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Thomas Jefferson
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{{About|third president of the United States}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2018}}{{short description|Third President of the United States}}







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Shadwell (Virginia)>Shadwell, Colony of Virginia, British America182644|13}}Charlottesville, Virginia>Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.| resting_place = Monticello, Virginia, U.S.Democratic-Republican Party>Democratic-RepublicanMartha Jefferson>January 1, 1772reason=died}}Martha Jefferson Randolph>Martha and Mary Jefferson Eppes5 with Sally Hemings including Madison Hemings>Madison and EstonCollege of William & Mary>College of William and Mary (BA)| signature = Thomas Jefferson Signature.svg| signature_alt = Thomas Jefferson signature}}{{Republicanism sidebar}}Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743{{efn|Old style: April 2, 1743}} – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, and served as the second Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War. He became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington from 1790 to 1793. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System. With Madison, he anonymously wrote the controversial Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 and 1799, which sought to strengthen states' rights by nullifying the federal Alien and Sedition Acts.As president, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He also organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the country's territory. As a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces. He was reelected in 1804. Jefferson's second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former vice president Aaron Burr. American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U.S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a controversial process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory, and he signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves in 1807. After retiring from public office, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia.Jefferson, while primarily a planter, lawyer and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. He was an architect in the classical tradition. Jefferson's keen interest in religion and philosophy led to his presidency of the American Philosophical Society; he shunned organized religion but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. A philologist, Jefferson knew several languages. He was a prolific letter writer and corresponded with many prominent people. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia (1785), considered perhaps the most important American book published before 1800.Bernstein, Richard B. (2004-05-06). Thomas Jefferson: The Revolution of Ideas. Oxford University Press, p. 78.Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, some modern scholarship has been critical of Jefferson's private life, finding a contradiction between his ownership of the large numbers of slaves that worked his plantations and his famous declaration that "all men are created equal". In the 21st century, the Monticello Foundation has asserted that the weight of evidence confirms that the widowed Jefferson fathered six children with Sally Hemings, a mixed-race woman who was his slave and a half sister to his late wife. Despite this, presidential scholars and historians generally praise Jefferson's public achievements, including his advocacy of religious freedom and tolerance in Virginia. Jefferson continues to rank highly among U.S. presidents.

Early life and career

Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743, Old Style, Julian calendar), at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 18. He was of English, and possibly Welsh, descent and was born a British subject.Malone, 1948, pp. 5–6. His father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen; his mother was Jane Randolph.{{efn|Jefferson personally showed little interest in his ancestry; on his father's side, he only knew of the existence of his grandfather.Brodie, 1974, pp. 33–34. Malone writes that Jefferson vaguely knew that his grandfather "had a place on the Fluvanna River which he called Snowden after a mountain in Wales near which the Jeffersons were supposed to have once lived".}} Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of William Randolph, the plantation's owner and Jefferson's friend, who in his will had named him guardian of his children. The Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757; his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph.Malone, 1948, pp. 31–33. Thomas inherited approximately {{convert|5,000|acre|ha sqmi|lk=off}} of land, including Monticello. He assumed full authority over his property at age 21.Malone, 1948, pp. 437–40.

Education, early family life

(File:Rear view of the Wren Building, College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, USA (2008-04-23).jpg|thumb|alt=A university building|Wren Building (rear), College of William & Mary where Jefferson studied)Jefferson began his education beside the Randolph children with tutors at Tuckahoe.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 19. Thomas' father, Peter, was self-taught, and regretting not having a formal education, he entered Thomas into an English school early, at age five. In 1752, at age nine, he began attending a local school run by a Scottish Presbyterian minister and also began studying the natural world, for which he grew to love. At this time he began studying Latin, Greek, and French, while also learning to ride horses. Thomas also read books from his father's modest library.Bowers, 1945, p.12–13 He was taught from 1758 to 1760 by Reverend James Maury near Gordonsville, Virginia, where he studied history, science, and the classics while boarding with Maury's family.Peterson, 1970, pp. 7–9. During this period Jefferson came to know and befriended various American Indians, including the famous Cherokee chief, Ontassete, who often stopped at Shadwell to visit, on their way to Williamsburg to trade.Bowers, 1945, p. 13Meacham, p. 36 During the two years Jefferson was with the Maury family, he traveled to Williamsburg and was a guest of Colonel Dandridge, father of Martha Washington. In Williamsburg the young Jefferson met and came to admire Patrick Henry, who was eight years his senior, sharing a common interest of violin playing.Bowers, 1945, p. 14–15Jefferson entered the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, at age 16 and studied mathematics, metaphysics, and philosophy under Professor William Small. Small introduced Jefferson to George Wythe and Francis Fauquier along with British Empiricists including John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. Small, Wythe and Fauquier recognized Jefferson as a man of exceptional ability and included him in their inner circle where he became a regular member of their Friday dinner parties where politics and philosophy were discussed. Jefferson later wrote that he "heard more common good sense, more rational & philosophical conversations than in all the rest of my life".Boles, 2017, p. 17;  Bowers,1945, p. 25 During his first year at the college he was given more to parties, dancing and was not very frugal with his expenditures; during his second year, regretting that he had squandered away much time and money, he applied himself to fifteen hours of study a day. Bowers,1945, pp. 22–23; Boles, 2017, p. 18 Jefferson improved his French and Greek and his skill at the violin. He graduated two years after starting in 1762. He read the law under Professor Wythe's tutelage to obtain his law license, while working as a law clerk in his office.Meacham, 2012, pp. 29, 39. He also read a wide variety of English classics and political works.Meacham, 2012, pp. 19, 28–29. Jefferson was well read in a broad variety of subjects, which along with law and philosophy, included history, natural law, natural religion, ethics, and several areas in science, including agriculture. Overall, he drew very deeply on the philosophers. During the years of study under the watchful eye of Wythe, Jefferson authored a survey of his extensive readings in his Commonplace Book.Chinard, 1926, book cover So impressed with Jefferson, Wythe would later bequeath his entire library to him.Bowers, 1945, pp.32–34;  Boles, 2017, p. 19;1765 was an eventful year in Jefferson's family. In July, his sister Martha married his close friend and college companion Dabney Carr, which greatly pleased Jefferson. In October, he mourned his sister Jane's unexpected death at age 25 and wrote a farewell epitaph in Latin.Meacham, 2012, p. 37Jefferson treasured his books, and amassed a total of three libraries in his lifetime. The first, a library of 200 volumes started in his youth which included books inherited from his father and left to him by George Wythe,Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 42. was destroyed when his Shadwell home burned in a 1770 fire. Nevertheless, he had replenished his collection with 1,250 titles by 1773, and it grew to almost 6,500 volumes by 1814.Ferling, 2000, p. 43. After the British burned the Library of Congress during the War of 1812, he sold this second library to the U.S. government to jump start the Library of Congress collection, for the price of $23,950. Jefferson used a portion of the money secured by the sale to pay off some of his large debt, remitting $10,500 to William Short and $4,870 to John Barnes of Georgetown. However, he soon resumed collecting for his personal library, writing to John Adams, "I cannot live without books."Library of CongressBoles, 2017, p. 458 He began to construct a new library of his personal favorites and by the time of his death a decade later it had grown to almost 2,000 volumes.NEWS, Root, Daniel, 'I cannot live without books', UWIRE Text, 12 October 2015,

Lawyer and House of Burgesses

(File:House of Burgesses in the Capitol Williamsburg James City County Virginia by Frances Benjamin Johnston.jpg|thumb|alt=Chamber of House of Burgesses|House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, Virginia, where Jefferson served 1769–1775)Jefferson was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1767 and then lived with his mother at Shadwell.Meacham, 2012, pp. 11, 49. In addition to practicing law, Jefferson represented Albemarle County as a delegate in the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1769 until 1775.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 40. He pursued reforms to slavery. He introduced legislation in 1769 allowing masters to take control over the emancipation of slaves, taking discretion away from the royal governor and General Court. He persuaded his cousin Richard Bland to spearhead the legislation's passage, but reaction was strongly negative.Meacham, 2012, pp. 47–49.Jefferson took seven cases for freedom-seeking slavesGordon-Reed, 2008, p. 348. and waived his fee for one client, who claimed that he should be freed before the statutory age of thirty-one required for emancipation in cases with inter-racial grandparents.Gordon-Reed, 2008, pp. 99–100. He invoked the Natural Law to argue, "everyone comes into the world with a right to his own person and using it at his own will ... This is what is called personal liberty, and is given him by the author of nature, because it is necessary for his own sustenance." The judge cut him off and ruled against his client. As a consolation, Jefferson gave his client some money, conceivably used to aid his escape shortly thereafter. He later incorporated this sentiment into the Declaration of Independence.Meacham, 2012, p. 49. He also took on 68 cases for the General Court of Virginia in 1767, in addition to three notable cases: Howell v. Netherland (1770), Bolling v. Bolling (1771), and Blair v. Blair (1772).Konig, David T., Encyclopedia VirginiaThe British Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts in 1774, and Jefferson wrote a resolution calling for a "Day of Fasting and Prayer" in protest, as well as a boycott of all British goods. His resolution was later expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, in which he argued that people have the right to govern themselves.Meacham, 2012, pp. 71–73.

Monticello, marriage and family

(File:Monticello 2010-10-29.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Monticello plantation house|Jefferson's home Monticello)In 1768, Jefferson began constructing his primary residence Monticello (Italian for "Little Mountain") on a hilltop overlooking his {{convert|5000|acre|sqkm sqmi|adj=on}} plantation.{{efn|His other properties included Shadwell, Tufton, Lego, Pantops, and his retreat Poplar Forest. He also owned the unimproved mountaintop Montalto, and the Natural Bridge.Bear, 1967, p. 51.}} Construction was done mostly by local masons and carpenters, assisted by Jefferson's slaves.(#TJFSlaveBuilders|TJF: Monticello (House) FAQ – "Who built the house?")He moved into the South Pavilion in 1770. Turning Monticello into a neoclassical masterpiece in the Palladian style was his perennial project.Ellis, 1996, pp. 142–44.On January 1, 1772, Jefferson married his third cousin Martha Wayles Skelton, the 23-year-old widow of Bathurst Skelton, and she moved into the South Pavilion.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 47.Roberts, 1993 She was a frequent hostess for Jefferson and managed the large household. Biographer Dumas Malone described the marriage as the happiest period of Jefferson's life.Malone, 1948, p. 53. Martha read widely, did fine needlework, and was a skilled pianist; Jefferson often accompanied her on the violin or cello.Malone, 1948, pp. 47, 158. During their ten years of marriage, Martha bore six children: Martha "Patsy" (1772–1836); Jane (1774–1775); a son who lived for only a few weeks in 1777; Mary Wayles "Polly" (1778–1804); Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781); and another Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785).{{citation needed|date=February 2018}} Only Martha and Mary survived more than a few years.White House Archives File:Martha Jefferson Randolph portrait.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.8|Jefferson's daughter Martha ]] Martha's father John Wayles died in 1773, and the couple inherited 135 people of color who were legally enslaved, {{convert|11,000|acre|sqkm sqmi|lk=off}}, and the estate's debts. The debts took Jefferson years to satisfy, contributing to his financial problems.Martha later suffered from ill health, including diabetes, and frequent childbirth further weakened her. Her mother had died young, and Martha lived with two stepmothers as a girl. A few months after the birth of her last child, she died on September 6, 1782, at the age of 33 with Jefferson at her bedside. Shortly before her death, Martha made Jefferson promise never to marry again, telling him that she could not bear to have another mother raise her children.Gordon-Reed, 2008, p. 145; Meacham, 2012, p. 53. Jefferson was grief-stricken by her death, relentlessly pacing back and forth, nearly to the point of exhaustion. He emerged after three weeks, taking long rambling rides on secluded roads with his daughter Martha, by her description "a solitary witness to many a violent burst of grief".Halliday, 2009, pp. 48–53.After working as Secretary of State (1790–93), he returned to Monticello and initiated a remodeling based on the architectural concepts which he had acquired in Europe. The work continued throughout most of his presidency, being finished in 1809.(#TJFHouseConstruction|TJF:Monticello Construction)Bernstein, 2003, p. 109.

Political career 1775–1800

Declaration of Independence

(File:Us declaration independence.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Declaration of Independence|U.S. Declaration of Independence – 1823 facsimile of the engrossed copy)Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. The document's social and political ideals were proposed by Jefferson before the inauguration of Washington.Bowers, 1945, p. v At age 33, he was one of the youngest delegates to the Second Continental Congress beginning in 1775 at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, where a formal declaration of independence from Britain was overwhelmingly favored.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 77. Jefferson chose his words for the Declaration in June 1775, shortly after the war had begun, where the idea of independence from Britain had long since become popular among the colonies. He was inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of the sanctity of the individual, as well as by the writings of Locke and Montesquieu.Meacham, 2012, pp. 103–04.He sought out John Adams, an emerging leader of the Congress.Peterson, 1970, p. 87. They became close friends and Adams supported Jefferson's appointment to the Committee of Five formed to draft a declaration of independence in furtherance of the Lee Resolution passed by the Congress, which declared the United Colonies independent. The committee initially thought that Adams should write the document, but Adams persuaded the committee to choose Jefferson.{{efn|Adams recorded his exchange with Jefferson on the question. Jefferson asked, "Why will you not? You ought to do it." To which Adams responded, "I will not—reasons enough." Jefferson replied, "What can be your reasons?" and Adams responded, "Reason first, you are a Virginian, and a Virginian ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise. Reason third, you can write ten times better than I can." "Well," said Jefferson, "if you are decided, I will do as well as I can." Adams concluded, "Very well. When you have drawn it up, we will have a meeting."Meacham, 2012, p. 102.}}Jefferson consulted with other committee members over the next seventeen days, and drew on his own proposed draft of the Virginia Constitution, George Mason's draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights, and other sources.Maier, 1997, p. 104. The other committee members made some changes, and a final draft was presented to the Congress on June 28, 1776.Meacham, 2012, p. 105.The declaration was introduced on Friday, June 28, and congress began debate over its contents on Monday, July 1, resulting in the omission of a fourth of the text, including a passage critical of King George III and the slave trade.Ellis, 1996, p. 50. Jefferson resented the changes, but he did not speak publicly about the revisions.{{efn|Franklin, seated beside the author, observed him "writhing a little under the acrimonious criticisms on some of its parts."Tucker, 1837, p. 90.}} On July 4, 1776, the Congress ratified the Declaration, and delegates signed it on August 2; in doing so, they were committing an act of treason against the Crown.Meacham, 2012, p. 110. Jefferson's preamble is regarded as an enduring statement of human rights, and the phrase "all men are created equal" has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language" containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history".Ellis, 2008, pp. 55–56.

Virginia state legislator and governor

File:Colonial Williamsburg Governors Palace Front Dscn7232.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.3|alt=Governor's Palace|Governor's Palace, Governor Jefferson's residence in Williamsburg]]At the start of the Revolution, Jefferson was a Colonel and was named commander of the Albemarle County Militia on September 26, 1775.Brodie, 1974, p. 112. He was then elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for Albemarle County in September 1776, when finalizing a state constitution was a priority.Peterson, 1970, pp. 101–02, 114, 140.Ferling, 2004, p. 26.For nearly three years, he assisted with the constitution and was especially proud of his Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, which forbade state support of religious institutions or enforcement of religious doctrine.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 102; Bernstein, 2003, p. 42. The bill failed to pass, as did his legislation to disestablish the Anglican church, but both were later revived by James Madison.Peterson, 1970, pp. 134, 142; Bernstein, 2003, pp. 68–69.In 1778, Jefferson was given the task of revising the state's laws. He drafted 126 bills in three years, including laws to streamline the judicial system. Jefferson's proposed statutes provided for general education, which he considered the basis of "republican government". He had become alarmed that Virginia's powerful landed gentry were becoming a hereditary aristocracy. He took the lead in abolishing what he called "feudal and unnatural distinctions." He targeted laws such as entail and primogeniture by which the oldest son inherited all the land. The entail laws made it perpetual: the one who inherited the land could not sell it, but had to bequeath it to his oldest son. As a result, increasingly large plantations, worked by white tenant farmers and by black slaves, gained in size and wealth and political power in the eastern ("Tidewater") tobacco areas.JOURNAL, Brewer, Holly, 1997, Entailing Aristocracy in Colonial Virginia: 'Ancient Feudal Restraints' and Revolutionary Reform, William and Mary Quarterly, 54, 2, 307–46, 2953276, 10.2307/2953276, During the Revolutionary era, all such laws were repealed by the states that had them.Richard B. Morris, "Primogeniture and Entailed Estates in America," Columbia Law Review, 27 (Jan. 1927), 24–51. in JSTORJefferson was elected governor for one-year terms in 1779 and 1780.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 134. He transferred the state capital from Williamsburg to Richmond, and introduced measures for public education, religious freedom, and revision of inheritance laws.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 137.During General Benedict Arnold's 1781 invasion of Virginia, Jefferson escaped Richmond just ahead of the British forces, and the city was burned to the ground.Peterson, 1970, pp. 234–38.Meacham, 2012, pp. 133–35; Ellis, 1996, p. 66; Gordon-Reed, 2008, pp. 136–37. Jefferson sent an emergency dispatch to Colonel Sampson Mathews, whose militia was traveling nearby, to thwart Arnold's efforts."From Thomas Jefferson to Sampson Mathews, 12 January 1781 Founders Online, National Archives," last modified July 11, 2019,weblink [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 4, 1 October 1780 – 24 February 1781, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951, p. 343]NEWS, Bryan, Charles, October 25, 2014, Richmond's Benedict Arnold,weblink Richmond Times Dispatch, Richmond, Virginia, July 11, 2019, General Charles Cornwallis that spring dispatched a cavalry force led by Banastre Tarleton to capture Jefferson and members of the Assembly at Monticello, but Jack Jouett of the Virginia militia thwarted the British plan. Jefferson escaped to Poplar Forest, his plantation to the west.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 157. When the General Assembly reconvened in June 1781, it conducted an inquiry into Jefferson's actions which eventually concluded that Jefferson had acted with honor—but he was not re-elected.Meacham, 2012, pp. 140–42.In April of the same year, his daughter Lucy died at age one. A second daughter of that name was born the following year, but she died at age three.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 263.

Notes on the State of Virginia

Jefferson received a letter of inquiry in 1780 about the geography, history, and government of Virginia from French diplomat François Barbé-Marbois, who was gathering data on the United States. Jefferson included his written responses in a book, Notes on the State of Virginia (1785).Tucker, 1837, v. 1, pp. 165–66. He compiled the book over five years, including reviews of scientific knowledge, Virginia's history, politics, laws, culture, and geography.Shuffelton, 1999 The book explores what constitutes a good society, using Virginia as an exemplar. Jefferson included extensive data about the state's natural resources and economy, and wrote at length about slavery, miscegenation, and his belief that blacks and whites could not live together as free people in one society because of justified resentments of the enslaved.Notes on the State of Virginia, p. 149; Burstein, 2006, p. 146. He also wrote of his views on the American Indian and considered them as equals in body and mind to European settlers.Notes on the State of Virginia, 1853, Query XI(#TJFEnlightenment|TJF: Thomas Jefferson's Enlightenment and American Indians)Notes was first published in 1785 in French and appeared in English in 1787.Bernstein, 2004, p. 78. Biographer George Tucker considered the work "surprising in the extent of the information which a single individual had been thus able to acquire, as to the physical features of the state",Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 166. and Merrill D. Peterson described it as an accomplishment for which all Americans should be grateful.Peterson, 1970, ch. 5.

Member of Congress

(File:Independence Hall Assembly Room.jpg|thumb|alt=Legislative chamber|Independence Hall Assembly Room where Jefferson served in Congress)The United States formed a Congress of the Confederation following victory in the Revolutionary War and a peace treaty with Great Britain in 1783, to which Jefferson was appointed as a Virginia delegate. He was a member of the committee setting foreign exchange rates and recommended an American currency based on the decimal system which was adopted.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, pp. 172–73. He advised formation of the Committee of the States to fill the power vacuum when Congress was in recess.Peterson, 1970, p. 275. The Committee met when Congress adjourned, but disagreements rendered it dysfunctional.Rayner, 1834, p. 207.In the Congress's 1783–84 session, Jefferson acted as chairman of committees to establish a viable system of government for the new Republic and to propose a policy for the settlement of the western territories. Jefferson was the principal author of the Land Ordinance of 1784, whereby Virginia ceded to the national government the vast area that it claimed northwest of the Ohio River. He insisted that this territory should not be used as colonial territory by any of the thirteen states, but that it should be divided into sections which could become states. He plotted borders for nine new states in their initial stages and wrote an ordinance banning slavery in all the nation's territories. Congress made extensive revisions, including rejection of the ban on slavery.Peterson, 1960, pp. 189–90.Finkelman, 1989, pp. 21–51. The provisions banning slavery were known later as the "Jefferson Proviso;" they were modified and implemented three years later in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and became the law for the entire Northwest.

Minister to France

File:Mather Brown - Thomas Jefferson - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Young Thomas Jefferson|Portrait of Thomas Jefferson while in London in 1786 by Mather BrownMather BrownIn 1784, Jefferson was sent by the Congress of the Confederation{{efn|the immediate successor to the Second Continental Congress}} to join Benjamin Franklin and John Adams in Paris as Minister Plenipotentiary for Negotiating Treaties of Amity and Commerce with Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Denmark, Saxony, Hamburg, Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sardinia, The Pope, Venice, Genoa, Tuscany, the Sublime Porte, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli."Enclosure I: Commission for Negotiating Treaties of Amity and Commerce, 16 May 1784," Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018,weblink [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 7, 2 March 1784 – 25 February 1785, ed. Julian P. Boyd. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953, pp. 262–265.] Some believed that the recently widowed Jefferson was depressed and that the assignment would distract him from his wife's death.Peterson, 1970, pp. 289–94. With his young daughter Patsy and two servants, he departed in July 1784, arriving in Paris the next month.Stewart, 1997, p. 39.Meacham, 2012, p. 180. Less than a year later he was assigned the additional duty of succeeding Franklin as Minister to France. French foreign minister Count de Vergennes commented, "You replace Monsieur Franklin, I hear." Jefferson replied, "I succeed. No man can replace him."McCullough, 2001, p. 330. During his five years in Paris Jefferson played a leading role in shaping the foreign policy of the United States.Bowers, 1945, pp.vii-viiiJefferson had Patsy educated at the Pentemont Abbey. In 1786, he met and fell in love with Maria Cosway, an accomplished—and married—Italian-English musician of 27. They saw each other frequently over a period of six weeks. She returned to Great Britain, but they maintained a lifelong correspondence.(#TJFMariaCosway|TJF: Maria Cosway (Engraving))Jefferson sent for his youngest surviving child, nine-year-old Polly, in June 1787, who was accompanied on her voyage by a young slave from Monticello, Sally Hemings. Jefferson had taken her older brother James Hemings to Paris as part of his domestic staff, and had him trained in French cuisine.Gordon-Reed, 2008, pp. 156, 164–68. According to Sally's son, Madison Hemings, the 16-year-old Sally and Jefferson began a sexual relationship in Paris, where she became pregnant.WEB, Memoirs of Madison Hemings,weblink Frontline, Public Broadcasting Service – WGBH Boston, November 29, 2011, According to his account, Hemings agreed to return to the United States only after Jefferson promised to free her children when they came of age.While in France, Jefferson became a regular companion of the Marquis de Lafayette, a French hero of the American Revolutionary War, and Jefferson used his influence to procure trade agreements with France.Bowers, 1945, p. 328.Burstein, 2010, p. 120. As the French Revolution began, Jefferson allowed his Paris residence, the Hôtel de Langeac, to be used for meetings by Lafayette and other republicans. He was in Paris during the storming of the BastilleBOOK, Jefferson, Thomas, Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Jay,weblink National Archives, National Archives at Washington, DC, January 30, 2017, 1789-07-19, File Unit: Letters from Thomas Jefferson, 1785 – 1789, and consulted with Lafayette while the latter drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.Meacham, 2012, pp. 222–23. Jefferson often found his mail opened by postmasters, so he invented his own enciphering device, the "Wheel Cipher"; he wrote important communications in code for the rest of his career.(#TJFCode|TJF: Coded Messages){{efn|An example can be seen at the Library of Congress website.}} Jefferson left Paris for America in September 1789, intending to return soon; however, President George Washington appointed him the country's first Secretary of State, forcing him to remain in the nation's capital.Ellis, 1996, pp. 116–17. Jefferson remained a firm supporter of the French Revolution, while opposing its more violent elements.Ellis, 1996, p. 110; Wood, 2010, pp. 179–81.

Secretary of State

{{See also|First Party System}}File:T Jefferson by Charles Willson Peale 1791 2.jpg|right|upright=0.9|thumb|alt=Thomas Jefferson |Thomas Jefferson in 1791 at 49 by Charles Willson PealeCharles Willson PealeSoon after returning from France, Jefferson accepted Washington's invitation to serve as Secretary of State.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 334. Pressing issues at this time were the national debt and the permanent location of the capital. Jefferson opposed a national debt, preferring that each state retire its own, in contrast to Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, who desired consolidation of various states' debts by the federal government.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, pp. 364–69. Hamilton also had bold plans to establish the national credit and a national bank, but Jefferson strenuously opposed this and attempted to undermine his agenda, which nearly led Washington to dismiss him from his cabinet. Jefferson later left the cabinet voluntarily; Washington never forgave him, and never spoke to him again.Chernow, 2004, p. 427.The second major issue was the capital's permanent location. Hamilton favored a capital close to the major commercial centers of the Northeast, while Washington, Jefferson, and other agrarians wanted it located to the south.Cooke, 1970, pp. 523–45. After lengthy deadlock, the Compromise of 1790 was struck, permanently locating the capital on the Potomac River, and the federal government assumed the war debts of all thirteen states.In the Spring of 1791, Jefferson and Congressman James Madison took a vacation to Vermont. Jefferson had been suffering from migraines and he was tired of Hamilton in-fighting.Randall (1996), p. 1. In May 1792, Jefferson was alarmed at the political rivalries taking shape; he wrote to Washington, urging him to run for re-election that year as a unifying influence.Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 429. He urged the president to rally the citizenry to a party that would defend democracy against the corrupting influence of banks and monied interests, as espoused by the Federalists. Historians recognize this letter as the earliest delineation of Democratic-Republican Party principles.Greider, 2010, p. 246. Jefferson, Madison, and other Democratic-Republican organizers favored states' rights and local control and opposed federal concentration of power, whereas Hamilton sought more power for the federal government.Wood, 2010, pp. 145–49.Jefferson supported France against Britain when the two nations fought in 1793, though his arguments in the Cabinet were undercut by French Revolutionary envoy Edmond-Charles Genêt's open scorn for President Washington.Wood, 2010, pp. 186–88. In his discussions with British Minister George Hammond, Jefferson tried unsuccessfully to persuade the British to acknowledge their violation of the Treaty of Paris, to vacate their posts in the Northwest, and to compensate the U.S. for slaves whom the British had freed at the end of the war. Seeking a return to private life, Jefferson resigned the cabinet position in December 1793, perhaps to bolster his political influence from outside the administration.Ellis, 1996, p. 119; Meacham, 2012, pp. 283–84; Tucker, 1837, v. 1, p. 523.After the Washington administration negotiated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain (1794), Jefferson saw a cause around which to rally his party and organized a national opposition from Monticello.Meacham, 2012, pp. 293–94. The treaty, designed by Hamilton, aimed to reduce tensions and increase trade. Jefferson warned that it would increase British influence and subvert republicanism, calling it "the boldest act [Hamilton and Jay] ever ventured on to undermine the government".Peterson, 1970, ch.8 [e-book]. The Treaty passed, but it expired in 1805 during Jefferson's administration and was not renewed. Jefferson continued his pro-French stance; during the violence of the Reign of Terror, he declined to disavow the revolution: "To back away from France would be to undermine the cause of republicanism in America."Yarbrough, 2006, p. xx.

Election of 1796 and vice presidency

{{further|United States presidential election, 1796|Democratic-Republican Party}}(File:ElectoralCollege1796.svg|thumb|right|alt=Electoral College map|1796 election results)In the presidential campaign of 1796, Jefferson lost the electoral college vote to Federalist John Adams by 71–68 and was elected vice president because of a mistake in voting for Adams's running mate. As presiding officer of the Senate, he assumed a more passive role than his predecessor John Adams. He allowed the Senate to freely conduct debates and confined his participation to procedural issues, which he called an "honorable and easy" role.Meacham, 2012, p. 305. Jefferson had previously studied parliamentary law and procedure for 40 years, making him unusually well qualified to serve as presiding officer. In 1800, he published his assembled notes on Senate procedure as A Manual of Parliamentary Practice.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 117–18. Jefferson would cast only 3 tie-breaking votes in the Senate.Jefferson held four confidential talks with French consul Joseph Létombe in the spring of 1797 where he attacked Adams, predicting that his rival would serve only one term. He also encouraged France to invade England, and advised Létombe to stall any American envoys sent to Paris by instructing him to "listen to them and then drag out the negotiations at length and mollify them by the urbanity of the proceedings."Elkins, 1994, p. 566. This toughened the tone that the French government adopted toward the Adams administration. After Adams's initial peace envoys were rebuffed, Jefferson and his supporters lobbied for the release of papers related to the incident, called the XYZ Affair after the letters used to disguise the identities of the French officials involved.Chernow, 2004, p. 550. However, the tactic backfired when it was revealed that French officials had demanded bribes, rallying public support against France. The U.S. began an undeclared naval war with France known as the Quasi-War.Meacham, 2012, p. 312.During the Adams presidency, the Federalists rebuilt the military, levied new taxes, and enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson believed that these laws were intended to suppress Democratic-Republicans, rather than prosecute enemy aliens, and considered them unconstitutional.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 54. To rally opposition, he and James Madison anonymously wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, declaring that the federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it by the states.Wood, 2010, pp. 269–71. The resolutions followed the "interposition" approach of Madison, in which states may shield their citizens from federal laws that they deem unconstitutional. Jefferson advocated nullification, allowing states to invalidate federal laws altogether.Meacham, 2012, p. 318.{{efn|Jefferson's Kentucky draft said: "where powers are assumed which have not been delegated, a nullification of the act is the rightful remedy: that every State has a natural right in cases not within the compact, (casus non fœderis) to nullify of their own authority all assumptions of power by others within their limits."Thomas Jefferson, Resolutions Relative to the Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798}} Jefferson warned that, "unless arrested at the threshold", the Alien and Sedition Acts would "necessarily drive these states into revolution and blood".Onuf, 2000, p. 73.Historian Ron Chernow claims that "the theoretical damage of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions was deep and lasting, and was a recipe for disunion", contributing to the American Civil War as well as later events.Chernow, 2004, p. 574. Washington was so appalled by the resolutions that he told Patrick Henry that, if "systematically and pertinaciously pursued", the resolutions would "dissolve the union or produce coercion."Chernow, 2004, p. 587.Jefferson and Madison moved to Philadelphia and founded the National Gazette in 1791, along with poet and writer Phillip Freneau, in an effort to counter Hamilton's Federalist policies, which Hamilton was promoting through the influential Federalist newspaper the Gazette of the United States. The National Gazette made particular criticism of the policies promoted by Alexander Hamilton, often through anonymous essays signed by the pen name Brutus at Jefferson's urging, which were actually written by Madison.Bernstein, 2003, p. 96.Jefferson had always admired Washington's leadership skills but felt that his Federalist party was leading the country in the wrong direction. Jefferson thought it wise not to attend his funeral in 1799 because of acute differences with Washington while serving as Secretary of State, and remained at Monticello.Meacham, 2012, p. 323.

Election of 1800

(File:ElectoralCollege1800.svg|thumb|right|alt=Electoral College map|1800 election results)In the 1800 presidential election, Jefferson contended once more against Federalist John Adams. Adams's campaign was weakened by unpopular taxes and vicious Federalist infighting over his actions in the Quasi-War.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 126–28; McCullough, 2001, p. 556. Republicans pointed to the Alien and Sedition Acts and accused the Federalists of being secret monarchists, while Federalists charged that Jefferson was a godless libertine in thrall to the French.McCullough, 2001, pp. 543–44. Historian Joyce Appleby said the election was "one of the most acrimonious in the annals of American history".Appleby, 2003, pp. 27–28.Republicans ultimately won more electoral college votes, but Jefferson and his vice presidential candidate Aaron Burr unexpectedly received an equal total. Due to the tie, the election was decided by the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 75; Wood, 2010, p. 278.{{efn|This electoral process problem was addressed by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1804, which provided separate votes for presidential and vice presidential candidates.}} Hamilton lobbied Federalist representatives on Jefferson's behalf, believing him a lesser political evil than Burr. On February 17, 1801, after thirty-six ballots, the House elected Jefferson president and Burr vice president.The win was marked by Republican celebrations throughout the country.Meacham, 2012, pp. 340–41. Some of Jefferson's opponents argued that he owed his victory over Adams to the South's inflated number of electors, due to counting slaves as partial population under the Three-Fifths Compromise.Ferling, 2004, p. 208. Others alleged that Jefferson secured James Asheton Bayard's tie-breaking electoral vote by guaranteeing the retention of various Federalist posts in the government.Wood, 2010, pp. 284–85. Jefferson disputed the allegation, and the historical record is inconclusive.Meacham, 2012, pp. 337–38.The transition proceeded smoothly, marking a watershed in American history. As historian Gordon S. Wood writes, "it was one of the first popular elections in modern history that resulted in the peaceful transfer of power from one 'party' to another."

Presidency (1801–1809)









factoids
Jefferson was sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall at the new Capitol in Washington, D.C. on March 4, 1801. In contrast to his predecessors, Jefferson exhibited a dislike of formal etiquette; he arrived alone on horseback without escort, dressed plainlyWood, 2010, pp. 287–88. and, after dismounting, retired his own horse to the nearby stable.Hale, 1896, Illustrious Americans, p. 124. His inaugural address struck a note of reconciliation, declaring, "We have been called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."Meacham, 2012, pp. 348–50. Ideologically, Jefferson stressed "equal and exact justice to all men", minority rights, and freedom of speech, religion, and press.Peterson (2002), p. 40. He said that a free and democratic government was "the strongest government on earth." He nominated moderate Republicans to his cabinet: James Madison as Secretary of State, Henry Dearborn as Secretary of War, Levi Lincoln as Attorney General, and Robert Smith as Secretary of the Navy.Upon assuming office, he first confronted an $83 million national debt. He began dismantling Hamilton's Federalist fiscal system with help from Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin.Peterson, 2002, p. 41. Jefferson's administration eliminated the whiskey excise and other taxes after closing "unnecessary offices" and cutting "useless establishments and expenses".Wood, 2010, p. 293.Bailey, 2007, p. 216. They attempted to disassemble the national bank and its effect of increasing national debt, but were dissuaded by Gallatin.Wills, 2002, pp. 50–51. Jefferson shrank the Navy, deeming it unnecessary in peacetime.Chernow, 2004, p. 671. Instead, he incorporated a fleet of inexpensive gunboats used only for defense with the idea that they would not provoke foreign hostilities. After two terms, he had lowered the national debt from $83 million to $57 million.Meacham, 2012, p. 387.Jefferson pardoned several of those imprisoned under the Alien and Sedition Acts.Meacham, 2012, p. 357. Congressional Republicans repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, which removed nearly all of Adams's "midnight judges" from office. A subsequent appointment battle led to the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Marbury v. Madison, asserting judicial review over executive branch actions.Meacham, 2012, p. 375. Jefferson appointed three Supreme Court justices: William Johnson (1804), Henry Brockholst Livingston (1807), and Thomas Todd (1807).Urofsky, 2006, p. viii.Jefferson strongly felt the need for a national military university, producing an officer engineering corps for a national defense based on the advancement of the sciences, rather than having to rely on foreign sources for top grade engineers with questionable loyalty.Scythes, 2014, pp. 693–94. He signed the Military Peace Establishment Act on March 16, 1802, thus founding the United States Military Academy at West Point. The Act documented in 29 sections a new set of laws and limits for the military. Jefferson was also hoping to bring reform to the Executive branch, replacing Federalists and active opponents throughout the officer corps to promote Republican values.Scythes, 2014, pp. 422–23.Jefferson took great interest in the Library of Congress, which had been established in 1800. He often recommended books to acquire. In 1802, an act of Congress authorized President Jefferson to name the first Librarian of Congress and gave itself power to establish library rules and regulations. This act also granted the president and vice president the right to use the library.BOOK, The Library: An Illustrated History, Murray, Stuart, Skyhorse Publishing, 2009, 978-0-8389-0991-1, 156,

First Barbary War

(File:1800 map Afrique by Arrowsmith BPL 15210 detail2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.65|alt=Map. Barbary Coast of North Africa 1806|Barbary Coast of North Africa 1806. Left is Morocco at Gibraltar, center is Tunis, and right is Tripoli.)American merchant ships had been protected from Barbary Coast pirates by the Royal Navy when the states were British colonies.Fremont-Barnes, 2006, p. 32. After independence, however, pirates often captured U.S. merchant ships, pillaged cargoes, and enslaved or held crew members for ransom. Jefferson had opposed paying tribute to the Barbary States since 1785.Fremont-Barnes, 2006, p. 36.In March 1786, he and John Adams went to London to negotiate with Tripoli's envoy, ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman (or Sidi Haji Abdul Rahman Adja).First Barbary WarIn 1801, he authorized a U.S. Navy fleet under Commodore Richard Dale to make a show of force in the Mediterranean, the first American naval squadron to cross the Atlantic.Meacham, 2012, pp. 364–65. Following the fleet's first engagement, he successfully asked Congress for a declaration of war. The subsequent "First Barbary War" was the first foreign war fought by the U.S.Herring, 2008, p. 97.Pasha of Tripoli Yusuf Karamanli captured the {{USS|Philadelphia|1799|6}}, so Jefferson authorized William Eaton, the U.S. Consul to Tunis, to lead a force to restore the pasha's older brother to the throne.Wood, 2010, p. 638. The American navy forced Tunis and Algiers into breaking their alliance with Tripoli. Jefferson ordered five separate naval bombardments of Tripoli, leading the pasha to sign a treaty that restored peace in the Mediterranean.Bernstein. 2003, p. 146. This victory proved only temporary, but according to Wood, "many Americans celebrated it as a vindication of their policy of spreading free trade around the world and as a great victory for liberty over tyranny."Wood, 2010, p. 639.

Louisiana Purchase

(File:Louisiana Purchase.png|thumb|right|upright=1.65|The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totaled {{convert|827,987|lk=in|sqmi|km2|abbr=off|sp=us}}, doubling the size of the United States.)Spain ceded ownership of the Louisiana territory in 1800 to the more predominant France. Jefferson was greatly concerned that Napoleon's broad interests in the vast territory would threaten the security of the continent and Mississippi River shipping. He wrote that the cession "works most sorely on the U.S. It completely reverses all the political relations of the U.S."Meacham, 2012, pp. 383–84. In 1802, he instructed James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to negotiate with Napoleon to purchase New Orleans and adjacent coastal areas from France.Wood, 2010, p. 368. In early 1803, Jefferson offered Napoleon nearly $10 million for {{convert|40,000|sqmi|abbr=off|sp=us}} of tropical territory.Freehling, 2005, p. 69.Napoleon realized that French military control was impractical over such a vast remote territory, and he was in dire need of funds for his wars on the home front. In early April 1803, he unexpectedly made negotiators a counter-offer to sell {{convert|827,987|sqmi|abbr=off|sp=us}} of French territory for $15 million, doubling the size of the United States. U.S. negotiators seized this unique opportunity and accepted the offer and signed the treaty on April 30, 1803. Word of the unexpected purchase didn't reach Jefferson until July 3, 1803. He unknowingly acquired the most fertile tract of land of its size on Earth, making the new country self-sufficient in food and other resources. The sale also significantly curtailed British and French imperial ambitions in North America, removing obstacles to U.S. westward expansion.Ellis, 2008, pp. 207–08.Most thought that this was an exceptional opportunity, despite Republican reservations about the Constitutional authority of the federal government to acquire land.Wilentz, 2005, p. 108. Jefferson initially thought that a Constitutional amendment was necessary to purchase and govern the new territory; but he later changed his mind, fearing that this would give cause to oppose the purchase, and he therefore urged a speedy debate and ratification.Meecham, 2012, pp. 389–90. On October 20, 1803, the Senate ratified the purchase treaty by a vote of 24–7.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, pp. 152–54.After the purchase, Jefferson preserved the region's Spanish legal code and instituted a gradual approach for integrating settlers into American democracy. He believed that a period of federal rule would be necessary while Louisianians adjusted to their new nation.Peterson, 1970, p. 777; Wood, 2010, p. 372; Ellis, 2008, p. 230.{{efn|Louisiana nevertheless gained statehood nine years later in 1812.Wood, 2010, p. 373.}} Historians have differed in their assessments regarding the constitutional implications of the sale,Ellis, 2008, pp. 231–32. but they typically hail the Louisiana acquisition as a major accomplishment. Frederick Jackson Turner called the purchase the most formative event in American history.

Lewis and Clark expedition

(File:Lewis and clark-expedition.jpg|thumb|alt=Corps of Discover on river boat October 1805|Corps of Discovery, October 1805)Jefferson anticipated further westward settlements due to the Louisiana Purchase and arranged for the exploration and mapping of the uncharted territory. He sought to establish a U.S. claim ahead of competing European interests and to find the rumored Northwest Passage.Ambrose, 1996, pp. 76, 418. Jefferson and others were influenced by exploration accounts of Le Page du Pratz in Louisiana (1763) and Captain James Cook in the Pacific (1784),Ambrose, 1996, p. 154. and they persuaded Congress in 1804 to fund an expedition to explore and (:File:Lewis and Clark Expidition Map.jpg|map) the newly acquired territory to the Pacific Ocean.Rodriguez, 2002, pp. xxiv, 162, 185.Jefferson appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to be leaders of the Corps of Discovery (1803–1806).Rodriguez, 2002, pp. 112, 186. In the months leading up to the expedition, Jefferson tutored Lewis in the sciences of mapping, botany, natural history, mineralogy, and astronomy and navigation, giving him unlimited access to his library at Monticello, which included the largest collection of books in the world on the subject of the geography and natural history of the North American continent, along with an impressive collection of maps.Ambrose, 1996, pp. 54, 80.The expedition lasted from May 1804 to September 1806 (:template:Timeline of the Lewis and Clark Expedition|(see Timeline)) and obtained a wealth of scientific and geographic knowledge, including knowledge of many Indian tribes.Ambrose, 1996, pp. 154, 409, 512.
Other expeditions
In addition to the Corps of Discovery, Jefferson organized three other western expeditions: the William Dunbar and George Hunter expedition on the Ouachita River (1804–1805), the Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis expedition (1806) on the Red River, and the Zebulon Pike expedition (1806–1807) into the Rocky Mountains and the Southwest. All three produced valuable information about the American frontier.Berry, 2006, p. xi.

American Indian policies

(File:Black Hoof.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|right|Black Hoof, leader of the Shawnee, accepted Jefferson's Indian assimilation policies.)Jefferson's experiences with the American Indians began during his boyhood in Virginia and extended through his political career and into his retirement. He refuted the contemporary notion that Indians were an inferior people and maintained that they were equal in body and mind to people of European descent.(#TJF:Indians|TJF: American Indians)As governor of Virginia during the Revolutionary War, Jefferson recommended moving the Cherokee and Shawnee tribes, who had allied with the British, to west of the Mississippi River. But when he took office as president, he quickly took measures to avert another major conflict, as American and Indian societies were in collision and the British were inciting Indian tribes from Canada.Miller, 2008, p. 90.Sheehan, 1974, pp. 120–21. In Georgia, he stipulated that the state would release its legal claims for lands to its west in exchange for military support in expelling the Cherokee from Georgia. This facilitated his policy of western expansion, to "advance compactly as we multiply".Peterson, 1970, ch. 9.In keeping with his Enlightenment thinking, President Jefferson adopted an assimilation policy towards American Indians known as his "civilization program" which included securing peaceful U.S. – Indian treaty alliances and encouraging agriculture. Jefferson advocated that Indian tribes should make federal purchases by credit holding their lands as collateral for repayment. Various tribes accepted Jefferson's policies, including the Shawnees led by Black Hoof, the Creek, and the Cherokees. However, some Shawnees broke off from Black Hoof, led by Tecumseh, and opposed Jefferson's assimilation policies.(#TJFIndian Nations|TJF: President Jefferson and the Indian Nations)Historian Bernard Sheehan argues that Jefferson believed that assimilation was best for American Indians; second best was removal to the west. He felt that the worst outcome of the cultural and resources conflict between American citizens and American Indians would be their attacking the whites. Jefferson told Secretary of War General Henry Dearborn (Indian affairs were then under the War Department), "If we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated or driven beyond the Mississippi."The Life and Writings of Thomas Jefferson, pp. 265–66. Miller agrees that Jefferson believed that Indians should assimilate to American customs and agriculture. Historians such as Peter S. Onuf and Merrill D. Peterson argue that Jefferson's actual Indian policies did little to promote assimilation and were a pretext to seize lands.Miller, 2008, p. 94.

Re-election in 1804 and second term

{{further|United States presidential election, 1804}}(File:ElectoralCollege1804.svg|thumb|right|alt=Electoral College map|1804 Electoral College vote)Jefferson's successful first term occasioned his re-nomination for president by the Republican party, with George Clinton replacing Burr as his running mate.Meacham, 2012, pp. 405–06. The Federalist party ran Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, John Adams's vice presidential candidate in the 1800 election. The Jefferson-Clinton ticket won overwhelmingly in the electoral college vote, by 162 to 14, promoting their achievement of a strong economy, lower taxes, and the Louisiana Purchase.In March 1806, a split developed in the Republican party, led by fellow Virginian and former Republican ally John Randolph who viciously accused President Jefferson on the floor of the House of moving too far in the Federalist direction. In so doing, Randolph permanently set himself apart politically from Jefferson. Jefferson and Madison had backed resolutions to limit or ban British imports in retaliation for British actions against American shipping. Also, in 1808, Jefferson was the first president to propose a broad Federal plan to build roads and canals across several states, asking for $20 million, further alarming Randolph and believers of limited government.Meacham, 2012, pp. 415–17.Jefferson's popularity further suffered in his second term due to his response to wars in Europe. Positive relations with Great Britain had diminished, due partly to the antipathy between Jefferson and British diplomat Anthony Merry. After Napoleon's decisive victory at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon became more aggressive in his negotiations over trading rights, which American efforts failed to counter. Jefferson then led the enactment of the Embargo Act of 1807, directed at both France and Great Britain. This triggered economic chaos in the U.S. and was strongly criticized at the time, resulting in Jefferson having to abandon the policy a year later.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, pp. 291–94.During the revolutionary era, the states abolished the international slave trade, but South Carolina reopened it. In his annual message of December 1806, Jefferson denounced the "violations of human rights" attending the international slave trade, calling on the newly elected Congress to criminalize it immediately. In 1807, Congress passed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, which Jefferson signed.Miller, 1980, pp. 145–46.Randall, 1994, p. 583. The act established severe punishment against the international slave trade, although it did not address the issue domestically.Kaplan, 1999, p. 407.In the wake of the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson sought to annex Florida from Spain, as brokered by Napoleon.Peterson, 2002, p. 49. Congress agreed to the president's request to secretly appropriate purchase money in the "$2,000,000 Bill". The Congressional funding drew criticism from Randolph, who believed that the money would wind up in the coffers of Napoleon. The bill was signed into law; however, negotiations for the project failed. Jefferson lost clout among fellow Republicans, and his use of unofficial Congressional channels was sharply criticized. In Haiti, Jefferson's neutrality had allowed arms to enable the slave independence movement during its Revolution, and blocked attempts to assist Napoleon, who was defeated there in 1803.Jefferson, Haiti The Journal of Southern History 61, no. 2 (May 1995), p. 221. But he refused official recognition of the country during his second term, in deference to southern complaints about the racial violence against slave-holders; it was eventually extended to Haiti in 1862.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 146–47. Domestically, Jefferson's grandson James Madison Randolph became the first child born in the White House in 1806.Malone, 1981, p. 11.

Burr conspiracy and trial

{{further|Burr–Hamilton duel|Burr conspiracy}}(File:Vanderlyn Burr.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|left|Aaron BurrVanderlyn, 1802)Following the 1801 electoral deadlock, Jefferson's relationship with his vice president, former New York Senator Aaron Burr, rapidly eroded. Jefferson suspected Burr of seeking the presidency for himself, while Burr was angered by Jefferson's refusal to appoint some of his supporters to federal office. Burr was dropped from the Republican ticket in 1804.The same year, Burr was soundly defeated in his bid to be elected New York governor. During the campaign, Alexander Hamilton publicly made callous remarks regarding Burr's moral character.Chernow, 2004, p. 714. Subsequently, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, mortally wounding him on July 11, 1804. Burr was indicted for Hamilton's murder in New York and New Jersey, causing him to flee to Georgia, although he remained President of the Senate during Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase's impeachment trial.Wood, 2010, pp. 385–86. Both indictments quietly died and Burr was not prosecuted.Banner (1974), p. 34. Also during the election, certain New England separatists approached Burr, desiring a New England federation and intimating that he would be their leader.Banner (1974), pp. 34–35. However, nothing came of the plot, since Burr had lost the election and his reputation was ruined after killing Hamilton. In August 1804, Burr contacted British Minister Anthony Merry offering to capture U.S. western territory in return for money and British ships.The Burr Conspiracy (2000)After leaving office in April 1805, Burr traveled west and conspired with Louisiana Territory governor James Wilkinson, beginning a large-scale recruitment for a military expedition.Peterson (2002), p. 50. Other plotters included Ohio Senator John Smith and an Irishman named Harmon Blennerhassett. Burr discussed a number of plots—seizing control of Mexico or Spanish Florida, or forming a secessionist state in New Orleans or the Western U.S. Historians remain unclear as to his true goal.Wood, 2010, pp. 385–86; Meacham, 2012, pp. 420, 422.{{efn|Further complicating matters, Wilkinson was posthumously revealed to have been in the simultaneous pay of the British, French, and Spanish.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 161–62.}}In the fall of 1806, Burr launched a military flotilla carrying about 60 men down the Ohio River. Wilkinson renounced the plot, apparently from self-interested motives; he reported Burr's expedition to Jefferson, who immediately ordered Burr's arrest.Meacham, 2012, p. 420.Banner (1974), p. 37. On February 13, 1807, Burr was captured in Louisiana's Bayou Pierre wilderness and sent to Virginia to be tried for treason.Burr's 1807 conspiracy trial became a national issue.Appleby, 2003, p. 100; Bernstein, 2003, p. 162. Jefferson attempted to preemptively influence the verdict by telling Congress that Burr's guilt was "beyond question", but the case came before his longtime political foe John Marshall, who dismissed the treason charge. Burr's legal team at one stage subpoenaed Jefferson, but Jefferson refused to testify, making the first argument for executive privilege. Instead, Jefferson provided relevant legal documents.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 163–64; Meacham, 2012, pp. 422–23. After a three-month trial, the jury found Burr not guilty, while Jefferson denounced his acquittal.Banner, 1974, p. 37.Bernstein, 2003, p. 165.{{efn|Burr then left for Europe and eventually returned to practicing law.}}Appleby, 2003, p. 101. Jefferson subsequently removed Wilkinson as territorial governor but retained him in the U.S. military. Historian James N. Banner criticized Jefferson for continuing to trust Wilkinson, a "faithless plotter".

Chesapeake–Leopard affair and Embargo Act

(File:Leopardchesapeake.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|right|HMS Leopard (right) firing upon USS Chesapeake)The British conducted raids on American shipping and kidnapped seamen in 1806–07; thousands of Americans were thus impressed into the British naval service. In 1806, Jefferson issued a call for a boycott of British goods; on April 18, Congress passed the Non-Importation Acts, but they were never enforced. Later that year, Jefferson asked James Monroe and William Pinkney to negotiate with Great Britain to end the harassment of American shipping, though Britain showed no signs of improving relations. The Monroe–Pinkney Treaty was finalized but lacked any provisions to end impressment, and Jefferson refused to submit it to the Senate for ratification.Hayes, 2008, pp. 504–05.The British ship {{HMS|Leopard|1790|6}} fired upon the {{USS|Chesapeake|1799|6}} off the Virginia coast in June 1807, and Jefferson prepared for war.(#TJFEmbargo|TJF: Embargo of 1807) He issued a proclamation banning armed British ships from U.S. waters. He presumed unilateral authority to call on the states to prepare 100,000 militia and ordered the purchase of arms, ammunition, and supplies, writing, "The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation [than strict observance of written laws]". The {{USS|Revenge|1806|6}} was dispatched to demand an explanation from the British government; it also was fired upon. Jefferson called for a special session of Congress in October to enact an embargo or alternatively to consider war.Meacham, 2012, pp. 425–29.In December, news arrived that Napoleon had extended the Berlin Decree, globally banning British imports. In Britain, King George III ordered redoubling efforts at impressment, including American sailors. But the war fever of the summer faded; Congress had no appetite to prepare the U.S. for war. Jefferson asked for and received the Embargo Act, an alternative that allowed the U.S. more time to build up defensive works, militias, and naval forces. Later historians have seen irony in Jefferson's assertion of such federal power. Meacham claims that the Embargo Act was a projection of power which surpassed the Alien and Sedition Acts, and R. B. Bernstein writes that Jefferson "was pursuing policies resembling those he had cited in 1776 as grounds for independence and revolution".Meacham, 2012, p. 430; Bernstein, 2003, p. 168.(File:Ograbme.jpg|thumb|alt=A turtle biting a man carrying a barrel to a waiting ship|A political cartoon showing merchants dodging the "Ograbme", which is "Embargo" spelled backwards (1807))Secretary of State James Madison supported the embargo with equal vigor to Jefferson,Burstein, 2010, pp. 497–98. while Treasury Secretary Gallatin opposed it, due to its indefinite time frame and the risk that it posed to the policy of American neutrality.Meacham, 2012, p. 430. The U.S. economy suffered, criticism grew, and opponents began evading the embargo. Instead of retreating, Jefferson sent federal agents to secretly track down smugglers and violators.Tucker, 1990, v. 1, pp. 204–09, 232. Three acts were passed in Congress during 1807 and 1808, called the Supplementary, the Additional, and the Enforcement acts. The government could not prevent American vessels from trading with the European belligerents once they had left American ports, although the embargo triggered a devastating decline in exports.Most historians consider Jefferson's embargo to have been ineffective and harmful to American interests.Cogliano, 2008, p. 250; Meacham, 2012, p. 475. Appleby describes the strategy as Jefferson's "least effective policy", and Joseph Ellis calls it "an unadulterated calamity".Appleby, 2003, p. 145; Ellis, 1996, p. 237. Others, however, portray it as an innovative, nonviolent measure which aided France in its war with Britain while preserving American neutrality.Hayes, 2008, pp. 504–05; Kaplan, 1999, pp. 166–68. Jefferson believed that the failure of the embargo was due to selfish traders and merchants showing a lack of "republican virtue." He maintained that, had the embargo been widely observed, it would have avoided war in 1812.Hayes, 2008, pp. 504–05; Peterson, 1960, pp. 289–90.In December 1807, Jefferson announced his intention not to seek a third term. He turned his attention increasingly to Monticello during the last year of his presidency, giving Madison and Gallatin almost total control of affairs.Ellis, 1996, p. 238; Appleby, 2003, pp. 128–29. Shortly before leaving office in March 1809, Jefferson signed the repeal of the Embargo. In its place, the Non-Intercourse Act was passed, but it proved no more effective. The day before Madison was inaugurated as his successor, Jefferson said that he felt like "a prisoner, released from his chains".Ellis, 1996, p. 238.

Post-presidency (1809–1826)

{{further|Thomas Jefferson and education}}Following his retirement from the presidency, Jefferson continued his pursuit of educational interests; he sold his vast collection of books to the Library of Congress, and founded and built the University of Virginia.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 479. Jefferson continued to correspond with many of the country's leaders, and the Monroe Doctrine bears a strong resemblance to solicited advice that Jefferson gave to Monroe in 1823.Meacham, 2012, pp. 481–82. As he settled into private life at Monticello, Jefferson developed a daily routine of rising early. He would spend several hours writing letters, with which he was often deluged. In the midday, he would often inspect the plantation on horseback. In the evenings, his family enjoyed leisure time in the gardens; late at night, Jefferson would retire to bed with a book.(#TJFRise|TJF: I Rise with the Sun) However, his routine was often interrupted by uninvited visitors and tourists eager to see the icon in his final days, turning Monticello into "a virtual hotel".Ellis, 1996, p. 232; Meacham, 2012, pp. 463–65.

University of Virginia

(File:Lawn UVa colorful winter sun 2010.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The University of Virginia, Jefferson's "Academical Village")Jefferson envisioned a university free of church influences where students could specialize in many new areas not offered at other colleges. He believed that education engendered a stable society, which should provide publicly funded schools accessible to students from all social strata, based solely on ability.U Va. Library He initially proposed his University in a letter to Joseph Priestley in 1800Adams, 1888, p. 48. and, in 1819, the 76-year-old Jefferson founded the University of Virginia. He organized the state legislative campaign for its charter and, with the assistance of Edmund Bacon, purchased the location. He was the principal designer of the buildings, planned the university's curriculum, and served as the first rector upon its opening in 1825.Peterson, 1970, ch. 11 [e-book].Jefferson was a strong disciple of Greek and Roman architectural styles, which he believed to be most representative of American democracy. Each academic unit, called a pavilion, was designed with a two-story temple front, while the library "Rotunda" was modeled on the Roman Pantheon. Jefferson referred to the university's grounds as the "Academical Village," and he reflected his educational ideas in its layout. The ten pavilions included classrooms and faculty residences; they formed a quadrangle and were connected by colonnades, behind which stood the students' rows of rooms. Gardens and vegetable plots were placed behind the pavilions and were surrounded by serpentine walls, affirming the importance of the agrarian lifestyle.Hogan, 1987, pp. 28–29. The university had a library rather than a church at its center, emphasizing its secular nature—a controversial aspect at the time.Gordon-Reed, 2008, p. 649.When Jefferson died in 1826, James Madison replaced him as rector.(#TJFMadison|TJF: James Madison) Jefferson bequeathed most of his library to the university.Crawford, 2008, p. 235.

Reconciliation with Adams

(File:Abigail Adams by Gilbert Stuart.jpg|thumb|In 1804, Abigail Adams attempted to reconcile Jefferson and Adams.)Jefferson and John Adams had been good friends in the first decades of their political careers, serving together in the Continental Congress in the 1770s and in Europe in the 1780s. The Federalist/Republican split of the 1790s divided them, however, and Adams felt betrayed by Jefferson's sponsorship of partisan attacks, such as those of James Callender. Jefferson, on the other hand, was angered at Adams for his appointment of "midnight judges".Freeman, 2008, p. 12. The two men did not communicate directly for more than a decade after Jefferson succeeded Adams as president.Ellis, 2003, pp. 207, 209. A brief correspondence took place between Abigail Adams and Jefferson after Jefferson's daughter "Polly" died in 1804, in an attempt at reconciliation unknown to Adams. However, an exchange of letters resumed open hostilities between Adams and Jefferson.As early as 1809, Benjamin Rush, signer of the Declaration of Independence, desired that Jefferson and Adams reconcile and began to prod the two through correspondence to re-establish contact. In 1812, Adams wrote a short New Year's greeting to Jefferson, prompted earlier by Rush, to which Jefferson warmly responded. Thus began what historian David McCullough calls "one of the most extraordinary correspondences in American history".McCullough, 2001, pp. 603–05. Over the next fourteen years, the former presidents exchanged 158 letters discussing their political differences, justifying their respective roles in events, and debating the revolution's import to the world.Ellis, 2003, pp. 213, 230. When Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: "Thomas Jefferson survives", unaware that Jefferson had died several hours before.McCullough, 2001, p. 646.Ellis, 2003, p. 248.

Autobiography

In 1821, at the age of 77, Jefferson began writing his autobiography, in order to "state some recollections of dates and facts concerning myself".Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743–1790 He focused on the struggles and achievements he experienced until July 29, 1790, where the narrative stopped short.Berstein, 2003, p. 179. He excluded his youth, emphasizing the revolutionary era. He related that his ancestors came from Wales to America in the early 17th century and settled in the western frontier of the Virginia colony, which influenced his zeal for individual and state rights. Jefferson described his father as uneducated, but with a "strong mind and sound judgement". His enrollment in the College of William and Mary and election to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1775 were included.He also expressed opposition to the idea of a privileged aristocracy made up of large land owning families partial to the King, and instead promoted "the aristocracy of virtue and talent, which nature has wisely provided for the direction of the interests of society, & scattered with equal hand through all its conditions, was deemed essential to a well ordered republic".Jefferson gave his insight about people, politics, and events. The work is primarily concerned with the Declaration and reforming the government of Virginia. He used notes, letters, and documents to tell many of the stories within the autobiography. He suggested that this history was so rich that his personal affairs were better overlooked, but he incorporated a self-analysis using the Declaration and other patriotism.Hamelman, 2002, Journal

Lafayette's visit

(File:Lafayette-scheffer.jpg|thumb|upright|Lafayette in 1824, portrait by Scheffer, hanging in U.S. House of Representatives)In the summer of 1824, the Marquis de Lafayette accepted an invitation from President James Monroe to visit the country. Jefferson and Lafayette had not seen each other since 1789. After visits to New York, New England, and Washington, Lafayette arrived at Monticello on November 4.Jefferson's grandson Randolph was present and recorded the reunion: "As they approached each other, their uncertain gait quickened itself into a shuffling run, and exclaiming, 'Ah Jefferson!' 'Ah Lafayette!', they burst into tears as they fell into each other's arms." Jefferson and Lafayette then retired to the house to reminisce.Mapp, 1991, p. 328. The next morning Jefferson, Lafayette, and James Madison attended a tour and banquet at the University of Virginia. Jefferson had someone else read a speech he had prepared for Lafayette, as his voice was weak and could not carry. This was his last public presentation. After an 11-day visit, Lafayette bid Jefferson goodbye and departed Monticello.Malone, 1981, pp. 403–04; Brodie, 1998, p. 460; Crawford, 2008, pp. 202–03.

Final days, death, and burial

(File:Thomas Jefferson's Grave Site.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Jefferson's gravesite|alt=Obelisk at Thomas Jefferson's gravesite)Jefferson's approximately $100,000 of debt weighed heavily on his mind in his final months, as it became increasingly clear that he would have little to leave to his heirs. In February 1826, he successfully applied to the General Assembly to hold a public lottery as a fund raiser.Ellis, 1996, pp. 287–88. His health began to deteriorate in July 1825, due to a combination of rheumatism from arm and wrist injuries, as well as intestinal and urinary disorders and, by June 1826, he was confined to bed. On July 3, Jefferson was overcome by fever and declined an invitation to Washington to attend an anniversary celebration of the Declaration.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 551.{{anchor|Death}}During the last hours of his life, he was accompanied by family members and friends. Jefferson died on July 4 at 12:50 p.m. at age 83, the same day as the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. His last recorded words were "No, doctor, nothing more," refusing laudanum from his physician, but his final significant words are often cited as "Is it the Fourth?" or "This is the Fourth."WEB,weblink Jefferson's Last Words, Martin, Russell L., June 7, 1988, Monticello, February 2, 2019, When John Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: "Thomas Jefferson survives," though Adams was unaware that Jefferson had died several hours before.McCullough, 2001, p. 646Ellis, 2003, p. 248Rayner, 1834, pp. 428–29.Bernstein, 2003, p. 189. The sitting president was Adams's son, John Quincy Adams, and he called the coincidence of their deaths on the nation's anniversary "visible and palpable remarks of Divine Favor."Meacham, 2012, p. 496.Shortly after Jefferson had died, attendants found a gold locket on a chain around his neck, where it had rested for more than 40 years, containing a small faded blue ribbon which tied a lock of his wife Martha's brown hair.Donaldson, 1898, p. 49.Jefferson's remains were buried at Monticello, under an epitaph that he wrote:HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE, OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.(#TJFBio|Thomas Jefferson Foundation: "Thomas Jefferson, A Brief Biography")In his advanced years, Jefferson became increasingly concerned that people understand the principles in and the people responsible for writing the Declaration of Independence, and he continually defended himself as its author. He considered the document one of his greatest life achievements, in addition to authoring the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom and his founding of the University of Virginia. Plainly absent from his epitaph were his political roles, including President of the United States.WEB,weblink Legacy: Thomas Jefferson, Library of Congress.gov, June 15, 2019, April 24, 2000, Jefferson died deeply in debt, unable to pass on his estate freely to his heirs.Bernstein, 2003, p. xii. He gave instructions in his will for disposal of his assets,Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 556. including the freeing of Sally Hemings's children;Meacham, 2012, p. 495. but his estate, possessions, and slaves were sold at public auctions starting in 1827.Ellis, 1996, p. 289. In 1831, Monticello was sold by Martha Jefferson Randolph and the other heirs.(#TJFSale|Thomas Jefferson Foundation: "Sale of Monticello")

Political, social and religious views

Jefferson subscribed to the political ideals expounded by John Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton, whom he considered the three greatest men who ever lived.Hayes, 2008, p. 10.Cogliano, 2008, p. 14. He was also influenced by the writings of Gibbon, Hume, Robertson, Bolingbroke, Montesquieu, and Voltaire.Cogliano, 2008, p. 26. Jefferson thought that the independent yeoman and agrarian life were ideals of republican virtues. He distrusted cities and financiers, favored decentralized government power, and believed that the tyranny that had plagued the common man in Europe was due to corrupt political establishments and monarchies. He supported efforts to disestablish the Church of EnglandFerling, 2000, p. 158. wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and he pressed for a wall of separation between church and state.Mayer, 1994, p. 76. The Republicans under Jefferson were strongly influenced by the 18th-century British Whig Party, which believed in limited government.Wood, 2010, p. 287. His Democratic-Republican Party became dominant in early American politics, and his views became known as Jeffersonian democracy.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, pp. 559–67.Smith, 2003, p. 314.

Society and government

According to Jefferson's philosophy, citizens have "certain inalienable rights" and "rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will, within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others."Bassani, 2010, p. 113. A staunch advocate of the jury system to protect people's liberties, he proclaimed in 1801, "I consider [trial by jury] as the only anchor yet imagined by man, by which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution."Wilson, 2012, p. 584.Jeffersonian government not only prohibited individuals in society from infringing on the liberty of others, but also restrained itself from diminishing individual liberty as a protection against tyranny from the majority.Mayer, 1994, p. 328. Initially, Jefferson favored restricted voting to those who could actually have free exercise of their reason by escaping any corrupting dependence on others. He advocated enfranchising a majority of Virginians, seeking to expand suffrage to include "yeoman farmers" who owned their own land while excluding tenant farmers, city day laborers, vagrants, most Amerindians, and women.He was convinced that individual liberties were the fruit of political equality, which were threatened by arbitrary government.Peterson, 1960, p. 340. Excesses of democracy in his view were caused by institutional corruptions rather than human nature. He was less suspicious of a working democracy than many contemporaries.Wood, 2011, pp. 220–27. As president, Jefferson feared that the Federalist system enacted by Washington and Adams had encouraged corrupting patronage and dependence. He tried to restore a balance between the state and federal governments more nearly reflecting the Articles of Confederation, seeking to reinforce state prerogatives where his party was in a majority.Jefferson was steeped in the British Whig tradition of the oppressed majority set against a repeatedly unresponsive court party in the Parliament. He justified small outbreaks of rebellion as necessary to get monarchial regimes to amend oppressive measures compromising popular liberties. In a republican regime ruled by the majority, he acknowledged "it will often be exercised when wrong."Golden & Golden, 2002, p. 60. But "the remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them."Meacham, 2012, p. 213. The full letter to William S. Smith can be seen at the Library of Congress As Jefferson saw his party triumph in two terms of his presidency and launch into a third term under James Madison, his view of the U.S. as a continental republic and an "empire of liberty" grew more upbeat. On departing the presidency in 1809, he described America as "trusted with the destines of this solitary republic of the world, the only monument of human rights, and the sole depository of the sacred fire of freedom and self-government."Bober, 2008, p. 264.

Democracy

File:Jefferson Portrait West Point by Thomas Sully.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Thomas Jefferson|Thomas Jefferson at age 78. Portrait by Thomas Sully hanging at West PointWest PointJefferson considered democracy to be the expression of society, and promoted national self-determination, cultural uniformity, and education of all males of the commonwealth.Wood, 2010, p. 277. He supported public education and a free press as essential components of a democratic nation.Appleby, 2003, pp. 57–58, 84.After resigning as Secretary of State in 1795, Jefferson focused on the electoral bases of the Republicans and Federalists. The "Republican" classification for which he advocated included "the entire body of landholders" everywhere and "the body of laborers" without land.Meacham, 2012, p. 298. Republicans united behind Jefferson as vice president, with the election of 1796 expanding democracy nationwide at grassroots levels.Wilentz, 2005, p. 85. Jefferson promoted Republican candidates for local offices.Meacham, 2012, p. 308.Beginning with Jefferson's electioneering for the "revolution of 1800," his political efforts were based on egalitarian appeals.Wilentz, 2005, pp. 97–98. In his later years, he referred to the 1800 election "as real a revolution in the principles of our government as that of '76 was in its form," one "not effected indeed by the sword ... but by the ... suffrage of the people."Wilentz, 2005, p. 97. Voter participation grew during Jefferson's presidency, increasing to "unimaginable levels" compared to the Federalist Era, with turnout of about 67,000 in 1800 rising to about 143,000 in 1804.Wilentz, 2005, p. 138.At the onset of the Revolution, Jefferson accepted William Blackstone's argument that property ownership would sufficiently empower voters' independent judgement, but he sought to further expand suffrage by land distribution to the poor.Keyssar, 2009, p. 10. In the heat of the Revolutionary Era and afterward, several states expanded voter eligibility from landed gentry to all propertied male, tax-paying citizens with Jefferson's support.Ferling, 2004, p. 286. In retirement, he gradually became critical of his home state for violating "the principle of equal political rights"—the social right of universal male suffrage.Keyssar, 2009, p. 37. He sought a "general suffrage" of all taxpayers and militia-men, and equal representation by population in the General Assembly to correct preferential treatment of the slave-holding regions.Wilentz, 2005, p. 200.

Religion

(File:Thomas Jefferson Bible Lined Cover.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.1|Jefferson's Bible featuring only the words of Jesus from the evangelists, in parallel Greek, Latin, French and English|alt=A leather-bound Bible)Baptized in his youth, Jefferson became a governing member of his local Episcopal Church in Charlottesville, which he later attended with his daughters.Randall, 1994, p. 203. Influenced by Deist authors during his college years, Jefferson abandoned "orthodox" Christianity after his review of New Testament teachings.(#TJFReligion|TJF: "Jefferson's Religious Beliefs")Onuf, 2007, pp. 139–68. In 1803 he asserted, "I am Christian, in the only sense in which [Jesus] wished any one to be." Jefferson later defined being a Christian as one who followed the simple teachings of Jesus. Jefferson compiled Jesus' biblical teachings, omitting miraculous or supernatural references. He titled the work The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, known today as the Jefferson Bible.Jefferson Bible, 1820 Peterson states Jefferson was a theist "whose God was the Creator of the universe ... all the evidences of nature testified to His perfection; and man could rely on the harmony and beneficence of His work."Peterson, 1970, ch. 2 [e-book].Jefferson was firmly anticlerical, writing in "every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty ... they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon."Wood, 2010, p. 577. The full letter to Horatio Spatford can be read at the National Archives.(#archives|U.S. Gov: National Archives) Jefferson once supported banning clergy from public office but later relented.Finkelman, 2006, p. 921. In 1777, he drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. Ratified in 1786, it made compelling attendance or contributions to any state-sanctioned religious establishment illegal and declared that men "shall be free to profess ... their opinions in matters of religion."Yarbrough, 2006, p. 28. The Statute is one of only three accomplishments he chose to have inscribed in the epitaph on his gravestone.Peterson, 2003, p. 315.W. W. Hening, ed., Statutes at Large of Virginia, vol. 12 (1823): 84–86. Early in 1802, Jefferson wrote to the Danbury Connecticut Baptist Association, "that religion is a matter which lies solely between Man and his God." He interpreted the First Amendment as having built "a wall of separation between Church and State."Meacham, 2012, pp. 369–70. The phrase 'Separation of Church and State' has been cited several times by the Supreme Court in its interpretation of the Establishment Clause.Jefferson donated to the American Bible Society, saying the Four Evangelists delivered a "pure and sublime system of morality" to humanity. He thought Americans would rationally create "Apiarian" religion, extracting the best traditions of every denomination.Meacham, 2012, pp. 472–73. And he contributed generously to several local denominations near Monticello.Randall, 1994, p. 555. Acknowledging organized religion would always be factored into political life for good or ill, he encouraged reason over supernatural revelation to make inquiries into religion. He believed in a creator god, an afterlife, and the sum of religion as loving God and neighbors. But he also controversially renounced the conventional Christian Trinity, denying Jesus' divinity as the Son of God.Meacham, 2012, pp. 471–73.Sanford, 1984, pp. 85–86.Jefferson's unorthodox religious beliefs became an important issue in the 1800 presidential election.Wood, 2010, p. 586. Federalists attacked him as an atheist. As president, Jefferson countered the accusations by praising religion in his inaugural address and attending services at the Capitol.

Banks

(File:Alexander Hamilton portrait by John Trumbull 1806.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|Alexander Hamilton, national bank proponent and Jefferson's adversary)Jefferson distrusted government banks and opposed public borrowing, which he thought created long-term debt, bred monopolies, and invited dangerous speculation as opposed to productive labor.Malone, 1981, pp. 140–43. In one letter to Madison, he argued each generation should curtail all debt within 19 years, and not impose a long-term debt on subsequent generations.Meacham, 2012, pp. 224–25.In 1791, President Washington asked Jefferson, then Secretary of State, and Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, if the Congress had the authority to create a national bank. While Hamilton believed Congress had the authority, Jefferson and Madison thought a national bank would ignore the needs of individuals and farmers, and would violate the Tenth Amendment by assuming powers not granted to the federal government by the states.Wood, 2010, p. 144; Bailey, 2007, p. 82; Meacham, 2012, p. 249.Jefferson used agrarian resistance to banks and speculators as the first defining principle of an opposition party, recruiting candidates for Congress on the issue as early as 1792.Ferling, 2013, pp. 221–22. As president, Jefferson was persuaded by Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin to leave the bank intact, but sought to restrain its influence.Wood, 2010, pp. 293–95.{{efn|The First Bank of the U.S. was eventually abolished in 1811 by a heavily Republican Congress.Wood, 2010, pp. 295–96.}}

Slavery

(File:Jefferson slaves.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Farm Book page|Jefferson's 1795 Farm Book, page 30, lists 163 slaves at Monticello.)Jefferson lived in a planter economy largely dependent upon slavery, and as a wealthy landholder, used slave labor for his household, plantation, and workshops. He first recorded his slaveholding in 1774, when he counted 41.Cogliano, 2006, p. 219; Onuf, 2007, p. 258. Over his lifetime he owned about 600 slaves; he inherited about 175 while most of the remainder were born on his plantations.(#TJFSlaveryFAQ|TJF: Slavery at Monticello – Property) Jefferson purchased slaves in order to unite their families, and he sold about 110 for economic reasons, primarily slaves from his outlying farms.Gordon-Reed, 2008, p. 292. Many historians have described Jefferson as a benevolent slaveownerBear, 1967, p. 99; Peterson, 1960, p. 535; Halliday, 2009, p. 236. who didn't overwork his slaves by the conventions of his time, and provided them log cabins with fireplaces, food, clothing and some household provisions, though slaves often had to make many of their own provisions. Additionally, Jefferson gave his slaves financial and other incentives while also allowing them to grow gardens and raise their own chickens. The whip was employed only in rare and extreme cases of fighting and stealing.TJF – Thomas Jefferson's Monticello "Slave Dwellings"Jefferson once said, "My first wish is that the labourers may be well treated". Jefferson did not work his slaves on Sundays and Christmas and he allowed them more personal time during the winter months.(#TJFSlaveryWork|TJF: Slavery at Monticello – Work) Some scholars doubt Jefferson's benevolence,Wiencek, 2012, pp. 114, 122. however, noting cases of excessive slave whippings in his absence. His nail factory was only staffed by child slaves, but many of those boys became tradesmen. Burwell Colbert, who started his working life as a child in Monticello's Nailery, was later promoted to the supervisory position of butler.(#TJFNailery|TJF: Thomas Jefferson's Monticello – Nailery),Wiencek, 2012, p. 93.Jefferson felt slavery was harmful to both slave and master, but had reservations about releasing unprepared slaves into freedom and advocated gradual emancipation.(#TJFslavery|TJF: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery)Ferling, 2000, p. 161.Howe, 2009, p. 74. In 1779, he proposed gradual voluntary training and resettlement to the Virginia legislature, and three years later drafted legislation allowing owners to free their own slaves.Meacham, p. 105. In his draft of the Declaration of Independence, he included a section, stricken by other Southern delegates, criticizing King George III's role in promoting slavery in the colonies.Meacham, p. 475. In 1784, Jefferson proposed the abolition of slavery in all western U.S. territories, limiting slave importation to 15 years.Ferling 2000, p. 287. Congress, however, failed to pass his proposal by one vote. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, a partial victory for Jefferson that terminated slavery in the Northwest Territory. Jefferson freed his slave Robert Hemings in 1794 and he freed his cook slave James Hemings in 1796.Finkelman (1994), p. 215. During his presidency Jefferson allowed the diffusion of slavery into the Louisiana Territory hoping to prevent slave uprisings in Virginia and to prevent South Carolina secession.Freehling, 2005, p. 70. In 1804, in a compromise on the slavery issue, Jefferson and Congress banned domestic slave trafficking for one year into the Louisiana Territory.Wiencek, 2012, pp. 257–58. In 1806 he officially called for anti-slavery legislation terminating the import or export of slaves. Congress passed the law in 1807, taking effect in 1818.Du Bois, 1904, pp. 95–96.Ferling 2000, p. 288. In 1819, he strongly opposed a Missouri statehood application amendment that banned domestic slave importation and freed slaves at the age of 25 on grounds it would destroy the union.Ferling 2000, pp. 286, 294. Jefferson freed his runaway slave Harriet Hemings in 1822. Upon his death in 1826, Jefferson freed five male Hemings slaves in his will.Finkelman (1994), pp. 220–21.Jefferson shared the common belief of his day that blacks were mentally and physically inferior, but argued they nonetheless had innate human rights.Appleby, 2003, pp. 139–40. In Notes on the State of Virginia, he created controversy by calling slavery a moral evil for which the nation would ultimately have to account to God.Ellis, 1997, p. 87. He therefore supported colonization plans that would transport freed slaves to another country, such as Liberia or Sierra Leone, though he recognized the impracticability of such proposals.Helo, 2013, p. 105; Peterson, 1970, pp. 998–99; Meacham, 2012, p. 478.During his presidency Jefferson was for the most part publicly silent on the issue of slavery and emancipation,(#TJFAntiSlaveryActions|TJF:Jefferson's Antislavery Actions) as the Congressional debate over slavery and its extension caused a dangerous north-south rift among the states, with talk of a northern confederacy in New England.DiLorenzo, 1998, Yankee Confederates{{efn|Aaron Burr was offered help in obtaining the governorship of New York by Timothy Pickering if he could persuade New York to go along, but the secession effort failed when Burr lost the election.}} The violent attacks on white slave owners during the Haitian Revolution due to injustices under slavery supported Jefferson's fears of a race war, increasing his reservations about promoting emancipation at that time.Meacham, 2012, pp. 255, 275–78. After numerous attempts and failures to bring about emancipation,Ferling 2000, p. 287. Jefferson wrote privately in an 1805 letter to William A. Burwell, "I have long since given up the expectation of any early provision for the extinguishment of slavery among us." That same year he also related this idea to George Logan, writing, "I have most carefully avoided every public act or manifestation on that subject."(#TJFSlaveryQuotes|TJF: Quotations on slavery (May 11, 1805))

Historical assessment

Scholars remain divided on whether Jefferson truly condemned slavery and how he changed.Finkelman (1994), p. 215; Finkelman (2012)Alexander, 2010; Davis, 1999, p. 179. Francis D. Cogliano traces the development of competing emancipationist then revisionist and finally contextualist interpretations from the 1960s to the present. The emancipationist view, held by the various scholars at the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Douglas L. Wilson, and others, maintains Jefferson was an opponent of slavery all his life, noting that he did what he could within the limited range of options available to him to undermine it, his many attempts at abolition legislation, the manner in which he provided for slaves, and his advocacy of their more humane treatment.(#TJFTreatment|Landscape of Slavery – Mulberry Row at Monticello: Treatment)Cogliano, 2008, p. 209.{{efn|For examples of each historian's view, see Wilson, Douglas L., Thomas Jefferson and the Issue of Character, The Atlantic, Nov. 1992. Finkelman (1994) "Thomas Jefferson and Antislavery: The Myth Goes On" and Joseph J. Ellis, 1996, American Sphinx: the character of Thomas Jefferson}} The revisionist view, advanced by Paul Finkelman and others, criticizes Jefferson for racism, for holding slaves, and for acting contrary to his words. Jefferson never freed most of his slaves, and he remained silent on the issue while he was president.Finkelman (2012) Contextualists such as Joseph J. Ellis emphasize a change in Jefferson's thinking from his emancipationist views before 1783, noting Jefferson's shift toward public passivity and procrastination on policy issues related to slavery. Jefferson seemed to yield to public opinion by 1794 as he laid the groundwork for his first presidential campaign against Adams in 1796.Cogliano, 2008, pp. 218–20.

Jefferson–Hemings controversy

Claims that Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings's children have been debated since 1802. That year James T. Callender, after being denied a position as postmaster, alleged Jefferson had taken Hemings as a concubine and fathered several children with her.In 1853, William Wells Brown published a novel called Clotel; or, The President's Daughter alluding to Jefferson. This is the first novel in America published by anyone of African descent.Hyland, 2009, pp. ix, 2–3. In 1998, a panel of researchers conducted a Y-DNA study of living descendants of Jefferson's uncle, Field, and of a descendant of Hemings's son, Eston Hemings. The results, published in the journal Nature, showed a match with the male Jefferson line.Foster et al., 1998 According to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, since the results of the DNA tests were made public, most historians believe Jefferson had a relationship with Hemings(#TJFSally|TJF: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account) and, as of 2018, "the issue is a settled historical matter."Monticello Affirms Thomas Jefferson Fathered Children with Sally Hemings, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, June 6, 2018; accessed July 5, 2018 In 2000, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation (TJF) assembled a team of historians whose report concluded that "the DNA study ... indicates a high probability that Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston Hemings."(#TJFConclusions|TJF: Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings – Conclusions){{efn|The minority report from White Wallenborn stated that "the historical evidence is not substantial enough to confirm nor for that matter to refute his paternity of any of the children of Sally Hemings. The DNA studies certainly enhance the possibility but ... do not prove Thomas Jefferson's paternity".(#TJFMinority|TJF: Minority Report of the Monticello Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings)}} In July 2017 the Thomas Jefferson Foundation announced that archeological excavations at Monticello had revealed what they believe to have been Sally Hemings's quarters, adjacent to Jefferson's bedroom. It is part of their Mountaintop Project of restoration.Michael Cottman, "Historians Uncover Slave Quarters of Sally Hemings at Thomas Jefferson's Monticello", NBC News, July 3, 2017; accessed February 4, 2018Krissah Thompson, "For decades they hid Jefferson's relationship with her. Now Monticello is making room for Sally Hemings.", Washington Post, February 18, 2017; accessed February 4, 2018After Thomas Jefferson's death, although not formally manumitted, Sally Hemings was allowed by Jefferson's daughter Martha to live in Charlottesville as a free woman with her two sons until her death in 1835.Gordon-Reed, 1997, pp. 657–60.{{efn|Annette Gordon-Reed notes that it would have been legally challenging to free Sally Hemings, due to Virginia laws mandating the support of older slaves and requiring special permission for freed slaves to remain within the state.Gordon-Reed, 1997, pp. 658–59.}}Some scholars maintain the evidence is insufficient to prove Jefferson's paternity conclusively. Based on DNA and other evidence, they note the possibility that additional Jefferson males, including his brother Randolph Jefferson and any one of Randolph's four sons, or his cousin, could have fathered Eston Hemings or Sally Hemings's other children.Hyland, 2009, pp. 30–31, 79; Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society

Interests and activities

(File:Virginia State Capitol Building.jpg|thumb|right|Virginia State Capitol, designed by Jefferson (wings added later))Jefferson was a farmer, obsessed with new crops, soil conditions, garden designs, and scientific agricultural techniques. His main cash crop was tobacco, but its price was usually low and it was rarely profitable. He tried to achieve self-sufficiency with wheat, vegetables, flax, corn, hogs, sheep, poultry, and cattle to supply his family, slaves, and employees, but he lived perpetually beyond his meansDebt, Thomas Jefferson Foundation; accessed October 9, 2018 and was always in debt.Hayes, 2008, p. 100; McEwan, 1991, pp. 20–39.In the field of architecture, Jefferson helped popularize the Neo-Palladian style in the United States utilizing designs for the Virginia State Capitol, the University of Virginia, Monticello, and others.Berstein, 2003, p. 193; Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 202. Jefferson mastered architecture through self-study, using various books and classical architectural designs of the day. His primary authority was Andrea Palladio's The Four Books of Architecture, which outlines the principles of classical design.Brodie, 1974, pp. 87–88; Bernstein, 2003, p. 9.He was interested in birds and wine, and was a noted gourmet; he was also a prolific writer and linguist, and spoke several languages.Hayes, 2008, pp. 135–36. As a naturalist, he was fascinated by the Natural Bridge geological formation, and in 1774 successfully acquired the Bridge by grant from George III.Kastning, 2014, p. 8.

American Philosophical Society

Jefferson was a member of the American Philosophical Society for 35 years, beginning in 1780. Through the society he advanced the sciences and Enlightenment ideals, emphasizing that knowledge of science reinforced and extended freedom.Hayes, 2008, p. 432. His Notes on the State of Virginia was written in part as a contribution to the society.(#TJFAPS|TJF: "American Philosophical Society") He became the society's third president on March 3, 1797, a few months after he was elected Vice President of the United States.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 118–19. In accepting, Jefferson stated: "I feel no qualification for this distinguished post but a sincere zeal for all the objects of our institution and an ardent desire to see knowledge so disseminated through the mass of mankind that it may at length reach even the extremes of society, beggars and kings."Jefferson served as APS president for the next eighteen years, including through both terms of his presidency. He introduced Meriwether Lewis to the society, where various scientists tutored him in preparation for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.Ambrose, 1996, p. 126. He resigned on January 20, 1815, but remained active through correspondence.Tucker, 1837, v. 2, p. 399.

Linguistics

Jefferson had a lifelong interest in linguistics, and could speak, read, and write in a number of languages, including French, Greek, Italian, and German. In his early years he excelled in classical language while at boarding school(#Miller|Univ. Virginia archives: Miller Center) where he received a classical education in Greek and Latin.Andresen, 2006, Chap. 1. Jefferson later came to regard the Greek language as the "perfect language" as expressed in its laws and philosophy.Bober, 2008, p. 16. While attending the College of William & Mary, he taught himself Italian.(#TJFItaly|TJF: Italy – Language) Here Jefferson first became familiar with the Anglo-Saxon language, especially as it was associated with English Common law and system of government and studied the language in a linguistic and philosophical capacity. He owned 17 volumes of Anglo-Saxon texts and grammar and later wrote an essay on the Anglo-Saxon language.Jefferson claimed to have taught himself Spanish during his nineteen-day journey to France, using only a grammar guide and a copy of Don Quixote.(#TJFSpanish|TJF: Spanish Language) Linguistics played a significant role in how Jefferson modeled and expressed political and philosophical ideas. He believed that the study of ancient languages was essential in understanding the roots of modern language.Hellenbrand, 1990, pp. 155–56. He collected and understood a number of American Indian vocabularies and instructed Lewis and Clark to record and collect various Indian languages during their Expedition.Frawley, 2003, p. 96. When Jefferson removed from Washington after his presidency, he packed 50 Native American vocabulary lists in a chest and transported them on a river boat back to Monticello along with the rest of his possessions. Somewhere along the journey, a thief stole the heavy chest, thinking it was full of valuables, but its contents were dumped into the James River when the thief discovered it was only filled with papers. Subsequently, 30 years of collecting were lost, with only a few fragments rescued from the muddy banks of the river.(#apsmuseum|American Philosophical Society, 2016: Gathering voices)Jefferson was not an outstanding orator and preferred to communicate through writing or remain silent if possible. Instead of delivering his State of the Union addresses himself, Jefferson wrote the annual messages and sent a representative to read them aloud in Congress. This started a tradition which continued until 1913, when President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) chose to deliver his own State of the Union address.(#TJFSpeaking|TJF: "Public speaking")

Inventions

Jefferson invented many small practical devices and improved contemporary inventions, including a revolving book-stand and a "Great Clock" powered by the gravitational pull on cannonballs. He improved the pedometer, the polygraph (a device for duplicating writing),Univ. Virginia archives and the moldboard plow, an idea he never patented and gave to posterity.Malone, 1962, pp. 213–15. Jefferson can also be credited as the creator of the swivel chair, the first of which he created and used to write much of the Declaration of Independence.Kaplan, 1993, p. 315.As Minister to France, Jefferson was impressed by the military standardization program known as the Système Gribeauval, and initiated a program as president to develop interchangeable parts for firearms. For his inventiveness and ingenuity, he received several honorary Doctor of Law degrees.Peterson, 1970, pp. 335–36.

Legacy

Historical reputation

(File:Jefferson Memorial (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright=1.05|right|alt=Jefferson Memorial building and reflecting pool|Jefferson Memorial, Washington, D.C.)Jefferson is an icon of individual liberty, democracy, and republicanism, hailed as the author of the Declaration of Independence, an architect of the American Revolution, and a renaissance man who promoted science and scholarship.Peterson, 1960, pp. 5, 67–69, 189–208, 340. The participatory democracy and expanded suffrage he championed defined his era and became a standard for later generations.Appleby, 2006, p. 149. Meacham opined, that Jefferson was the most influential figure of the democratic republic in its first half century, succeeded by presidential adherents James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, and Martin Van Buren.Meacham, 2012, p. xix. Jefferson is recognized for having written more than 18,000 letters of political and philosophical substance during his life, which Francis D. Cogliano describes as "a documentary legacy ... unprecedented in American history in its size and breadth."Cogliano, 2008, p. 75.Jefferson's reputation declined during the American Civil War, due to his support of states' rights. In the late 19th century, his legacy was widely criticized; conservatives felt that his democratic philosophy had led to that era's populist movement, while Progressives sought a more activist federal government than Jefferson's philosophy allowed. Both groups saw Alexander Hamilton as vindicated by history, rather than Jefferson, and President Woodrow Wilson even described Jefferson as "though a great man, not a great American".Bernstein, 2003, pp. 191–92; Appleby, 2003, pp. 132–33.(File:Thomas Jefferson Memorial front.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|left|alt=Statue of Thomas Jefferson inside Jefferson Memorial|Thomas JeffersonMemorial Statue)In the 1930s, Jefferson was held in higher esteem; President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–45) and New Deal Democrats celebrated his struggles for "the common man" and reclaimed him as their party's founder. Jefferson became a symbol of American democracy in the incipient Cold War, and the 1940s and 1950s saw the zenith of his popular reputation.Bernstein, 2003, pp. 192–94; Appleby, 2003, pp. 135–36. Following the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, Jefferson's slaveholding came under new scrutiny, particularly after DNA testing in the late 1990s supported allegations that he had a relationship with Sally Hemings.Cogliano, 2008, p. 12; Appleby, 2003, p. 136, 140; Bernstein, 2003, pp. 194–97.Noting the huge output of scholarly books on Jefferson in recent years, historian Gordon Wood summarizes the raging debates about Jefferson's stature: "Although many historians and others are embarrassed about his contradictions and have sought to knock him off the democratic pedestal ... his position, though shaky, still seems secure."Gordon S. Wood. "Revealing the Total Jefferson," The New York Review of Books. June 23, 2016.The Siena Research Institute poll of presidential scholars, begun in 1982, has consistently ranked Jefferson as one of the five best U.S. presidents,SRI, 2010. and a 2015 Brookings Institution poll of American Political Science Association members ranked him as the fifth greatest president.Brookings, 2015{{clear}}

Memorials and honors

{{Further|List of places named for Thomas Jefferson}}(File:Dean Franklin - 06.04.03 Mount Rushmore Monument (by-sa)-3 new.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|(left to right) Washington, Jefferson, T. Roosevelt and Lincoln sculpted into Mt. Rushmore)Jefferson has been memorialized with buildings, sculptures, postage, and currency. In the 1920s, Jefferson, together with George Washington, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln, was chosen by sculptor Gutzon Borglum and approved by President Calvin Coolidge to be depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial.(#Rushmore|NPS: Mt. Rushmore)The Jefferson Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. in 1943, on the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth. The interior of the memorial includes a {{convert|19|ft|m|0|adj=on}} statue of Jefferson and engravings of passages from his writings. Most prominent are the words inscribed around the monument near the roof: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man."Peterson, 1960, p. 378.

Writings

{{Library resources box|by=yes|onlinebooks=yes|viaf=41866059}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Presidents of the United States (1789–1860)}} {{clear}}

Notes

{{notelist|35em}}

References

{{Reflist|26em}}

Bibliography

Scholarly studies
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  • BOOK, Fremont-Barnes, Gregory, The Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli – The Rise of the US Navy and Marines, Osprey Publishing, 2006, 978-1846030307, Fremont-Barnes,weblink
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  • BOOK, Hayes, Kevin J., 978-0195307580, The Road to Monticello: The Life and Mind of Thomas Jefferson, Oxford University Press, 2008,weblink Hayes,
  • BOOK, The Unfinished Revolution: Education and Politics in the Thought of Thomas Jefferson, Hellenbrand, Harold, Associated University Presse, 1990, 978-0874133707,weblink Hellenbrand,
  • BOOK, Helo, Ari, Thomas Jefferson's Ethics and the Politics of Human Progress: The Morality of a Slaveholder, Cambridge University Press, 2013,weblink Helo, 978-1107435551,
  • BOOK, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776, Herring, George C., 2008, Oxford University Press, 978-0199743773,weblink
  • BOOK, Hogan, Pendleton, The Lawn: A Guide to Jefferson's University,weblink 1987, University Press of Virginia, 978-0813911090, Hogan87,
  • BOOK, Howe, Daniel Walker, Making the American Self: Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln,weblink 2009, Oxford University Press, 978-0199740796, Howe09,
  • BOOK, Hyland, William G, In Defense of Thomas Jefferson: The Sally Hemings Sex Scandal, Carolina Academic Press, 2009, 978-0890890851,weblink Hyland2009,
  • Johnson, Jeffrey K. "The Countryside Triumphant: Jefferson's Ideal of Rural Superiority in Modern Superhero Mythology." Journal of Popular Culture 434 (2010): 720–37. online{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • BOOK, Lawrence S., Kaplan, 1999, Thomas Jefferson: Westward the Course of Empire, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0842026307,weblink Kaplan,
  • BOOK, Keyssar, Alexander,weblink The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States, Basic Books, 2009, 978-0465010141, Keyssar,
  • BOOK, Maier, Pauline, Pauline Maier, Maier, 978-0679454922, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence, Knopf,weblink 1997,
  • BOOK, Jefferson, Thomas, Dictionary of American Biography,weblink Dumas Malone, Malone, Dumas, 17–35, 1933, 10, Charles Scribner's Sons, Malone1933,
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson (6 vol. 1948–1981)
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, 2, 1823927, Jefferson, The Virginian, 1, Jefferson and His Time, Little Brown, 1948, Malone48, , (:iarchive:jeffersonhistime01malo|Ebook)
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, Dumas Malone, 2, Jefferson and the Rights of Man, 2, Little Brown, 1951, Malone51, Jefferson and His Time,
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, 2, Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty, 3, Jefferson and His Time, Little, Brown, 1962, 978-0316544757, Malone62,weblink
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, 2, Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801–1805, 4, Little Brown, 1970, Jefferson and His Time, Malone70,
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, 2, Malone74, 1929523, Jefferson the President: Second Term, 1805–1809, 5, Jefferson and His Time, Little Brown, 1974,
    • BOOK, Malone, Dumas, 2, 978-0316544788, The Sage of Monticello, 6, Jefferson and His Time, Little Brown, 1981,weblink Malone81,
  • BOOK, Mapp, Alf J., Jefferson: Passionate Pilgrim, Rowman & Littlefield, 1991,weblink 978-0517098882, Mapp,
  • BOOK, Mayer, David N., The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (Constitutionalism and Democracy), University of Virginia Press, 1994, 978-0813914855,weblink Mayer2,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Mayer, David, Ronald, Hamowy, Ronald Hamowy, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826),weblink 2008, SAGE Publications, SAGE; Cato Institute, Thousand Oaks, CA, 10.4135/9781412965811.n158, 978-1412965804, 750831024, 2008009151, 262–63,
  • BOOK, McCullough, David, McCullough, 978-1471104527, John Adams, Simon & Schuster,weblink 2001,
  • BOOK, McDonald, Robert M. S., McDonald, 978-0813922980, Thomas Jefferson's Military Academy: Founding West Point, Jeffersonian America, University of Virginia Press, 2004,weblink
  • BOOK, McEwan, Barbara, 978-0899506333, Thomas Jefferson, Farmer, McFarland, 1991, McEwan,weblink
  • BOOK, Meacham, Jon, Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power, Random House LLC, 2012, 978-0679645368,weblink Meacham,
  • BOOK, Miller, John Chester, 978-0452005303, The Wolf by the Ears: Thomas Jefferson and Slavery, University of Virginia Press, 1980,weblink Miller80,
  • BOOK, Miller, Robert J., 978-0803215986, Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny, University of Nebraska Press, 2008,weblink Miller08,
  • BOOK, Onuf, Peters S., Jefferson's Empire: The Language of American Nationhood,weblink 2000, U of Virginia Press, Onuf2000, 978-0813922041,
  • BOOK, The Mind of Thomas Jefferson, Peter S., Onuf, University of Virginia Press, 2007, 978-0813926117, Onuf07,weblink 2,
  • BOOK, Peterson, Merrill D., The Jefferson Image in the American Mind, 1960, University of Virginia Press, 978-0813918518, Peterson60,weblink
  • BOOK, Peterson, Merrill D., Merrill D. Peterson, 978-0195000542, 2, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation; a Biography, Oxford University Press, 1970, Peterson70,weblink
  • BOOK, Peterson, Merrill D., 2, Thomas Jefferson, Graff, Henry, The Presidents: A Reference History, 7th, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002, 39–56, Peterson2002,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, 1997, Northwest Ordinance (1787), The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, ABC-CLIO,weblink Phillips, Julieanne, Junius, Rodriguez, 473–74, Phillips,
  • BOOK, Randall, Willard Sterne, Thomas Jefferson: A Life, Randall, Harper Collins, 1994, 978-0060976170,weblink
  • MAGAZINE, Randall, Willard Sterne, Thomas Jefferson Takes A Vacation,weblink American Heritage, 47, 4, 1996, Randall 1996,
  • BOOK, Rodriguez, Junius, The Louisiana Purchase: a historical and geographical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 978-1576071885, Rodriguez,weblink
  • BOOK, Sheehan, Bernard, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian, W. W. Norton & Company, 1974, 978-0393007169, Sheehan74,weblink
  • BOOK, Scythes, James, The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812 A Political, Social, and Military History, Spencer C. Tucker, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California, 2014, 978-1598841565, Scythes1,
  • BOOK, Shuffelton, Frank, Shuffelton, Introduction, Jefferson, Thomas., Notes on the State of Virginia, Penguin, 1974, 978-0140436679,weblinkweblink
  • BOOK, Encyclopedia of African American Politics, Robert C., Smith,weblink Infobase Publishing, 433 pages, 2003, Smith2003, 9781438130194,
  • BOOK, Tucker, George, George Tucker (politician), The Life of Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States; 2 vol., Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1837, Tucker37,
  • BOOK, Tucker, Robert W., 2, Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson, Cogliano Press, 1990, Tucker90,weblink 978-0198022763,
  • BOOK, Urofsky, Melvin, I., ed., Biographical Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court: The Lives and Legal Philosophies of the Justices, CQ Press, 2006, Urofsky,weblink 978-1452267289,
  • BOOK, Master of the Mountain, Wiencek, Henry, 2012, Macmillan, Wiencek12,
  • BOOK, The Rise of American Democracy, Wilentz, Sean, 2005, Wilentz, 108–11, W. W. Norton & Company, 978-0393058208,
  • BOOK, Wilson, Steven Harmon, The U.S. Justice System: Law and constitution in early America, ABC-CLIO, 2012,weblink Wilson2012, 9781598843040,
  • BOOK, Wood, Gordon S, Gordon S. Wood, 978-1594200939, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different, Penguin Press, 2006, Wood2006,weblink
  • BOOK, Wood, Gordon S, 2, 978-0195039146, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815, Oxford University Press, 2010, Wood2010,weblink
  • BOOK, Wood, Gordon S., 2, 978-1594202902, The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States, Penguin Press, 2011,weblink Wood2011,
Thomas Jefferson Foundation sourcesThomas Jefferson Foundation (Main page and site-search)
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink American Philosophical Society, July 25, 2016, TJFAPS,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Coded Messages, July 22, 2016, TJFCode,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Embargo of 1807, July 22, 2016, TJFEmbargo,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink I Rise with the Sun, July 22, 2016, TJFRise,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Italy – Language, July 25, 2016, TJFItaly,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink James Madison, July 22, 2016, TJFMadison,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Jefferson's Antislavery Actions, July 24, 2016, TJFAntiSlaveryActions,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Landscape of Slavery – Mulberry Row at Monticello: Treatment, July 25, 2016, TJFTreatment,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Maria Cosway (Engraving), July 21, 2016, TJFMariaCosway,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Minority Report of the Monticello Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, July 25, 2016, TJFMinority,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Monticello construction chronology, July 17, 2016, TJFHouseConstruction,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Monticello (House) FAQ – Who built the house?, July 17, 2016, TJFSlaveBuilders,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Nailery, July 24, 2016, TJFNailery,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink President Jefferson and the Indian Nations, July 22, 2016, TJFIndian Nations,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Public Speaking, July 25, 2016, TJFSpeaking,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Quotations on Slavery and Emancipation, July 24, 2016, TJFSlaveryQuotes,weblink August 20, 2016, yes,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings – Conclusions, July 25, 2016, TJFConclusions,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Sale of Monticello, July 16, 2016, TJFSale,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Slave Dwellings, July 16, 2016, TJFSlaveDwellings,weblink March 4, 2016, yes,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Slavery at Monticello FAQ – Property, July 24, 2016, TJFSlaveryFAQ,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Slavery at Monticello FAQ – Work, July 24, 2016, TJFSlaveryWork,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Spanish Language, July 25, 2016, TJFSpanish,
  • WEB,weblink Thomas Jefferson: A Brief Biography, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, July 24, 2016, TJFBio,
  • WEB,weblink Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, July 25, 2016, TJFSally,
  • WEB,weblink Thomas Jefferson and Slavery, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, May 5, 2016, TJFslavery,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Thomas Jefferson's Enlightenment and American Indians, July 20, 2016, TJFEnlightenment,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson Foundation,weblink Thomas Jefferson's Religious Beliefs, July 24, 2016, TJFReligion,
Primary sources Web site sources
  • WEB, Gathering Voices: Thomas Jefferson and Native America, American Philosophical Society, August 11, 2016,weblink apsmuseum,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160813155430weblink">weblink August 13, 2016, yes, mdy-all,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson to Horatio G. Spafford, 17 March 1814,weblink U.S. Government: National Archives, archives, March 25, 2019,
  • WEB, American President: A Reference Resource, University of Virginia: Miller Center, August 26, 2014,weblink Miller, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140826120146weblink">weblink August 26, 2014,
  • WEB,weblink The Jefferson-Hemings DNA Study, Herbert, Barger, Jefferson DNA Study Group, April 4, 2012, Barger, 2008-10-15,
  • WEB,weblink Carving History, Mount Rushmore National Memorial, National Park Service, April 1, 2012, Rushmore,
  • WEB, Finkelman, Paul, The New York Times, The Monster of Monticello, November 30, 2012,weblink Finkelman2012, May 5, 2016,
  • WEB, 5-cent Jefferson, May 16, 2006, Haimann, Alexander T., Arago, Smithsonian Institution, November 6, 2015,weblink Arago,
  • WEB,weblink Jefferson's library, Library of Congress, October 25, 2015, Library, 2000-04-24,
  • WEB,weblink Jefferson Nickel, Nickel, U.S. Mint, November 6, 2015,
  • WEB,weblink Jefferson's Vision of the Academical Village, University of Virginia, October 14, 2010, November 5, 2015, UVa2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225033224weblink">weblink December 25, 2015,
  • WEB, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson,weblink The White House, October 3, 2011, Skelton,
  • WEB,weblink The Royal Descents of Jane Pierce, Alice and Edith Roosevelt, Helen Taft, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Barbara Bush, Roberts, Gary Boyd, April–May 1993, American Ancestors, New England Historic Genealogical Society, October 29, 2015, Roberts93,
  • WEB,weblink Measuring Obama against the great presidents, Rottinghaus, Brandon and Justin S. Vaughn, February 13, 2015, Brookings Institution, October 30, 2015, Brookings,
  • WEB,weblink The Jefferson Hemings Controversy – Report of The Scholars Commission: Summary, 8–9, 11, 15–17, 2001, 2011, Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society, July 26, 2016, TJHS, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160918172601weblink">weblink September 18, 2016,
  • WEB,weblink Siena Poll: American Presidents, July 6, 2010, Siena Research Institute, Siena, October 30, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100706090046weblink">weblink July 6, 2010,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson: Biography,weblink National Park Service, August 1, 2007, NPS,
  • WEB,weblink The Thomas Jefferson Papers Timeline: 1743–1827, July 19, 2009, LOCpapers,
  • WEB,weblink$1coin/?action=jefferson, Thomas Jefferson Presidential $1 Coin, TJCoin, U.S. Mint, November 6, 2015,
  • WEB,weblink 2note, U.S. Currency: $2 Note, U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, November 6, 2015,
  • WEB, The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth,weblink 1820, August 12, 2010, Jesus,
  • WEB, Bookquick/"The Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson, 1743–1790" {{!, Penn Current |url=http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/node/2526 |accessdate=December 12, 2015 |ref=Bio |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151208071801weblink |archivedate=December 8, 2015 |df= }}
  • WEB, Jefferson Thomas and the Practice of_Law, Three cases, Konig, David T.,weblink January 28, 2016, Konig1,
  • WEB, The Burr Conspiracy,weblink PBS American Experience, 2000, TBC 2000, May 23, 2016,
  • WEB, Thomas Jefferson and the Issue of Character, 1992, Wilson, Douglas L., May 22, 2016,weblink Wilson16,

Teaching methods

  • Smith, Mark A. “Teaching Jefferson.” The History Teacher 423, (2009), pp. 329–340 online

External links

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