Episcopal Church (United States)

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Episcopal Church (United States)
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{{Use American English|date = March 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date = March 2019}}{{short description|Anglican denomination in the United States}}

icon | icon_width =| icon_alt =| name = The Episcopal Church

150px)| imagewidth = | alt = coat of arms>Arms of the Episcopal Church includes both a St George's Cross and a St. Andrew's cross composed of nine cross crosslets| abbreviation = | type = | main_classification = Anglican| orientation = | scripture = | theology =| polity = | governance =| structure =| leader_title = | leader_name = | leader_title1 = | leader_name1 = | leader_title2 = PolityEpiscopal polity>Episcopal| leader_title3 = | leader_name3 = | fellowships_type = | fellowships = | fellowships_type1 = | fellowships1 = | division_type = Parishes| division = 6,823 (2018)| division_type1 = | division1 = | division_type2 = | division2 = | division_type3 =| division3 =| associations = | area = | language = | liturgy = Second Avenue (Manhattan)>Second AvenueNew York, New YorkUnited StatesUnited StatesFurther dioceses in Taiwan, Micronesia, Central America>Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Europe| possessions = | origin_link =| founder = | founded_date = 1785| founded_place = | independence = | reunion = | recognition = | separated_from = Church of England | branched_from = | merger = | absorbed = Church of Hawaii (1890s)| separations = *Reformed Episcopal Church (1873)
    merged_into | defunct =| congregations_type =| congregations =
    1,676,349 active baptized members in the U.S.| ministers_type =| ministers = | missionaries =| churches =| hospitals = | nursing_homes = | aid = | primary_schools = | secondary_schools = | tax_status =| tertiary = | other_names = | publications = | website = {{official URL}}| slogan =| logo =| footnotes = }}{{Anglicanism}}The Episcopal Church (TEC) is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces. The presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position.{{As of|2018|alt=In 2018|post=,}} the Episcopal Church had 1,835,931 baptized members, of whom 1,676,349 were in the United States. {{As of|2011|alt=In 2011|post=,}} it was the nation's 14th largest denomination.{{Citation|publisher=National Council of Churches News Service|url=|title=Trends continue in church membership growth or decline, reports 2011 Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches|work=News from the National Council of Churches|publication-date=February 14, 2011|accessdate=December 29, 2011|quote=14. The Episcopal Church, 2,026,343 members, down 2.48 percent.}} Note: The number of members given here is the total number of baptized members in 2012 (cf. Baptized Members by Province and Diocese 2002–2013). {{As of|2015|alt=In 2015|post=,}} Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians.WEB, Religious Landscape Study,weblink Pew Research, February 12, 2016, The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic".WEB,weblink What makes us Anglican? Hallmarks of the Episcopal Church,, June 1, 2016, The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders. The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings, liturgies, and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship.The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.{{sfn|Bourgeois|2004}} Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course. It has opposed the death penalty and supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr. The church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions.Episcopal News Service staff, "General Convention wrap-up: Historic actions, structural changes" (July 7, 2015). Online atweblink Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, and the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first openly gay person ordained as a bishop.


    (File:Flag of the US Episcopal Church.svg|thumb|Flag of the Episcopal Church)The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (PECUSA) and "The Episcopal Church" (TEC) are both official names specified in the church's constitution. The latter is much more commonly used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal.WEB,weblink Episcopal Church webpage in Spanish,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 2005-12-14, dead, and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale.WEB,weblink Episcopal Church webpage in French,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-12-12, Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage. They were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label accurately reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were regularly proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had largely subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise, priests and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.BOOK, White, Edwin, Dykman, Jackson, The Annotated Constitution and Canons for the Episcopal Church, 1981, Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, 978-0-89869-298-3, 4–6, The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination.WEB, Acts of Convention # 1979-A125,weblink 1979, The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church".{{sfn|Zahl|1998|pp=56, 69|ps=: "Protestant consciousness within ECUSA, which used to be called PECUSA (i.e., the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.) is moribund […] With the approval and lightning ascent of the 1979 Prayer Book came to the end, for all practical purposes, of Protestant churchmanship in what is now known aggressively as ECUSA".}}The Episcopal Church in the United States of America (ECUSA) has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative commonly seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion also use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, some, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America".WEB,weblink Anglicans Online|The online centre of the Anglican / Episcopal world,, February 28, 2015, The full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America",WEB,weblink PDF, Constitution & canons (2006) Together with the Rules of Order for the government of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America otherwise Known as The Episcopal Church, 2006, The General Convention of The Episcopal Church, February 28, 2015, which was incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821. The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church".WEB,weblink 7 July 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-07-26, About Us—The Episcopal Church: History/Profile, The Episcopal Diocese of Chicago, dead, This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance.


    Colonial era

    File:Newport parish west facade.jpg|thumb|St. Luke's Church, built during the 17th century near Smithfield, VirginiaSmithfield, VirginiaThe Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, and it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession (though the Catholic and Orthodox churches do not recognize this claim).{{sfn|Sydnor|1980|p=64}}The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London. The tower of Jamestown Church ({{circa}} 1639–43) is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction.{{sfn|Sydnor|1980|p=72}}Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, and the parishes handled some civic functions. The Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, and in Georgia in 1758.{{sfn|Douglas|2005|p=188}}From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) began missionary activity throughout the colonies. On the eve of Revolution about 400 independent congregations were reported{{by whom|date=March 2017}} throughout the colonies.File:Colonial Williamsburg Parish Church.jpg|thumb|left|Bruton Parish Church in Colonial WilliamsburgColonial Williamsburg

    Revolutionary era

    Embracing the symbols of the British presence in the American colonies, such as the monarchy, the episcopate, and even the language of the Book of Common Prayer, the Church of England almost drove itself to extinction during the upheaval of the American Revolution.{{sfn|Bell|2008}} More than any other denomination, the War of Independence internally divided both clergy and laity of the Church of England in America, and opinions covered a wide spectrum of political views: patriots, conciliators, and loyalists. While many Patriots were suspicious of Loyalism in the church, about three-quarters of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were nominally Anglican laymen, including Thomas Jefferson, William Paca, and George Wythe.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} It was often assumed that persons considered "High Church" were Loyalists, whereas persons considered "Low Church" were Patriots: assumptions with possibly dangerous implications for the time.File:Old North Church Boston DSC 0816 ad.JPG|thumb|upright|Old North Church in Boston. Inspired by the work of Christopher WrenChristopher WrenOf the approximately three hundred clergy in the Church of England in America between 1776 and 1783, over 80 percent in New England, New York, and New Jersey were loyalists. This is in contrast to the less than 23 percent loyalist clergy in the four southern colonies.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} Many Church of England clergy remained loyalists as they took their two ordination oaths very seriously. Anglican clergy were obliged to swear allegiance to the king as well as to pray for the king, the royal family, and the British Parliament.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} In general, loyalist clergy stayed by their oaths and prayed for the king or else suspended services.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} By the end of 1776, some Anglican churches were closing.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} Anglican priests held services in private homes or lay readers who were not bound by the oaths held morning and evening prayer.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} During 1775 and 1776, the Continental Congress had issued decrees ordering churches to fast and pray on behalf of the patriots.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} Starting July 4, 1776, Congress and several states passed laws making prayers for the king and British Parliament acts of treason.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} The patriot clergy in the South were quick to find reasons to transfer their oaths to the American cause and prayed for the success of the Revolution.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} One precedent was the transfer of oaths during the Glorious Revolution in England.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} Most of the patriot clergy in the South were able to keep their churches open and services continued.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}}

    Early Republic era

    In the wake of the Revolution, American Episcopalians faced the task of preserving a hierarchical church structure in a society infused with republican values.File:Old Swedes 2 NJ.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Trinity Church in Swedesboro, New Jersey. Originally serving a Church of SwedenChurch of SwedenWhen the clergy of Connecticut elected Samuel Seabury as their bishop in 1783, he sought consecration in England. The Oath of Supremacy prevented Seabury's consecration in England, so he went to Scotland; the non-juring Scottish bishops there consecrated him in Aberdeen on November 14, 1784, making him, in the words of scholar Arthur Carl Piepkorn, "the first Anglican bishop appointed to minister outside the British Isles".WEB,weblink Looking Back: First Overseas Bishop - Life and Work,, {{sfn|Piepkorn|1977|p=199}} On August 3, 1785, the first ordinations on American soil took place at Christ Church in Middletown, Connecticut.By 1786, the church had succeeded in translating episcopacy to America and in revising the Book of Common Prayer to reflect American political realities. Later, through the efforts of Bishop Philander Chase (1775–1852) of Ohio, Americans successfully sought material assistance from England for the purpose of training Episcopal clergy. The development of the Protestant Episcopal Church provides an example of how Americans in the early republic maintained important cultural ties with England.{{sfn|Clark|1994}}In 1787, two priests – William White of Pennsylvania and Samuel Provoost of New York – were consecrated as bishops by the archbishop of Canterbury, the archbishop of York, and the bishop of Bath and Wells, the legal obstacles having been removed by the passage through Parliament of the Consecration of Bishops Abroad Act 1786. Thus there are two branches of Apostolic succession for the American bishops: through the non-juring bishops of Scotland who consecrated Samuel Seabury and through the English church who consecrated William White and Samuel Provoost. All bishops in the American Church are ordained by at least three bishops. One can trace the succession of each back to Seabury, White and Provoost. (See Succession of Bishops of the Episcopal Church.)In 1789, {{When|date=March 2017}} representative clergy from nine dioceses met in Philadelphia to ratify the church's initial constitution. The Episcopal Church was formally separated from the Church of England in 1789 so that clergy would not be required to accept the supremacy of the British monarch. A revised version of the Book of Common Prayer was written for the new church that same year. The fourth bishop of the Episcopal Church was James Madison, the first bishop of Virginia. Madison was consecrated in 1790 by the Archbishop of Canterbury and two other Church of England bishops. This third American bishop consecrated within the English line of succession occurred because of continuing unease within the Church of England over Seabury's non-juring Scottish orders.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004}} The Episcopal Church thus became the first Anglican Province outside the British Isles.BOOK, The Archbishops' Group on the Episcopate, Episcopal Ministry: The Report of the Archbishops' Group on the Episcopate, 1990, 1990, Church House Publishing, 0-7151-3736-0, 123, On 17 September 1792, at the triennial general convention (synod) of the Episcopal Church at Trinity Church on Wall Street, in New York City, Thomas John Claggett was elected the first bishop of Maryland. He was the first bishop of the Episcopal Church ordained and consecrated in America and the fifth Bishop consecrated for the Episcopal Church in the United States.WEB, A history of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington,weblink History of the Diocese, Episcopal Diocese of Washington, 26 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 February 2012,

    Nineteenth century

    File:St. John's Episcopal Church.JPG|thumb|St. John's Episcopal Church, built in 1816 in Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C.In 1856 the first society for African Americans in the Episcopal Church was founded by James Theodore Holly. Named The Protestant Episcopal Society for Promoting The Extension of The Church Among Colored People, the society argued that blacks should be allowed to participate in seminaries and diocesan conventions. The group lost its focus when Holly emigrated to Haiti, but other groups followed after the Civil War. The current Union of Black Episcopalians traces its history to the society.WEB,weblink UBE History, The Union of Black Episcopalians – National, The Union of Black Episcopalians, 2012-07-17, Holly went on to found the Anglican Church in Haiti, where he became the first African-American bishop on November 8, 1874. As Bishop of Haiti, Holly was the first African American to attend the Lambeth Conference.WEB,weblink UBE History,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-07-10, However, he was consecrated by the American Church Missionary Society, an Evangelical Episcopal branch of the Church.Episcopal missions chartered by African-Americans in this era were chartered as a Colored Episcopal Mission. All other missions (white) were chartered as an Organized Episcopal Mission. Many historically Black parishes are still in existence to date.WEB,weblink The Church Awakens: African Americans and the Struggle for Justice {{!, Historical African American Parishes|last=|first=|last2=|date=||access-date=2017-08-01}}File:St. John's Episcopal Montgomery Feb 2012 02.jpg|thumb|left|upright|St. John's Episcopal Church in Montgomery, AlabamaMontgomery, AlabamaWhen the American Civil War began in 1861, Episcopalians in the South formed the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America. However, in the North the separation was never officially recognized. By May 16, 1866, the southern dioceses had rejoined the national church.{{sfn|Mason|1990}}By the middle of the 19th century, evangelical Episcopalians disturbed by High Church Tractarianism, while continuing to work in interdenominational agencies, formed their own voluntary societies, and eventually, in 1874, a faction objecting to the revival of ritual practices established the Reformed Episcopal Church.{{sfn|Butler|1995}}Samuel David Ferguson was the first black bishop consecrated by the Episcopal Church, the first to practice in the U.S. and the first black person to sit in the House of Bishops. Bishop Ferguson was consecrated on June 24, 1885, with the then-Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church acting as a consecrator.During the Gilded Age, highly prominent laity such as banker J. P. Morgan, industrialist Henry Ford, and art collector Isabella Stewart Gardner played a central role in shaping a distinctive upper class Episcopalian ethos, especially with regard to preserving the arts and history. These philanthropists propelled the Episcopal Church into a quasi-national position of importance while at the same time giving the church a central role in the cultural transformation of the country.{{sfn|Williams|2006}} Another mark of influence is the fact that more than a quarter of all presidents of the United States have been Episcopalians (see religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States). It was during this period that the Book of Common Prayer was revised, first in 1892 and later in 1928.

    Era of change (1958–1970s)

    At the 1958 general convention, a coalition of liberal church members succeeded in passing a resolution recognizing "the natural dignity and value of every man, of whatever color or race, as created in the image of God". It called on Episcopalians "to work together, in charity and forbearance, towards the establishment ... of full opportunities in fields such as education, housing, employment and public accommodations". In response, the Episcopal Society for Cultural and Racial Unity (ESCRU) was founded in December 1959 in order to eliminate racial, ethnic and class barriers within the Episcopal Church. Opposition from southern church leaders prevented the Episcopal Church from taking a strong stand on civil rights prior to 1963. One prominent opponent of the movement was Charles C.J. Carpenter, the Bishop of Alabama.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004|p=134}} By 1963, many church leaders felt more comfortable speaking out in support of racial equality. That year, Presiding Bishop Arthur Lichtenberger wrote a pastoral letter urging Christians to work "across lines of racial separation, in a common struggle for justice", and the House of Bishops endorsed civil rights legislation.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004|p=135}}In 1967, Lichtenberger's successor, John Hines led the Episcopal Church to implement the General Convention Special Program (GCSP). The program was designed to redirect nine million dollars over a three-year period (a quarter of the church's operating budget at the time) to fund special grants for community organizations and grassroots efforts facilitating black empowerment in America's urban ghettos.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004|p=136}} The effectiveness of the GCSP was limited due to the reluctance of conservative bishops in southern dioceses, who objected to the awarding of grants to groups perceived as radical. The GCSP also drew opposition from the recently formed Foundation for Christian Theology, a conservative organization opposed to "involv[ing] the Church in the social, political, and economic activities of our times". The tension between liberal and conservative constituencies in the church erupted during the Special General Convention of 1969. The convention was disrupted by black militants who demanded that the Episcopal Church hear their concerns. When white deputies objected to allowing the militants a hearing, African-American deputies walked out of the convention. The Special General Convention also witnessed protests of the Vietnam War. During this time period, African-American clergy organized the Union of Black Episcopalians to achieve full inclusion of African Americans at all levels of the Episcopal Church. {{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004|p=137-8}}The liberal policies of Presiding Bishop Hines and the general conventions of 1967 and 1969 led to a conservative reaction. Facing declining membership and a one million dollar budget cut, the Special Program became an easy target for conservatives, who succeeded in drastically reducing the financial support for the program in 1970. It was finally ended in 1973 with little protest. A year later, Hines was succeeded by John M. Allin, the Bishop of Mississippi and a conservative.{{sfn|Hein|Shattuck|2004|p=138}}The first women were admitted as delegates to the church's general convention in 1970.WEB,weblink News Coverage from the 75th General Convention of the Episcopal Church,, 2010-11-28,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-01-17, dead, In 1975, Vaughan Booker, who confessed to the murder of his wife and was sentenced to life in prison, was ordained to the diaconate in Graterford State Prison's chapel in Pennsylvania, after having repented of his sins, becoming a symbol of redemption and atonement.JOURNAL, Rose, Christopher, He's a Walking Contradiction, The Living Church, 1995-02-26, 210, 9,weblink 11, {{sfn|Frum|2000|p=17}}

    Recent history

    In recent decades, the Episcopal Church, like other mainline churches, has experienced a decline in membership as well as internal controversy over women's ordination and the place of homosexuals in the church. The 1976 General Convention also passed a resolution calling for an end to apartheid in South Africa and in 1985 called for "dioceses, institutions, and agencies" to create equal opportunity employment and affirmative action policies to address any potential "racial inequities" in clergy placement. Because of these and other controversial issues including abortion, individual members and clergy can and do frequently disagree with the stated position of the church's leadership. In January 2016, the Anglican Primates Meeting at Canterbury decided that in response to the "distance" caused by what it called "unilateral action on matters of doctrine without catholic unity", "for a period of three years, The Episcopal Church [would neither] represent [the Communion] on ecumenical and interfaith bodies… [nor] take part in decision making on any issues pertaining to doctrine or polity."WEB,weblink Statement from Primates 2016,

    Revised prayer book

    In 1976, the General Convention adopted a new prayer book, which was a substantial revision and modernization of the previous 1928 edition. It incorporated many principles of the Roman Catholic Church's liturgical movement, which had been discussed at Vatican II. This version was adopted as the official prayer book in 1979 after an initial three-year trial use. Several conservative parishes, however, continued to use the 1928 version.

    Ordination of women

    On July 29, 1974, a group of women known as the Philadelphia Eleven were irregularly ordained as priests in the Episcopal Church by bishops Daniel Corrigan, Robert L. DeWitt, and Edward R. Welles, assisted by Antonio Ramos.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2010-10-19, Episcopal Church Women's Ministries: The Philadelphia 11,, 2008-11-16, On September 7, 1975, four more women (the "Washington Four") were irregularly ordained by retired bishop George W. Barrett.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2011-01-14, Episcopal Church Women's Ministries: The Washington 4,, 2008-11-16, In the wake of the controversy over the ordination of the Philadelphia Eleven, the General Convention permitted the ordination of women in 1976 and recognized the ordinations of the 15 forerunners. The first women were canonically ordained to the priesthood in 1977. The first woman to become a bishop, Barbara Harris, was consecrated on February 11, 1989.WEB,weblink Office of Black Ministries,, 2009-08-08, 2014-07-26, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2009, At the same time, there was still tolerance for those dioceses who opposed women's ordination. In 1994, the General Convention affirmed that there was value in the theological position that women should not be ordained. In 1997, however, the General Convention then determined that "the canons regarding the ordination, licensing, and deployment of women are mandatory" and required noncompliant dioceses to issue status reports on their progress towards full compliance.The Archives of the Episcopal Church, Acts of Convention: Resolution #1997-A053, Implement Mandatory Rights of Women Clergy under Canon Law. Retrieved 2008-10-31.In 2006, the General Convention elected Katharine Jefferts Schori as Presiding Bishop. She is the first and, currently, the only woman to become a primate in the Anglican Communion. Schori's election was controversial in the wider Anglican Communion because not all of the communion recognizes the ordination of women.WEB,weblink Episcopal Diocese of Quincy seeks alternative oversight,, September 19, 2006, 2008-11-16, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 12, 2008, At the time of the formation of the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA), three U.S. dioceses did not ordain women as priests or bishops: San Joaquin, Quincy, and Fort Worth. Following the departures of their conservative majorities, all three dioceses now ordain women. With the October 16, 2010, ordination of Margaret Lee, in the Peoria-based Diocese of Quincy, Illinois, women have been ordained as priests in all 110 dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States.WEB,weblink Last Episcopal Holdout Ordains Female Priest,, 2014-08-12,

    Affirmation of LGBT people

    The Episcopal Church affirmed at the 1976 General Convention that homosexuals are "children of God" who deserve acceptance and pastoral care from the church and equal protection under the law. The first openly gay person ordained as a priest was Ellen Barrett in 1977.NEWS,weblink Openly Gay Priest Ordained in Jersey, The New York Times, Mireya, Navarro, 1989-12-17, Despite such an affirmation of gay rights, the General Convention affirmed in 1991 that "physical sexual expression" is only appropriate within the monogamous lifelong "union of husband and wife".WEB,weblink Acts of Convention: Resolution # 1991-A104,, 2014-07-26, (File:GeneRobinson.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Gene Robinson in 2013)The church elected its first openly gay bishop, Gene Robinson, in June 2003.{{sfn|Adams|2006}} News of Robinson's election caused a crisis in both the American church and the wider Anglican Communion. In October 2003, Anglican primates (the heads of the Anglican Communion's 38 member churches) convened an emergency meeting. The meeting's final communiqué included the warning that if Robinson's consecration proceeded, it would "tear the fabric of the communion at its deepest level".WEB,weblink ANGLICAN COMMUNION NEWS SERVICE,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2003, The news of his ordination caused such an outrage that during the ceremony, at which his long-time partner was present, Robinson was forced to wear a bullet-proof vest beneath his vestments, and he also received numerous death threats following his installation as bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of New Hampshire.In 2009, the General Convention charged the Standing Commission on Liturgy and Music to develop theological and liturgical resources for same-sex blessings and report back to the General Convention in 2012. It also gave bishops an option to provide "generous pastoral support", especially where civil authorities have legalized same-gender marriage, civil unions, or domestic partnerships.WEB,weblink Resolution C056: Liturgies for Blessings, 76th General Convention Legislation,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2012, On July 14, 2009, the Episcopal Church's House of Bishops voted that "any ordained ministry" is open to gay men and lesbians. The New York Times said the move was "likely to send shockwaves through the Anglican Communion". This vote ended a moratorium on ordaining gay bishops passed in 2006 and passed in spite of Archbishop Rowan Williams's personal call at the start of the convention that, "I hope and pray that there won't be decisions in the coming days that will push us further apart."NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Episcopal Vote Reopens a Door to Gay Bishops, Laurie, Goodstein, 2009-07-15, 2010-05-02, On July 10, 2012, the Episcopal Church approved an official liturgy for the blessing of same-sex relationships. This liturgy was not a marriage rite, but the blessing included an exchange of vows and the couple's agreement to enter into a lifelong committed relationship.WEB,weblink Episcopal Church Approves Gay Couples' Same-Sex Blessings, Huffington Post, 10 July 2012, 19 May 2016, On June 29, 2015, at the 78th General Convention of the Episcopal Church, a resolution removing the definition of marriage as being between one man and one woman was passed by the House of Bishops with 129 in favor, 26 against, and 5 abstaining.WEB,weblink The Tablet - News,, The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, expressed "deep concern" over the ruling.NEWS,weblink Anglican Head Expresses Concern About Episcopal Vote on Gay Marriage, Grundy, Trevor, 2 July 2015, Washington Post, 19 January 2016, In 2016, Anglican leaders temporarily suspended the Episcopal Church from key positions in their global fellowship in response to the church changing its canons on marriage.WEB,weblink Health Index, ABC, News, WEB,weblink PRIMATES MEETING OUTCOME: Episcopal Church suspended from full participation in Anglican Communion - Premier, Premier, 1 February 2017,

    Separations from the church

    File:ECUSA South Carolina.png|thumb|Many members and parishes of the historic Diocese of South Carolina left the Episcopal Church in 2012, eventually becoming a diocese of the Anglican Church in North AmericaAnglican Church in North AmericaFollowing the ordination of Bp. Gene Robinson in 2003, some members of a number of congregations left the Episcopal Church.NEWS,weblink Conservative worshipers prepare for their exodus, Helfand, Duke, October 10, 2009, The Los Angeles Times, December 26, 2018, For example, in Cleveland, Ohio, four parishes “with about 1,300 active members, decided to leave the U.S. church and the local diocese because of 'divergent understandings of the authority of scripture and traditional Christian teaching.’” NEWS,weblink Four Episcopal congregations leave U.S. church over gay bishop, Associated Press, November 10, 2005, Cleveland 19 News, December 26, 2018, Four dioceses also voted to leave the Church: Pittsburgh, Quincy, Fort Worth, and San Joaquin. Their stated reasons included those expressed by the Pittsburgh diocese, which complained the church had been “hijacked” by liberal bishops.NEWS,weblink Pittsburgh Episcopal Diocese Votes to Leave the Church, Hamill, Sean D., November 3, 2007, The New York Times, December 26, 2018, A few years later, in 2012, the Diocese of South Carolina voted to withdraw. The Episcopal Church did not acknowledge any of the purported diocesan withdrawals, stating that under canon law an Episcopal diocese cannot withdraw itself from the larger Episcopal Church. In a "Pastoral Letter" to the South Carolina diocese, Presiding Bishop Schori wrote that "While some leaders have expressed a desire to leave The Episcopal Church, the Diocese has not left. It cannot, by its own action. The alteration, dissolution, or departure of a diocese of The Episcopal Church requires the consent of General Convention, which has not been consulted."Episcopal News Service (November 15, 2012). "Presiding Bishop's Pastoral Letter to Episcopalians in South Carolina". She further wrote that the South Carolina diocese "continues to be a constituent part of The Episcopal Church, even if a number of its leaders have departed. If it becomes fully evident that those former leaders have, indeed, fully severed their ties with The Episcopal Church, new leaders will be elected and installed by action of a Diocesan Convention recognized by the wider Episcopal Church, in accordance with our Constitution and Canons."Many departing members joined the Continuing Anglican movement or advocated Anglican realignment, claiming alignment with overseas Anglican provinces including the Anglican Province of the Southern Cone of America and the Church of Nigeria.WEB,weblink Episcopal Church Takes Action Against the Bishop and Diocese of SC, Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina, 2013-06-25,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2014, dead, mdy-all, They formed the Anglican Church in North America which as of 2017 claimed over 1,000 congregations and 134,000 members.WEB,weblink Anglican Church in North America,, 2014-07-26, Episcopal Church leaders, particularly former Presiding Bishop Katharine Jefferts Schori, responded by taking a firm stance against the separatists. Litigation between the Church and departing dioceses and parishes cost all parties tens of millions of dollars; one estimate has the Episcopal Church spending over $42 million and separatists roughly $18 million, for a total of over $60 million in court costs.WEB,weblink What Is ECUSA Spending on Lawsuits? (Updated for General Convention 2015), Anglican Ink, A.S. Haley, 1 June 2015, 1 June 2015, Litigation has largely centered around church properties. Episcopal leadership asserts that, as a hierarchical church, they retain ownership of parish property when parishoners leave. Departing groups, in contrast, assert that they should be able to retain ownership of individual church facilities and diocesan property.NEWS,weblink Twenty-First Century Excommunication, 29 October 2012, The Wall Street Journal, {{sfn|Reeder|2006}}

    Church property disputes

    In a letter to the House of Bishops during summer 2009, Presiding Bishop Katharine Jefferts Schori instructed local dioceses not to sell parish property to departing groups. She stated: "We do not make settlements that encourage religious bodies who seek to replace The Episcopal Church".WEB, Harmon, Kendall,weblink TitusOneNine - The Presiding Bishop Writes the House of Bishops,, 2009-08-03, 2014-02-04, Before Schori took this stand, prior Bishops had treated parish property disputes as internal diocesan matters that are "not subject to the review or oversight of the presiding bishop". One example was when then-Presiding Bishop Frank Griswold told the Diocese of Western Louisiana on May 11, 2006 that the national church involved itself in parish property disputes only upon invitation of the local bishop and diocesan standing committees.NEWS, Presiding Bishop steps in to prevent church sales, George, Conger,weblink Church of England Newspaper, 2009-08-07, 7, 24 November 2012, Schori's letter stated that her firm stance was the consensus of the Council of Advice and expressed hope that "those who have departed can gain clarity about their own identity".After the South Carolina Diocese voted to withdraw, it sued the national Episcopal Church to retain control over its property. The departing diocese initially won, but mostly lost on appeal to the South Carolina Supreme Court. Seven parishes affiliated with the departing group were allowed to keep their property. All other church and diocesan property in the lawsuit remained with the Episcopal Church and its affiliated local diocese.WEB,weblink State Supreme Court rules The Episcopal Church can reclaim 29 properties from breakaway parishes, Jennifer Berry Hawes and Adam Parker,, The name "Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina" and related names and marks were initially claimed by the departing group. In 2019, a federal court ruled that they legally belonged to the Episcopal Church and its South Carolina affiliates.


    File:St. Mark's Cathedral, Shreveport, LA IMG 2361.JPG|thumb|St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral in Shreveport, LouisianaLouisiana{{As of|2018}}, the Episcopal Church reports 1,835,931 baptized members. The majority of members are in the United States, where the Church has 1,676,349 members. Outside of the U.S. the Church has 159,582. Total average Sunday attendance (ASA) for 2018 was 562,529 (533,206 in the U.S. and 29,323 outside the U.S.), a decrease of 24.7% percent from 2008.{{Citation|url=|title=Statistical Totals for the Episcopal Church by Province and Diocese: 2012-2013|format=PDF|publisher=The Episcopal Church|page=5|publication-date=2014|accessdate=October 27, 2014|ref=ref2012-13StatTotals |archive-url= |archive-date=28 October 2014}}According to ARIS/Barna, 3.5 million Americans self–identified as Episcopalians, highlighting "a gap between those who are affiliated with the church (on membership rolls), versus those who self-identify [as Episcopalians]".WEB, Largest denominations/denominational families in U.S.,weblink, ARIS/Barna, February 11, 2016, [I]n 2001, 3.5 million American adults said they were Episcopalians. But in 2000 the Episcopal Church reported a total constituency of 2,317,794 people, including fully-committed [sic] members and inclusive adherents. This signifies a gap between those who are affiliated with the church (on membership rolls), versus those who self-identify with a particular denominational label but in most cases have no practical connection to the denomination and do not attend services., Church Pension Group also cited having 3.5 million adherents in 2002.WEB,weblink Will There Be a Clergy Shortage?, Price, Matthew J, 2002,, April 16, 2018, More recently, in 2014, Pew Research found that approximately 1.2 percent of 245 million U.S adults, around 3 million people, self–identified as mainline Episcopalian/Anglican.According to data collected in 2000, the District of Columbia, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Virginia have the highest rates of adherents per capita, and states along the East Coast generally have a higher number of adherents per capita than in other parts of the country.WEB,weblink Episcopal Church—Rates of Adherence Per 1000 Population (2000), The Association of Religion Data Archives, 7 July 2012, New York was the state with the largest total number of adherents, over 200,000.WEB, Episcopal Church States (2000),weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives, 7 July 2012, Congregational "adherents" include all full members, their children, and others who regularly attend services., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2010, In 2013, the Episcopal Diocese of Haiti was the largest single diocese, with 84,301 baptized members, which constitute slightly over half of the church's foreign membership.According to the latest statistics U.S. membership dropped 2.7 percent from a reported 1,866,758 members in 2013 to 1,745,156 in 2016, a loss of 121,602 persons. Attendance took an even steeper hit, with the average number of Sunday worshipers dropping from 623,691 in 2013 to 570,454 in 2016, a decline of 53,237 persons in the pews, down 8.5 percent. Congregations dropped to 6,473.WEB,weblink Table of Statistics of the Episcopal Church, The Episcopal Church experienced notable growth in the first half of the 20th century, but like many mainline churches, it has had a decline in membership in more recent decades.WEB,weblink Mainline Protestant churches no longer dominate, 30 March 2005,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2007, Membership grew from 1.1 million members in 1925 to a peak of over 3.4 million members in the mid-1960s.WEB,weblink Data from the National Council of Churches' Historic Archive CD and Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches,, Between 1970 and 1990, membership declined from about 3.2 million to about 2.4 million. Once changes in how membership is counted are taken into consideration, the Episcopal Church's membership numbers were broadly flat throughout the 1990s, with a slight growth in the first years of the 21st century.WEB,weblink Table of Statistics of the Episcopal Church,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2011, WEB,weblink 2007-10-25, Is the Episcopal Church Growing (or Declining)? by C. Kirk Hadaway Director of Research, The Episcopal Church Center,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2011, WEB,weblink Q&A Context, analysis on Church membership statistics, 2007-10-25,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-10-13, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Episcopal Fast Facts: 2005, 2007-10-25, October 28, 2008, WEB,weblink Text Summary of Episcopal Statistics 2005,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2008, A loss of 115,000 members was reported for the years 2003–05.WEB, Articles by John Dart,weblink Episcopal membership loss 'precipitous', The Christian Century, 2006-11-14, 2014-07-26, Some theories about the decline in membership include a failure to sufficiently reach beyond ethnic barriers in an increasingly diverse society, and the low fertility rates prevailing among the predominant ethnic groups traditionally belonging to the church. In 1965, there were 880,000 children in Episcopal Sunday School programs. By 2001, the number had declined to 297,000.WEB, Louie Crew,weblink Who Caused the Decline in Membership in the Episcopal Church?,, 1996-02-14, 2012-04-23,


    In the twentieth century, Episcopalians tended to be wealthier and more educated (having more graduate and postgraduate degrees per capita) than most other religious groups in the United States,Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity, 1975 154+ and were disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business,JOURNAL, Andrew, Hacker, Liberal Democracy and Social Control, American Political Science Review, 1957, 51, 4, 1009–1026 [p. 1011], 1952449, law, and politics.BOOK, Baltzell, The Protestant Establishment, 1964, 9, {{Update inline|reason=Over half of these sources are more than 30 years old: Ayers 1981, Allen 1975, Hacker 1957, Baltzell 1964. |date=July 2016}}In the 1970s, a Fortune magazine study found one-in-five of the country's largest businesses and one-in-three of its largest banks was run by an Episcopalian.NEWS, B. Drummond, Jr., Ayres,weblink The Episcopalians: An American Elite with Roots Going Back to Jamestown, New York Times, 1981-04-28, 2012-08-17, {{Update inline|reason=That was decades ago, what about now?|date=July 2016}} Numbers of the most wealthy and affluent American families such as the Vanderbilts, Astors, Whitneys, Morgans and Harrimans are Episcopalians. The Episcopal Church also has the highest number of graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita (56%)WEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, May 12, 2015, of any other Christian denomination in the United States,{{Citation|url=|title=US Religious Landscape Survey: Diverse and Dynamic|format=PDF|publisher=The Pew Forum|page=85|publication-date=February 2008|accessdate=2012-09-17|ref=refEducationLevel}} as well as the most high-income earners.NEWS,weblink Faith, Education and Income, The New York Times, May 13, 2011, David, Leonhardt, 2011-05-13, According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Episcopalians ranked as the third wealthiest religious group in the United States, with 35% of Episcopalians living in households with incomes of at least $100,000.WEB,weblink How income varies among U.S. religious groups, 11 October 2016,


    The Episcopal Church is governed according to episcopal polity with its own system of canon law. This means that the church is organized into dioceses led by bishops in consultation with representative bodies. It is a unitary body, in that the power of the General Convention is not limited by the individual dioceses. The church has, however, a highly decentralized structure and characteristics of a confederation.{{sfn|Podmore|2008|p=130}}

    Parishes and dioceses

    {{Further|Dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America}}At the local level, there are 6,447 Episcopal congregations, each of which elects a vestry or bishop's committee. Subject to the approval of its diocesan bishop, the vestry of each parish elects a priest, called the rector, who has spiritual jurisdiction in the parish and selects assistant clergy, both deacons and priests. (There is a difference between vestry and clergy elections – clergy are ordained members usually selected from outside the parish, whereas any member in good standing of a parish is eligible to serve on the vestry.) The diocesan bishop, however, appoints the clergy for all missions and may choose to do so for non-self-supporting parishes.The middle judicatory consists of a diocese headed by a bishop who is assisted by a standing committee.WEB,weblink Governance Documents of the Church - The Archives of the Episcopal Church, The bishop and standing committee are elected by the diocesan convention whose members are selected by the congregations. The election of a bishop requires the consent of a majority of standing committees and diocesan bishops.WEB,weblink Archived copy, February 4, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink April 18, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Conventions meet annually to consider legislation (such as revisions to the diocesan constitution and canons) and speak for the diocese. Dioceses are organized into nine provinces. Each province has a synod and a mission budget, but it has no authority over its member dioceses.There are 110 dioceses in the United States, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Venezuela and the Virgin Islands. The Convocation of Episcopal Churches in Europe and the Navajoland Area Mission are jurisdictions similar to a diocese.WEB, Episcopal Church USA, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,weblink February 28, 2015, BOOK, F. L. Cross, E. A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd, Oxford University Press, 13 March 1997, USA, 554, 0-19-211655-X,weblink WEB, Episcopal Church, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, May 2001,weblink 2007-09-09,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-12-05, dead, The Presiding Bishop is one of three Anglican primates who together exercise metropolitan jurisdiction over the Episcopal Church of Cuba, which is an extraprovincial diocese in the Anglican Communion.WEB,weblink The Anglican Communion Official Website: Iglesia Episcopal de Cuba,, 2008-11-16,

    National church

    The Washington National Cathedral is the seat of the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church as well as the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington.File:DCA 08 2009 National Cathedral 6981.JPG|thumb|The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the City and Diocese of Washington, located in Washington, D.C., is operated under the more familiar name of Washington National CathedralWashington National CathedralThe highest legislative body of the Episcopal Church is the triennial General Convention, consisting of the House of Deputies and the House of Bishops. All active (whether diocesan, coadjutor, suffragan, or assistant) and retired bishops make up the over 300 members of the House of Bishops. Diocesan conventions elect over 800 representatives (each diocese elects four laity and four clergy) to the House of Deputies. The House of Deputies elects a president and vice-president to preside at meetings. General Convention enacts two types of legislation. The first type is the rules by which the church is governed as contained in the Constitution and Canons; the second type are broad guidelines on church policy called resolutions.{{sfn|Swatos|2005|p=212}} Either house may propose legislation.WEB,weblink Archived copy, February 4, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2012, dead, mdy-all, The House of Deputies only meets as a full body once every three years; however, the House of Bishops meets regularly throughout the triennium between conventions.The real work of General Convention is done by interim bodies, the most powerful being the Executive Council, which oversees the work of the national church during the triennium. The council has 40 members; 20 are directly elected by the General Convention, 18 are elected by the nine provinces, and the Presiding Bishop and President of the House of Deputies are ex officio members. Other interim bodies include a number of standing commissions which study and draft policy proposals for consideration and report back to General Convention. Each standing commission consists of three bishops, three priests or deacons, and six laypersons. Bishops are appointed by the Presiding Bishop while the other clergy and laypersons are appointed by the president of the House of Deputies.The Presiding Bishop is elected from and by the House of Bishops and confirmed by the House of Deputies for a nine-year term.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Church Governance, October 31, 2010, The Presiding Bishop is the chief pastor and primate of the Episcopal Church and is charged with providing leadership in the development of the Church's program as well as speaking on behalf of the Church.The Episcopal Church (2009), Constitution and Canons, Title I Canon 2. The Presiding Bishop does not possess a territorial see; since the 1970s, however, the Presiding Bishop has enjoyed extraordinary jurisdiction (metropolitical authority) and has authority to visit dioceses for sacramental and preaching ministry, for consulting bishops, and for related purposes.{{sfn|Swatos|2005|p=202}} The Presiding Bishop chairs the House of Bishops as well as the Executive Council of the General Convention. In addition, the Presiding Bishop directs the Episcopal Church Center, the national administrative headquarters of the denomination. Located at 815 Second Avenue, New York City, New York, the center is often referred to by Episcopalians simply as "815".WEB,weblink What's Happening at 815?,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-07-09, A system of ecclesiastical courts is provided for under Title IV of the canons of General Convention. These courts are empowered to discipline and depose deacons, priests, and bishops.

    Worship and liturgy

    {{More citations needed section|date=March 2016}}{{Contradict|section|about=the prevalence of high and broad church liturgy|date=October 2016}}File:Procession at St. Marys Episcopal Cathedral.jpg|thumb|A procession in St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Memphis, TennesseeTennesseeVarying styles and degrees of liturgical practice prevail within the church, including: traditional hymns and anthems, more modern religious music, Anglican chant, liturgical dance, charismatic prayer, and vested clergy. As varied as services can be, the central binding aspect is the Book of Common Prayer or supplemental liturgies. Most Episcopal services are similar in structure and liturgy to the Roman Catholic Church, as the Eucharist is the central focus of the service (sometimes called Mass in High Church and some Broad Church circles). Generally, Episcopal churches have retained features such as the altar rail, the inclusion or exclusion of which does not elicit much controversy, but usually celebrate in the versus populum orientation.Often a congregation or a particular service will be referred to as Low Church or High Church. In theory:
    • High Church, especially the very high Anglo-Catholic movement, is ritually inclined towards the use of incense, formal hymns, and a higher degree of ceremony such as ad orientem in relation to the priest and altar. In addition to clergy vesting in albs, stoles, and chasubles, the lay assistants may also be vested in cassock and surplice. The sung Eucharist tends to be emphasized in High Church congregations, with Anglo-Catholic congregations and celebrants using sung services almost exclusively. Marian devotion is sometimes seen in the Anglo-Catholic and some High Church parishes.
    • Low Church is simpler and may incorporate other elements such as informal praise and worship music. "Low" parishes tend towards a more "traditional Protestant" outlook with its emphasis of Biblical revelation over symbolism. A few "low" parishes even subscribe to traditional Evangelical theology (see Evangelical Anglicanism). The spoken Eucharist tends to be emphasized in Low Church congregations. Altar rails may be omitted in this type.
    • Broad Church indicates a middle ground. These parishes are the most common within The Episcopal Church. However, unlike the Anglican Church in England, most Episcopal 'broad church' parishes make use of a catholic liturgy that includes eucharistic vestments, chant, and a high view of the sacraments, even if the liturgy is not as solemn or lacks some of the other accoutrements typical of Anglo-Catholic parishes. Unlike mainstream Catholic Churches, the altar rail has usually been retained and communion is usually served kneeling at the altar rail similar to a Tridentine Mass, because the Episcopal Church teaches, through its Book of Common Prayer, a theologically high view of the Church and its sacraments, even if not all parishes carry this out liturgically.WEB,weblink Grace Church in Newark,
    File:High altar at St. Mary's Episcopal Church..JPG|left|thumb|High altar of an Anglo-Catholic church ad orientemad orientemA majority of Episcopal services could be considered to be "High Church" while still falling somewhat short of a typical Anglo-Catholic "very" high church service. In contrast, "Low Church" services are somewhat rarer. However, while some Episcopalians refer to their churches by these labels, often there is overlapping, and the basic rites do not greatly differ. There are also variations that blend elements of all three and have their own unique features, such as New England Episcopal churches, which have elements drawn from Puritan practices, combining the traditions of "high church" with the simplicity of "low church". Typical parish worship features Bible readings from the Old Testament as well as from both the Epistles and the Gospels of the New Testament. Some latitude in selecting Bible readings is allowed, but every service includes at least a passage from one of the Gospels, as well as the praying of the Lord's Prayer.In the Eucharist or Holy Communion service, the Book of Common Prayer specifies that bread and wine are consecrated for consumption by the people. A valid communion is made in either species, so those wishing for whatever reason to avoid alcohol can decline the cup and still make a valid communion. A Eucharist can be part of a wedding to celebrate a sacramental marriage and of a funeral as a thank offering (sacrifice) to God and for the comfort of the mourners.The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Catholic and Orthodox traditions. There are explicit references in the 1979 Book of Common Prayer to invoking the aid of the prophets, patriarchs, saints, martyrs and the Virgin Mary as in an optional prayer in the committal at a funeral, p. 504. In general Anglicans pray with and for the saints in the fellowship of the saints, not to them, although their intercessions may be requested. Those inclined to the Anglo-Catholic traditions may explicitly invoke saints as intercessors in prayer.

    Book of Common Prayer

    File:Book of Common Prayers in a Church in Sagda.jpg|thumb|Book of Common Prayer in the Church of Saint Mary, Sagada, Mountain Province, Philippines. The Episcopal Church of the PhilippinesEpiscopal Church of the Philippines{{More citations needed section|date=April 2015}}The Episcopal Church publishes its own Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (similar to other Anglican prayer books), containing most of the worship services (or liturgies) used in the Episcopal Church. Because of its widespread use in the church, the BCP is both a reflection and source of theology for Episcopalians.The full name of the BCP is: The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church Together with The Psalter or Psalms of David According to the use of The Episcopal Church.Previous American BCPs were issued in 1789, 1892, and 1928. A proposed BCP was issued in 1786 but not adopted. The BCP is in the public domain; however, any new revisions of the BCP are copyrighted until they are approved by the General Convention, after which they are placed in the public domain.The current edition dates from 1979 and is marked by language modernization and, in returning to ancient Christian tradition, a restoration of the Eucharist as the central liturgy of the church. The 1979 version reflects the theological and worship changes of the ecumenical reforms of the 1960s and 1970s. On the whole, the revision changed the theological emphasis of the church to be more Catholic in nature. In 1979, the Convention adopted the revision as the "official" BCP and required churches using the previous 1928 prayer book to also use the new revision. There was enough strife in implementing and adopting the 1979 BCP that an apology was issued at the 2000 General ConventionThe Archives of the Episcopal Church, Acts of Convention: Resolution #2000-B034, Apologize to Those Offended During Liturgical Transition to the 1979 Book of Common Prayer. Retrieved 2008-10-31. to any who were "offended or alienated during the time of liturgical transition to the 1979 Book of Common Prayer". The 2000 General Convention also authorized the occasional use of some parts of the 1928 book, under the direction of the bishop.The 1979 edition contains a provision for the use of "traditional" (Elizabethan) language under various circumstances not directly provided for in the book, and the Anglican Service Book was produced accordingly, as "a traditional language adaptation of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer together with the Psalter or Psalms of David and Additional Devotions".

    Belief and practice

    (File:ConsecrationSparks.jpg|thumb|right|The episcopal consecration of the 8th bishop of Northern Indiana in 2016 by the laying on of hands){{See also|Anglicanism|Anglican doctrine}}The center of Episcopal teaching is the life and resurrection of Jesus Christ.WEB,weblink A Basic Introduction to Christianity,weblink" title="">weblink August 18, 2010, The Doctrine of the Episcopal Church is found in the Canon of Holy Scripture as understood in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds and in the sacramental rites, the Ordinal and Catechism of the Book of Common Prayer.BOOK, The Archives of the Episcopal Church, Constitution and Canons, 132–133,weblink 5 January 2019, Some of these teachings include: The full catechism is included in the Book of Common Prayer and is posted on the Episcopal website.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2011-06-11, Visitors' Center,, 2008-11-16, In practice, not all Episcopalians hold all of these beliefs, but ordained clergy are required to "solemnly engage to conform" to this doctrine.BOOK, The Book of Common Prayer, Church Publishing, Inc., New York, 513, The Episcopal Church follows the via media or "middle way" between Protestant and Roman Catholic doctrine and practices: that is both Catholic and Reformed. Although many Episcopalians identify with this concept, those whose convictions lean toward either evangelicalism or Anglo-Catholicism may not.WEB,weblink What makes us Anglican? Hallmarks of the Episcopal Church,, 2008-11-16,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-06-12, A broad spectrum of theological views is represented within the Episcopal Church. Some Episcopal members or theologians hold evangelical positions, affirming the authority of scripture over all. The Episcopal Church website glossary defines the sources of authority as a balance between scripture, tradition, and reason. These three are characterized as a "three-legged stool" which will topple if any one overbalances the other. It also notesweblink" title="">Authority, Sources of (in Anglicanism) on the Episcopal Church site, accessed on April 19, 2007, which in turn credits Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY, from An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians, Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.This balance of scripture, tradition and reason is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a 16th-century apologist. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine and things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason.weblink" title="">Anglican Listening on the Episcopal Church site goes into detail on how scripture, tradition, and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way". Noting the role of personal experience in Christian life, some Episcopalians have advocated following the example of the Wesleyan Quadrilateral of Methodist theology by thinking in terms of a "Fourth Leg" of "experience". This understanding is highly dependent on the work of Friedrich Schleiermacher.A public example of this struggle between different Christian positions in the church has been the 2003 consecration of Gene Robinson, an openly gay man living with a long-term partner. The acceptance/rejection of his consecration is motivated by different views on the understanding of scripture.As stated in section 2.16 of weblink" title="">To Set Our Hope On Christ (PDF), because "the biblical writers [...] write at different times and in different circumstances, they do not always agree with one another. [...] For example, it is helpful to know that when Ezra (chapter 10) commands the men of Israel to divorce their wives, it is because they had married foreign wives, who are seen to be a danger to Israel in exile. But there is another belief about foreign wives in the Book of Ruth, probably written at about the same time. [...] Today, in some situations, it may be faithful to follow Ezra, while in most situations it is faithful to follow Ruth." This struggle has some members concerned that the church may not continue its relationship with the larger Anglican Church. Others, however, view this pluralism as an asset, allowing a place for both sides to balance each other.Comedian and Episcopalian Robin Williams once described the Episcopal faith (and, in a performance in London, specifically the Church of England) as "Catholic Lite – same rituals, half the guilt".Robin Williams: Live on Broadway

    Social positions

    Economic issues

    In 1991, the church's general convention recommended parity in pay and benefits between clergy and lay employees in equivalent positions.General Convention Resolution 1991-D066 Support a Policy of Pay Equity in the Church and SocietySeveral times between 1979 and 2003, the convention expressed concern over affordable housing and supported work to provide affordable housing.General Convention Resolution 2003-D040 Reaffirm Commitment to Provide Affordable Housing for the PoorIn 1982 and 1997, the convention reaffirmed the church's commitment to eradicating poverty and malnutrition, and challenged parishes to increase ministries to the poor.General Convention Resolution 1997-D030 Challenge Congregations to Establish Direct Ministries to the PoorThe convention urged the church in 1997 and 2000 to promote living wages for all.General Convention Resolution 1997-D082 Urge Church-wide Promotion of the Living WageGeneral Convention Resolution 2000-A081 Urge Bishops and Diocesan Leaders to Support the National Implementation of a Just WageIn 2003, the convention urged U.S. legislators to raise the national minimum wage, and to establish a living wage with health benefits as the national standard.General Convention Resolution 2003-A130 Support the Establishment of a Living WageGeneral Convention Resolution 2003-C030 Urge Legislation to Raise the Federal Minimum Wage

    Marriage of same-sex couples

    At its 2015 triennial general convention, the church adopted "canonical and liturgical changes to provide marriage equality for Episcopalians". The canonical change eliminated "language defining marriage as between a man and a woman". The "two new marriage rites" contain language that allows "them to be used by same-sex or opposite-sex couples". The blessing of same-sex relationships is not uniform throughout the Episcopal Church. Following the 2015 general convention, bishops were able to determine whether churches and priests within their dioceses were permitted to use the new liturgies. Bishops who did not permit their use were to connect same-sex couples to a diocese where the liturgies were allowed.WEB,weblink The Episcopal Church approves religious weddings for gay couples after controversial debate, Washington Post, 2016-12-11, However, following the 2018 general convention, resolution B012 was amended to "make provision for all couples asking to be married in this church to have access to these liturgies". This effectually granted all churches and clergy, with or without the support of their bishop, the ability to perform same-sex marriages.WEB,weblink Some same-sex couples will still face hurdles accessing church’s marriage rites, The Episcopal Church, 2018-12-30, The church also opposes any state or federal constitutional amendments designed to prohibit the marriages of same-sex couples."Religious Groups' Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage". Pew Research Center. December 7, 2012. Accessed October 28, 2014.

    Ordination of LGBT-identified individuals

    Openly gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals are eligible to be ordained.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Episcopalians in Va. Divided Over Decision Allowing Ordination of Gay Bishops, William, Wan, 2009-07-16, 2010-05-02, WEB,weblink Episcopal Church Takes Bold Step On Transgender Priests, 2012-07-09, The Huffington Post, 2016-05-01,

    Racial equality

    In 1861, a pamphlet entitled, A Scriptural, Ecclesiastical, and Historical View of Slavery, written by John Henry Hopkins, attempted to justify slavery based on the New Testament and gave a clear insight into the Episcopal Church's involvement in slavery. Bishop Hopkins' Letter on Slavery Ripped Up and his Misuse of the Sacred Scriptures Exposed, written by G.W. Hyer in 1863, opposed the points mentioned in Hopkins' pamphlet and revealed a startling divide in the Episcopal Church over the issue of slavery.G.W. Hyer, Bishop Hopkins' Letter on Slavery Ripped up and His Misuse of the Sacred Scriptures Exposed by a Clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church (New York: John F. Trow, 1863). In 1991, the General Convention declared "the practice of racism is sin,"{{Citation|author=The 70th General Convention of the Episcopal Church|publisher=The Archives of the Episcopal Church|url=|work=Acts of Convention|title=Resolution #1991-B051, Call for the Removal of Racism from the Life of the Nation|accessdate=2008-10-31}} and in 2006, a unanimous House of Bishops endorsed Resolution A123 apologizing for complicity in the institution of slavery, and silence over "Jim Crow" laws, segregation, and racial discrimination.WEB,weblink Bishops Endorse Apology for Slavery Complicity,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-10-13, dead, In 2018, following the white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Presiding Bishop Michael B. Curry said that "the stain of bigotry has once again covered our land" and called on Episcopalians to choose "organized love intent on creating God's beloved community on Earth" rather than hate.NEWS,weblink Presiding Bishop reflects on Charlottesville and its aftermath, 2017-08-17, Episcopal News Service, 2018-09-05,


    The Church does not approve of the use of abortion as a means of birth control or family planning, but considers it a woman's right to receive one."Religious Groups' Official Positions on Abortion". Pew Research Center. January 16, 2013. Accessed October 28, 2014. The Church opposes any legislation which would prevent women from obtaining abortions or information about abortions.WEB,weblink The Archives of the Episcopal Church, The Acts of Convention: Resolution #1994-A054, 21 June 2016,


    The Episcopal Church disapproves of assisted suicide and other forms of euthanasia, but does teach that it is permissible to withdraw medical treatment, such as artificial nutrition and hydration, when the burden of such treatment outweighs its benefits to an individual."Religious Groups' Views on End-of-Life Issues". Pew Research Center. November 21, 2013. Accessed October 28, 2014.

    Agencies and programs

    Society for the Increase of the Ministry (SIM)

    SIM is the only organization raising funds on a national basis for Episcopal seminarian support. SIM's founding purpose in 1857 – "to find suitable persons for the Episcopal ministry and aid them in acquiring a thorough education". SIM has awarded scholarships to qualified, full-time seminary students.WEB,weblink The Society for the Increase of the Ministry - Investing in the future ordained leaders of The Episcopal Church since 1857, designthemes,,

    Episcopal Relief & Development

    Episcopal Relief & Development is the international relief and development agency of the Episcopal Church of the United States. It helps to rebuild after disasters and aims to empower people by offering lasting solutions that fight poverty, hunger and disease. Episcopal Relief and Development programs focus on alleviating hunger, improving food supply, creating economic opportunities, strengthening communities, promoting health, fighting disease, responding to disasters, and rebuilding communities.WEB,weblink Episcopal Relief & Development,, 2010-11-28,


    There are about 60 trust funds administered by the Episcopal Church which offer scholarships to young people affiliated with the church. Qualifying considerations often relate to historical missionary work of the church among American Indians and African-Americans, as well as work in China and other foreign missions.WEB,weblink Young Adults, The Episcopal Church, August 19, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2011, {{citation |title= Scholarship Trust Funds |url= |format=PDF |access-date=August 19, 2010 |archive-url= |url-status= dead |archive-date=7 November 2011}} There are special programs for both American IndiansWEB, The Indigenous Theological Training Institute, The Episcopal Church,weblink August 19, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 7 November 2011, and African-AmericansWEB, Office of Black Ministries,weblink The Episcopal Church, August 19, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 11 June 2011, interested in training for the ministry.

    Ecumenical relations

    {{More citations needed section|date=April 2015}}Like the other churches of the Anglican Communion, the Episcopal Church has entered into full communion with the Old Catholic Churches of the Union of Utrecht, the Philippine Independent Church, and the Mar Thoma Syrian Church of Malabar. The Episcopal Church is also in a relationship of full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in AmericaWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-11-25, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (2001), Office of Ecumenical & Interreligious Relations of The Episcopal Church, 2001, 2009-10-06, and the Northern and Southern Provinces of the Moravian Church in America.WEB, Schjonberg, Mary Frances, Moravian Church's Southern Province enters full communion with Episcopal Church,weblink Episcopal Life Online, 11 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2011, 10 September 2010, The Episcopal Church entered into a full communion agreement with the Church of Sweden at its General Convention in Salt Lake City on June 28, 2015.The Episcopal Church maintains ecumenical dialogs with the United Methodist Church and the Moravian Church in America, and participates in pan-Anglican dialogs with the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, and the Roman Catholic Church. In 2006 a relation of interim Eucharistic sharing was inaugurated with the United Methodist Church, a step that may ultimately lead to full communion.Historically Anglican churches have had strong ecumenical ties with the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the Episcopal Church particularly with the Russian Orthodox Church, but relations in more recent years have been strained by the ordination of women and the ordination of Gene Robinson to the episcopate. A former relation of full communion with the Polish National Catholic Church (once a part of the Union of Utrecht) was broken off by the PNCC in 1976 over the ordination of women.The Episcopal Church was a founding member of the Consultation on Church Union and participates in its successor, Churches Uniting in Christ. The Episcopal Church is a founding member of the National Council of Churches, the World Council of Churches, and the new Christian Churches Together in the USA. Dioceses and parishes are frequently members of local ecumenical councils as well.

    Historical societies

    There are two historical societies of American Episcopalianism: Historical Society of the Episcopal Church or National Episcopal Historians and Archivists (NEHA).{{citation needed|date=February 2013}}

    Church Publishing

    Church Publishing Incorporated (Church Publishing Inc., CPI) began as the Church Hymnal Corporation in 1918, dedicated initially to publishing a single work, The Hymnal 1918, which still remains in print. It is the official publisher for the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States.Imprints include Church Publishing, Morehouse Publishing (independently founded in 1884) and Seabury Books (the "trade" imprint).WEB,weblink Church Publishing Inc.,, September 30, 2016,

    See also




    BOOK, Adams, Elizabeth, 2006, Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson, Soft Skull Press, Brooklyn, New York, 978-1-933368-22-1, harv
    BOOK, Baltzell, E. Digby, E. Digby Baltzell, 1964, The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America, New York, Random House, harv
    BOOK, Bourgeois, Michael, 2004, All Things Human: Henry Codman Potter and the Social Gospel in the Episcopal Church, Studies in Anglican History, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 978-0-252-02877-9, harv
    BOOK, Butler, Diana Hochstedt, Diana Butler Bass, 1995, Standing Against the Whirlwind: Evangelical Episcopalians in Nineteenth-Century America, Religion in America, New York, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-508542-6, harv
    BOOK, Bell, James B., 2008, A War of Religion: Dissenters, Anglicans, and the American Revolution, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, England, 978-0-230-54297-6, harv
    JOURNAL, Clark, Jennifer, 1994, 'Church of Our Fathers': The Development of the Protestant Episcopal Church Within the Changing Post-Revolutionary Anglo-American Relationship, Journal of Religious History, 18, 1, 27–51, 10.1111/j.1467-9809.1994.tb00225.x
    , harv,
    JOURNAL, Davidson, James D., Pyle, Ralph E., Reyes, David V., 1995, Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930–1992, Social Forces, 74, 1, 157–175, 10.1093/sf/74.1.157, 2580627
    , harv,
    BOOK, Douglas, Ian T., Ian Douglas (bishop), 2005, Anglican Mission in Changing Times: A Brief Institutional History of the Episcopal Church, USA, Roozen, David A., Nieman, James R., Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 188–197, 978-0-8028-2819-4, harv
    BOOK, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, How We Got Here: The '70s, New York City, Basic Books, 978-0-465-04195-4, harv,weblink
    JOURNAL, Hacker, Andrew, 1957, Liberal Democracy and Social Control, American Political Science Review, 51, 4, 1009–1026, 10.2307/1952449, 1952449
    , harv,
    BOOK, Hein, David, Shattuck, Gardiner H, Jr., 2004, The Episcopalians, New York, Church Publishing, 978-0-89869-497-0, harv
    JOURNAL, Mason, Lockert B., 1990, Separation and Reunion of the Episcopal Church, 1860–1865: The Role of Bishop Thomas Atkinson, Anglican and Episcopal History, 59, 3, 345–365, 42610426, harv
    BOOK, Piepkorn, Arthur Carl, 1977, Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada, New York, Harper & Row, 978-0-06-066580-7, harv,weblink
    JOURNAL, Podmore, Colin, 2008, A Tale of Two Churches: The Ecclesiologies of The Episcopal Church and the Church of England Compared, International Journal for the Study of the Christian Church, 8, 2, 124–154, 10.1080/14742250801930822
    , harv,
    JOURNAL, Reeder, Kathleen E., 2006, Whose Church Is It, Anyway? Property Disputes and Episcopal Church Splits, Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, 40, 2, 125–171, harv
    BOOK, Swatos, William H, Jr., 2005, A Primacy of Systems: Confederation, Cooperation, and Communion, Roozen, David A., Nieman, James R., Church, Identity, and Change: Theology and Denominational Structures in Unsettled Times, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 198–226, 978-0-8028-2819-4, harv
    BOOK, Sydnor, William, 1980, Looking at the Episcopal Church, Morehouse Publishing, 978-0-8192-1279-5, harv,weblink
    JOURNAL, Williams, Peter W., 2006, The Gospel of Wealth and the Gospel of Art: Episcopalians and Cultural Philanthropy from the Gilded Age to the Depression, Anglican and Episcopal History, 75, 2, 170–223, 42612970, harv
    BOOK, Zahl, Paul F. M., 1998, The Protestant Face of Anglicanism, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 978-0-8028-4597-9, harv

    Further reading

    • Anglican & Episcopal History—weblink" title="">The Journal of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church (articles, church reviews, and book reviews).
    • Articles on leading Episcopalians, both lay (e.g., George Washington, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frances Perkins) and ordained, in American National Biography. (1999). Edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Also 100 biographical articles in Hein and Shattuck, The Episcopalians: see below.
    • A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Holmes, David L. (1993). Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International.
    • A Dictionary for Episcopalians. Wall, John N. (2000). Boston, MA: Cowley Publications.
    • Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782–1985. Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (1994). New York: Church Hymnal Corporation.
    • Readings from the History of the Episcopal Church. Prichard, Robert W. (Ed.). (1986). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow.
    • The Episcopal Clerical Directory. New York: Church Publishing.
    • An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (Eds.). ([1999]). New York: Church Publishing Incorporated.
    • About the Concordat: 28 Questions about the Agreement between the Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Church of America [i.e. the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America], prepared by the Ecumenical Relations Office of the Episcopal Church. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, [1997?]. 43 p. Without ISBN
    • A Commentary on [the Episcopal Church/Evangelical Lutheran Church in America] Concordat of Agreement, ed. by James E. Griffes and Daniel Martensen. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg-Fortress; Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, 1994. 159 p. {{ISBN|0-8066-2690-9}}
    • Concordat of Agreement [between the Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America]: Supporting Essays, ed. by Daniel F. Martensen. Minneapolis, Minn.: Augsburg-Fortress; Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications, 1995. 234 p. {{ISBN|0-8066-2667-4}}
    • JOURNAL, 19 May 2006, Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality & the Future of Anglicanism,weblink Commonweal, 133, 10,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2007, December 19, 2006, Seltser, Barry Jay, An essay on Hooker and the present discontents.
    • The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607–1991: A Bibliography. Caldwell, Sandra M., & Caldwell, Ronald J. (1993). New York: Garland Publishing.
    • BOOK, Episcopalians and Race: Civil War to Civil Rights, University Press of Kentucky, 2000, 978-0-8131-2149-9, Religion in the South, Lexington, harv, Shattuck, Gardiner H, Jr.
    • Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism by Colin Buchanan; (2nd ed. 2015) excerpt
    • Jamestown Commitment: the Episcopal Church [i.e. the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.] and the American Indian, by Owanah Anderson. Cincinnati, Ohio: Forward Movement Publications (1988). 170 p. {{ISBN|0-88028-082-4}}
    • Mullin, Robert Bruce. "Trends in the Study of the History of the Episcopal Church," Anglican and Episcopal History, June 2003, Vol. 72 Issue 2, pp 153–165, historiography
    • New Georgia Encyclopedia article on the Episcopal Church in the U.S. South
    • "The Forgotten Evangelicals: Virginia Episcopalians, 1790–1876". Waukechon, John Frank. Dissertation Abstracts International, 2001, Vol. 61 Issue 8, pp 3322–3322
    • JOURNAL, Tarter, Brent, 2004, Reflections on the Church of England in Colonial Virginia, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 112, 4, 338–371, 10.2307/4250211, 4250211,
    • Noble Powell and the Episcopal Establishment in the Twentieth Century. Hein, David. (2001, 2007). Urbana: University of Illinois Press; paperback reprint, Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock.
    • Rewriting History: Scapegoating the Episcopal Church. Savitri Hensman. Ekklesia. 2007.

    External links

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