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Manhattan
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{{About|the New York City borough|other uses}}{{short description|Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States}}{{good article}} {{Use mdy dates|date=February 2019}}







factoids
|mapsize = |map_caption = Interactive map outlining Manhattan|image_map1 = Map of New York highlighting New York County.svg|map_caption1 = Location within the state of New YorkList of sovereign states>Country|subdivision_name = United StatesU.S. state>StateNew York (state)>New YorkList of counties in New York (state)>County|subdivision_name2 = New York (coterminous)List of cities in New York (state)>City|subdivision_name3 = New York City|seat_type = |seat = |parts_type = |parts_style = |parts = |p1 = |p2 = |government_footnotes = |government_type = Borough (New York City)|leader_title = Borough PresidentGale Brewer (New York State Democratic Committee>D)— (Borough of Manhattan)New York County District Attorney>District AttorneyCyrus Vance Jr. (New York State Democratic Committee>D)— (New York County)|established_title = Settled|established_date = 1624|unit_pref = US|area_footnotes = 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New York County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 19, 2017.|area_total_sq_mi = 33.58|area_land_sq_mi = 22.83|area_water_sq_mi = 10.76|area_water_percent = 32|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m = |elevation_ft = |elevation_max_m = |elevation_max_ft = |elevation_min_m = |elevation_min_ft = |population_as_of = 2017|population_footnotes = |population_note = |population_total = 1,628,701|population_density_sq_mi = 72,918.4|population_blank1_title = Demonym|population_blank1 = ManhattaniteGross domestic product>GDP (2015)weblink · List of US counties with GDP over 100 billion USD>2nd by U.S. county; 1st per capita Eastern Time Zone>EST|utc_offset = −05:00|timezone_DST = EDT|utc_offset_DST = −04:0040N58region:US-NY|display=inline,title}}|postal_code_type = ZIP Code format|postal_code = 100xx, 101xx, 102xxArea codes 212, 646, and 332>212/646/332, Area code 917{{efn>Area codes 718, 347, and 929 are used in Marble Hill.}}North American Numbering Plan>Area code|website = Manhattan Borough President |footnotes = }}Manhattan ({{IPAc-en|m|æ|n|ˈ|h|æ|t|É™n|,_|m|É™|n|-}}), often referred to locally as the City,WEB,weblink Do You Refer To Manhattan As "The City"?, May 21, 2012, Gothamist, Jen Carlson, July 13, 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161025130428weblink">weblink October 25, 2016, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier,WEB,weblink New York City, Travel Pulse, July 26, 2018, July 30, 2018, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world,Barry, Dan. "A Nation challenged: in New York; New York Carries On, but Test of Its Grit Has Just Begun", The New York Times, October 11, 2001. Accessed November 20, 2016. "A roaring void has been created in the financial center of the world."NEWS, Sorrentino, Christopher, Christopher Sorrentino,weblink When He Was Seventeen, The New York Times, September 16, 2007, December 22, 2007, In 1980, there were still the remains of the various downtown revolutions that had reinvigorated New York's music and art scenes and kept Manhattan in the position it had occupied since the 1940s as the cultural center of the world., WEB,weblink Manhattan May Be the Media Capital of the World, But Not For iPad Users, Michael P. Ventura, DNAinfo, April 6, 2010, June 11, 2017, yes,weblink August 4, 2017, WEB,weblink ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time, Dawn Ennis, LGBTQ Nation, May 24, 2017, June 4, 2017, and the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters.WEB,weblink United Nations Visitors Centre "Welcome to the United Nations â€” Tour the international UN Headquarters", United Nations, June 13, 2014, Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world,WEB,weblink United States top, Britain second in financial activity: think-tank, Huw Jones, Thomson Reuters, September 4, 2018, September 4, 2018, Think-tank New Financial’s study, which focuses on the "raw" value of actual domestic and international financial activity like managing assets and issuing equity, underscored the overall dominance of New York as the world’s top financial center., WEB,weblink Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City, Richard Florida, The Atlantic Monthly Group, March 3, 2015, March 16, 2015, Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top., WEB,weblink Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S., For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world., Business Insider, Inc, July 31, 2011, October 28, 2015, WEB,weblink PAL sets introductory fares to New York, Philippine Airlines, December 10, 2014, WEB,weblink New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center, John Glover, Bloomberg L.P, November 23, 2014, November 23, 2014, WEB,weblink UBS may move US investment bank to NYC, e-Eighteen.com Ltd, June 10, 2011, February 4, 2013, weblink Accessed March 23, 2019. and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.WEB,weblink NYSE Listings Directory, June 23, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130621174531weblink">weblink June 21, 2013, WEB,weblink Biggest Stock Exchanges In The World, worldatlas.com, The world's two largest stock exchanges lie only minutes apart in the Wall Street area of Manhattan, New York City, United States., October 15, 2017, Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the (:Category:Films set in Manhattan|setting) for numerous books, films, and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013;WEB,weblink Manhattan, New York – Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park, The Pinnacle List, November 24, 2014, WEB,weblink The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities, Morgan Brennan, Forbes, March 22, 2013, November 24, 2014, median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US{{convert|1,600|$/ft2|$/m2}} as of 2018,weblink Accessed January 31, 2018. with Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commanding the highest retail rents in the world, at US{{convert|3,000|$/ft2|$/m2}} in 2017.NEWS,weblink A plea for Fifth Avenue, Janette Sadik-Khan, The New York Times, January 9, 2017, January 9, 2017, Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals roughly ${{Inflation|US|951|2012}} in current terms.JOURNAL, Mental Floss, Matt Soniak, October 2, 2012,weblink Was Manhattan Really Bought for $24?, WEB,weblink Peter Schaghen Letter with transcription, New Netherland Institute, November 7, 1626, February 16, 2015, WEB,weblink United States History – History of New York City, New York, April 7, 2018, The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.WEB,weblink KINGSTON Discover 300 Years of New York History DUTCH COLONIES, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, April 7, 2018, New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.WEB,weblink The Nine Capitals of the United States, United States Senate, April 7, 2018, The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuriesWEB,weblink Statue of Liberty, A&E Television Networks, LLC, May 21, 2011, and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.WEB, Statue of Liberty, World Heritage, UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011,weblink April 7, 2018, Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898.New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area (larger only than Kalawao County, Hawaii), and is also the most densely populated U.S. county.WEB,weblink World's Most Crowded Islands, Camille Mann, Stephanie Valera, yes, The Weather Channel, June 27, 2013, It is also one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of {{convert|22.83|sqmi|km2|2}},WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030213103756weblink">weblink yes, February 13, 2003, USA Counties Land Area – New York, NY (2010), United States Census Bureau, February 21, 2015, or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154/km2), higher than the density of any individual U.S. city.WEB, Mann, Camille, Valera, Stephanie,weblink World's Most Crowded Islands, The Weather Channel, March 28, 2016, On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million,NEWS, The New York Times, March 4, 2012, How Many People Can Manhattan Hold?,weblink or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km2). Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.WEB,weblink NYBits.com, Manhattan, June 5, 2014, Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017,WEB,weblink Mayor De Blasio And NYC & Company Announce NYC Welcomed Record 62.8 Million Visitors In 2017, NYC & Company, Inc, March 20, 2018, April 4, 2018, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, and Grand Central Terminal.WEB, The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000, Ann Shields, Travel+Lesiure,weblink November 10, 2014, July 12, 2015, No. 3 Times Square, ... No. 4 (tie) Central Park, ... No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City, The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge; skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building;WEB,weblink Buildings in New York City, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, June 8, 2011, and parks, such as Central Park. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere,WEB,weblink The History of New York's Chinatown, Sarah Waxman, Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc., March 5, 2011, and the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement.WEB,weblink Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, July 2, 2013, WEB,weblink Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots, North Jersey Media Group Inc, January 21, 2013, July 2, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530065722weblink">weblink May 30, 2013, The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government.NEWS,weblink The Reporters of City Hall Return to Their Old Perch, Michael M. Grynbaum, The New York Times, May 24, 2012, December 5, 2013, Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan,WEB,weblink NYC Colleges and Universities, Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc., July 2, 2013, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world.WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, October 16, 2017, WEB,weblink CWUR 2016 – World University Rankings, Center for World University Rankings, October 16, 2017, {{NYC boroughs}}

Etymology

The name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language 'manaháhtaan' (where 'manah-' means "gather", '-aht-' means "bow" and '-aan' is an abstract element used to form verb stems). The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the (wood to make) bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end that was considered ideal for the making of bows.It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon).BOOK,weblink Juet's Journal of Hudson's 1609 Voyage, from the 1625 Edition of Purchas His Pilgrimes, The New York Times, 2006, 1625, Robert, Juet, 16, The New Netherland Museum, Translated by Brea Barthel, A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills",NEWS, Holloway, Marguerite,weblink Urban tactics; I'll Take Mannahatta, The New York Times, May 16, 2004, June 30, 2009, "He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant island of many hills." "the island where we all became intoxicated" and simply "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate.WEB, Goddard, Ives,weblink The Origin and Meaning of the Name "Manhattan", The New York State Historical Association, 2010, May 25, 2018,

History

{{see also|History of New York City}}{{History of NYC}}

Colonial era{{anchor|17th century}}

File:Peter Minuit portrait New Amsterdam 1600s light.jpg|thumb|right|Peter MinuitPeter MinuitFile:CastelloPlanOriginal.jpg|thumb|right|The Castello Plan showing the Dutch colonial city of New AmsterdamNew AmsterdamThe area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano â€“ sailing in service of King Francis I of France â€“ became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York Harbor New Angoulême, in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king.R. J. Knecht: Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I; p. 372. Cambridge University Press (1996) {{ISBN|0-521-57885-X}}Seymour I. Schwartz: The Mismapping of America. p. 42; The University of Rochester Press (2008) {{ISBN|978-1-58046-302-7}}It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped.BOOK, New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress, Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers, Harper, 1948, Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present-day Albany."Henry Hudson and His Exploration" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120118021253weblink |date=January 18, 2012 }} Scientific American, September 25, 1909. Accessed May 1, 2007. "This was a vain hope however, and the conviction must finally have come to the heart of the intrepid adventurer that once again he was foiled in his repeated quest for the northwest passage ... On the following day the "Half Moon" let go her anchor inside of Sandy Hook. The week was spent in exploring the bay with a shallop, or small boat, and "they found a good entrance between two headlands" (the Narrows) "and thus entered on the September 11 into as fine a river as can be found.""A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624, with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), in what is now Lower Manhattan.Dutch Colonies, National Park Service. Accessed May 19, 2007. "Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan."GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance, Tolerance Park. Accessed November 20, 2016. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708. The 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.City Seal and Flag, New York City. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Date: Beneath the horizontal laurel branch the date 1625, being the year of the establishment of New Amsterdam."According to a letter by Pieter Janszoon Schagen, Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan on May 24, 1626, from unnamed Native American people, who are believed to have been Canarsee Indians of the Lenape,New York: History – Islands Draw Native American, Dutch, and English Settlement, City-data. Accessed November 20, 2016. in exchange for traded goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24. The figure of 60 guilders comes from a letter by a representative of the Dutch Estates General and member of the board of the Dutch West India Company, Pieter Janszoon Schagen, to the Estates General in November 1626.Peter Schaghen Letter with transcription. New Netherland Institute (1626-11-07). Retrieved on 2015-02-16. In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 (or 60 guilders) to US$23.BOOK, Nevius, Michelle, Nevius, James, Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City,weblink 2009, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-4165-8997-6, 9, "[A] variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars," as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York.Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, (Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898), (1999: xivff) Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, according to the Institute for Social History of Amsterdam.The International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam calculates its value as 60 guilders (1626) = €678.91 (2006), equal to about $1,000 in 2006. Based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992.How much would the $24 paid for Manhattan be worth in today's money?. The Straight Dope (July 31, 1992). Retrieved on July 23, 2013. Historians James and Michelle Nevius revisited the issue in 2014, suggesting that using the prices of beer and brandy as monetary equivalencies, the price Minuit paid would have the purchasing power of somewhere between $2,600 and $15,600 in current dollars.BOOK, harv, Nevius, James, Nevius, Michelle, Footprints in New York: Tracing the Lives of Four Centuries of New Yorkers, Guilford, Conn., Lyons Press, 2014, 978-0-7627-9636-6,weblink According to the writer Nathaniel Benchley, Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsee Native Americans, who were willing to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for the island that was mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks, a band of the Wappinger.Benchley, Nathaniel. "The $24 Swindle: The Indians who sold Manhattan were bilked, all right, but they didn’t mind — the land wasn't theirs anyway." American Heritage, Vol. 11, no. 1 (December 1959).In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony.Williams, Jasmin K. "Classroom Extra: New York â€“ The Empire State", The New York Post, November 22, 2006. Accessed November 20, 2016. "In 1647, Dutch leader Peter Stuyvesant arrived with an iron fist to put an end to the colony's rampant crime and restore order." New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653.About the Council {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160212013515weblink |date=February 12, 2016 }}, New York City Council. Accessed May 18, 2007. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II.New York State History {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120422081829weblink |date=April 22, 2012 }}, New York Department of State. Accessed June 29, 2009. "...named New York in honor of the Duke of York." The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.Griffis, William Elliot. s:The Story of New Netherland/Chapter 15|"The Story of New Netherland" Chapter , Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909. "In religious matters, Article VIII of the capitulation read, "The Dutch shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in Divine worship and in Church government.""The Dutch Republic regained the city in August 1673, renaming it "New Orange". New Netherland was ultimately ceded to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster.Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). {{ISBN|978-0-486-48637-6}} File:George Washington Statue at Federal Hall.JPG|thumb|upright=0.65|This statue of George Washington stands in front of Federal Hall (on Wall Street) where he was inaugurated as the first U.S. president in 1789,WEB,weblink The Inauguration of George Washington, 1789, Ibis Communications, Inc, Eyewitness to History, 2005, January 6, 2013, sculptor, John Quincy Adams WardJohn Quincy Adams Ward

American Revolution and the early United States{{anchor|18th century}}

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.Fort Washington Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed May 18, 2007. The military center for the colonists was established in New Jersey.About Morristown, Town of Morristown. Accessed April 3, 2013. "Morristown became characterized as 'the military capital of the American Revolution' because of its strategic role in the war for independence from Great Britain."Weig, Melvin J.; and Craig, Vera B. Morristown: A Military Capital of the American Revolution, National Park Service, 1950, reprinted 1961. Accessed July 19, 2011. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city."Happy Evacuation Day", New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, November 23, 2005. Accessed May 18, 2007.From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall.The Nice Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, Pennsylvania: Maple Press, 1948... Federal Hall was also the site where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time,WEB, Birthplace of American Government,weblink National Park Service, September 21, 2014, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified,WEB, Lynch, Jack, Debating the Bill of Rights,weblink Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, September 21, 2014, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.WEB, History & Culture â€“ Federal Hall National Memorial,weblink National Park Service, September 21, 2014,

19th century

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.BOOK, Bridges, William, Map of the City of New York and Island of Manhattan with Explanatory Remarks and References, 1811, Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68. By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.WEB, Dunlap, David W., Last Time New York Had Just 27 House Seats? The City Was on the Rise,weblink The New York Times, September 21, 2014, December 2010, File:George Schlegel - George Degen - New York 1873.jpg|thumb|Manhattan in 1873. The Brooklyn BridgeBrooklyn BridgeTammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city.Blair, Cynthia. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071001004544weblink">"1858: Central Park Opens", Newsday. Accessed May 29, 2007. "Between 1853 and 1856, city commissioners purchased more than {{convert|700|acre|ha}} from 59th Street to 106th Street between Fifth and Eighth Avenues to create Central Park, the nation's first public park {{sic}} as well as its first landscaped park." In actuality, Boston Common is the nation's first public park. Boston Common, Thefreedomtrail.org.Rybczynski, Witold. "Olmsted's Triumph", Smithsonian (magazine), July 2003. Accessed November 20, 2016. "By 1876, landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux had transformed the swampy, treeless 50 blocks between Harlem and midtown Manhattan into the first landscaped park in the United States."New York City played a complex role in the American Civil War. The city's strong commercial ties to the southern United States existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River, which allowed trade with stops such as the West Point Foundry, one of the great manufacturing operations in the early United States; and the city's Atlantic Ocean ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States. New York's growing immigrant population, which had originated largely from Germany and Ireland, began in the late 1850s to include waves of Italians and Central and Eastern European Jews flowing in en masse. Anger arose about conscription, with resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service leading to resentment against Lincoln's war policies and fomenting paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrants' jobs,Harris, Leslie M. "The New York City Draft Riots of 1863" excerpted from In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863, University of Chicago Press. Accessed November 20, 2016. culminating in the three-day-long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred.Ward, Geoffrey C. "Gangs of New York", a review of Paradise Alley by Kevin Baker, The New York Times, October 6, 2002. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The New York draft riots remain the worst civil disturbance in American history: according to the historian Adrian Cook, 119 people are known to have been killed, mostly rioters or onlookers who got too close when federal troops, brought back from the battlefield to restore order, started shooting."The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and Manhattan became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France.Statue of Liberty, National Park Service. Accessed May 17, 2007."New Jerseyans' Claim To Liberty I. Rejected", The New York Times, October 6, 1987. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The Supreme Court today refused to strip the Statue of Liberty of its status as a New Yorker. The Court, without comment, turned away a move by a two New Jerseyans to claim jurisdiction over the landmark for their state." The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city became a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization.In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection to Brooklyn, across the East River. In 1874 the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed.Macy Jr., Harry. Before the Five-Borough City: The Old Cities, Towns, and Villages That Came Together to Form "Greater New York", New York Genealogical and Biographical Society from The NYG&B Newsletter, Winter 1998. Accessed April 29, 2007. "In 1683, when the Province of New York was first divided into counties, the City of New York also became New York County... In 1874, to accommodate this growth, New York City and County annexed from Westchester County what is now the western Bronx... In 1895 New York City annexed the eastern Bronx." WEB,weblink Archived copy, February 6, 2016, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927221823weblink">weblink September 27, 2011, In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. On January 1, 1914, the New York State Legislature created Bronx County and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.Gary Hermalyn and Ultan, Lloyd. Bronx History: A General Survey, New York Public Library. Accessed April 26, 2007.File:Viele Map 1865.jpg|thumb|center|upright=3.4|The "Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York", commonly known as the Viele Map, was created by Egbert Ludovicus VieleEgbert Ludovicus Viele

20th century

{{further|Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire|Stonewall riots}}File:Mulberry Street NYC c1900 LOC 3g04637u edit.jpg|thumb|Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East SideLower East SideThe construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century.Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Manning, Susan. "City systems and world-systems: Four millennia of city growth and decline", University of California, Riverside Institute for Research on World-Systems. Accessed May 17, 2007. "New York, which became the largest city in the world by 1925, beating out London..." Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990.WEB, New York â€“ Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink May 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120812191959weblink">weblink August 12, 2012, On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers. The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.Rosenberg, Jennifer. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, About.com. Accessed May 17, 2007.The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance.BOOK, The Tiger â€“ The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall, Oliver E., Allen, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,weblink May 25, 2007, Chapter 9: The Decline, 1993, 978-0-201-62463-2, As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the 30 Rockefeller Plaza.WEB, Skyscraper boom tied to market crash, Real Estate Weekly, February 19, 2014,weblink April 11, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180412083536weblink">weblink April 12, 2018, yes, mdy-all, File:Kissing the War Goodbye.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.75|V-J Day in Times SquareV-J Day in Times SquareReturning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947."Stuyvesant Town to Get Its First Tenants Today", The New York Times, August 1, 1947. p. 19 In 1951–1952, the United Nations relocated to a new headquarters the East Side of Manhattan.NEWS,weblink UN MOVES INTO NEW BUILDING IN NYC TODAY, Associated Press, January 8, 1951, Cortland Standard, December 21, 2017, 1, Fultonhistory.com, NEWS,weblink U.N. Vacates Site at Lake Success; Peace Building Back to War Output, Rosenthal, A.M., May 19, 1951, The New York Times, December 26, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movementWEB,weblink Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers, Julia Goicichea, The Culture Trip, August 16, 2017, February 2, 2019, and the modern fight for LGBT rights.WEB,weblink Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots, North Jersey Media Group, January 21, 2013, July 20, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530065722weblink">weblink May 30, 2013, In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.WEB,weblink New York in the 70s: A Remembrance, Allan Tannenbaum, The Digital Journalist, July 20, 2014, While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.WEB, Christopher Effgen,weblink New York Crime Rates 1960–2009, Disastercenter.com, September 11, 2001, July 20, 2014, The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease.By the 1990s crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeted to 537 by 2008, and the crack epidemic and its associated drug-related violence came under greater control.Harris, Paul. "How the mean streets of New York were tamed", The Guardian, January 15, 2006. Accessed June 29, 2009. "Alongside the changed tactics came a fall in the crack epidemic that had swept the city in the Eighties. By the Nineties police had driven dealers off the streets, thus reducing drug-related violence.... The figures speak for themselves. In 1990, 2,245 New Yorkers were murdered. Last year the number was 537, the lowest for 40 years." The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market.Hevesi, Dennis. "In Much of the City, A Robust Market", The New York Times, March 16, 1997. Accessed June 29, 2009. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in Manhattan's economy.{{gallery|lines=4|align=center|width=220|height=170|File:Singer City Investing Hudson Terminal 1909.jpg
|The newly completed Singer Building towering above the city, 1909|File:Old timer structural worker2.jpg
|A construction worker atop the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930; to the right is the Chrysler Building.|File:Stonewall_Inn_5_pride_weekend_2016.jpg
|The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern gay rights movement.WEB,weblink Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, May 1, 2011, NEWS,weblink Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement, Eli Rosenberg, The New York Times, June 24, 2016, June 25, 2016, |File:UA Flight 175 hits WTC south tower 9-11 edit.jpeg
|United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the first World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.}}

21st century

{{further|September 11 attacks}}File:Hurricane Sandy Flooding Avenue C 2012.JPG|thumb|right|Flooding on Avenue C caused by (Hurricane Sandy]] on October 29, 2012 WEB,weblink VIDEO: Dramatic Explosion at East Village Con Ed Plant, Mary Johnson, DNA Info, October 29, 2012, December 2, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121203212639weblink">weblink December 3, 2012, )On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed. 7 World Trade Center collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. Many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths.WEB,weblink Charting post-9/11 deaths, Susan, Edelman, January 22, 2012, January 6, 2008, A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at {{convert|1776|ft|m}} and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere,NEWS,weblink It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper, Katia Hetter, CNN, November 12, 2013, November 12, 2013, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site.The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.WEB,weblink OccupyWallStreet â€” About, The Occupy Solidarity Network, Inc, July 20, 2014, On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor,NEWS, Long, Colleen, Peltz, Jennifer, y,weblink Water, fire and darkness: NYC after the superstorm, Associated Press, October 30, 2012, September 19, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121227224124weblink">weblink December 27, 2012, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residentsNEWS, Gas Lines Pop Up Citywide As Relief Efforts Continue,weblink NY1, November 3, 2012, November 4, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104192737weblink">weblink November 4, 2012, and leading to gasoline shortagesNEWS, Free Gas Draws Crowds In New York City; Gas Rationing Starts In New Jersey,weblink NPR, November 3, 2012, November 5, 2012, and disruption of mass transit systems.NEWS, Tracking Storm Sandy Recovery,weblink Reuters, October 30, 2012, October 30, 2012, WEB, Bhasin, Kim, MTA: In 108 Years, The NYC Subway System Has Never Faced A Disaster As Devastating As This,weblink Business Insider, October 30, 2012, September 19, 2014, NEWS, Hurricane Sandy forces mass transit closure, evacuations,weblink MyFoxNY, November 12, 2012, September 19, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121029094330weblink">weblink October 29, 2012, {{youtube|mhJrrGNvcFk|Raw: Sandy Leaves NYC Subways Flooded}} The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.WEB,weblink Adaptation: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form, Robert S. Eshelman, E&E Publishing, November 15, 2012, December 2, 2012, Around 15 percent of the borough is considered to be in flood-risk zones.NEWS,weblink Irma spared America, but still had a big effect on it, The Economist, September 26, 2017, en, On October 31, 2017, a terrorist took a rental pickup truck and deliberately drove down a bike path alongside the West Side Highway in Lower Manhattan, killing eight people and injuring a dozen others before crashing into a school bus."New York Terrorist Attack: Truck Driver Kills Eight in Lower Manhattan", NBC News, November 1, 2017. Accessed November 1, 2017.

Geography

{{See also|Geography of New York City}}File:Manhattan by Sentinel-2.jpg|thumb|Satellite image of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson River to the west, the Harlem River to the north, the East River to the east, and New York Harbor to the south, with rectangular Central Park prominently visible. Roosevelt IslandRoosevelt Island (File:New York City location Manhattan.svg|thumb|Location of Manhattan (red) within New York City (remainder white))

Components

The borough consists of Manhattan Island, Marble Hill, and several small islands, including Randalls Island and Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.New York City Administrative Code Section 2-202 Division into boroughs and boundaries thereof â€“ Division Into Boroughs And Boundaries Thereof., Justia. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The borough of Manhattan shall consist of the territory known as New York county, which shall contain all that part of the city and state, including that portion of land commonly known as Marble Hill and included within the county of New York and borough of Manhattan for all purposes pursuant to chapter nine hundred thirty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eighty-four and further including the islands called Manhattan Island, Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, Ellis Island, Franklin D. Roosevelt Island, Randall's Island and Oyster Island..."According to the United States Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of {{convert|33.6|sqmi}}, of which {{convert|22.8|sqmi}} is land and {{convert|10.8|sqmi}} (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is {{convert|22.7|sqmi|km2}} in area, {{convert|13.4|mi|km}} long and {{convert|2.3|mi|km}} wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).How New York Works, How Stuff Works. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The island is {{convert|22.7|sqmi|km2}}, {{convert|13.4|mi|km}} long and {{convert|2.3|mi|km}} wide (at its widest point)."

Manhattan Island

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan lengthwise into its East Side and West Side. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States.Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street.BOOK, Over and Back: The History of Ferryboats in New York Harbor, Cudahy, Brian J. Cudahy, Fordham University Press, 1990, 25, 978-0-8232-1245-3, When building the World Trade Center in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site.BOOK, Gillespie, Angus K., 1999, Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center, Rutgers University Press, 71, 978-0-7838-9785-1, Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City,NEWS, The Biggest Foundation, Iglauer, Edith, November 4, 1972, The New Yorker, The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or {{convert|1484|ft|m}}, covering {{convert|92|acre|ha}}, providing a {{convert|1.2|mi|km|adj=on}} riverfront esplanade and over {{convert|30|acre|ha}} of parks;ASLA 2003 The Landmark Award, American Society of Landscape Architects. Accessed May 17, 2007. Hudson River Park was subsequently opened in stages beginning in 1998.WEB, Martin, Douglas, Hudson Park Draws Closer To Reality; Proponents Celebrate Approval by Albany,weblink The New York Times, March 30, 2015, July 30, 1998,

Marble Hill

One neighborhood of New York County, Marble Hill, is contiguous with the U.S. mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: Spuyten Duyvil Swing Bridge; Restoring a Link In the City's Lifeline". The New York Times, March 6, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009. Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.Jackson, Nancy Beth. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Marble Hill; Tiny Slice of Manhattan on the Mainland". The New York Times, January 26, 2003. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The building of the Harlem River Ship Canal turned the hill into an island in 1895, but when Spuyten Duyvel Creek on the west was filled in before World War I, the {{convert|51|acre|ha}} became firmly attached to the mainland and the Bronx."Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in its topography has been evened out.

Smaller islands

{{see also|List of smaller islands in New York City}}In New York Harbor, there are three smaller islands: Other smaller islands, in the East River, include (from north to south):

Geology

Bedrock

(File:NY-Central-Park-Rock-7333.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Manhattan schist outcropping in Central Park)The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as Manhattan schistThe fact that the immediate layer of bedrock in the Bronx is Fordham gneiss, while that of Manhattan is schist has led to the expression: "The Bronx is gneiss (nice) but Manhattan is schist." CONCRETE, 42, n1, of the Manhattan Prong physiographic region. It is a strong, competent metamorphic rock that was created when Pangaea formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In Central Park, outcrops of Manhattan Schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example.Manhattan Schist in Bennett Park {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120212214939weblink |date=February 12, 2012 }}John H. Betts The Minerals of New York City originally published in Rocks & Minerals magazine, Volume 84, No. 3 pages 204–252 (2009).WEB, Andrea, Samuels,weblink An Examination of Mica Schist by Andrea Samuels, Micscape magazine. Photographs of Manhattan schist, Microscopy-uk.org.uk, April 20, 2013, Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas.WEB,weblink Manhattan Schist in New York City Parks â€“ J. Hood Wright Park, New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, February 27, 2014, WEB, How ancient collision shaped New York skyline, Helen, Quinn,weblink BBC Science, BBC.co.uk, June 6, 2013, These rocks are Manhattan schist, part of that ancient supercontinent, fragments of Pangaea left behind when the continent split. They are just glimpses of what is below the surface in abundance in Downtown and Midtown. And it is these fragments of very hard rock that provide the perfect foundations for New York's highest buildings. Where Manhattan schist can be found very close to the surface you can build high, and so Downtown and Midtown have become home to Manhattan's tallest buildings., June 13, 2013, However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.Barr, Jason; Tassier, Troy; and Trendafilov, Rossen. "Depth to Bedrock and the Formation of the Manhattan Skyline, 1890–1915", The Journal of Economic History, December 2011 – Volume 71, Issue 04. Accessed August 3, 2016.NEWS, Chaban, Matt,weblink Uncanny Valley: The Real Reason There Are No Skyscrapers in the Middle of Manhattan, The New York Observer, January 17, 2012, February 26, 2014, NEWS, Chaban, Matt,weblink Paul Goldberger and Skyscraper Economist Jason Barr Debate the Manhattan Skyline, The New York Observer, PDF, January 25, 2012, February 26, 2014,

Updated seismic analysis

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.WEB,weblink New Insight on the Nation's Earthquake Hazards, Jessica Robertson, Mark Petersen, yes, United States Geological Survey, July 17, 2014, August 12, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140811003539weblink">weblink August 11, 2014, yes,

Locations

File:Liberty Island photo D Ramey Logan.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|alt=A tall green statue on an island in a harbor.|Liberty Island is an exclaveexclave

Adjacent counties

National protected areas

Neighborhoods

Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly").Senft, Bret. "If You're Thinking of Living In/TriBeCa; Families Are the Catalyst for Change", The New York Times, September 26, 1993. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Families have overtaken commerce as the catalyst for change in this TRIangle BElow CAnal Street (although the only triangle here is its heart: Hudson Street meeting West Broadway at Chambers Street, with Canal its north side) ... Artists began seeking refuge from fashionable SoHo (SOuth of HOuston) as early as the mid-70s."Cohen, Joyce. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Nolita; A Slice of Little Italy Moving Upscale", The New York Times, May 17, 1998. Accessed June 30, 2009. "NO ONE is quite certain what to call this part of town. Nolita—north of Little Italy, that is—certainly pinpoints it geographically. The not-quite-acronym was apparently coined several years ago by real-estate brokers seeking to give the area at least a little cachet." and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park").Louie, Elaine. "The Trendy Discover NoMad Land, and Move In", The New York Times, August 5, 1999. Accessed November 20, 2016.NAMING, 103, Sternbergh, Adam. "Soho. Nolita. Dumbo. NoMad? Branding the last unnamed neighborhood in Manhattan.", New York (magazine), April 11, 2010. Accessed November 20, 2016. Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands.Pitts, David. "U.S. Postage Stamp Honors Harlem's Langston Hughes", United States Department of State. Accessed November 20, 2016. "Harlem, or Nieuw Haarlem, as it was originally named, was established by the Dutch in 1658 after they took control from Native Americans. They named it after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands." Alphabet City comprises Avenues A, B, C, and D, to which its name refers. Some have simple folkloric names, such as Hell's Kitchen, alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton).File:Past Vs. Present.png|thumb|The Empire State Building in the foreground looking southward from the top of Rockefeller Center, with One World Trade Center in the background, at sunset. The Midtown South Community Council acts as a civic caretaker for much of the neighborhood between the skyscrapers of Midtown and Lower ManhattanLower ManhattanSome neighborhoods, such as SoHo, which is mixed use, are known for upscale shopping as well as residential use. Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture.Bruni, Frank. "The Grounds He Stamped: The New York Of Ginsberg", The New York Times, April 7, 1997. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Indeed, for all the worldwide attention that Mr. Ginsberg received, he was always a creature and icon principally of downtown Manhattan, his world view forged in its crucible of political and sexual passions, his eccentricities nurtured by those of its peculiar demimonde, his individual myth entwined with that of the bohemian East Village in which he made his home. He embodied the East Village and the Lower East Side, Bill Morgan, a friend and Mr. Ginsberg's archivist, said yesterday." Chelsea is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large gay populations and has become a center of both the international art industry and New York's nightlife.Dunlap, David W. "The New Chelsea's Many Faces", The New York Times, November 13, 1994. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Gay Chelsea's role has solidified with the arrival of A Different Light bookstore, a cultural cornerstone that had been housed for a decade in an {{convert|800|sqft|m2|0|adj=on}} nook at 548 Hudson Street, near Perry Street. It now takes up more than {{convert|5000|sqft|m2|-2}} at 151 West 19th Street and its migration seems to embody a northward shift of gay life from Greenwich Village... Because of Chelsea's reputation, Mr. Garmendia said, single women were not likely to move in. But single men did. "The whole neighborhood became gay during the 70's", he said." Washington Heights is a primary destination for immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Chinatown has the highest concentration of people of Chinese descent outside of Asia.Grimes, Christopher. weblink" title="archive.today/20120729000922weblink">"World News: New York's Chinatown starts to feel the pinch over 'the bug'", Financial Times, April 14, 2003. Accessed May 19, 2007. "New York's Chinatown is the site of the largest concentration of Chinese people in the western hemisphere."WEB,weblink Chinatown: A World of Dining, Shopping, and History, April 27, 2007, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060709160929weblink">weblink July 9, 2006, , NYC & Company. Accessed June 30, 2009. "No visit to New York City is complete without exploring the sights, cuisines, history, and shops of the biggest Chinatown in the United States. The largest concentration of Chinese people—150,000—in the Western Hemisphere are in a two-square-mile area in downtown Manhattan that's loosely bounded by Lafayette, Worth, and Grand streets and East Broadway." Koreatown is roughly bounded by 6th and Madison Avenues,NEWS,weblink Koreatown in NYC is now being taken more seriously as a dining destination, Gina Pace, New York Daily News, April 26, 2015, December 10, 2016, Koreatown – long centered on 32nd St. between Fifth and Sixth Aves., nicknamed Korea Way – has expanded in recent months. The new Baekjeong spot, for example, is located just east of Fifth Ave...Kihyun Lee took an even bigger gamble by opening a dual-concept spot midblock on 31st St. between Fifth and Madison Aves...,weblink Shinhan Bank America. Accessed December 10, 2016weblink Don's Bogam Korean restaurant. December 10, 2016. between 31st and 33rd Streets, where Hangul (한글) signage is ubiquitous. Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill.Ensminger, Kris. "More Than Tandoori", The New York Times, November 20, 2016. "Curry Hill, centered on Lexington Avenue and 28th Street, is named for its many Indian restaurants and spice shops." Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing in Nolita, Lower Manhattan.WEB,weblink G-day! Welcome to Little Australia in New York City, Shaun Busuttil, KarryOn, November 3, 2016, May 24, 2019, In Little Australia, Australian-owned cafes are popping up all over the place (such as Two Hands), joining other Australian-owned businesses (such as nightclubs and art galleries) as part of a growing green and gold contingent in NYC. Indeed, walking in this neighbourhood, the odds of your hearing a fellow Aussie ordering a coffee or just kicking back and chatting are high – very high – so much so that if you’re keen to meet other Aussies whilst taking your own bite out of the Big Apple, then this is the place to throw that Australian accent around like it’s going out of fashion!, In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system are oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest).Petzold, Charles. "How Far from True North are the Avenues of Manhattan?", charlespetzold.com. Accessed April 30, 2007. "However, the orientation of the city's avenues was fixed to be parallel with the axis of Manhattan Island and has only a casual relationship to true north and south. Maps that are oriented to true north (like the one at the right) show the island at a significant tilt. In truth, avenues run closer to northeast and southwest than north and south." This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street,WEB,weblink NYC Basics, October 11, 2007, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011014616weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, , NYC & Company. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Downtown (below 14th Street) contains Greenwich Village, SoHo, TriBeCa, and the Wall Street financial district." with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation.Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block on most streets. South of Waverly Place, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Although the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (the southernmost street divided in west and east portions; pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Streets in Midtown are usually one-way, with the few exceptions generally being the busiest cross-town thoroughfares (14th, 23rd, 34th, and 42nd Streets, for example), which are bidirectional across the width of Manhattan Island. The rule of thumb is that odd-numbered streets run west, while even-numbered streets run east.{{gallery|align=center|lines=3width=250|height=250|File:View from Manhattan Bridge.jpg
|Public housing in the foreground on the Lower East Side|File:Macdougal Street and Minetta Lane street scene NYC.jpg
|MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village|File:koreatown manhattan 2009.JPG
|"Korea Way" on 32nd Street in Manhattan's Koreatown (맨해튼 코리아타운)|File:chinatown manhattan 2009.JPG
|Chinatown, Manhattan (紐約華埠)|File:Upper West Side 2007.jpg
|The Upper West Side|File:East 69th Street 001.JPG
|The Upper East Side Historic District
}}

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the {{convert|0|°C|0}} isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization.WEB, Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., McMahon, T. A,weblink World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification, The University of Melbourne, April 26, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113015116weblink">weblink January 13, 2015, WEB,weblink New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York, NewYorkPolonia.com, April 26, 2013, The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually. The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.WEB,weblink USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University, February 24, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140227032333weblink">weblink February 27, 2014, Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is {{convert|32.6|°F|1}}; temperatures usually drop to {{convert|10|°F|0}} several times per winter,WEB, The Climate of New York, New York State Climate Office,weblink July 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080412104922weblink">weblink April 12, 2008, and reach {{convert|60|°F}} several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of {{convert|76.5|°F|1}} in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed {{convert|90|°F|0}} on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed {{convert|100|°F|0}}. Extreme temperatures have ranged from {{convert|−15|°F|0}}, recorded on February 9, 1934, up to {{convert|106|°F|0}} on July 9, 1936.Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as {{convert|7|F-change|0|abbr=on}} when winds are slow."Keeping New York City 'Cool' Is The Job Of NASA's 'Heat Seekers'", NASA, January 30, 2006. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The urban heat island occurrence is particularly pronounced during summer heat waves and at night when wind speeds are low and sea breezes are light. During these times, New York City's air temperatures can rise {{convert|7.2|F-change|abbr=on}} higher than in surrounding areas." Manhattan receives {{convert|49.9|in|sigfig=3}} of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been {{convert|25.8|in|cm|0}}; this varies considerably from year to year.{{New York City weatherbox}}

Boroughscapes

{{Wide image|10 mile panorama of NYC, Feb., 2018.jpg|1800px|3=Ten-mile Manhattan skyline panorama from 120th Street to the Battery, taken February 21, 2018, from across the Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey.{hide}flatlist|
  1. Riverside Church
  2. Time Warner Center
  3. 220 Central Park South
  4. Central Park Tower
  5. One57
  6. 432 Park Avenue
  7. 53W53
  8. Chrysler Building
  9. Bank of America Tower
  10. Conde Nast Building
  11. The New York Times Building
  12. Empire State Building
  13. Manhattan West
  14. a: 55 Hudson Yards, b: 35 Hudson Yards, c: 10 Hudson Yards, d: 15 Hudson Yards
  15. 56 Leonard Street
  16. 8 Spruce Street
  17. Woolworth Building
  18. 70 Pine Street
  19. 30 Park Place
  20. Trump Building
  21. Three World Trade Center
  22. Four World Trade Center
  23. One World Trade Center{edih}|align-cap=center}}
{{Wide image|Manhattan Skyline night.jpg|800px|Midtown Manhattan, looking south toward Lower Manhattan, in April 2017|5=center|dir=|alt=Manhattan}}{{wide image|Lower Manhattan from Jersey City November 2014 panorama 3.jpg|1000px|3=Lower Manhattan at sunset, from Jersey City, New Jersey. One World Trade Center, at center, is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. (November 2014)|align-cap=center}}

Demographics

{{See also|Demographics of New York City}}{{Historical populations|type= USA100067881053811963862815710218762360029363331316048996373123706202589312710515547813669942292116467414412161850093233154222841031867312188992419601011698281153923314282851487536153719515858731664727PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOV, June 4, 2016, Sources:HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/TABLE/PST045216/36061,00PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUAUTHOR=CAMPBELL GIBSONPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 11, 2017, }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2012 !! 1990WEB, New York â€“ Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120812191959weblink">weblink August 12, 2012, !! 1950 !! 1900White American>White 65.2% 58.3% 79.4% 97.8%| n/aAfrican American>Black or African American 18.4% 22.0% 19.6% 2.0%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 25.8% 26.0% n/a n/aAsian American>Asian 12.0% 7.4% 0.8% 0.3%At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 5.0% to 1,664,727 {{As of|2017|lc=y}}, representing 19.3% of New York City's population of 8,622,698 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 19,849,399.WEB,weblink State and County QuickFacts: New York (city), New York, United States Census Bureau, July 30, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140720153020weblink">weblink July 20, 2014, As of the 2017 Census estimates, the population density of New York County was around 72,918 people per square mile (28,154/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²).According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (64%).In 2006, the New York City Department of City Planning projected that Manhattan's population would increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period.New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough 2000–2030 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070112022450weblink |date=January 12, 2007 }}, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2006. Accessed May 18, 2007. However, since then, Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.WEB,weblink Downtown Baby Boom Sees 12 Percent Increase in Births, Julie Shapiro, DNAinfo New York, January 11, 2012, November 24, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020080917weblink">weblink October 20, 2014, The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 {{As of|2014|lc=y}}, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.NEWS,weblink The Financial District Gains Momentum, C. J. Hughes, The New York Times, August 8, 2014, November 24, 2014, The southern tip of Manhattan became the fastest growing part of New York City between 1990 and 2014.NEWS,weblink Downside of Lower Manhattan’s Boom: It’s Just Too Crowded, Winnie Hu, The New York Times, December 2, 2016, December 10, 2016, According to the 2009 American Community Survey,WEB, American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau,weblink New York County, New York â€“ ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2009, Factfinder.census.gov, July 24, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120120155601weblink">weblink January 20, 2012, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.WEB,weblink New York County, New York â€“ Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2009, Factfinder.census.gov, May 7, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110103055046weblink">weblink January 3, 2011, Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. {{As of|2012}}, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States,WEB,weblink The Most Expensive Places in America, Danielle Kurtzleben, USA Today, May 24, 2012, May 14, 2014, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality.MAGAZINE,weblink Where Inequality Is Worst In The United States, Forbes, May 14, 2014, Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010.WEB,weblink Interactive Data, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, March 11, 2014, However, from 2011–2015 Census data of New York County, the per capita income was recorded in 2015 dollars as $64,993, with the median household income at $72,871, and poverty at 17.6%.WEB,weblink Per capita income in past 12 months (in 2015 dollars), 2011–2015, www.census.gov, en, April 8, 2017, In 2012, The New York Times reported that inequality was higher than in most developing countries, stating, "The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".Tim Phillips, "The Occupy Movement is a Response to Social Stratification; it's not 'Economic Terrorism'", Activist Defense, September 25, 2012.

Religion

Manhattan is religiously diverse. In 2000, the largest religious affiliation was the Catholic Church, whose adherents constituted 564,505 persons (more than 36% of the population) and maintained 110 congregations. Jews comprised the second largest religious group, with 314,500 persons (20.5%) in 102 congregations. They were followed by Protestants, with 139,732 adherents (9.1%) and Muslims, with 37,078 (2.4%).New York County, New York, Association of Religion Data Archives. Accessed September 10, 2006. Other religious affiliations including Hinduism, as well as Atheism and irreligion, composed the majority of the remainder.

Languages

{{As of|2010}}, 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, aged five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) spoke African languages at home. In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, aged five and older, spoke a language other than English at home.WEB,weblink MLA Language Map Data Center, Modern Language Association, December 20, 2013, Enter New York County, New York, 2010 in data entry.

{{Anchor|Architecture|Landmarks}}Landmarks and architecture

{{see also|List of skyscrapers in New York City}}(File:A. T. Stewart 1870.jpg|upright=1.15|thumb|right|A. T. Stewart in 1870, 9th Street, Manhattan)File:Park and 57th street Manhattan New York photo D Ramey Logan.jpg|upright=1.15|thumb|right|Numerous buildings have a jagged façade, exemplified at Park Avenue and 57th Street in Midtown ManhattanMidtown ManhattanBroadway and the Theater District surrounding Times Square, Central Park, Chinatown, the Chrysler Building, Columbia University, the Empire State Building, the Flatiron Building, Fulton Center, Grand Central Terminal, Harlem, Spanish Harlem, the High Line, Koreatown, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Little Italy, Madison Square Garden, Museum Mile on Fifth Avenue, the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, New York University and the Washington Square Arch in Greenwich Village, One World Trade Center, Penn Station, the Port Authority Bus Terminal, Radio City Music Hall, Rockefeller Center, Stonewall Inn, Trump Tower, gateways to numerous iconic river-crossing bridges, and an emerging number of supertall skyscrapers, are all located on densely populated Manhattan Island; the Statue of Liberty rests on a pedestal on Liberty Island, an exclave of Manhattan. The borough has many energy-efficient green office buildings, such as the Hearst Tower, the rebuilt 7 World Trade Center,Pogrebin, Robin. "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers", ''The New York Times, April 16, 2006. Accessed July 19, 2006. and the Bank of America Tower—the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification.PRESS RELEASE, Bank of America and The Durst Organization Break Ground On the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park in New York City, Bank of America Corporation, August 2, 2004,weblink October 19, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071023184724weblink">weblink October 23, 2007, no, JOURNAL, Richard A., Cook, Alice, Hartley, "What is Free?": How Sustainable Architecture Act and Interacts Differently, United Nations, June 6, 2005,weblink October 19, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071128051308weblink">weblink November 28, 2007, yes,

Architectural history

The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. From 1890 to 1973, the title of world's tallest building resided continually in Manhattan (with a gap between 1901 and 1908, when the title was held by Philadelphia City Hall), with nine different buildings holding the title.McKinley, Jesse. "F.Y.I.: Tall, Taller. Tallest", The New York Times, November 5, 1995. p. CY2. Accessed June 30, 2009. The New York World Building on Park Row, was the first to take the title in 1890, standing {{convert|309|ft|m}} until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge."Big Span Project Initiated by City; Manhattan Plaza of Brooklyn Bridge Would Be Rebuilt to Cope With Traffic Increase COST IS PUT AT $6,910,000 Demolition Program is Set â€“ Street System in the Area Also Faces Rearranging", The New York Times, July 24, 1954. p. 15. The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing {{convert|391|ft|m|0}} high took the title in 1899.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/The Park Row Building, 15 Park Row; An 1899 'Monster' That Reigned High Over the City", The New York Times, March 12, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009. The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood {{convert|612|ft|m|0}} high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished.Gray, Christopher. " Streetscapes/Singer Building; Once the Tallest Building, But Since 1967 a Ghost", The New York Times, January 2, 2005. Accessed May 15, 2007. "The 41-story Singer Building, the tallest in the world in 1908 when it was completed at Broadway and Liberty Street, was, until September 11, 2001, the tallest structure ever to be demolished. The building, an elegant Beaux-Arts tower, was one of the most painful losses of the early preservation movement when it was razed in 1967.... Begun in 1906, the Singer Building incorporated Flagg's model for a city of towers, with the 1896 structure reconstructed as the base, and a 65-foot-square shaft rising {{convert|612|ft|m}} high, culminating in a bulbous mansard and giant lantern at the peak." The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing {{convert|700|ft|m}} at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/Metropolitan Life at 1 Madison Avenue; For a Brief Moment, the Tallest Building in the World", The New York Times, May 26, 1996. Accessed June 30, 2009. The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at {{convert|792|ft|m}}.Dunlap, David W. "Condos to Top Vaunted Tower Of Woolworth", The New York Times, November 2, 2000. Accessed June 30, 2009. Structures such as the Equitable Building of 1915, which rises vertically forty stories from the sidewalk, prompted the passage of the 1916 Zoning Resolution, requiring new buildings to withdraw progressively at a defined angle from the street as they rose, in order to preserve a view of the sky at street level.The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown."Denies Altering Plans for Tallest Building; Starrett Says Height of Bank of Manhattan Structure Was Not Increased to Beat Chrysler.", The New York Times, October 20, 1929. p. 14. At {{convert|927|ft|m}}, 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in only eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title."Bank of Manhattan Built in Record Time; Structure {{convert|927|ft|m}} High, Second Tallest in World, Is Erected in Year of Work.", The New York Times, May 6, 1930. p. 53. At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark {{convert|185|ft|m|0|adj=on}} spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to {{convert|1046|ft|m}} and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Chrysler Building; Skyscraper's Place in the Sun", The New York Times, December 17, 1995. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Then Chrysler and Van Alen again revised the design, this time in order to win a height competition with the {{convert|921|ft|m|adj=on}} tower then rising at 40 Wall Street. This was done in secret, using as a staging area the huge square fire-tower shaft, intended to vent smoke from the stairways. Inside the shaft, Van Alen had teams of workers assemble the framework for a 185-foot spire that, when lifted into place in the fall of 1929, made the Chrysler building, at 1046 feet, 4.75 inches high, the tallest in the world." Both buildings were soon surpassed with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its Art Deco tower reaching {{convert|1250|ft|m}} at the top of the building. The {{convert|203|ft|m|adj=on}} high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to {{convert|1453|ft|m|abbr=on}}."Rivalry for Height is Seen as Ended; Empire State's Record to Stand for Many Years, Builders and Realty Men Say. Practical Limit Reached; Its Top Rises {{convert|1250|ft|m}}, but Staff Carrying Instruments Extends Pinnacle to 1265.5 Feet.", The New York Times, May 2, 1931. p. 7.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: The Empire State Building; A Red Reprise for a '31 Wonder", The New York Times, June 14, 1992. Accessed June 30, 2009.The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were located in Lower Manhattan. At {{convert|1368|and|1362|ft|m}}, the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972 until they were surpassed by the construction of the Willis Tower in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears Tower, located in Chicago).Barss, Karen. "The History of Skyscrapers: A race to the top", Information Please. Accessed May 17, 2007. "The Empire State Building would reign supreme among skyscrapers for 41 years until 1972, when it was surpassed by the World Trade Center (1,368 feet, 110 stories). Two years later, New York City lost the distinction of housing the tallest building when the Willis Tower was constructed in Chicago (1450 feet, 110 stories)." One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.NEWS,weblink 1 World Trade Center is open for business, DeGregory, Priscilla, New York Post, November 3, 2014, November 18, 2014, In 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex. Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City.Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes/'The Destruction of Penn Station'; A 1960s Protest That Tried to Save a Piece of the Past", The New York Times, May 20, 2001. Accessed June 30, 2009. Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage".About the Landmarks Preservation Commission, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Accessed November 20, 2016. The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including nearly 1,000 in New York City."Requiem For Penn Station", CBS News, October 13, 2002. Accessed May 17, 2007. In 2017, a multibillion-dollar rebuilding plan was unveiled to restore the historic grandeur of Penn Station, in the process of upgrading the landmark's status as a critical transportation hub.WEB,weblink Rebuild Penn Station A movement dedicated to the reconstruction of Penn Stationaccessdate=September 1, 2017, Our mission is to dramatically enhance the quality of life in the New York City metropolitan area by rebuilding the original Pennsylvania Station as the centerpiece of a new world-class transportation network for the entire region.,

Parkland

Parkland composes 17.8% of the borough, covering a total of {{convert|2686|acre|km2}}. The {{convert|843|acre|km2|adj=on}} Central Park, the largest park comprising 30% of Manhattan's parkland, is bordered on the north by West 110th Street (Central Park North), on the west by Eighth Avenue (Central Park West), on the south by West 59th Street (Central Park South), and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and several lawns and sporting areas, as well as 21 playgrounds. The park is a popular oasis for migrating birds, and thus is popular with bird watchers. The {{convert|6|mi|km|adj=on}} road circling the park is popular with joggers, bicyclists and inline skaters, and automobile traffic is banned at all times.Central Park General Information {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061008115343weblink |date=October 8, 2006 }}, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed September 21, 2006. While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped and contains several artificial lakes. The construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects. Some 20,000 workers crafted the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. Workers moved nearly {{convert|3000000|cuyd|m3}} of soil and planted more than 270,000 trees and shrubs.Central Park History {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061005052942weblink |date=October 5, 2006 }}, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed September 21, 2006.The remaining 70% of Manhattan's parkland includes 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts, and many other amenities.WEB,weblink Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer, March 25, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070411204634weblink">weblink April 11, 2007, yes, The African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane Street preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans buried during the 17th and 18th centuries. The remains were found in 1991 during the construction of the Foley Square Federal Office Building.{{gallery|align=center|height=275|lines=3|File:OneWorldTradeCenter.jpg
|One World Trade Center, the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere as of 2016|File:ChryslerBuilding.JPG
|The Chrysler Building was the tallest building in the city and the world from 1930–1931. |File:Empire State Building by David Shankbone.jpg
|The Empire State Building was the world's tallest building from 1931 to 1972, and the city's tallest from 2001 to 2014. |File:Wtcmay01.jpg
|The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were the city's tallest from their opening in 1972 to their destruction in 2001.|File:The_United_Nations_Secretariat_Building.jpg
|Manhattan has served as home to the headquarters of the United Nations since 1952.
}}

Economy

File:Photos NewYork1 032.jpg|thumb|right|The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, by a significant margin the world's largest stock exchange per weblink The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny, March 26, 2017, WEB,weblink Is the New York Stock Exchange the Largest Stock Market in the World?, March 26, 2017, at US.1 trillion as of April 2018.WEB, Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars),weblink Statista, February 18, 2019, ">alt=A large flag is stretched over Roman style columns on the front of a large building.Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City.WEB, Manhattan Average Weekly Wage in Manhattan at $2,821 in First Quarter 2007, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor, November 19, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528173132weblink">weblink May 28, 2010, July 27, 2014, In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.WEB,weblink County Employment and Wages Summary, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, September 18, 2014, September 21, 2014, Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct. Manhattan also has the highest per capita income of any county in the United States.In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country,WEB, The Dynamic Population of Manhattan,weblink March 2, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425062156weblink">weblink April 25, 2012, and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C."Commuting shifts in top 10 metro areas", USA Today, May 20, 2005. Accessed June 25, 2007.

Financial sector

Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The borough's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.WEB,weblink The Securities Industry in New York City, Thomas P. DiNapoli (New York State Comptroller) and Kenneth B. Bleiwas (New York State Deputy Comptroller), October 2013, July 30, 2014, Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion,WEB,weblink London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York, Ambereen Choudhury, Elisa Martinuzzi, Ben Moshinsky, yes, Bloomberg L.P., November 26, 2012, July 20, 2014, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually.WEB,weblink Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York, Sanat Vallikappen, Bloomberg L.P, November 10, 2013, July 20, 2014, File:Lower Manhattan viewed from Brooklyn.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, seen from BrooklynBrooklynLower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. The NYSE American (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), New York Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) are also located downtown. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.NEWS,weblink NYSE Euronext to Take Over Libor, David Enrich, Jacob Bunge, Cassell Bryan-Low, yes, The Wall Street Journal, July 9, 2013, July 10, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131019203758weblink">weblink October 19, 2013,

Corporate sector

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060923033422weblink">Fortune Magazine: New York State and City Home to Most Fortune 500 Companies, Empire State Development Corporation, press release dated April 8, 2005. Accessed April 26, 2007. "New York City is also still home to more Fortune 500 headquarters than any other city in the country." Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018, making it the largest office market in the United States,WEB,weblink Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market, Officespaceseeker.com, July 20, 2014, while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018,WEB,weblink Q3 2018 U.S. Office Market Outlook - Download research report, Colliers International, December 6, 2018, April 13, 2019, is the largest central business district in the world.WEB,weblink Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11, Cushman & Wakefield, Inc, July 20, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130508231043weblink">weblink May 8, 2013, New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue".

Tech and biotech

{{further|Tech companies in Manhattan|Biotech companies in Manhattan|Silicon Alley|Tech:NYC}}Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech industries,WEB,weblink SA 100 2013: The Coolest People In New York Tech, Megan Rose Dickey, Jillian D'Onfro, yes, Business Insider, October 24, 2013, July 30, 2014, including the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (fintech), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the area's entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. {{As of|2014}}, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.NEWS,weblink 5 signs NYC's tech scene is growing up – NYC tech sector hits 300,000, S3 Partners, New York Daily News, January 8, 2015, May 2, 2015, WEB,weblink The most innovative cities in America, Jillian Eugenios, Steve Hargreaves, Aimee Rawlins, yes, CNNMoney, October 7, 2014, October 7, 2014, In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment,WEB,weblink Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data, National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers, April 22, 2016, most based in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in Manhattan and across New York City, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance,NEWS,weblink Ted Cruz Deplores ‘Liberal, Left-Wing Values’ While Lobbying for New York Votes, Matt Flegenheimer, The New York Times, March 23, 2016, April 22, 2016, and environmental sustainability,NEWS,weblink The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly, The Associated Press, The New York Times, April 22, 2016, April 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets, Lisa Foderaro, The New York Times, September 21, 2014, April 22, 2016, as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.NEWS,weblink City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem, Ivan Pereira, amNewYork/Newsday, December 10, 2013, July 29, 2014, Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.WEB,weblink Verizon will miss deadline to wire all of New York City with FiOS, Jon Brodkin, Condé Nast, June 9, 2014, July 30, 2014, As of October 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector, with a significant proportion in Manhattan. The technology sector has been expanding across Manhattan since 2010.NEWS,weblink Even Without Amazon, Tech Could Keep Gaining Ground in New York, Ben Casselman, Keith Collins, and Karl Russell, The New York Times, February 15, 2019, February 16, 2019, The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than {{convert|700000|sqft|m2}} on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.NEWS, Morris, Keiko,weblink Wanted: Biotech Startups in New York City: The Alexandria Center for Life Science Looks to Expand, The Wall Street Journal, July 28, 2014, July 31, 2014, In 2011, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg had announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.NEWS,weblink RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA, Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City, The New York Times, December 19, 2011, July 30, 2014, WEB,weblink 'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion, Anne, Ju, Cornell University, December 19, 2011, July 30, 2014, File:1 times square night 2013.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a major cultural venue in Manhattan, it also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million]]

Tourism

Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, enumerating an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season; attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.WEB,weblink Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics, The Broadway League, July 20, 2014, As of June 2016, Manhattan had nearly 91,500 hotel rooms, a 26% increase from 2010.WEB,weblink Manhattan's hotel wars, Rich Bockmann, The Real Deal, Inc, June 1, 2016, December 11, 2016,

Real estate

Real estate is a major force in Manhattan's economy, and indeed the city's, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$914.8 billion for the 2015 fiscal year.WEB, DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE PUBLISHES FISCAL YEAR 2015 TENTATIVE ASSESSMENT ROLL, New York City Department of Finance, January 15, 2014,weblink January 23, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140202200729weblink">weblink February 2, 2014, Manhattan has perennially been home to some of the nation's, as well as the world's, most valuable real estate, including the Time Warner Center, which had the highest-listed market value in the city in 2006 at US$1.1 billion,NEWS, McTiernan, Andy,weblink A quantum leap for capital assets, The Free Library By Farlex, 2008, October 16, 2014, to be subsequently surpassed in October 2014 by the Waldorf Astoria New York, which became the most expensive hotel ever sold after being purchased by the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, for {{US$|1.95 billion}}.WEB,weblink Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion, Robert Frank, CNBC, October 6, 2014, October 9, 2014, When 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for US$510 million, about US$1,589 per square foot (US$17,104/m²), it broke the barely month-old record for an American office building of US$1,476 per square foot (US$15,887/m²) based on the sale of 660 Madison Avenue.Quirk, James. WEB,weblink Bergen offices have plenty of space,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071222235142weblink">weblink December 22, 2007, yes, , The Record (Bergen County), July 5, 2007. Accessed July 5, 2007. In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price.MAGAZINE,weblink New York Dominates 2014 List of America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes, Erin Carlyle, Forbes, October 8, 2014, October 9, 2014, In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a {{convert|24,000|ft2|m2}} penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park.weblink Accessed February 16, 2019.Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013,WEB,weblink What is an office condominium?, Rudder Property Group, October 18, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130304090015weblink">weblink March 4, 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States.WEB,weblink Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market, Officespaceseeker.com, October 18, 2013, Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation based on office space,WEB,weblink Marketbeat Office Snapshot: United States – 2Q11, Cushman & Wakefield, Inc, October 16, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020102454weblink">weblink October 20, 2014, while Lower Manhattan is the third-largest (after Chicago's Loop).Lower Manhattan Recovery Office {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140618212646weblink |date=June 18, 2014 }}, Federal Transit Administration. Accessed June 23, 2014. "Lower Manhattan is the third largest business district in the nation. Prior to September 11th more than 385,000 people were employed there and 85% of those employees used public transportation to commute to work."WEB,weblink Illinois Chicago West Randolph Ogilvie Business Center, Regus, October 16, 2014,

Media

{{further|New Yorkers in journalism}}

News

Manhattan is served by the major New York City daily news publications, including The New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest newspaper by circulation, The Wall Street Journal, is also based there. Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.NEWS,weblink After 62 Years and Many Battles, Village Voice Will End Print Publication, John Leland (journalist), John Leland and Sarah Maslin Nir, The New York Times, August 22, 2017, September 2, 2017,

Television, radio, film

{{see also|List of films set in New York City|List of television shows set in New York City}}The television industry developed in Manhattan and is a significant employer in the borough's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox, as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO and Comedy Central. In 1971, WLIB became New York's first black-owned radio station and began broadcasts geared toward the African-American community in 1949. WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan.President's Bio {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080618135110weblink |date=June 18, 2008 }}, WNYC. Accessed May 1, 2007. "Heard by over 1.2 million listeners each week, WNYC radio is the largest public radio station in the country and is dedicated to producing broadcasting that extends New York City's cultural riches to public radio stations nationwide." WEB,weblink Archived copy, December 13, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030926034616weblink">weblink September 26, 2003, WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming.Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100825122105weblink |date=August 25, 2010 }}, Manhattan Neighborhood Network press release dated August 6, 2006. Accessed April 28, 2007. "Public access TV was created in the 1970s to allow ordinary members of the public to make and air their own TV shows—and thereby exercise their free speech. It was first launched in the U.S. in Manhattan July 1, 1971, on the Teleprompter and Sterling Cable systems, now Time Warner Cable." WEB,weblink Archived copy, October 28, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728051623weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics.

Education

{{See also|Education in New York City|List of high schools in New York City|List of colleges and universities in New York City}}File:Butler Library - 1000px - AC.jpg|thumb|Butler Library at Columbia UniversityColumbia UniversityEducation in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States.New York: Education and Research, City-Data. Accessed September 10, 2006. Charter schools include Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep.Some notable New York City public high schools are located in Manhattan, including Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Eleanor Roosevelt High School, NYC Lab School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School, and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College. Bard High School Early College, a hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city.Many private preparatory schools are also situated in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart, Hewitt School, Saint David's School, Loyola School, and Regis High School. The Upper West Side is home to the Collegiate School and Trinity School. The borough is also home to Manhattan Country School, Trevor Day School, and the United Nations International School.File:Stuyvesant HS.jpg|thumb|Stuyvesant High School, in TribecaNEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080102140107weblink">weblink January 2, 2008, U.S. News & World Report gives city schools high marks in new list, Carrie, Melago, Daily News (New York), Daily NewsDaily News (New York), Daily NewsBased on data from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey, 59.9% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree.S1501: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Manhattan borough, New York County, New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 22, 2017. As of 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people.McGeehan, Patrick. "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates", The New York Times, August 16, 2006. Accessed March 27, 2008. "In Manhattan, nearly three out of five residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city."Manhattan has various colleges and universities, including Columbia University (and its affiliate Barnard College), Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology, New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, Yeshiva University, and a campus of Fordham University. Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, Parsons School of Design, School of Visual Arts, Touro College, and Union Theological Seminary. Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them Mercy College, St. John's University, The College of New Rochelle, The King's College, and Pratt Institute. Cornell Tech is developing on Roosevelt Island.File:New York Public Library May 2011.JPG|thumb|New York Public Library Main Branch at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue; built (1897–1911) and replaced the Croton Reservoir; Carrère and HastingsCarrère and HastingsThe City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students.The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university, City University of New York. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The City University of New York is the nation's largest urban public university..." A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctorate granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College. The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry, and Stony Brook University â€“ Manhattan.Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences.NEWS, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan, New York City Economic Development Corporation,weblink November 18, 2004, July 19, 2006, The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities,WEB, NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003, National Institutes of Health, 2003,weblink June 30, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090626092327weblink">weblink June 26, 2009, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weill Cornell Medical College, and New York University School of Medicine.Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country.WEB,weblink Nation's Largest Libraries, LibrarySpot, June 6, 2007, The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, Donnell Library Center, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan.The Central Libraries, New York Public Library. Accessed June 6, 2007. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091228022040weblink |date=December 28, 2009 }} More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.Manhattan Map, New York Public Library. Accessed June 6, 2006.

Culture and contemporary life

{{See also|Culture of New York City}}{{further|Broadway theatre|LGBT culture in New York City|List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City|Met Gala|Music of New York City|New York Fashion Week}}File:Lincoln Center Twilight.jpg|thumb|alt=The corner of a lit up plaza with a fountain in the center and the ends of two brightly lit buildings with tall arches on the squareFile:Pride Parade New York June 28, 2015 8.jpg |thumb|The scene at Manhattan's 2015 LGBT Pride March. The annual event rivals the sister São Paulo event as the world's largest pride parade, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.WEB,weblink Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March, CBS New York, June 25, 2017, June 26, 2017, A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday.,

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