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Nokia
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{{short description|Finnish technology corporation}}{{other uses}}{{coord|60.2254749|24.7508775|display=title}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2017}}







factoids
Osakeyhtiö#Julkinen osakeyhtiö>Julkinen osakeyhtiö{{OMXNOKIA}}NOKIAXPAR}}NOK}}}}class=nowrapTelecommunications equipment>Networking equipment}}Tampere, Grand Duchy of FinlandFredrik IdestamLeo Mechelin>Eduard Polón}}| hq_location_city = Espoo| hq_location_country = Finland| area_served = WorldwideRisto Siilasmaa {{smallRajeev Suri {{smallKristian Pullola {{small|(CFO)}}}}| products = List of Nokia products| services = 23.147|link=yes}} billion| revenue_year = 201716}} million| income_year = 20171.437}} billion| net_income_year = 201741.024}} billion| assets_year = 201716.218}} billion| equity_year = 2017| num_employees = 102,761| num_employees_year = 2017Nokia Networks|Nokia Technologies}}Bell LabsAlcatel Mobile>NGP CapitalAlcatel Submarine Networks}}weblink}} PUBLISHER= YTJ.FI LANGUAGE= FINNISH ARCHIVEURL= HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130510091035/HTTP://WWW.YTJ.FI/YRITYSTIEDOT.ASPX?YAVAIN=20939&KIELIKOODI=1&TARKISTE=FD3B80E3D3656AD15912547886CEFA0227C1A07F&PATH=1547;1631;1678 DF= DMY-ALL, HTTPS://WWW.NOKIA.COM/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/FILES/NOKIA_RESULTS_2017_Q4.PDF>TITLE=REPORT FOR Q4 AND FULL YEAR 2017FORMAT=PDFACCESS-DATE=3 FEBRUARY 2018, }}Nokia Corporation (commonly referred to as Nokia; {{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|n|É’|k|i|É™}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ˈ|n|oÊŠ|k|i|É™}}, {{IPA-fi|ˈnokiÉ‘|lang}}) is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in Espoo, in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed approximately 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange.WEB,weblink Nokia â€“ FAQ, Nokia Corporation, 16 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090208110105weblink">weblink 8 February 2009, It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009weblink It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.NEWS,weblink Global 500 2016, 24 August 2017, Fortune, 2017, WEB,weblink "Euro Stoxx 50", boerse-frankfurt.de, 24 August 2017, The company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, and licensing.WEB, This is the new Nokia,weblink The Verge, 23 November 2014, Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards (and currently in 5G), and is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period. After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was eventually bought by the former,WEB, Microsoft buys Nokia's Devices and Services Unit, unites Windows Phone 8 and its hardware maker,weblink The Verge, 3 September 2013, WEB, Ovide, Shira, Microsoft in $7.17 Billion Deal for Nokia Cellphone Business,weblink Wall Street Journal, 3 September 2013, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014.WEB,weblink Microsoft closes Nokia deal, pays more than expected, CNET, After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization.WEB,weblink The Ghost of Invention: A Visit to Bell Labs, Douglas, Coupland, The company then also experimenteweblink with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings.WEB
,weblink
, Nokia celebrates first day of combined operations with Alcatel-Lucent
, Nokia
, 15 January 2016
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160116173207weblink">weblink
, 16 January 2016
, yes
, dmy-all
, WEB,weblink Nokia plans to acquire Withings to accelerate entry into Digital Health, 26 April 2016, 1 June 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160519223456weblink">weblink 19 May 2016, yes, dmy-all,weblink The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global.WEB,weblink Microsoft sells Nokia brand use to Foxconn and HMD global, SlashGear, 16 May 2017, Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendorsweblink As of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturerweblink company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland.WEB,weblink Nokia: Finland mourns the demise of its proud tech heritage, Antti, Vilpponen, 4 September 2013, The Guardian, At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, and 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.WEB,weblink Finland and Nokia: an affair to remember, Gordon, Kelly, WEB,weblink Finland mourns loss of national icon Nokia, Bloomerg, 4 September 2013,

History

1865–1967

(File:Nokia Toilet paper.JPG|thumb| Rolls of toilet paper produced by Nokia in the 1960s, Museum Centre Vapriikki, Tampere)Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland (then in the Russian Empire). A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, Idestam, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab (in Swedish, Nokia Company being the English equivalent), after the site of the second pulp mill.Idestam retired in 1896, making Mechelin the company's chairman. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902 which Idestam had opposed. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas (Finnish Rubber Works), a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name.In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas (the Cable Factory), all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew rapidly when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, and the cable company soon did too.Nokia at the time also made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.WEB,weblink Start01, www.gasmasklexikon.com, 23 November 2016,

1967–1990

(File:Patteriston komentopaikka Hämeenlinna 4.JPG|thumb|LV 317M military radio in Hämeenlinna artillery museum. Nokia license built PRC-77 (-1177?) with signal amplifier.)In 1967, the three companies - Nokia, Kaapelitehdas and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable, rubber and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the networking and radio industry. Nokia also started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces (Puolustusvoimat), such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, and the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now also making professional mobile radios, telephone switches, capacitors and chemicals.After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market. It soon widened trade, ranging from automatic telephone exchanges to robotics among others; by the late 1970s the Soviet Union became a major market for Nokia, helping to yield high profits. Nokia also co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government became increasingly suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, and according to U.S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia.WEB,weblink U.S. Threatened to Block Finnish Arms Deal Over High-Tech Exports in 1980's, However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War.In 1977, Kari Kairamo became CEO and he transformed the company's businesses. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, and French television maker Oceanic in 1987. This made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe (behind Philips and Thomson). The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996.(File:Nokia Mikko display and keyboard.JPG|thumb|Nokia Mikko 3 minicomputer, 1978)(File:Mobira Cityman 450.JPG|thumb|upright|Mobira Cityman 450, 1985)In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands. It was originally part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) and after the acquisition products were sold under the "ITT Nokia" brand, despite SEL's sale to Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE), the predecessor of Alcatel, in 1986.{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}On 1 April 1988 Nokia bought the computer division of Ericsson's Information Systems,NEWS,weblink COMPANY NEWS; Nokia Oy Buys Stake in Ericsson, Reuters, 21 January 1988, The New York Times, 14 August 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, which originated as a computer division of Swedish aircraft and car manufacturer Saab called Datasaab. Ericsson Information Systems made Alfaskop terminals, typewriters, minicomputers and Ericsson IBM compatible PCs. The merge with Nokia's existing Information Systems division—which already had a line of personal computers called MikroMikko since 1981—resulted in the name Nokia Data.Nokia also acquired Mobira, a mobile telephony company, which was the foundation of its future mobile phones business. In 1981, Mobira launched the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) service, the world's first international cellular network and the first to allow international roaming. In 1982, Mobira launched the Mobira Senator car phone, Nokia's first mobile phone. At that time, the company had no interest in producing mobile phones, which the executive board regarded as akin to James Bond's gadgets - improbably futuristic and niche devices. After all these acquisitions Nokia's revenue base became US$2.7 billion. Tragically CEO Kairamo committed suicide on 11 December 1988.In 1987, Kaapelitehdas discontinued production of cables at its Helsinki factory after 44 years, effectively shutting down the sub-company.File:Mobira 800-NDB.JPG|Mobira 800-NDB non-directional beacon located in the Finnish Air Force signals museumFile:Lasersuunnin merivoimien vuosipäivä 2013 Kotka 3.JPG|Nokia MAC 8532 laser rangefinder previously used by Finnish coastal artilleryFile:Patteriston komentopaikka Hämeenlinna 2.JPG|Hämeenlinna artillery museum display containing fire control officer with Nokia artillery calculator in Finnish artillery battalion command postFile:MikroMikko 4 TT m216 Tekniikan museo 02.jpg|Late 1980s MikroMikko 4 TT m216 desktop computer in the Museum of Technology, Helsinki, FinlandFile:Itt-nokia television and vhs-video.jpeg|ITT Nokia television with an ITT Nokia VCR (ITT/SEL)File:Mobira kaukohakulaite.png|A 1986 Mobira pager

1990–2010

File:Jorma Ollila 2013.jpg|thumb|upright|Jorma OllilaJorma OllilaFollowing Simo Vuorilehto's appointment as CEO, a major restructuring was planned. With 11 groups within the company, Vuorilehto divested industrial units he deemed as un-strategic. Nokian Tyres (Nokian Renkaat), a tyre producer originally formed as a division of Finnish Rubber Works in 1932, split away from Nokia Corporation in 1988. Two years later, in 1990, Finnish Rubber Works followed suit. In 1991 Nokia sold its computer division, Nokia Data, to UK-based International Computers Limited (ICL), the precursor of Fujitsu Siemens. Investors thought of this as financial trouble and Nokia's stock price sank as a result. Finland was now also experiencing its worst recession in living memory, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a major customer, made matters worse.Vuorilehto quit in January 1992 and was replaced by Jorma Ollila, who had been the head of the mobile phone business from 1990 and advised against selling that division. Ollila decided to turn Nokia into a 'telecom-oriented' company, and he eventually got rid of divisions like the power business. This strategy proved to be very successful and the company grew rapidly in the following years. Nokia's operating profit went from negative in 1991 to $1 billion in 1995 and almost $4 billion by 1999.WEB,weblink Nokia's Secret Code Perhaps the least hierarchical big company in the world, Nokia has been winning big in wireless. But its Finnish recipe for innovation is about to be put to the test. - May 1, 2000, archive.fortune.com, Nokia's first fully portable mobile phone after the Mobira Senator was the Mobira Cityman 900 in 1987. Nokia assisted in the development of the GSM mobile standard in the 1980s, and developed the first GSM network with Siemens, the predecessor to Nokia Siemens Network. The world's first GSM call was made by Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri on 1 July 1991, using Nokia equipment on the 900 MHz band network built by Nokia and operated by Radiolinja. In November 1992, the Nokia 1011 launched, making it the first commercially available GSM mobile phone.WEB,weblink Nokia´s Pioneering GSM Research and Development to be Awarded by Eduard Rhein Foundation, Nokia, Salora Oy as a Nokia subsidiary ended in 1989 when the division was merged into Nokia-Mobira Oy. The brand continued to be used for televisions until 1995.On 12 June 1996, Nokia announced the sale of its television business to Canada/Hong Kong-based Semi-Tech Corporation.WEB,weblink Nokia Announces Heads of Agreement to Sell Its Remaining Television Business, Nokia, The television manufacturing plant in Germany closed down in September 1996. The sale included a factory in Turku, and the rights to use the Nokia, Finlux, Luxor, Salora, Schaub-Lorenz and Oceanic brands until the end of 1999.WEB,weblink Nokia Announces Final Sale of its Television Manufacturing Business, Nokia, Some of these brands were later sold to other companies.Nokia was the first to launch digital satellite receivers in the UK, announced in March 1997.WEB,weblink Nokia First to Launch Digital Satellite Receiver in The UK, Nokia, In August 1997 Nokia introduced the first digital satellite receiver with Common Interface (CI) support.WEB,weblink Nokia launches the World's first Digital IRD With 'Common Interface', Nokia, In 1998 Nokia became the chosen supplier to produce the world's first digital terrestrial television set-top boxes by British Digital Broadcasting (BDB), which was eventually launched as ONdigital.WEB,weblink Nokia is chosen supplier to British Digital Broadcasting, Nokia, (File:Digital-tv-box frÃ¥n Nokia.jpg|thumb|A Nokia Mediamaster set-top box)In October 1998, Nokia overtook Motorola to become the best-selling mobile phone brand,WEB,weblink Nokia to invest about FIM 1 billion in mobile phone production in Bochum, Germany, Nokia, and in December manufactured its 100 millionth mobile phone.WEB,weblink Nokia manufactures its 100 millionth mobile phone, Nokia, A major reason why Nokia grew against its main competitors Motorola and Ericsson was that it managed to cater to the consumer youth market and fashion-oriented consumers, most significantly with the Nokia 5110 and 3210 handsets which featured a large range of colourful and replacable back-covers called Xpress-onweblinkweblink One of the earliest fashion phones in 1992, from Swiss watchmaker Swatch, was based on Nokia's 101 handsetweblink The company would also form the Vertu division, creating luxury mobile handsets.Nokia claimed in April 1996 its 447Xav and 447K monitors to be the first with stereo speakers and a sub-woofer.WEB,weblink Nokia Builds on "Media-Ready" Monitor Series with New 21" Line, Nokia, In May 1999 Nokia introduced their first wireless LAN products.WEB,weblink Nokia to move wireless LAN products toward mass market, Nokia, In January 2000 ViewSonic acquired Nokia Display Products, the division making displays for personal computers.WEB,weblink ViewSonic Corporation Acquires Nokia Display Products' Branded Business, Nokia, On 26 April 2001 Nokia partnered with Telefonica to supply DSL modems and routers in Spain.WEB,weblink Nokia to supply Telefónica with ADSL modems in Spain, Nokia, In 1998, Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. led by Psion to create a new operating system for PDAs and smart mobile phones as a successor of EPOC32. They released the Nokia 9210 Communicator running Symbian OS in 2001 and later that year created the Symbian Series 60 platform, later introducing it with their first camera phone, the Nokia 7650. Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest smartphone hardware and software maker respectively, and in February 2004 Nokia became the largest shareholder of Symbian Ltd.WEB,weblink Nokia to acquire Psion plc's shares in Symbian, Nokia, Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and then formed the Symbian Foundation as its successor.WEB,weblink Nokia to acquire Symbian Limited to enable evolution of the leading open mobile platform, Nokia, In 1998 alone, the company had sales revenue of $20 billion making $2.6 billion profit. By 2000 Nokia employed over 55,000 people,WEB,weblink Nokia supplies WAP technology to Thus in UK, Nokia, and had a market share of 30% in the mobile phone market, almost twice as large as its nearest competitor, Motorolaweblink The company was operating in 140 countries as of 1999. It was reported at the time that some people believed Nokia to be a Japanese companyweblink Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased fivefold, from €6.5 billion to €31 billionweblink(File:Nokia mobile phones.jpg|thumb|250px|left|A collection of Nokia mobile phones from the 2000s)The company would then be known as a successful and innovative maker of camera phones. The Nokia 3600/3650 was the first camera phone on sale in North America in 2003. In April 2005 Nokia partnered with German camera optics maker Carl Zeiss AG.WEB,weblink Nokia and Carl Zeiss join forces to offer enhanced imaging for camera phone users, Nokia, That same month Nokia introduced the Nseries, which would become its flagship line of smart phones for the next six years.WEB,weblink Nokia launches Nokia Nseries branded multimedia device range, Nokia, The Nokia N95 introduced in September 2006 became highly successful and was also awarded as "best mobile imaging device" in Europe in 2007.WEB,weblink Nokia N95 Wins Prestigious TIPA Award 2007, Nokia, Its successor the N82 featured a xenon flash,WEB,weblink It's what cameras have become - the new Nokia N82, Nokia, which helped it win the award of "best mobile imaging" device in Europe in 2008.WEB,weblink Nokia N82 wins renowned TIPA "Best Mobile Imaging Device in Europe" Award 2008, Nokia, The N93 in 2006 was known for its specialized camcorder and the twistable design that switches between clamshell and a camcorder-like position.WEB,weblink Nokia Introduces the Next Story in Video with the Nokia N93, Nokia, They were also well known for the N8 with a high resolution 12-megapixel sensor in 2010; the 808 PureView in 2012 with a 41-megapixel sensor; and the Lumia 920 flagship in 2012 which implemented advanced PureView technologies.WEB,weblink New Nokia Lumia Range Delivers Latest PureView Camera Innovation, New Navigation Experiences and Wireless Charging on Windows Phone 8, Nokia, Nokia was one of the pioneers of mobile gaming due to the popularity of Snake, which came pre-loaded on many products. In 2002, Nokia attempted to break into the handheld gaming market with the N-Gage.WEB,weblink Nokia N-Gage (TM) mobile game deck - the revolutionary gaming experience, Nokia, Nokia's head of entertainment and media, Ilkka Raiskinen, once quoted "Game Boy is for 10-year-olds",WEB,weblink Nokia’s Ilkka slams Game Boy Advance, 12 June 2003, stating that N-Gage is more suited to a mature audience. However, the device was a failure, unable to challenge the dominant market leader Nintendo. Nokia attempted to revive N-Gage as a platform for their S60 smartphones, which eventually launched in 2008.WEB,weblink Get out and play - with N-Gage games in your Nokia device, Nokia, In Q1 2004, Nokia's mobile phone handset market share steeply dropped to 28.9%, down from 34.6% a year earlierweblink However by 2006 the company was steadily gaining agaiweblink and in Q4 2007 reached its all-time high figure of 40.4%weblink Its smartphone market share in that quarter was 51%weblink Nokia was the largest vendor at the time in all regions bar North Americaweblink launched mobile TV trials in 2005 in Finland with content provided by public broadcaster Yle. The services are based on the DVB-H standard. It could be viewed with the widescreen Nokia 7710 smartphone with a special accessory enabling it to receive DVB-H signals.WEB,weblink Live Mobile TV broadcasts for the first time at an international sporting event, Nokia, Nokia partnered with Arqiva and O2 to launch trials in the UK in September 2005.WEB,weblink Mobile TV trial goes live in UK, Nokia, In 2005 Nokia developed a Linux-based operating system called Maemo, which shipped that year on the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.On 1 June 2006, Jorma Ollila became the company's chairman and retired as CEO, replaced by Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.WEB,weblink Nokia moves forward with management succession plan, Nokia, File:Nokia Sao Paulo Flagship.jpg|thumb|left|A flagship Nokia store in Sao PauloSao PauloIn August 2007, Nokia introduced Ovi, an umbrella name for the company's new Internet services which included the N-Gage platform and the Nokia Music Store.WEB,weblink Meet Ovi, the door to Nokia's Internet services, Nokia, The Ovi Store faced stiff competition against Apple's App Store when it was introduced in 2008.WEB,weblink 84 percent of Nokia Ovi store app developers say Apple's store is better, VentureBeat, In October 2008 Nokia announced the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, the first device to ship with the new touch-centric S60 5th Edition, also known as Symbian^1, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of the Symbian Foundation. In November 2008 Nokia announced it would end mobile phone sales in Japan because of low market share.WEB,weblink Nokia to end phone sales in Japan, 27 November 2008, news.bbc.co.uk, Nokia's global mobile phone market share peaked in 2008 at 38.6 percent.BOOK, Wood, David, West, Joel, 11 June 2013, Evolving an Open Ecosystem: The Rise and Fall of the Symbian Platform, Emerald Group Publishing, 35, 978-1-78190-826-6, The same year, Nokia announced the acquisition of Trolltech and its Qt software developmentweblink Qt was a central part of Nokia's strategy until 2011, and it was eventually sold in 2012weblink briefly returned to the computer market with the Booklet 3G netbook in August 2009.

2010–2014

(File:As Time Goes By (Nokia 9000 Communicator & E7).jpg|thumb|A Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996) next to a Nokia E7 Communicator (2011))In late 2009 and in 2010, the music-focused Xseries and consumer-focused Cseries were introduced respectivelyweblink In April 2010 Nokia introduced its next flagship mobile device, the Nokia N8, which would be the first to run on Symbian^3.WEB,weblink Nokia N8. Connect. Create. Entertain., Nokia, However it was delayed for many months which tarnished the company's image,WEB,weblink Nokia delays flagship N8 again, 21 September 2010, Reuters, especially after the failure of its previous flagship N97 and tougher competition from Apple and the rising Google. On 10 September 2010, Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo was fired as CEO and it was announced that Stephen Elop from Microsoft would take Nokia's CEO position, becoming the first non-Finnish director in Nokia's history.WEB,weblink Nokia replaces Kallasvuo with Microsoft's Elop, Graeme, Wearden, 10 September 2010, The Guardian, It as claimed that investors pressed Nokia's board to recruit an outsider to shake up management and break from the traditional "Nokia way"weblink Ollila had also announced that he would step down as Nokia chairman by 2012weblink On 11 March 2011 Nokia announced that it had paid Elop a $6 million signing bonus as "compensation for lost income from his prior employer", on top of his $1.4 million annual salary.WEB,weblink Nokia pays big bucks for Elop: Former Microsoft executive receives $6M signing bonus, GeekWire, 11 March 2011, 11 March 2011, File:Nokia & Microsoft Lumia devices.png|thumb|Nokia and Microsoft Lumia devices.]]The old Symbian OS became completely open source in February 2010.WEB,weblink Symbian OS Now Fully Open Source, PCWorld, However, in November 2010 it was announced that the Symbian Foundation was closing and that Nokia would take back control of the Symbian operating system under closed licensing.WEB,weblink Nokia reaffirms commitment to Symbian platform, Nokia, By now Nokia was the only remaining company using the platform, along with carrier NTT DoCoMo in Japan, after both Samsung and Sony Ericsson moved to Android. Meanwhile, in 2010 for Nokia's Linux ambitions, Nokia collaborated with Intel to form the MeeGo project, after the merger of Nokia's own Maemo and Intel's Moblin.Nokia's Symbian platform that had been the leading smartphone platform in Europe and Asia for many years was quickly becoming outdated and difficult for developers after the advent of iOS and Android. To counter this, Nokia planned to make their MeeGo Linux operating system, under development, the company's flagship on smartphones. Shortly after Elop's CEO tenure began, the Nokia board green-lit him the ability to change the company's mobile phones strategy, including changing operating systemsweblink Veteran Anssi Vanjoki, head of the smartphones division, left the company around this timeweblink His final appearance was at Nokia World 2010 when the Nokia E7 and other Symbian^3 devices were introducedweblink Eventually on 11 February 2011, a "strategic partnership" with Microsoft was announced which involves the use of Windows Phone as Nokia's primary operating system, relegating Symbian to a lower priority, as well as the combination of Microsoft services, such as Bing search and adCenter advertizing on Nokia devices, joint marketing and a "shared roadmap" between the two companiesweblink This alliance, coupled with the CEO's "Burning Platform" memo, caused a great deal of media interest as well as divisions between analysts, fans and Nokia employees themselves. CEO Elop as well as chairman Ollila and the company's board of directors (which included future chairman Risto Siilasmaa) supported and defended the Microsoft dealweblink Vanjoki compared choosing Android to 'peeing in your pants for warmth in winter' (a Finnish proverb) shortly before his departure in September 2010weblink Former CEO Kallasvuo had already dismissed Android when Google announced it in 2007weblink the MeeGo "Harmattan"-based N9 was met with a highly positive reception in 2011, Nokia had already decided to end development on MeeGo and solely focus on its Microsoft partnership, although the CEO said that the N9's "innovations" will live on in the futureweblink which eventually made their way on the Asha platform in 2013weblink After the announcement of the Microsoft partnership, Nokia's market share deteriorated; this was due to demand for Symbian dropping when consumers realized Nokia's focus and attention would be elsewhere.BOOK, Cord, David J., The Decline and Fall of Nokia, April 2014, Schildts & Söderströms, 978-951-52-3320-2, 217, The company posted a large loss for the second quarter of 2011 - only their second quarterly loss in 19 yearsweblink Nokia's first Windows Phone flagship was the Lumia 800, which arrived in November 2011. Falling sales in 2011, which were not being improved significantly with the Lumia line in 2012, led to consecutive quarters of huge losses. By mid-2012 the company's stock price fell below $2.WEB,weblink Nokia Is Finnished: Prepare For Bankruptcy, Kofi, Bofah, 9 July 2012, 1 June 2016, WEB,weblink And Now Nokia Has A New Problem -- It Might Go Bankrupt, 1 June 2016, CEO Elop announced cost-cutting measures in June by shedding 10,000 employees by the end of the year and the closure of the Salo manufacturing plant.WEB,weblink Foundering Nokia pushes 10,000 bods, 3 veeps overboard, The Finnish prime minister also announced that the government won't save the company from an emergency state fund.WEB,weblink Finnish Government Hangs Up on Nokia, Around this time Nokia started a new project codenamed "Meltemi", a platform for low-end smartphonesweblink With the Microsoft alliance and under Elop's management, Nokia also had a renewed focus on the North American market where Nokia phones were, in stark contrast to the rest of the world, almost irrelevant for many yearsweblink This strategy began in January 2012 with the introduction of the Nokia Lumia 900 smartphone in partnership with U.S. carrier AT&Tweblink March 2011, Nokia introduced a new corporate typeface called "Pure"weblink On 1 August 2011, Nokia announced that it would adopt a new three-digit naming system for mobile phone products and stop using letters, effectively ending the Nseries, Eseries, and short-lived Cseries. That same day the Nokia 500 was introduced with the new systemweblink Nokia last used three-digit names on analogue phones in the 1990sweblink the Lumia 920 was announced in September 2012, it was seen by the press as the first high-end Windows Phone that could challenge rivals due to its advanced feature set. Elop said that the positive reaction to it had created a sense of hope and optimism in the companyweblink The company was also making gains in developing countries with its Asha series, which were selling strongly.WEB,weblink Nokia Lumia Sales Strong, Asha Stronger, InformationWeek, Although Nokia's smartphone sales and market share greatly increased throughout 2013, including in the North American marketweblink it was still not enough to avoid financial losses.WEB,weblink Nokia shares fall after sales drop, 18 April 2013, www.bbc.co.uk, Ollila stepped down as chairman on 4 May 2012 and was replaced by Risto Siilasmaaweblink(File:Ristoonstage.jpg|left|thumb|Risto Siilasmaa, Nokia chairman since 2012)In September 2013 Nokia announced the sale of its mobile and devices division to Microsoft.WEB,weblink Microsoft to acquire Nokia's Devices & Services business, license Nokia's patents and mapping services, Nokia, The sale was positive for Nokia to avoid further negative financial figures, as well as for Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer, who wanted Microsoft to produce more hardware and turn it into a devices and services company.WEB,weblink The acquisition of Nokia: Steve Ballmer's last hurrah?, The Nokia chairman, Risto Siilasmaa, described the deal as rationally correct (in the best interests of Nokia shareholders), but emotionally difficulweblink - experts agree that Nokia would have been in a cash crisis had it not sold the division to Microsoftweblink Analysts believe that Ballmer pushed for the buyout because of fears that Nokia was close to adopting Android and abandoning their alliance with Microsoftweblink There had been speculation for long that Nokia was experimenting with Android at the timeweblink Indeed, in January 2014 the Nokia X was introduced which ran on a customised version of Android. It was a surprising and somewhat odd launch coming just weeks away from the finalisation of the Microsoft buyoutweblink Others, including Ballmer's successor Satya Nadella, felt that Microsoft thought merging their software teams with Nokia's hardware engineering and designs would "accelerate" growth of Windows Phoneweblink The sale was completed in April 2014, with Microsoft Mobile becoming the successor to Nokia's mobile devices division. Nokia also moved from its headquarters to another building complex located at Karaportti. At the time, Ballmer himself was retiring as Microsoft CEO and was replaced by Satya Nadella, who opposed the Nokia mobile phones purchase, along with chairman Bill Gatesweblink The purchased assets from Nokia were eventually written-off by Microsoft in 2015weblink 2014, Nokia's global brand value according to Interbrand fell to 98th place,WEB,weblink Best Global Brands - 2014 (Interbrand) - Ranking The Brands, a sharp slide from the 5th place it was in 2009.WEB,weblink Best Global Brands - 2009 (Interbrand) - Ranking The Brands, Nokia's downfall in the mobile phone market has had different explanations from analysts, with many split about the CEO's decision to abandon its in-house operating system and adopting Windows Phone in 2011weblink Many researchers have concluded that Nokia suffered from deep internal rivalries within the managementweblink Former employees claimed that the management became so swollen by the early success that they grew complacent over timeweblink Some from the Symbian developing team have claimed that the company's upper management rejected hundreds of potential innovations during the 2000s that they proposed, including entirely rewriting Symbian's code. One former Nokia employee claimed that the company was run as a "Soviet-style bureaucracy"weblinkFile:Bürogebäude früheres Nokia-Werk Bochum-Riemke (2009).jpg|thumb|Former Nokia plant in BochumBochumFile:Nokia (8111386420).jpg|thumb|A Nokia advertising sign in DublinDublinIn July 2013, Nokia bought Siemens' stake in the Nokia Siemens Networks joint venture for $2.2 billion, turning it into a wholly owned subsidiary called Nokia Solutions and Networks,WEB,weblink Nokia buys out, renames Nokia Siemens Networks, 1 June 2016, until being rebranded as Nokia Networks soon after.WEB,weblink Nokia renames NSN as Networks - TeleAnalysis, 1 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160604231037weblink">weblink 4 June 2016, dmy-all, During Nokia's financial struggles, its profitable networking division with Siemens provided much of its income; thus, the purchase proved to be positive, particularly after the sale of its mobile devices unit.WEB,weblink Nokia finally reports profit after six quarters of losses, Aaron, Souppouris, 24 January 2013, 1 June 2016,

2014–present

After the sale of its mobile devices division, Nokia focused on network equipment through Nokia Networks.WEB,weblink Nokia To Focus On Here Maps And Network Equipment After Microsoft Sale, 7 October 2013, 1 June 2016, In October 2014, Nokia and China Mobile signed a US$970 million framework deal for delivery between 2014 and 2015.PRESS RELEASE, Reuters, 10 October 2014, Nokia, China Mobile sign $970 million framework deal,weblink On 17 November 2014, Nokia Technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business as an original design manufacturer, licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that's why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently."WEB, Nokia looks to resurrect its valuable brand on future devices,weblink The Verge, 18 November 2014, The next day, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android tablet manufactured by Foxconn, as its first product following the Microsoft sale.WEB, Nokia's first device after Microsoft is an iPad mini clone that runs Android,weblink The Verge, 18 November 2014, Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it." Nokia CEO Rajeev Suri stated that the company planned to re-enter the mobile phone business in this manner in 2016, following the expiration of its non-compete clause with Microsoft.WEB,weblink Nokia CEO says the company will design and license phones again, Engadget, 3 August 2015, According to Robert Morlino, the spokesman of Nokia Technologies, Nokia planned follow the brand-licensing model rather than direct marketing of mobile devices due to the sale of its mobile devices division to Microsoft.WEB, Other statements,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150602024418weblink">weblink yes, 2 June 2015, Nokia, 20 November 2015, The company took aggressive steps to revitalize itself, evident through its hiring of software experts, testing of new products and seeking of sales partners.NEWS, Back to the future: Nokia prepares for mobile comeback,weblink Reuters, 10 August 2015, 20 November 2015, On 14 July 2015, CEO Rajeev Suri confirmed that the company would make a return to the mobile phones market in 2016.WEB,weblink Nokia: We'll return to the mobile phone market in 2016 - TheINQUIRER, 1 June 2016, On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degrees virtual reality camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced VR film-making platform.WEB,weblink Nokia reveals Ozo, a futuristic new camera for filming virtual reality, Casey, Newton, 29 July 2015, 1 June 2016, Nokia's press release stated that OZO would be "the first in a planned portfolio of digital media solutions," with more technologic products expected in the future.WEB,weblink Nokia makes comeback with OZO virtual reality camera, 1 June 2016, OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in Los Angeles. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000;WEB,weblink Nokia's $60,000 virtual reality camera is now available for pre-order, Stan, Schroeder, 1 June 2016, however, its price was decreased by $15,000 prior to release,NEWS,weblink Nokia drops the price of its Ozo virtual reality camera by $15K, 18 August 2016, Digital Trends, 22 May 2017, en-US, and is listed on its official website as $40,000.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 18 March 2017, Nokia OZO {{!, Buy OZO online from the official Nokia store|publisher=Nokia |access-date=22 May 2017}}File:NokiaBuilding4.jpg|thumb|Nokia office building in Markham, OntarioOntarioFile:Nokia Flexi Zone Micro BTS FWEA spec tag 20150811.jpg|thumb|A Nokia Flexi Zone base transceiver stationbase transceiver stationOn 14 April 2015, Nokia confirmed that it was in talks with the French telecommunications equipment company Alcatel-Lucent regarding a potential merger.NEWS, Schechner, Sam, Nokia Is in Talks to Buy Alcatel-Lucent,weblink 14 April 2015, The Wall Street Journal, 14 April 2015, {{subscription required}} The next day, Nokia announced that it had agreed to purchase Alcatel-Lucent for €15.6 billion in an all-stock deal. CEO Rajeev Suri felt that the purchase would give Nokia a strategic advantage in the development of 5G wireless technologies.WEB,weblink Alcatel acquisition will boost 5G plans, says Nokia CEO, IBNLive, 20 November 2015, Simnikiwe Mzekandaba, iTWeb. "Nokia, Alcatel-Lucent deal nears completion." 23 November 2015. 30 November 2015. The acquisition created a stronger competitor to the rival firms Ericsson and Huawei,NEWS,weblink Ericsson reports fifth straight quarter in the red, Editorial, Reuters U.K., 2018-01-31, en-GB, The company faces mounting competition from China’s Huawei and Finland’s Nokia as well as weak emerging markets and falling spending by telecoms operators for which purchases of next-generation 5G technology are still years away., whom Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent had surpassed in terms of total combined revenue in 2014. Nokia shareholders hold 66.5% of the new combined company, while Alcatel-Lucent shareholders hold 33.5%. The Bell Labs division was to be maintained, but the Alcatel-Lucent brand would be replaced by Nokia.NEWS, Byford, Sam, Nokia agrees to buy Alcatel-Lucent for $16.6 billion,weblink The Verge, 15 April 2015, Simon Zekaria and Ryan Knutson, The Wall Street Journal. "Merger of Nokia With Alcatel-Lucent Could Put Pressure on Prices." 14 April 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016. In October 2015, following approval of the deal by China's Ministry of Commerce, the merger awaited approval by French regulators.Daniel Thomas, Financial Times. "Nokia-Alcatel Lucent deal wins approval of Chinese regulator." 19 October 2015. 19 October 2015. Despite the initial intent of selling the submarine cable division separately, Alcatel-Lucent later declared that it would not.NEWS, Alcatel's strategic undersea cables unit to be swallowed by Nokia,weblink Reuters, 7 October 2015, 20 November 2015, The merger closed on 14 January 2016,Peter Dinham, iTWire. "Nokia, Alcatel-Lucent acquisition closes." 18 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. but was not complete until 3 November 2016. From the acquisition Nokia is now also the owner of the Alcatel mobile phone brand, which continues to be licensed to TCL Corporation.On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its Here digital maps division to a consortium of BMW, Daimler AG and Volkswagen Group for €2.8 billion.WEB, Nokia sells Here maps business to carmakers Audi, BMW and Daimler,weblink CNET, 3 August 2015, The deal closed on 3 December 2015.WEB,weblink Nokia Closes Its $2.8B Sale Of Here To The Audi, BMW And Daimler Car Consortium, Ingrid, Lunden, TechCrunch, 1 June 2016, On 26 April 2016, Nokia announced its intent to acquire French connected health device maker Withings for US$191 million. The company was integrated into a new Digital Health unit of Nokia Technologies.By Matthias Verbergt and Sam Schechner, The Wall Street Journal. "Nokia Has Designs on a Healthier Future With Purchase of Fitness Gadgets Startup." 26 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.WEB,weblink It's official: Nokia owns Withings, Falcone, John, 31 May 2015, CNET, 1 June 2016, Nokia later wrote off the cost of the acquisition and in May 2018 the health unit was sold back to Éric Carreel, a Withings co-founder and former CEO.WEB,weblink Withings cofounder Éric Carreel finalizes deal to regain control from Nokia, O'Brien, Chris, 31 May 2018, VentureBeat, 23 October 2018, On 18 May 2016, Microsoft Mobile sold its Nokia-branded feature phone business to HMD Global, a new company founded by former Nokia executive Jean-Francois Baril, and an associated factory in Vietnam to Foxconn's FIH Mobile subsidiary. Nokia subsequently entered into a long-term licensing deal to make HMD the exclusive manufacturer of Nokia-branded phones and tablets outside Japan, operating in conjunction with Foxconn. The deal also granted HMD the right to essential patents and featurephone software. HMD subsequently announced the Android-based Nokia 6 smartphone in January 2017.WEB, Microsoft sells Nokia feature phones business,weblink BBC News, 2 May 2017, WEB, Nokia 6 Announced: Qualcomm Snapdragon 430, 5.5-Inch Display Android 7,weblink Anandtech, 2 May 2017, At Mobile World Congress, HMD additionally unveiled the Nokia 3 and Nokia 5 smartphones, as well as a re-imagining of Nokia's classic 3310 feature phone.WEB, Report: HMD to resurrect legendary Nokia 3310 at Mobile World Congress,weblink Ars Technica, 2 May 2017, NEWS,weblink Nokia 3310 relaunch: Why we still love the phone that defined the Nokia era, The Telegraph, James Titcomb, 18 February 2017, 8 March 2017, While Nokia has no investment in the company, they do have some input in the new devices.On 28 June 2016 Nokia demonstrated for the first time a 5G-ready network.WEB,weblink Nokia demonstrates world's first 5G-ready network, Nokia, In February 2017 Nokia carried out a 5G connection in Oulu, Finland using the 5GTF standard, backed by Verizon, on Intel architecture-based equipment.WEB,weblink Nokia carries out 5G connection using 5GTF standards, 15 February 2017, On 5 July 2017, Nokia and Xiaomi announced that they have signed a business collaboration agreement and a multi-year patent agreement, including a cross license to each company's cellular standard essential patents.WEB,weblink Nokia and Xiaomi sign business cooperation and patent agreements, 5 July 2017, 5 July 2017, In 2017, Nokia's brand value jumped 147 places to 188th place compared to 2016 in the Brand Finance ranking. Its rise was attributed to its health portfolio and new mobile phones developed by HMD Global.WEB,weblink Nokia jumps from 335th to 188th place on Brand Finance list for 2017, 1 February 2018, On 19 January 2018, Nokia signed a deal with NTT Docomo, Japan's largest mobile operator, to provide 5G wireless radio base stations in the country by 2020.WEB,weblink Nokia signs its first official 5G equipment deal with NTT DoCoMo, Reuters, Editorial, On 29 January 2018, Nokia introduced the ReefShark line of 5G chipsets, claiming that it triples bandwidth to 84 Gbit/s.WEB,weblink Nokia's new ReefShark chipset aims to deliver big 5G performance boost - ZDNet, Liam, Tung, It will be released by Q3 2018.WEB,weblink Nokia uses its silicon secret sauce to make new ReefShark chipsets, Bicheno,, Scott, 29 January 2018, It also incorporates artificial intelligence technologies from Bell Labs.WEB,weblink Nokia launches ReefShark chipsets that deliver massive performance gain in 5G networks - Nokia, Nokia, On 13 March 2018, Solidium, the investment arm of the Finnish government, purchased a 3.3% stake in Nokia valued at €844 million.NEWS,weblink Finnish government acquires stake in Nokia, TechRadar, 2018-03-24, en, On 7 May 2018, Nokia announced that it has acquired a California based IoT startup, SpaceTime Insight.NEWS,weblink Nokia acquires U.S. software supplier SpaceTime Insight, Auchard, Eric, U.S., 2018-05-07, en-US,

Current operations

Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki and New York stock exchanges. Nokia has played a very large role in the economy of Finland,NEWS,weblink Ulkomaalaiset valtaavat pörssiyhtiöitä, Kapanen, Ari, 24 July 2007, Taloussanomat, Finnish, 14 May 2008, NEWS,weblink Nokia is no longer Finland's most valuable company, 4 April 2012, phonearena.com, and it is an important employer in the country, working with multiple local partners and subcontractors.WEB,weblink The role of Nokia in the Finnish Economy, Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki, 2001, PDF, ETLA (The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy), 21 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071024180817weblink">weblink 24 October 2007, Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP and accounted for about 16% of the country's exports in 2006.NEWS,weblink NOKIA AND FINLAND IN A SEA OF CHANGE, Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki, 2010, ETLA â€“ Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, 12 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425073135weblink">weblink 25 April 2012, Nokia comprises two business groups along with further subsidiaries and affiliated firms.

Nokia Networks

File:Nokia Networks Munich Office, April 2017 -02.jpg|thumb|View of the Nokia Networks office in MunichMunichNokia Networks is Nokia Corporation's largest division. It is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and is the world's third-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer, measured by 2017 revenues (after Huawei and Cisco). In USA it competes with Ericsson on building 5G networks for operators, while Huawei Technologies and ZTE Corporation were effectively banned.NEWS, Trump team idea to nationalize 5G network to counter China is rejected,weblink Reuters, 2018-01-29, Reuters, The rules for 5G networks are still being worked out by industry players. The work has been complicated by an effective ban in the United States on two of the largest firms, Chinese suppliers Huawei Technologies Co Ltd [HWT.UL] and ZTE Corp since a 2012 investigation over links to potential Chinese spying, something the companies have denied., It has operations in around 150 countries.WEB, Nokia Siemens Networks Fact Sheet, Nokia Siemens Networks,weblink PDF, 9 July 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070718225357weblink">weblink 18 July 2007, Nokia Networks provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers.WEB,weblink Structure, 1 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091008064142weblink">weblink 8 October 2009, Nokia Corporation, 28 December 2009, It focuses on GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA, LTE and WiMAX radio access networks, supporting core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services.The Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and Siemens (49.9%),WEB,weblink The Wave of the Future, 25 March 2007, Brand New: Opinions on Corporate and Brand Identity Work, UnderConsideration LLC, 14 May 2008, WEB,weblink Reviews â€“ 2007 â€“ Nokia Siemens Networks, 2007, Identityworks, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130806150726weblink">weblink 6 August 2013, dmy-all, although it is now wholly owned by Nokia. In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and renamed it to Nokia Solutions and Networks, shortly thereafter changed to simply Nokia Networks.NEWS, Nokia Pays $2.21 Billion for Siemens Stake in NSN,weblink 18 December 2013, Wall Street Journal, 1 July 2013, Juhana Rossi,

Nokia Technologies

Nokia Technologies is a division of Nokia that develops consumer products and licenses technology including the Nokia brand.WEB,weblink Our businesses, 15 April 2015, Nokia,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416072059weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, yes, dmy-all, {{Self-published source|date=April 2015}} Its focuses are imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and materials, and other areas such as the IP licensing program. It consists of three labs: Radio Systems Lab, in areas of radio access, wireless local connectivity and radio implementation; Media Technologies Lab, in areas of multimedia and interaction; and Sensor and Material Technologies Lab, in areas of advanced sensing solutions, interaction methods, nanotechnologies and quantum technologies. Nokia Technologies also provides public participation in its development through the Invent with Nokia program.WEB
,weblink Why invent with us?, Nokia, 15 April 2015, {{Self-published source|date=April 2015}} It was created in 2014 following a restructuring of Nokia Corporation.
In November 2014, Nokia Technologies launched its first product, the Nokia N1 tablet computer.WEB, Nokia's first device after Microsoft is an iPad mini clone that runs Android, Tom Warren,weblink The Verge, 18 November 2014, 18 March 2015, In July 2015, Nokia Technologies introduced a VR camera called OZO, designed for professional content creators and developed in Tampere, Finland. With its 8 synchronized shutter sensors and 8 microphones, the product can capture stereoscopic 3D video and spatial audio.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 10 June 2016, Nokia OZO {{!, Discover {{!}} For the best VR production experience|publisher=Nokia |access-date=8 February 2017}}WEB,weblink Nokia OZO {{!, Blog|publisher=Nokia |access-date=8 February 2017}}On 31 August 2016, Ramzi Haidamus announced he would be stepping down from his position as president of Nokia Technologies.Reuters. "Head of Technologies unit to leave Nokia." 31 August 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016. Brad Rodrigues, previously head of strategy and business development, assumed the role of interim president.WEB,weblink Brad Rodrigues, Interim President of Nokia Technologies, Nokia, en, 22 May 2017, On 30 June 2017, Gregory Lee, previously CEO of Samsung Electronics in North America, was appointed Nokia Technologies CEO and president.WEB,weblink The new President of Nokia Technologies is Gregory Lee, former CEO at Samsung,

Nokia Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs is a research and scientific development firm that was once the R&D arm of the American Bell System. It became a subsidiary of Nokia Corporation after the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.

NGP Capital

NGP Capital (formerly Nokia Growth Partners) is a global venture capital firm, focusing in investments on growth stage "Internet of things" (IoT) and mobile technology companies.WEB,weblink Nokia Growth Partners Launches Third Fund Backed By $250M From Nokia, Expands In China, Tech Crunch, Natasha Lomas, 29 January 2013, 22 October 2014, NGP holds investments throughout the U.S., Europe, China and India. Their portfolio consists of companies in mobile technology including the sectors Connected Enterprise, Digital Health, Consumer IoT and Connected Car. Following a $350 million funding for IoT companies in 2016, NGP manages $1 billion worth of assets.WEB,weblink Nokia Growth Partners raises USD 350 million investment fund for investments in Internet of Things - Nokia, Nokia, Nokia had previously promoted innovation through venture sponsorships dating back to 1998 with Nokia Venture Partners, which was renamed BlueRun Ventures and spun off in 2005.WEB,weblink Nokia Venture Partners Becomes Bluerun Ventures; Announces 1st Closing Of $350 Million Fund - Nokia, Nokia, Nokia Growth Partners (NGP) was founded in 2005 as a growth stage venture fund as a continuation of the early successes of Nokia Venture Partners. In 2017, the company was renamed to NGP Capital.WEB,weblink Introducing NGP Capital, NGP Capital, 2 December 2017, NGP's largest exits include GanJi, UCWeb, Whistle, Rocket Fuel, Swype, Summit Microelectronics and Netmagic.

Nuage Networks

Nuage Networks is a venture providing software-defined networking (SDN) solutions. It was formed by Alcatel-Lucent in 2013 to develop a software overlay for automating and orchestrating hybrid clouds.WEB,weblink Is Nuage really key to Nokia?, Jim, Duffy, It has been part of Nokia following their acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.WEB,weblink Nuage Networks Gets Some Love From Nokia, Throughout 2017 Nuage sealed deals with Vodafone and Telefonica to provide its SD-WAN architecture to their servers.WEB,weblink Nokia’s Nuage Networks scores Telefónica SD-WAN win, Bicheno,, Scott, 10 May 2017, WEB,weblink Vodafone signs Nokia’s Nuage Networks to boost SD-WAN efforts, 14 March 2017, BT had already been a client since 2016.WEB,weblink Nuage Networks to Contribute Technology for BT’s future SD-WAN Services - Nuage Networks, 10 November 2016, A deal with China Mobile in January 2017 also used Nuage's SDN technology for 2,000 public cloud servers at existing data centers in China,WEB,weblink China Mobile Picks Nuage Networks SDN for Public Cloud, and another in October 2017 with China Pacific Insurance Company.WEB,weblink Nuage Networks Wins SDN Deal with Large Chinese Enterprise, The company is based in Mountain View, California and the CEO is Sunil Khandekar.WEB,weblink Management Team - Nuage Networks,

Alcatel Mobile

Alcatel Mobile is a mobile phone brand owned by Nokia since 2016. It has been licensed since 2005 to Chinese company TCL when it was under the ownership of Alcatel (later Alcatel-Lucent) in a contract until 2024.

HMD Global

HMD Global is a mobile phone company based at the same building as Nokia's headquarters in Espoo, Finland. The Nokia brand has been licensed by former Nokia employees who founded HMD Global and introduced Nokia-branded Android-based devices to the market in 2017.NEWS,weblink Nokia’s new Android smartphone has been unveiled, The Verge, 2018-03-13, Nokia has no investment in the company but retains some input in the development of its devices.NEWS,weblink Meet HMD Global, the Team Bringing Nokia Phones Back, NDTV Gadgets360.com, 2018-03-13, en,

Alcatel Submarine Networks

Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) is a provider of turnkey undersea network solutions.The business unit develops technology and offers installation services for optical submarine cable network links across the world’s oceans.WEB,weblink Ekinops acknowledges talks with Nokia on possible purchase of Alcatel Submarine Networks, www.lightwaveonline.com, 2018-10-23, NEWS,weblink Submarine Network Solutions, 2013-01-27, Nokia Networks, 2018-10-23, en,

Corporate affairs

Corporate governance

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Group Leadership Team (left),WEB,weblink Nokia Group Leadership Team, May 2015, Nokia Corporation, 1 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140501014116weblink">weblink 1 May 2014, yes, dmy-all, under the direction of the board of directors (right).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140504120156weblink">weblink yes, 2014-05-04, Meet the Board, 2015, Nokia Corporation, 1 April 2015, The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors. Only the chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Group Leadership Team. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,WEB,weblink Audit Committee Charter at Nokia, 2007, PDF, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528004602weblink">weblink 28 May 2008, dmy-all, the Personnel Committee,WEB,weblink Personnel Committee Charter at Nokia, 2007, PDF, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528004555weblink">weblink 28 May 2008, dmy-all, and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.WEB,weblink Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee Charter at Nokia, 2008, PDF, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528004608weblink">weblink 28 May 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Committees of the Board, May 2007, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,WEB,weblink New Finnish Companies Act designed to increase Finland's competitiveness, Virkkunen, Johannes, 29 September 2006, PDF, LMR Attorneys Ltd. (Luostarinen Mettälä Räikkönen), 14 May 2008, Nokia's Articles of Association,WEB,weblink Articles of Association of Nokia Corporation, PDF, Nokia Corporation, 26 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150626214020weblink">weblink 26 June 2015, yes, dmy-all, and Corporate Governance Guidelines,WEB,weblink Corporate Governance Guidelines at Nokia, 2006, PDF, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528004537weblink">weblink 28 May 2008, dmy-all, supplemented by the board of directors' adopted charters.{| style="border-spacing:12px"{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%; margin:0;"!Nokia Group Leadership TeamRajeev Suri (chairman)President and CEO since 1 May 2014Joined Nokia in 1995Kristian PullolaChief Financial Officer (CFO)Joined Nokia in 1999Joerg ErlemeierChief Operating Officer (COO)Joined Nokia in 1994Basil AlwanPresident of IP/Optical NetworksJoined Nokia in 2016Bhaskar GortiPresident of Nokia SoftwareJoined Nokia in 2016Federico GuillénPresident of Fixed NetworksJoined Nokia in 2016Maria VarsellonaPresident of Nokia TechnologiesJoined Nokia in 2013Sanjay GoelPresident of Global ServicesJoined Nokia in 2001Marc RouannePresident of mobile networksJoined Nokia in 2008Ashish ChowdharyChief customer operations officer (CCOO)Joined Nokia in 2003Hans-Jürgen BillChief Human Resources officer (CHRO)Joined Nokia in 2007Kathrin BuvacChief Strategy Officer (CSO)Joined Nokia in 2007Barry FrenchChief Marketing Officer (CMO)Joined Nokia in 2006Maria VarsellonaChief Legal Officer (CLO)Joined Nokia in 2013Marcus WeldonCorporate Chief Technology Officer and president of Nokia Bell LabsJoined Nokia in 2016|{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%; margin:0;"!Board of directorsRisto Siilasmaa (chairman)Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination CommitteeFounder and chairman of F-Secure CorporationBoard member since 2008, chairman of the board of directors since 3 May 2012Oliver Piou (vice chair)Member of the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination CommitteeCEO of Gemalto N.V.Board member since 2008Bruce BrownChair of the Personnel Committee and member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination CommitteeRetired Chief Technology Officer of Procter & GambleBoard member since 3 May 2012Jeanette HoranMember of the Audit CommitteeNon-executive directorBoard member since 2017Louis R HughesMember of the Audit CommitteeBoard member since 2016Edward KozelMember of the Audit CommitteeBoard member since 2017Jean C MontyMember of the Personnel CommitteeBoard member since 2016Elizabeth NelsonChair of the Audit CommitteeBoard member since 2012Karla Smits-NustelingMember of the Personnel CommitteeNon-executive directorBoard member since 2016Kari StadighMember of the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee Group CEO and president of Sampo PLCBoard member since 2011{{Clear}}{| class"wikitable" style"margin: 0.75em auto 0.75em auto" cellspacing"2" cellpadding"0" border"0"">

Former corporate officers{| style"border-spacing:12px"{| class"wikitable" style"margin: 0.75em auto 0.75em auto" cellspacing"2" cellpadding"0" border"0"

! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"| Chief executive officers!! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;" | Chairmen of the board of directorsWEB,weblink Suomalaisten yritysten ylin johto, Finnish, 20 March 2009, !Name!Tenure!!Name!Tenure| Björn Westerlund| 1967–1977|Lauri Kivekäs>Lauri J. Kivekäs| 1967–1977| Kari Kairamo| 1977–1988|| Björn Westerlund| 1977–1979| Simo Vuorilehto| 1988–1992|| Mika Tiivola| 1979–1986| Jorma Ollila| 1992–2006|| Kari Kairamo| 1986–1988| Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo| 2006–2010||Simo Vuorilehto|1988–1990| Stephen Elop| 2010–2014||Mika Tiivola|1990–1992||||Casimir Ehrnrooth|1992–1999||||Jorma Ollila|1999–2012

Stock

Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange, beginning in 1915. Nokia has had a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange since 1994. Nokia shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2003, the Paris Stock Exchange in 2004, the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 2007 and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2012.NEWS,weblink Nokia applies for delisting from the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, 24 November 2011, 24 November 2017, marketwired.com, Due to the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2015, Nokia listed its shares again on the Paris Stock Exchange and was included in the CAC 40 index on 6 January 2016.WEB,weblink Nokia announces settlement of its public exchange offer for Alcatel-Lucent securities, the registration of new shares and its inclusion in the CAC 40 index, NOKIA, 1 June 2016, In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalization of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion, and by 23 February 2015, it increased to €26.07 billion.

Corporate culture

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto since the 1990s is called The Nokia Way.WEB,weblink Newsletter, faculty.fuqua.duke.edu, It emphasizes the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization.WEB,weblink Nokia Way and values, Nokia Corporation, 14 May 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080513163145weblink">weblink 13 May 2008, dmy-all, The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company communication.In 1992, Nokia adopted values that were defined with the key words respect, achievement, renewal and challenge.WEB,weblink New Old Nokia Values, 25 September 2014, In May 2007, the company redefined its values after initiating a series of discussion across its worldwide branches regarding what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human. In August 2014, Nokia redefined its values again after the sale of its Devices business, using the original 1992 values again.

Headquarters

File:Nokian pääkonttori Keilaniemessä.jpg|thumb|The former Nokia House, Nokia's head office until April 2014. The building is located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, EspooEspooNokia are based at Karaportti in Espoo, Finland, just outside capital Helsinki. It has been their head office since 2014 after moving from the purpose-built Nokia House in Espoo as part of the sale of the mobile phone business to Microsoft.WEB,weblink Nokia House now has Microsoft Branding, UnleashThePhones,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525022038weblink">weblink 25 May 2014, The building in Karaportti was previously the headquarters of NSN (now Nokia Networks).WEB,weblink Contact, Nokia, 18 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150325211543weblink">weblink 25 March 2015, yes, dmy-all,

Awards and recognition

In 2018, Nokia received the Leading Lights award for most innovative cable/video productNEWS,weblink Leading Lights 2018: The Winners, Light Reading, 2018-05-30, en, and was named to Ethisphere's 2018 world's most ethical companies list.NEWS,weblink Ethisphere Institute Announces 135 Companies Honored as World's Most Ethical Companies, Ethisphere® Institute, 2018-05-30, en-US,

Logo history

File:Nokian logo (1865).svg|Nokia Osakeyhtiö logo, 1865.WEB,weblink 21 Logo Evolutions of the World’s Well Known Logo Designs, BoredPanda, 30 November 2015, File:Nokia_logo_1965.svg|Nokia Osakeyhtiö logo, 1965.BOOK, Bonsdorff, Lars G. von, Nokia Osakeyhtiö 1865-1965, Nokia Osakeyhtiö - Nokia Aktiebolag, 1965, File:Finnish Rubber Works (Nokia) logo 1965.svg|Finnish Rubber Works (Suomen Kumitehdas) logo, 1965–1986.File:Nokia nuolilogo.svg|Nokia 'Arrows' logo, after merge with the Cable Factory (Kaapelitehdas) and Finnish Rubber Works (1966–1992). Used in advertising and products until c. 1997.File:Nokia Connecting People.svg|Nokia introduced its "Connecting People" advertising slogan in 1992, coined by Ove Strandberg.WEB,weblink HS Archives, 1 June 2003, Helsingin Sanomat, Finnish, 14 May 2008, WEB,weblink NOKIA, Connecting People 1992 Vector Logo (AI EPS), HDicon.com, 17 October 2010, File:Nokian logo.svg|New slogan typeface (Nokia Sans font) introduced in 2005. Nokia Sans had been used by Nokia in products since 2002.WEB,weblink NOKIA, Connecting People new Vector Logo (AI EPS), HDicon.com, 17 October 2010, File:Nokia wordmark.svg|Bold version introduced in 2007. The company stopped using a slogan with its logo in 2011.(File:Nokia_typefaces.png|thumb|center|200px|History of Nokia's corporate typeface){{-}}

Controversies

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran

In 2008, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens.NEWS,weblink Hi-tech helps Iranian monitoring, Cellan-Jones, Rory, 22 June 2009, BBC News, 14 July 2009, The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use deep packet inspection to read and change the content of emails, social media, and online phone calls. The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes".WEB,weblink Iran’s Web Spying Aided By Western Technology, YaleGlobal Online, 22 May 2017, During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, which experts suspected was due to use of deep packet inspection.NEWS,weblink Iran's Web Spying Aided By Western Technology, Rhoads, Christopher, Chao, Loretta, 22 June 2009, The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, Inc., A1, 14 July 2009, In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted companies deemed to be collaborating with the regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.NEWS,weblink Iranian consumers boycott Nokia for 'collaboration', Kamali Dehghan, Saeed, 14 July 2009, The Guardian, 27 July 2009, London, Nokia Siemens Networks asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a "lawful intercept capability solely for monitoring of local voice calls" and that it "has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship, or Internet filtering capability to Iran".PRESS RELEASE,weblink Provision of Lawful Intercept capability in Iran, 22 June 2009, Nokia Siemens Networks, 14 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090625174434weblink">weblink 25 June 2009,

Lex Nokia

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.NEWS,weblink 'Lex Nokia' company snoop law passes in Finland, Ozimek, John, 6 March 2009, The Register, 27 July 2009, Nokia denied rumors that the company had considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed.NEWS,weblink Nokia Denies Threat to Leave Finland, 1 February 2009, cellular-news, 27 July 2009, The Finnish media dubbed the law Lex Nokia because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure.The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for implementation of its provisions. No company had used its provisions prior to 25 February 2013, when the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of Hämeenlinna had recently given the required notice.Lex Nokian käytöstä ilmoitettiin ensimmäistä kertaa – Lex Nokia – Talous – Helsingin Sanomat

Nokia–Apple patent dispute

In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.NEWS,weblink SCENARIOS-What lies ahead in Nokia vs Apple legal battle, Virki, Tarmo, 18 January 2010, Reuters, 25 January 2010, Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's general counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in a legal battle between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players and computers".NEWS,weblink The war of the Smartphones: Nokia's new patent suit against Apple, 6 January 2010, Snartphone Reviews, 25 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150709014240weblink">weblink 9 July 2015, dmy-all, Nokia went on to ask the court to ban all U.S. imports of the Apple products, including the iPhone, Macintosh and iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010.In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia.NEWS,weblink Nokia's Patent Settlement With Apple Won't Help Much, 14 June 2011, 29 June 2011, The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.NEWS,weblink Apple Settles With Nokia in Patent Lawsuit, 14 June 2011, The Huffington Post, 29 June 2011, Catharine, Smith, NEWS,weblink Nokia Wins Apple Patent-License Deal Cash, Settles Lawsuits, 14 June 2011, Bloomberg L.P., 29 June 2011, Diana, ben-Aaron, Kati, Pohjanpalo,

Alleged tax evasion in India

Nokia's Indian subsidiary has been charged in January 2013 with non-payment of TDS and transgressing transfer pricing norms in India.WEB, Income Tax department asks Nokia to pay Rs 13,000 crore,weblink Economic Times, 31 January 2013, 31 January 2013, WEB, Nokia tax case: IT officials grill Price Waterhouse,weblink Business Line, 31 January 2013, T. E. Raja Simhan, Chennai, 16 January 2013, The unpaid TDS of {{Indian Rupee|link=Indian rupee}}30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.WEB, Nokia suspected of flouting transfer pricing rules too,weblink Business Line, 31 January 2013,

See also

  • History of Nokia
  • Jolla – a company started by former Nokia employees which develops Linux Sailfish OS, a continuation of Linux MeeGo OS.
  • Twig Com – originally Benefon, a historical mobile phone manufacturer started by former Nokia people.
  • Microsoft Mobile – The re-branding of Nokia Device and Services division after acquired by Microsoft.
  • HMD Global - The post-Microsoft continuation of Nokia-branded devices.

References

{{Reflist|30em}}">

Further reading{| class"wikitable" style"width:100%; margin:auto;"

! Title !! Author !! Publisher !! Year !! Length !! ISBN{{Book list
| title = The Decline and Fall of Nokia
| author = David J. Cord
| publisher = Schildts & Söderströms
| publish_date = April 2014
| isbn = 978-951-52-3320-2
| line_color = nonfiction
| aux1 = 304 pp
}}{hide}Book list
| title = Ringtone: Exploring the Rise and Fall of Nokia in Mobile Phones
| author = Yves Doz and Keeley Wilson
|publisher = Oxford University Press
|publish_date= November 2017
|isbn = 978-0-19-877719-9
|line_color= nonfiction
|aux1 =208 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = Nokia: The Inside Story
| author = Martti Häikiö
| publisher = FT / Prentice Hall
| publish_date = October 2002
| isbn = 0-273-65983-9
| line_color = nonfiction
| aux1 = 256 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = Work Goes Mobile: Nokia's Lessons from the Leading Edge
| author = Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen, Vishy Gopalakrishnan
| publisher = John Wiley & Sons
| publish_date = January 2006
| isbn = 0-470-02752-5
| aux1 = 212 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = Mobile Usability: How Nokia Changed the Face of the Mobile Phone
| author = Christian Lindholm, Turkka Keinonen, Harri Kiljander
| publisher = McGraw-Hill Companies
| publish_date = June 2003
| isbn = 0-07-138514-2
| aux1 = 301 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = Business The Nokia Way: Secrets of the World's Fastest Moving Company
| author = Trevor Merriden
| publisher = John Wiley & Sons
| publish_date = February 2001
| isbn = 1-84112-104-5
| aux1 = 168 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That Transformed an Industry
| author = Dan Steinbock
| publisher = AMACOM Books
| publish_date = April 2001
| isbn = 0-8144-0636-X
| aux1 = 375 pp
{edih}{hide}Book list
| title = Winning Across Global Markets: How Nokia Creates Strategic Advantage in a Fast-Changing World
| author = Dan Steinbock
| publisher = Jossey-Bass / Wiley
| publish_date = May 2010
| isbn = 978-0-470-33966-4
| line_color = nonfiction
| aux1 = 304 pp
{edih}

External links

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