high C = 33.0|Aug high C = 33.2|Sep high C = 28.3|Oct high C = 21.7|Nov high C = 17.1|Dec high C = 11.5|Jan mean C = 7.9|Feb mean C = 10.0|Mar mean C = 13.8|Apr mean C = 18.5|May mean C = 22.6|Jun mean C = 25.1|Jul mean C = 28.3|Aug mean C = 28.3|Sep mean C = 24.1|Oct mean C = 18.6|Nov mean C = 14.2|Dec mean C = 9.3|Jan low C = 6.2|Feb low C = 8.0|Mar low C = 11.2|Apr low C = 15.4|May low C = 19.3|Jun low C = 22.1|Jul low C = 24.8|Aug low C = 24.7|Sep low C = 21.2|Oct low C = 16.5|Nov low C = 12.2|Dec low C = 7.7|Jan record high C= 18.8|Feb record high C= 24.6|Mar record high C= 34.0|Apr record high C= 36.5|May record high C= 38.9|Jun record high C= 39.8|Jul record high C= 42.0|Aug record high C= 43.0|Sep record high C= 41.9|Oct record high C= 35.1|Nov record high C= 29.2|Dec record high C= 21.5|Jan record low C = −1.8|Feb record low C = −0.8|Mar record low C = 1.2|Apr record low C = 2.8|May record low C = 10.8|Jun record low C = 15.5|Jul record low C = 19.2|Aug record low C = 17.8|Sep record low C = 14.3|Oct record low C = 6.9|Nov record low C = 0.7|Dec record low C = −1.7|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 19.7|Feb precipitation mm = 23.3|Mar precipitation mm = 43.2|Apr precipitation mm = 95.2|May precipitation mm = 145.9|Jun precipitation mm = 192.6|Jul precipitation mm = 186.0|Aug precipitation mm = 137.9|Sep precipitation mm = 105.8|Oct precipitation mm = 85.8|Nov precipitation mm = 48.3|Dec precipitation mm = 24.3|Jan humidity = 84|Feb humidity = 80|Mar humidity = 77|Apr humidity = 77|May humidity = 77|Jun humidity = 81|Jul humidity = 76|Aug humidity = 74|Sep humidity = 79|Oct humidity = 85|Nov humidity = 84|Dec humidity = 85|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 10.0|Feb precipitation days = 9.8|Mar precipitation days = 11.9|Apr precipitation days = 14.3|May precipitation days = 15.5|Jun precipitation days = 15.7|Jul precipitation days = 12.5|Aug precipitation days = 11.3|Sep precipitation days = 12.7|Oct precipitation days = 16.1|Nov precipitation days = 11.5|Dec precipitation days = 9.8|year precipitation days=151.1Jan percentsun = 8Feb percentsun = 11Mar percentsun = 18Apr percentsun = 25May percentsun = 26Jun percentsun = 26Jul percentsun = 42Aug percentsun = 48Sep percentsun = 28Oct percentsun = 18Nov percentsun = 13Dec percentsun = 8
|year percentsun= 24|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration
WEB,weblink zh:中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data, China Meteorological Administration, 2018-11-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2017, live, dmy-all, WEB
, zh:中国地面国际交换站气候标准值数据集 (1971–2000年)
, China Meteorological Administration
, zh-Hans
, 2011-05-23
, May 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 21 September 2013
, dmy
, |date = May 2010}}{{Youyang weatherbox}}(File:The skyscrapers of Chongqing CBD with Hongya Cave at sunset.jpeg|thumb|The skyscrapers of Chongqing CBD with Hongya Cave at sunset)


Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,WEB
, Chongqing Municipality
, IES Global
, 2011-07-17
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 11 October 2010
, live
, dmy-all
, is known as the "Fog City" (), like San Francisco, and a thick layer of fog enshrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn.
, Chongqing – City of Hills, Fog and Spicy Food
, 2011-07-17
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 27 September 2011
, live
, dmy-all
Lin, Yutang.1944. The Vigil of a Nation. The John Day Company. New York. 262 pages During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army.

Administrative divisions

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011WEB,weblink zh:重庆调整部分行政区划:4区(县)并为2区,, 17 March 2010, 2013-12-10, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2011, live, dmy-all, ), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over {{convert|80000|sqkm|sqmi|sigfig=3}}, is rural. At the end of year 2017, the total population is 30.75 million.weblink{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center"! colspan="14" |Administrative divisions of Chongqing {{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Chongqing.svg|width=890|link=}}{{Image label|x=535|y=340|scale=890/890|text=Wanzhou}}{{Image label|x=370|y=540|scale=890/890|text=Fuling}}{{Image label|x=250|y=558|scale=890/890|text=1}}{{Image label|x=170|y=310|scale=890/890|text=Yuzhong}}{{Image label|x=245|y=580|scale=890/890|text=2}}{{Image label|x=280|y=550|scale=890/890|text=3}}{{Image label|x=180|y=285|scale=890/890|text=Jiangbei}}{{Image label|x=233|y=548|scale=890/890|text=4}}{{Image label|x=140|y=300|scale=890/890|text=4}}{{Image label|x=227|y=573|scale=890/890|text=5}}{{Image label|x=175|y=340|scale=890/890|text=5}}{{Image label|x=272|y=563|scale=890/890|text=6}}{{Image label|x=230|y=330|scale=890/890|text=Nan'an}}{{Image label|x=230|y=510|scale=890/890|text=Beibei}}{{Image label|x=270|y=680|scale=890/890|text=Qijiang}}{{Image label|x=110|y=540|scale=890/890|text=Dazu}}{{Image label|x=275|y=520|scale=890/890|text=Yubei}}{{Image label|x=190|y=260|scale=890/890|text=Yubei}}{{Image label|x=270|y=600|scale=890/890|text=Banan}}{{Image label|x=590|y=580|scale=890/890|text=Qianjiang}}{{Image label|x=325|y=480|scale=890/890|text=Changshou}}{{Image label|x=180|y=639|scale=890/890|text=Jiangjin}}{{Image label|x=190|y=460|scale=890/890|text=Hechuan}}{{Image label|x=110|y=600|scale=890/890|text=Yongchuan}}{{Image label|x=327|y=639|scale=890/890|text=Nanchuan}}{{Image label|x=200|y=550|scale=890/890|text=7}}{{Image label|x=143|y=505|scale=890/890|text=Tongliang}}{{Image label|x=108|y=447|scale=890/890|text=Tongnan}}{{Image label|x=047|y=583|scale=890/890|text=Rongchang}}{{Image label|x=530|y=240|scale=890/890|text=Kaizhou}}{{Image label|x=427|y=350|scale=890/890|text=Liangping}}{{Image label|x=425|y=600|scale=890/890|text=Wulong}}{{Image label|x=595|y=115|scale=890/890|text=ChengkouCounty}}{{Image label|x=445|y=490|scale=890/890|text=FengduCounty}}{{Image label|x=370|y=420|scale=890/890|text=DianjiangCounty}}{{Image label|x=463|y=410|scale=890/890|text=ZhongCounty}}{{Image label|x=610|y=285|scale=890/890|text=YunyangCounty}}{{Image label|x=708|y=283|scale=890/890|text=FengjieCounty}}{{Image label|x=795|y=260|scale=890/890|text=WushanCounty}}{{Image label|x=690|y=179|scale=890/890|text=WuxiCounty}}{{Image label|x=525|y=450|scale=890/890|text=ShizhuCounty}}{{Image label|x=637|y=755|scale=890/890|text=XiushanCounty}}{{Image label|x=600|y=680|scale=890/890|text=YouyangCounty}}{{Image label|x=515|y=590|scale=890/890|text=PengshuiCounty}}{{Image label|x=065|y=060|scale=890/890|text=1. Yuzhong}}{{Image label|x=065|y=080|scale=890/890|text=2. Dadukou}}{{Image label|x=065|y=100|scale=890/890|text=3. Jiangbei}}{{Image label|x=065|y=120|scale=890/890|text=4. Shapingba}}{{Image label|x=065|y=140|scale=890/890|text=5. Jiulongpo}}{{Image label|x=065|y=160|scale=890/890|text=6. Nan'an}}{{Image label|x=065|y=180|scale=890/890|text=7. Bishan}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Division codeWEB,weblink zh:国家统计局统计用区划代码, National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh-hans, Archived copy, 9 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2013, dead, dmy-all, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Division!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Area in km2{{full citation needed|date=May 2019}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Total population 2010BOOK, zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1st, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Urban areapopulation 2010BOOK, 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司, 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Seat!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Postal code!! scope="col" colspan=8 | Subdivisions{{full citation needed|date=November 2018}}!! scope="col" width="45" | Subdistricts!! scope="col" width="45" | Towns!! scope="col" width="45" | Townships{{#tag:ref|Including other township related subdivisions.|name=other|group=n}}!! scope="col" width="45" | Ethnic townships!! scope="col" width="45" | Residential communities!! scope="col" width="45" | Villages style="font-weight: bold"! 500000 !! ChongqingYuzhong District>Yuzhong 400000 181 567 233 14 2324 5235! 500101 !! WanzhouChenjiaba Subdistrict >| 448! 500102 !! FulingLizhi Subdistrict > 108 310! 500103 !! Yuzhong 630,090 Qixinggang Subdistrict 400000 12 bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey"! 500104 !! DadukouXinshancun Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 32! 500105 !! JiangbeiCuntan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 48! 500106 !! ShapingbaQinjiagang Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 86! 500107 !! JiulongpoYangjiaping Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 105! 500108 !! Nan'anTianwen Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 61! 500109 !! BeibeiBeiwenquan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 117! 500110 !! QijiangGunan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 365! 500111 !! DazuTangxiang Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 197! 500112 !! YubeiShuangfengqiao Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 215! 500113 !! BananLongzhouwan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 198! 500114 !! QianjiangChengxi Subdistrict > 80 138! 500115 !! ChangshouFengcheng Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 223! 500116 !! JiangjinJijiang Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 180! 500117 !! HechuanNanjin Street Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 327! 500118 !! YongchuanZhongshan Road Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 208! 500119 !! NanchuanDongcheng Subdistrict, Nanchuan District>Dongcheng Subdistrict 408400 3 15 15 bgcolor="grey"| 185! 500120 !! BishanBicheng Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 142! 500151 !! TongliangBachuan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 269! 500152 !! TongnanGuilin Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 281! 500153 !! RongchangChangyuan Subdistrict > bgcolor="grey"| 92! 500154 !! KaizhouHanfeng Subdistrict > 78 435! 500155 !! LiangpingLiangshan Subdistrict > 33 310! 500156 !! WulongGangkou, Chongqing>Gangkou town 408500 bgcolor="grey"| 184! 500229 !! Chengkou Co.Gecheng Subdistrict > 22 184! 500230 !! Fengdu Co.Sanhe Subdistrict, Fengdu County>Sanhe Subdistrict 408200 2 23 5 bgcolor="grey"| 277! 500231 !! Dianjiang Co.Guixi Subdistrict > 62 236! 500233 !! Zhong Co.Zhongzhou, Chongqing>Zhongzhou town 404300 bgcolor="grey"| 317! 500235 !! Yunyang Co.Shuangjiang Subdistrict >| 391! 500236 !! Fengjie Co.Yong'an, Chongqing>Yong'an town 404600 bgcolor="grey"| 332! 500237 !! Wushan Co.Gaotang Subdistrict > 11 12 2 30 308! 500238 !! Wuxi Co.Baichang Subdistrict > 38 292! 500240 !! Shizhu Co.Nanbin town > 17 15 bgcolor="grey"| 213! 500241 !! Xiushan Co.Zhonghe Subdistrict > 14 18 bgcolor="grey"| 208! 500242 !! Youyang Co.Taohuayuan, Chongqing>Taohuayuan town 409800 bgcolor="grey" 8 270! 500243 !! Pengshui Co.Hanjia Subdistrict > 11 28 bgcolor="grey"| 241{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; text-align:center"! colspan="5" | Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English! Chinese! Hanyu Pinyin! Sichuanese Pinyin! Chongqing Municipality! Wanzhou District! Fuling District! Yuzhong District! Dadukou District! Jiangbei District! Shapingba District! Jiulongpo District! Nan'an District! Beibei District! Qijiang District! Dazu District! Yubei District! Banan District! Qianjiang District! Changshou District! Jiangjin District! Hechuan District! Yongchuan District! Nanchuan District! Bishan District! Tongliang District! Tongnan District! Rongchang District! Kaizhou District! Liangping District! Wulong District! Chengkou County! Fengdu County! Dianjiang County! Zhong County! Yunyang County! Fengjie County! Wushan County! Wuxi County! Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County! Xiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County! Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County! Pengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County{{reflist|group=n}}

Urban areas{|class"wikitable sortable collapsible"

! colspan="6" | Population by urban areas of districts!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!Census datename=ChongqingYuzhong District>Yuzhong, Dadukou District, Jiangbei District, Chongqing>Jiangbei, Shapingba District, Jiulongpo District>Jiulongpo, Nan'an District, Beibei District>Beibei, Yubei District, & Banan District, Chongqing>Banan.}}6,263,7907,457,5992010-11-01Wanzhou District>Wanzhou859,6621,563,0502010-11-01Hechuan District>Hechuan721,7531,293,0282010-11-01Jiangjin District>Jiangjin686,1891,233,1492010-11-01Fuling District>Fuling595,2241,066,7142010-11-01Yongchuan District>Yongchuan582,7691,024,7082010-11-01Qijiang District>Qijiang{{efn-lrWansheng District & Qijiang County currently known as Qijiang after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Kaizhou District>Kaizhou{{efn-lrKaizhou County is currently known as Kaizhou after census.}}416,4151,160,3362010-11-01Changshou District>Changshou408,261770,0092010-11-01Dazu District>Dazu{{efn-lrShuangqiao District, Chongqing & Dazu County currently known as Dazu after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Rongchang District>Rongchang{{efn-lrRongchang County is currently known as Rongchang after census.}}271,232661,2532010-11-01Nanchuan District>Nanchuan255,045534,3292010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Tongliang District>Tongliang{{efn-lrTongliang County is currently known as Tongliang after census.}}248,962600,0862010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Tongnan District>Tongnan{{efn-lrTongnan County is currently known as Tongnan after census.}}247,084639,9852010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Bishan District>Bishan{{efn-lrBishan County is currently known as Bishan after census.}}246,425586,0342010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Liangping District>Liangping{{efn-lrLiangping County is currently known as Liangping after census.}}235,753687,5252010-11-01Qianjiang District>Qianjiang173,997445,0122010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Wulong District>Wulong{{efn-lrWulong County is currently known as Wulong after census.}}115,823351,0382010-11-01{{notelist-lr}}{{Clear}}{{wide image|Panorama of Chongqing at night taken from Eling Park.jpeg|800px|align-cap=center|Panorama of Chongqing at night taken from Eling Park}}(File:A View of Chongqing Central Business District.jpg|thumb|Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night)(File:New York New York Tower.jpg|thumb|New York New York Tower, with a height of 228 m (748 ft), located in Jiefangbei CBD and built in 2005){{col-begin|width=auto}}{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%;"|+ Districts! Pinyin name !! Previousassociation{{smallsup|a}}Banan District, Chongqing>Banan rowspan="6"| ChongqingBeibei District>Beibei Bishan District>BishanChangshou District>ChangshouDadukou District>DadukouDazu District>DazuFuling District>Fuling FulingHechuan District>Hechuan rowspan="4"| ChongqingJiangbei District, Chongqing>JiangbeiJiangjin District>JiangjinJiulongpo District>JiulongpoKaizhou District>Kaizhou rowspan="2"| WanxianLiangping District>LiangpingNan'an District>Nan'an ChongqingNanchuan District>Nanchuan FulingQianjiang District>Qianjiang QianjiangShapingba District>Shapingba rowspan="5"| ChongqingTongliang District>TongliangTongnan County>TongnanQijiang District>QijiangRongchang County>RongchangWanzhou District>Wanzhou | WanxianWulong County>Wulong FulingYubei District>Yubei rowspan="3"| ChongqingYongchuan District>YongchuanYuzhong District>Yuzhong{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%;"|+ Counties! Pinyin name !! Previousassociation{{smallsup|a}}Chengkou County>Chengkou WanxianDianjiang County>Dianjiang rowspan="2"| FulingFengdu County>FengduFengjie County>Fengjie rowspan="5"| WanxianWushan County, Chongqing>WushanWuxi County>WuxiYunyang County>YunyangZhong County>Zhong{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%;"|+ Autonomous counties! Pinyin name !! Previousassociation{{smallsup|a}}Pengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County>Pengshui rowspan="4"| QianjiangShizhu Tujia Autonomous County>ShizhuXiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County>XiushanYouyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County>Youyang{{col-end}}{{smaller|a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.}}

Central Chongqing

The main urban area of Chongqing city () spans approximately {{convert|5473|km2|abbr=off}}, and includes the following nine districts:WEB,weblink Position of Five Function Districts in Chongqing, Chongqing Municipal Government, 22 September 2013, 2015-05-26,weblink" title="">weblink 21 November 2014, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink zh:五大功能区域: 都市功能核心区, Five Functional Districts: Urban-function Core District, CQNEWS Corporation, 2015-05-26, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2015, dead, dmy-all,
  • Yuzhong District (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices and the city's best shopping are located in the district's Jeifangbei CBD area. Yuzhong is located on the peninsula surrounded by Eling Hill, Yangtze River and Jialing River.
  • Jiangbei District (, or "River North District"), located to the north of Jialing River.
  • Shapingba District (), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Jiulongpo District (), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain.
  • Nan'an District (, or "Southern Bank District"), located on the south side of Yangtze River.
  • Dadukou District ()
  • Banan District (, or "Southern Chongqing District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Chongqing.
  • Yubei District (, or "Northern Chongqing District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Chongqing.
  • Beibei District (), a satellite city northwest of Chongqing.
{{Panorama|image = File:A Night View of Chongqing.jpg|height = 335|caption = Panorama of the Chongqing Skyline, taken from Jiangbeizui CBD in 2015}}File:Chongqing Grand Theatre 01.jpg|thumb|Chongqing Grand TheatreChongqing Grand Theatre


(File:Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument).jpg|thumb|left|Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing){{Historical populations|type=China100300063010001389000015297000|1997WEB,weblink Statistical Yearbook 2014, zh:统计年鉴2014, Statistics Bureau of Chongqing, zh-hans, 9 February 2015, 2015-05-01, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, *|287530002848820027980000283900002884617029700000|2014WEB,weblink Chongqing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014, zh:2014年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报, Chongqing Bureau of Statistics, zh-Hans, 16 March 2015, 2015-05-01, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 May 2015, dmy-all, |29914000|2015WEB,weblink Annual Total Population by Provinces, National Bureau of Statistics China, English, 2018-05-15, dmy-all,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2016, live, |30170000|footnote = *Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.}}According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.NEWS
, China's Chongqing starts household registration reform
, Xinhua News
, 2 July 2010
, 2010-08-12
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 21 August 2010
, dmy-all
, The metropolitan area encompassing the central urban area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, a population of 17 million.NEWS,, Justina Crabtree; special to, A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolises,weblink CNBC, 20 September 2016, slide 8, 8 December 2017,weblink 9 December 2017, live, dmy-all, BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, 18 April 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, OECD Urban Policy Reviews, 8 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Linked from the OECD here {{Webarchive|url= |date=9 December 2017 }}This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.WEB
, Residence Status of Population by Region and Sex (2004)
, National Bureau of Statistics of China, in
, 2005
, 2010-08-12
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 4 December 2010
, live
, dmy-all
The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.WEB
, Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004)
, National Bureau of Statistics of China, in
, 2005
, 2010-08-12
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 4 December 2010
, live
, dmy-all
Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.WEB
, Number and Size of Family Households by Region (2004)
, National Bureau of Statistics of China, in
, 2005
, 2010-08-12
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 4 December 2010
, live
, dmy-all


{{see also|Chongqing gang trials}}In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a large-scale crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over.Chongqing on the mend after crackdown on criminal gangs {{webarchive|url=|date=4 April 2012}}, SCMP, 5 October 2009 However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in reveals Bo Xilai's use of torture {{webarchive|url=|date=20 June 2012}} In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture.WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2016, live, 2015-08-19, dmy, Morning Post Gang trials


{{See also|List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China}}File:Chongqing.jpg|thumb|left|The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing]]Chongqing has been, since 1997, a direct-controlled municipality in the Chinese administrative structure, making it a provincial-level division with commensurate political importance. The municipality's top leader is the secretary of the municipal committee of the Communist Party of China ("party chief"), which, since 2007, has also held a seat on the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, the country's second highest governing council. Under the Soviet-inspired nomenklatura system of appointments, individuals are appointed to the position by the central leadership of the Communist Party, and bestowed to an official based on seniority and adherence to party orthodoxy, usually given to an individual with prior regional experience elsewhere in China and nearly never a native of Chongqing. Notable individuals who have held the municipal Party Secretary position include He Guoqiang, Wang Yang, Bo Xilai, Zhang Dejiang, and Sun Zhengcai, the latter three were Politburo members during their term as party chief. The party chief heads the municipal party standing committee, the de facto top governing council of the municipality. The standing committee is typically composed of 13 individuals which includes the party chiefs of important subdivisions and other leading figures in the local party and government organization, as well as one military representative.The municipal People's Government serves as the day-to-day administrative authority, and is headed by the mayor, who is assisted by numerous vice mayors and mayoral assistants. Each vice mayor is given jurisdiction over specific municipal departments. The mayor is the second-highest-ranking official in the municipality. The mayor usually represents the city when foreign guests visit.WEB, Page, Jeremy,weblink Chongqing Party Chief Position,, 15 March 2012, 2013-12-10,weblink 24 November 2017, live, dmy-all, The municipality also has a People's Congress, theoretically elected by lower level People's Congresses. The People's Congress nominally appoints the mayor and approves the nominations of other government officials. The People's Congress, like those of other provincial jurisdictions, is generally seen as a symbolic body. It convenes in full once a year to approve party-sponsored resolutions and local regulations and duly confirm party-approved appointments. On occasion the People's Congress can be venues of discussion on municipal issues, although this is dependent on the actions of individual delegates. The municipal People's Congress is headed by a former municipal official, usually in their late fifties or sixties, with a lengthy prior political career in Chongqing. The municipal Political Consultative Conference (zhengxie) meets at around the same time as the People's Congress. Its role is to advise on political issues. The zhengxie is headed by a leader who is typically a former municipal or regional official with a lengthy career in the party and government bureaucracy.


Chongqing was the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war (i.e., World War II), and from 1938 to 1946,WEB,weblink Chongqing History: The Modern Period, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2016-07-31, Kuo, Ping-chia,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2016, live, dmy-all, the seat of administration for the Republic of China's government before its departure to Nanjing and then Taiwan.WEB,weblink Chongqing, once a wartime capitol,, 14 March 1997, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2012, live, dmy-all, It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-12-03, Qiu Shaoyun Memorial Hall, 2016-10-16, Chongqing used to be the headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that formerly comprise the Chengdu Military Region, which in 2016 was re-organized into the Western Theater Command.WEB, John, Pike,weblink A history of the 13th Army Group,, 21 November 2003, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2013, live, dmy-all,


File:Jiangbeizui CBD.jpg|thumb|Jiangbeizui Central Business District from above, taken in 2018]]File:Chaotianmen Bridge, Nan'an District of Chongqing.jpg|thumb|Chaotianmen Bridge connects Jiangbei District with Nan'an DistrictNan'an DistrictFile:Jiefangbei.jpg|thumb|Jiefangbei-People's Liberation (World War IIWorld War IIFile:Raffles City Chongqing 2019-9.jpg|thumb|Raffles City ChongqingRaffles City ChongqingChongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in 14 March 1997Chinese vice premier urges Chongqing to become economic engine for western regions {{webarchive |url =weblink" title="">weblink |date=4 March 2016 }} – Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Australia – retrieved 2009-01-31. in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).China urges reform, development of Chongqing municipality {{webarchive |url= |date=23 August 2013 }} – Xinhua News Agency – retrieved 2009-01-31. An important industrial area in western China,WEB,weblink Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces (,, 2011-03-14,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2006, live, dmy-all, Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics"Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything," Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Penguin, p. 218, 2006. suggest that new construction added approximately {{convert|137,000|m2|sqft|abbr=off}} daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development.Chongqing Municipality(重慶市) {{webarchive |url= |date=7 March 2016 }} – The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales – retrieved 2009-01-31. Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles.Critical Eye on Chongqing – Pillar of the West {{webarchive |url= |date=6 April 2016 }} – China Business Review – retrieved 2009-01-31. Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant.NEWS,weblink BBC News, China's west seeks to impress investors, 4 May 2005, 2010-04-28, Nick, MacKie,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2006, dead, dmy-all, Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe.A survey in 2005 by China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The cleanup ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan. Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan before reaching ChongqingWEB,weblink Asia Times Online: China Business News : China-Myanmar pipeline projects on track,, 24 April 2007, 2011-03-14,weblink" title="">weblink 7 December 2008, live, dmy-all, and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).welcome to {{webarchive |url= |date=7 December 2008 }} Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2011-07-16, China Business News : HP Foxcom Setup Laptop Plants in Chongqing, The China Perspective, 2011-03-14, The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.WEB,weblink Chongqing Investment Zone Profiles,, 30 May 2007, 2011-03-14,weblink" title="">weblink 7 December 2008, live, dmy-all, The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port.China's Three Gorges Dam {{webarchive |url= |date=3 May 2016 }} – CNN – retrieved 2009-01-31. These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford,WEB,weblink 20 March 2017, Ford building sixth plant in China, Dee-Ann Durbin, 28 August 2012, Associated Press,weblink 20 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Mazda,WEB, Seetharaman, Deepa,weblink Mazda in Chongqing,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, live, dmy-all, HSBC,WEB,weblink HSBC opens bank in Chongqing,, 28 December 2009, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 29 November 2014, dead, dmy-all, Standard Chartered Bank,WEB,weblink Standard Chartered open a bank in Chongqing, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, Citibank,WEB,weblink Citibank opens branch in Chongqing,, 31 March 2011, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2014, live, dmy-all, Deutsche Bank,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-09-03, dead,weblink 9 May 2013, dmy, Deutsche Bank opens Chongqing branch ANZ Bank,WEB,weblink ANZ Bank opens a branch in Chongqing,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, live, dmy-all, Scotiabank,WEB,weblink, Page Not Found | Scotiabank, 2016-10-16,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2012, dead, dmy-all, Wal-Mart,WEB, Yue, Terril,weblink Wal-Mart reopens Chongqing locations,, 2013-12-10, Metro AGweblink" title="">Multinational Grocery Stores in Chongqing and Carrefour,WEB, Tan, Kenneth,weblink Chongqing Carrefour Stampede,, 12 November 2007, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, live, dmy-all, among other multinational corporations.Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.Innovative City in West China Chongqing (PDF) {{webarchive |url= |date=3 March 2016 }} – Jon Sigurdson and Krystyna Palonka of Stockholm School of Economics, EIJS – retrieved on 1 February 2009.Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.WEB,weblink The Rise of The 'Champs' – New Report Maps Business Opportunity in China's Fastest Growing Cities,, 9 November 2010, 2011-03-14,weblink" title="">weblink 6 April 2012, live, dmy-all,

Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:
  • Chongqing Chemical Industrial ParkWEB,weblink Industrial Park,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing Economic & Technological Development ZoneWEB,weblink CETD,, 19 September 2011, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2010, live, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development ZoneWEB,weblink CHTIDT,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)WEB,weblink CNNZ,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2013, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing Export Processing ZoneWEB, Contact:,weblink CEPZ,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2010, live, dmy-all,
  • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)WEB,weblink Jianqiao Industrial Park Profile,, 19 September 2011, 2013-12-29,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2010, live, dmy-all,
  • Liangjiang New AreaWEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-09-03, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2016, dmy, Liangjiang New Area
  • Liangjiang Cloud Computing Center (the largest of its kind in China)WEB,weblink New cloud computing center,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2013, live, dmy-all,
Chongqing itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Xi'an.


Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.{{as of|2014|October|}}, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core.Chongqing Urban Bridges {{webarchive |url= |date=12 May 2013 }} Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.

River port

File:YangtzeMeteor.jpg|thumb|HydrofoilHydrofoil(File:Chongqingyangtze.jpg|thumb|The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing)Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai.weblink" title="">Chongqing's Cruise Industry In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduced or cancelled altogether. Most of the river ferry traffic consists of leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.WEB,weblink Chongqing Ports Details,, 19 July 2011, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, live, dmy-all,


File:ChongqingFunicular2.jpg|thumb|left|Chongqing funicular railwayfunicular railwayMajor train stations in Chongqing:
  • Chongqing railway station in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 & 3 (Lianglukou Metro station), is the city's oldest railway station and located near the city centre. The station handles mostly long-distance trains. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing North Railway Station.
  • Chongqing North railway station is a station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to Chengdu, Beijing and other cities. It was completed in 2006 and is connected to Metro Line
  • Chongqing West railway station is in Shapingba, a station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to many cities. It is completed in 2018
  • Shapingba railway station is in Shapingba, near Shapingba CBD, accessible via Metro Line 1. It handles many local and regional train services. It is completed in 2018.
Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.Chongqing is a major rail hub regionally.


(File:Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 Monorail running along Jialing River.jpg|thumb|Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing)Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.WEB, Simon, Black,weblink Chongqing: World's Largest Construction Project,, 12 July 2011, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2013, dmy-all, Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.Bicycles rare in Chongqing {{webarchive |url= |date=12 October 2012 }}
  • Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
  • Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang Highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang Highway
  • Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Suining Expressway
  • Chongqing-Nanchong Expressway
  • China National Highway 210
  • China National Highway 212


{{see also|Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport}}{{Panorama|image = File:Panorama of Chongqing Jiangbei Airport Terminal 3.JPG|height = 280|caption = Departure Level of Terminal 3, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport}}The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. It is located {{convert|21|km|abbr=on}} north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China.WEB,weblink CJIA Stats,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2012, live, dmy-all, Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, China Express Airlines, Shandong Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has three parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Auckland, New York City, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Doha, Dubai, Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki. As of 2018, Jiangbei Airport is the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.WEB,weblink zh: 2018年民航机场生产统计公报, 2019-03-12, 2019-03-05, Civil Aviation Administration of China, zh, Currently, Jiangbei airport has three terminals. Chongqing Airport has metro access (CRT Line 3 and Line 10) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.Chongqing Airport Profile {{webarchive |url= |date=30 July 2013 }}There are two other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming. Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport.

Public transit

(File:Light rail in Chongqing city.JPG|thumb|left|CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city)Public transport in Chongqing consists of metro, intercity railway, a ubiquitous bus system and the world's largest monorail network.According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail (called 'light rail' in China).{{As of|2017}}, four metro lines, the {{convert|14|km|abbr=on}} long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the {{convert|19|km|abbr=on}} long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown.,WEB,weblink Line 2 & 1,, 15 December 2009, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2012, live, dmy-all, Line 6, runs between Beibei, a commuter city in the far north to the centre.WEB,weblink Planning of Chongqing Line 6,, 30 December 2010, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, dmy-all, Line 5 opened in late 2017.(File:A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba.jpg|thumb|A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba)By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line resulting in {{convert|363.5|km|1|abbr=on}} of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.WEB,weblink Chongqing City Transport,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, live, dmy-all, By 2050, Chongqing will have as many as 18 lines planned to be in operation.Chongqing Daily (23 March 2008)


(File:The First Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge.jpg|thumb|The first Chongqing Yangtze river bridge, built in 1977)(File:The night view of Chaotianmen bridge acoross Yangtze river in Chongqing.jpg|thumb|Night view of Caiyuanba bridge across Yangtze river in Chongqing)With so many bridges crossing the Yangtze and Jialing rivers in the urban area, Chongqing is sometimes known as the 'Bridge Capital of China'. The first important bridge in urban Chongqing was the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge, built in 1958. The first bridge over the Yangtze river was the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.As of 2014, within the area of the 9 districts, there were 20 bridges on the Yangtze river and 28 bridges on the Jialing river. The bridges in Chongqing exhibit a variety of shapes and structures, making Chongqing a showcase for bridge design.

Aerial tramway

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating and it is Class 4A Tourist Attractions in China. This tramway is {{convert|1,160|m|abbr=off}} long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000.(File:A aerial tramway across Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin .jpeg|thumb|An aerial tramway across Yangtse river in Chongqing CBD Photo by Chen Hualin)



File:Zhongshan Ancient Town,Jiangjin,CHongqing.JPG|thumb|right|Zhongshan Ancient Town, JiangjinJiangjinThe language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang.BOOK
, 翟时雨 (Ruo Shiyu)
, zh:《汉语方言学》
, The Study of Chinese Languages
, 2003
, Southwest China Normal University Press (西南师范大学出版社)
, (The divisions of the Sichuan dialect)
, 978-7-5621-2942-4
, zh-hans
, There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region () during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.WEB
, zh:苗族:特色苗语
, The Miao People: Characteristics of the Miao language
, 2010-07-31
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 7 July 2011
, dmy-all


(File:ChongqingMartyrsCemetery.jpg|thumb|left|Martyrs' Cemetery){{See also|Twelve Views of Bayu}}As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose.WEB,weblink People's Liberation Monument,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, live, dmy-all, Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general.WEB,weblink General Joseph Stillwell Museum,, 17 May 1944, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2012, live, dmy-all, the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II, and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang in 1945.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 23 June 2011, Red Rock Village Museum,, 15 September 2013, 2013-12-10, dmy-all, (File:The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqqing city.jpg|thumb|upright|The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city)(File:Baotaoping wharf.jpg|thumb|upright|Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County)File:Fishingtown.jpg|thumb|upright|The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing TownFishing Town(File:Cqk01.jpg|thumb|upright|Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District)
  • The Baiheliang Underwater Museum, China's first underwater museum,WEB,weblink Chongqing: The First Underwater Museum in China has Been Built and Opened, Chinahush, 21 May 2009, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • The Memorial of Great Tunnel Massacre, a former air-raid shelter where a major massacre occurred during World War II.
  • The Great Hall of the People in Chongqing is based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways,WEB,weblink Great Hall of the People,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • The large domed Three Gorges Museum presents the history, culture, and environment of the Three Gorges area and Chongqing.
  • Chongqing Science and Technology Museum has an IMAX theatre.
  • Luohan Si, a Ming dynasty temple,WEB,weblink Luohan Si,, 28 May 2013, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Huangguan Escalator, the second longest escalator in Asia.
  • Former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.WEB,,weblink Embassies List,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 28 April 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • Wuxi County, noted as a major tourism area of Chongqing,WEB,weblink Wuxi County,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all,
  • The Dazu Rock Carvings, in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs.,WEB,weblink Dazu Rock Carvings,, 12 September 2003, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • The Three Natural Bridges and Furong Cave in Wulong Karst National Geology Park, Wulong County are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the South China Karst,WEB,weblink China: Three Natural Bridges National Geopark,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2012, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Furong Cave,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2014, dead, dmy-all,
  • Ciqikou is a 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District of Chongqing. It is also known as "Little Chongqing". The town, located next to the lower reaches of the Jialing River, was at one time an important source of china-ware and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing dynasties,WEB,weblink Ciqkou,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Fishing Town or Fishing City, also called the "Oriental Mecca" and "the Place That Broke God's Whip", is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol leader Möngke Khan died in 1259,WEB,weblink Fishing Town,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Xueyu Cave in Fengdu County is the only example of a pure-white, jade-like karst cave in China,Xueyu Cave {{webarchive |url= |date=18 October 2011 }}
  • Fengdu Ghost City in Fengdu County is the Gate of the Hell in traditional Chinese literature and culture.
  • Snowy Jade Cave, see Xueyu Cave (above).
  • Baidi Cheng, a peninsula in Yangtze River, known due to a famous poem by Li Bai.
  • The Chongqing Zoo, a zoo that exhibits many rare species including the giant panda, the extremely rare South China tiger, and the African elephant.WEB,weblink Chongqing Zoo Profile and Pictures,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing Amusement Park.
  • Chongqing Grand Theatre, a performing arts centre.
  • Foreigners' Street is an amusement park, including the Porcelain Palace, the world's largest toilet. Also the location of the abortive Love Land development in 2009.
  • The Black Mountain Valley (Heishangu).WEB,weblink Black Mountain Valley,, 2017-11-26,


Chongqing food is part of Sichuan cuisine. Chongqing is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan pepper, also known as Sichuan peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool. Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions.WEB,,weblink Chongqing Dining Overlook, nl,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2010, live, dmy-all, Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:(File:Red House hot pot Chongqing.jpg|thumb|left|Typical Chongqing hot pot served with minced shrimp, tripes, pork aorta, goose intestine and kidney slices.)(File:豌杂面.jpg|thumb|right|Chongqing Xiao mian with peas and spicy bean paste)
  • Chongqing hot pot – Chongqing's local culinary specialty which was originally from the Northern China. Tables in hot pot restaurants usually have a central pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth, items such as beef, pork, tripe, kidney slices, pork aorta and goose intestine are often consumed.WEB,weblink Chongqing Hot Pot & Dining Guide,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 2 August 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • Chongqing Xiao mian – a common lamian noodle dish tossed with chili oil and rich mixtures of spices and ingredients
  • Jiangtuan fish – since Chongqing is located along Jialing River, visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis although more commonly known as bighead carp.WEB,weblink Bighead Carp, or Jiangtuan Fish,, 2013-12-10,weblink 3 August 2017, live, dmy-all, The fish is often served steamed or baked.WEB,weblink Jiangtuan Fish,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2012, live, dmy-all,
(File:La Zi Ji (Chicken with Chiles) (2269517013).jpg|thumb|right|Laziji is famous for its crispy taste)
  • Lazi Ji (Spicy Chicken) – A stir-fried dish consists of marinated then deep-fried pieces of chicken, dried Sichuan chilli peppers, Sichuan peppers, garlic, and gingerWEB, Dunlop, Fuchsia, Recipe: Firecracker poussin with chillies,weblink Financial Times, 7 August 2019, , originated near Geleshan in Chongqing.WEB,weblink The search for the best la zi ji in Shanghai, Katya, Knyazeva, January 26, 2010, CNN, August 12, 2012,
  • Quanshui Ji (Spring Water Chicken) – Quanshui Ji is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing.
  • Pork leg cooked with rock candy – A common household dish of the Chongqing people, the finished dish, known as red in colour and tender in taste, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste.WEB,weblink Chongqing Dining, Dining in Chongqing, Chongqing cuisine, Chongqing Food, Chongqing restaurants,, 2013-03-26,weblink" title="">weblink 21 June 2012, live, dmy-all,
  • Qianzhang (skimmed soy bean cream) – Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create this, several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil, garlic and chili oil. Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon, which is described as soft and sweet.WEB,weblink Qianzhang,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 21 June 2012, live, dmy-all,


The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station.WEB,weblink Chinese radio stations,, 24 September 2003, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2013, dmy-all, The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China.WEB, Bandurski, David,weblink Chongqing's TV revolution,, 1 June 2011, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2011, dead, dmy-all, Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website.WEB,weblink Chongqing Daily's Bo Xilai Coverage,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2013, dmy-all,

Sports and recreation

Association football

Professional association football teams in Chongqing include: Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts.WEB,weblink Lifan Group buys Chongqing soccer team,, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2013, live, dmy-all, Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup,WEB,weblink 2000 Chinese FA Cup,, 8 March 2007, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2013, live, dmy-all, and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.WEB,weblink Chongqing Lifan F.C,, 9 January 2013, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2013, live, dmy-all, Chongqing FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China League One, the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-07-06, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy, Chongqing FC foldsChongqing is also the birthplace of soccer games in southwestern China. Soccer was introduced to this region in as early as 1905 by some British soldiers and missionaries. They founded a varsity soccer team at the predecessor of modern-day Guangyi High School (also known as Chongqing No.5 High School), and trained them to be a highly skilled team. A professional soccer stadium was constructed on the Guangyi campus in the Southern Mountain. It was the first professional soccer stadium in southwestern China. The Guangyi varsity team beat English and French naval teams and even the Sheffield Wednesday team in friendlies.


Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-08-06, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2016, dmy, Beijing Ducks vs. Chongqing

Sport venues

Sport venues in Chongqing include:
  • The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2002 and was one of main venues for the 2004 AFC Asian Cup.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-06, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2012, dmy, Official Site
  • Yanghe Stadium is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan.WEB,weblink Yanghe Stadium profile,, 13 September 2013, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2013, live, dmy-all,
  • Datianwan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan.WEB,weblink Datianwan Stadium profile,, 2013-12-10, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2013, dmy-all,


{{Pie chartXiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) {{webarchive >url =weblink The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.}}|label1 = Chinese ancestral religion|value1 = 26.63|color1 = #F5F5F5|label2 = Christianity|value2 = 1.05|color2 = #A1887FThis may include: }}The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian.The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.{{multiple image| align = center| direction = horizontal| width = 150| image1 = Large statue on hilltop at Fengdu Ghost City.JPG| caption1 = The Jade Emperor at the Fengdu Ghost City| image2 = 重慶華巖寺接引殿牌坊.JPGJiulongpo District>Jiulongpo}}{{clear}}

Notable people


Colleges and universities

(File:ChongqingNankai2.jpg|right|thumb|Entrance to the Nankai School)

Notable high schools

  • Fuling Experimental High School(涪陵实验中学)
  • Chongqing No.1 Secondary School(重庆一中)
  • Chongqing Nankai Secondary School (重庆南开中学)
  • Chongqing No.8 Secondary School(重庆八中)
  • Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学)
  • Chongqing Railway High School(重庆铁路中学)
  • Chongqing Yucai Secondary School (育才中学)
  • Chongqing Foreign Language School (The High School Affiliated to Sichuan International Studies University,重庆一外)
  • Verakin High School of Chongqing (The 2nd Chongqing Foreign Language School,重庆二外)
  • Chongqing Qiujing High School (求精中学)
  • High School Affiliated to Southwest University (西南大学附中)

International schools

  • Yew Chung International School of Chongqing (重庆耀中国际学校)WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2009-02-11, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2014, dmy, Website in English
  • KL International School of Chongqing Bashu (重庆市诺林巴蜀外籍人员子女学校)WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-05-16, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2016, dmy-all, Website in English

International relations

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style="background:#ccc;"|Consular District|Canada Consulate-General, ChongqingNEWS
, zh:各国驻华领馆领区一览表
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, 8 May 2007
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, 18 March 2011
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, 05.1998
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Twin towns – sister cities

{{unreferenced section|date=November 2018}}Chongqing has sister city relationships with many cities of the world including:
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Toulouse, France (1982)
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Seattle, United States (1983)
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Toronto, Canada (1986)
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Hiroshima, Japan (1986)
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} Leicester, United Kingdom (1993)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Voronezh, Russia (1993)
  • {{flagdeco|UKR}} Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine (2002)
  • {{flagdeco|RSA}} Mpumalanga, South Africa (2002)
  • {{flagdeco|BUL}} Sliven, Bulgaria (2002)
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Düsseldorf, Germany (2004)
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Brisbane, Australia (2005)WEB,weblink Brisbane's Sister City - Chongqing, Brisbane City Council, 2019-09-04,
  • {{flagdeco|IRN}} Shiraz, Iran (2005)
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Aswan, Egypt (2005)
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Busan, South Korea (2007)
  • {{flagdeco|NOR}} Sør-Trøndelag, Norway (2007)
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (2008)
  • {{flagdeco|ARG}} Córdoba, Argentina (2010)
  • {{flagdeco|HUN}} Budapest, Hungary (2010)
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Bangkok, Thailand (2005)
  • {{flagdeco|BEL}} Antwerp, Belgium (2011)
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (2011)
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Detroit, United States (2011)
  • {{flagdeco|US}} New York, United States (2011)
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} Chennai, India (2015)
  • {{flagdeco|SVN}} Maribor, Slovenia (2017)
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Telde, Spain (2018)

See also







  • BOOK, Danielson, Eric N., Chongqing, 325–362, The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi, Singapore, Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions, 2005, 978-981-232-599-0,
  • JOURNAL, Danielson, Eric N., Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, 45, 2005,
  • BOOK, Huang, Jiren, zh:老重庆:巴山夜语, Old Chongqing: Ba Mountains Night Rains, 老城市 [The Old Cities], Nanjing, Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House, 1999, zh,
  • BOOK, Kapp, Robert A., Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926–1937, 143–170, The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, Mark Elvin, G. William Skinner, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1974,
  • BOOK, Kapp, Robert A., Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911–1938, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1973,
  • BOOK, Liao, Qingyu, Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing), Chengdu, Sichuan University Press, 2005,
  • BOOK, Long, Juncai, Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing), Chongqing, Southwest University Press, 2005,
  • BOOK, McIsaac, Lee, "The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2000,
  • BOOK, Xu, Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing), Beijing, People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 1998, Dongsheng Liu, Yuchuan,

External links

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