New York (state)

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New York (state)
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{{short description|American state}}{{use American English|date=August 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}

  • Spanish 15.2%
  • Chinese 3.1%
  • French 1.6%
  • Russian 1.2%
  • Italian 0.9%
  • Yiddish 0.7%
  • Hindi/Urdu 0.6%
  • Arabic 0.5%
  • Korean 0.5%WEB,weblink Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over – 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, January 24, 2016, | population_demonym = New Yorker| image_map = New York Map.png
Albany, New York>Albany| LargestCity = New York City| LargestMetro = New York metropolitan area| area_rank = 27th| area_total_sq_mi = 54,555| area_total_km2 = 141,300| width_mi = 285| width_km = 455| length_mi = 330| length_km = 530| area_water_percent = 13.5| Latitude = 40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ N| Longitude = 71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ WWEBSITE=US CENSUS BUREAU QUICKFACTS, January 4, 2019, | population_rank = 4th| 2000DensityUS = 412| 2000Density = 159| 2010DensityUS = 416.42DATE=2019 KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION>HENRY J. KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION, April 8, 2019, | IncomeRank = 15th| population_density_rank = 7thMount MarcyPG2096ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 20, 2011, HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML>ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090201060818/HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTMLTITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATESUNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY>YEAR=2001, October 24, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 5,344| elevation_max_m = 1,629| elevation_ft = 1,000| elevation_m = 300| elevation_min_point = Atlantic Ocean| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| Former = Province of New York| AdmittanceDate = July 26, 1788| AdmittanceOrder = 11thAndrew Cuomo (Democratic Party (United States)>D)| Lieutenant Governor = Kathy Hochul (D)New York State Legislature>New York LegislatureNew York State Senate>State SenateNew York State Assembly>State Assembly

  • 21 Democrats
  • 5 Republicans
  • 1 Vacant

Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| postal_code = NY| TradAbbreviation = N.Y.| iso_code = US-NY| website =weblink}}

Name New York|Mammal = Beaver|Beverage = Milk|Bird = Eastern bluebirdCoccinella novemnotata>Nine-spotted ladybug|Fish = Brook trout (fresh water), Striped bass (salt water)|Fossil = Eurypterus remipes|Flower = Rose|Tree = Sugar maple|Gemstone = Garnet|Reptile = Common snapping turtle|Shell = Bay scallop|Food = {{ubl
|Other = Bush: Lilac bush|Route marker = NY-22.svg|Quarter = 2001_NY_Proof.png|Quarter release date = 2001
}}New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from its city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State (NYS).The state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. The state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017,WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 – 2018 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, January 4, 2019, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States.WEB,weblink Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, June 1, 2016, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, May 29, 2015, WEB,weblink
, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2
, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
, May 29, 2015, The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world.WEB,weblink
, World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population]
, Rhett Butler, 2003–2006, August 2, 2014, dead,weblink October 9, 2009, WEB,weblink Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population), Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps, August 2, 2014, New York City is a global city,WEB,weblink Global power city index 2009, The Mori Memorial Foundation, August 2, 2014, home to the United Nations Headquarters,WEB,weblink Office of the Mayor Commission for the United Nations, Consular Corps and Protocol, The City of New York, 2012, August 2, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2014, and has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capitalWEB,weblink New York Is The World's Media Capital, Felix Richter, Statista, March 11, 2015, May 29, 2017, WEB,weblink ABC will broadcast New York's pride parade live for the first time, Dawn Ennis, LGBTQ Nation, May 24, 2017, May 29, 2017, of the world,WEB,weblink Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011, August 2, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2013, WEB,weblink New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.], NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA, August 2, 2014, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.WEB,weblink Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City, Richard Florida, The Atlantic Monthly Group, March 3, 2015, March 25, 2015, Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top.,
WEB,weblink Top 8 Cities by GDP: China vs. The U.S., For instance, Shanghai, the largest Chinese city with the highest economic production, and a fast-growing global financial hub, is far from matching or surpassing New York, the largest city in the U.S. and the economic and financial super center of the world., Business Insider, Inc, July 31, 2011, October 28, 2015, WEB,weblink PAL sets introductory fares to New York, Philippine Airlines, March 25, 2015, WEB,weblink What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?, Richard Florida, The Atlantic Monthly Group, May 8, 2012, March 25, 2015, The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany.The 27th largest U.S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. The large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys{{snd}} the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley{{snd}} bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination.New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.S. east-coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy.NEWS,weblink 200 Years Ago, Erie Canal Got Its Start as Just a 'Ditch', Sam, Roberts, June 26, 2017, The New York Times, July 25, 2017, Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal.WEB, The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions – No. 3: Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000
, Ann Shields, Travel+Lesiure,weblink
, November 10, 2014, July 17, 2015
, No. 3 Times Square, New York City – Annual Visitors: 50,000,000...No. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York City – Annual Visitors: 40,000,000...No. 9: Niagara Falls, New York and Ontario – Annual Visitors: 22,000,000...No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City – Annual Visitors: 21,600,000, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.WEB, Statue of Liberty, World Heritage, UNESCO,weblink July 17, 2015, In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,WEB,weblink Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data, National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers, April 22, 2016, social tolerance,NEWS,weblink Ted Cruz Deplores 'Liberal, Left-Wing Values' While Lobbying for New York Votes, Matt Flegenheimer, The New York Times, March 23, 2016, April 22, 2016, and environmental sustainability.NEWS,weblink The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly, Associated Press, The New York Times, April 22, 2016, April 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets, Lisa Foderaro, The New York Times, September 21, 2014, April 22, 2016, New York's higher education network comprises approximately 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world.WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, August 27, 2015, WEB,weblink CWUR 2015 – World University Rankings, Center for World University Rankings, August 27, 2015,weblink
{{TOC limit|3}}


Native American history

File:Early Localization Native Americans NY.svg|thumb|New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) Indian tribesIndian tribesThe tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Haudenosaunee and Algonquian. Long Island was divided roughly in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape. The Lenape also controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor. North of the Lenape was a third Algonquian nation, the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided roughly along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie.WEB,weblink Iroquois Confederacy – History, Relations with non-native americans, Key issues,, March 3, 2018, WEB,weblink Susquehannock Indians,, March 3, 2018, WEB,weblink Erie Tribe – Access Genealogy, July 9, 2011, March 3, 2018, WEB,weblink 'PETUN' AND THE PETUNS, J., English,, March 3, 2018, WEB,weblink Mahican Tribe – Access Genealogy, July 9, 2011, March 3, 2018, Barron, Donna. "The Long Island Indians & Their New England Ancestors". 2006Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s,WEB,weblink King Philip's War – Native American History,, March 3, 2018, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time. They may have merged with the Shawnee.John Heckewelder (Loskiel): Conoys, Ganawese, etc. explains Charles A. Hanna (Vol II, 1911:96, Ganeiens-gaa, Margry, i., 529; ii., 142–43,) using La Salle's letter of August 22, 1681 Fort Saint Louis (Illinois) mentioning "Ohio tribes" for extrapolation.Hanna 1911:158The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes. The Mohawk were also known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock briefly conquered the Lenape in the 1600s. The most devastating event of the century, however, was the Beaver Wars. From approximately 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other. The aim was to control more land for animal trapping, a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. Not only did this completely change the ethnography of the region, but most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. Still, afterward, the Iroquois Confederacy offered shelter to refugees of the Mascouten, Erie, Chonnonton, Tutelo, Saponi, and Tuscarora nations. In the 1700s, they would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War and take in the remaining Susquehannock of Pennsylvania after they were decimated in war.Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine (1961). "The American Heritage Book of Indians". In pages 188–219. ,. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc Most of these other groups blended in until they ceased to exist. Then, after the Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the Mingo Seneca. The current six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy are the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Tuscarora and Mohawk. As the Iroquois sided with the British during the Revolution, they soon after migrated to Canada.WEB,weblink Beaver Wars ***,, March 3, 2018, WEB,weblink Early Indian Migration in Ohio,, March 3, 2018, Meanwhile, the Lenape formed a close relationship with William Penn. However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio.WEB,weblink Official Site of the Delaware Tribe of Indians » The Walking Purchase,, March 3, 2018, When the U.S. drafted the Indian Removal Act, the Lenape were further moved to Missouri, whereas their cousins, the Mohicans, were sent to Wisconsin.Also, in 1778, the United States relocated the Nanticoke from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape.Pritzker 441

16th century

In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, explored the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay. On April 17, 1524, Verrazzano entered New York Bay, by way of the strait now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister. Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats". He landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard.WEB,weblink Centro Studi Storici Verrazzano – Official web site, April 15, 2009, March 3, 2018, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 15, 2009, In 1540, French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding. In 1614, the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, which they called Fort Nassau. Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617,WEB,weblink Castle Island, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange (New Netherland) was built nearby in 1623.BOOK, Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically, J.B. Lyon Company, Reynolds, Cuyler,weblink 1906,

17th century

File:Castelloplan.jpg|thumb|New AmsterdamNew AmsterdamHenry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. Sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year.Nevius, Michelle and James, "New York's many 9/11 anniversaries: the Staten Island Peace Conference", Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, September 8, 2008. Retrieved September 24, 2012. Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes.During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland. The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany); Fort Orange (1624, on the Hudson River just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck (1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam (1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingston). The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyck (1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. The English captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and governed it as the Province of New York. The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster a year later.Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011). {{ISBN|978-0-486-48637-6}}

18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood

(File:NewYork1777MapRestoredSmall.png|thumb|upright|New York and neighboring jurisdictions in 1777)The Sons of Liberty were organized in New York City during the 1760s, largely in response to the oppressive Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament in 1765. The Stamp Act Congress met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress to follow. The Stamp Act Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence. This included the right to representative government. At the same time, given strong commercial, personal and sentimental links to Britain, many New York residents were Loyalists. The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston in 1775.New York was the only colony not to vote for independence, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776.WEB,weblink Declaration of Independence,, April 10, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 9, 2008, dead, The New York State Constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, finished its work at Kingston on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution drafted by John Jay was adopted with but one dissenting vote. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston.About one-third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War took place in New York; the first major battle after U.S. independence was declared{{snd}} and the largest battle of the entire war{{snd}} was fought in New York at the Battle of Long Island (a.k.a. Battle of Brooklyn) in August 1776. After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington's intelligence network. On the notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined. Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, a success that influenced France to ally with the revolutionaries.The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.File:Surrender of General Burgoyne.jpg|thumb|left|British general John Burgoyne surrenders at SaratogaSaratogaIn an attempt to retain their sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans.BOOK, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution, Alan Taylor, Knopf, 978-0-679-45471-7, 2006, In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant and Loyalist Mohawk forces, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara.WEB, Sullivan/Clinton Interactive Map Set,weblink August 30, 2010, As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York put up more than {{convert|5|e6acre|km2}} of former Iroquois territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in upstate New York.Chen, David W. "Battle Over Iroquois Land Claims Escalates", The New York Times. May 16, 2000. Retrieved April 11, 2008. As per the Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies{{snd}} their troops in New York City{{snd}} departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day.WEB,weblink Happy Evacuation Day, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, April 12, 2008, File:1800LowsNYstate.jpeg|thumb|1800 map of New York from Low's EncyclopaediaLow's EncyclopaediaNew York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first national government. That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786) that called for the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part. The new government was to be a strong federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation{{snd}}The Federalist Papers{{snd}} as a series of installments in New York City newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788.WEB,weblink New York's Ratification, The U.S. Constitution Online, April 10, 2008, New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790,BOOK,weblink Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration [3 volumes]: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration, LeMay, Michael C., December 10, 2012, ABC-CLIO, 9780313396441, en, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington,WEB,weblink George Washington's First Inaugrual Address: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress),, Washington, George, July 30, 2018, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court. Hamilton's revival of the heavily indebted United States economy after the war and the creation of a national bank significantly contributed to New York City becoming the financial center of the new nation. {{Citation needed|date=July 2018}}Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827.NEWS,weblink New York City Would Really Rather Not Talk About Its Slavery-Loving Past, April 15, 2015, Newsweek, July 30, 2018, en,

19th century

File:Lockport bartlett color crop.jpg|thumb|The Erie Canal at LockportLockportTransportation in western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. Governor DeWitt Clinton promoted the Erie Canal, which connected New York City to the Great Lakes by the Hudson River, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal opened in 1825. Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight.WEB,weblink The Erie Canal: A Brief History, New York State Canals, April 10, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink January 24, 2010, Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured goods moved west. It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalo and Rochester to grow and prosper. It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal.Peter L. Bernstein, Wedding of the waters: The Erie Canal and the making of a great nation (2005).New York City was a major ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South and exporting manufacturing goods. Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels.Robert Greenhalgh Albion, The rise of New York port (1815–1860) (1939). At the same time, activism for abolitionism was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad. Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War, in terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union armies. Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment.Ernest A. McKay, The Civil War and New York City (1990).Frederick Phisterer, New York in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 To 1865 (1890), p. 88.


{{Further|Ellis Island}}File:Ellis Island in 1905.jpg|thumb|alt=A black and white photo of Ellis Island in 1905(File:Ellis Island immigration footage.ogg|thumb|upright|Scenes at the Immigration Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island)Since the early 19th century, New York City has been the largest port of entry for legal immigration into the United States. In the United States, the federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until 1890. Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government. Most immigrants to New York would disembark at the bustling docks along the Hudson and East Rivers, in the eventual Lower Manhattan. On May 4, 1847, the New York State Legislature created the Board of Commissioners of Immigration to regulate immigration.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 10, 2013, Castle Garden as An Immigrant Depot:1855–1890, National Park Service, PDF, September 9, 2013, The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812 era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine. Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890, when the federal government assumed control over immigration. During that period, more than 8 million immigrants passed through its doors (two out of every three U.S. immigrants).WEB,weblink Castle Clinton, National Park Service, August 22, 2013, September 9, 2013, When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot. Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey, via a short ferry ride. While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery.Vincent J. Cannato: American Passage: The History of Ellis Island. p.50: Harper Collins (2009) {{ISBN|0060742739}}Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees. The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954, when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15 a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship.More than 12 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. More than 100 million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants.Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. The issue was settled in 1998 by the U.S. Supreme Court which ruled that the original {{convert|3.3|acre|adj=on}} island was New York State territory and that the balance of the {{convert|27.5|acres|0|abbr=on}} added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey.NEWS,weblink The Ellis Island Verdict: The Ruling, Linda Greenhouse, May 27, 1998, The New York Times, September 5, 2013, The island was added to the National Park Service system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson and is still owned by the Federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990.WEB,weblink Statue Of Liberty National Monument,, September 9, 2013,

September 11, 2001 attacks

File:UA Flight 175 hits WTC south tower 9-11 edit.jpeg|thumb|upright|Flight 175 hitting the South TowerSouth TowerOn September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the towers collapsed. 7 World Trade Center also collapsed due to damage from fires. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. In the years since, many{{how many|date=April 2019}} rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died.WEB,weblink Charting post-9/11 deaths, Susan, Edelman, January 22, 2012, January 6, 2008, A memorial at the site, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, was opened to the public on September 11, 2011. A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center became the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, at {{convert|1,776|ft|m}}.NEWS,weblink It's official: One World Trade Center to be tallest U.S. skyscraper, Katia Hetter, CNN, November 12, 2013, November 12, 2013, Other skyscrapers are under construction at the site.

Hurricane Sandy, 2012

File:Hurricane Sandy Flooding Avenue C 2012.JPG|thumb|Flooding on Avenue C in Lower Manhattan caused by alt=Lower Manhattan's Avenue C is seen flooded.On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City and Long Island with record-high storm surge, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. This is considered highly probable due to global warming and rise in sea levels.WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy Anniversary 2014: Fortifying New York – How Well Armored Are We For The Next Superstorm?, Jeff Stone, Maria Gallucci, yes, International Business Times, October 29, 2014, July 23, 2015, WEB,weblink ADAPTATION: Political support for a sea wall in New York Harbor begins to form, Robert S. Eshelman, E&E Publishing, LLC, November 15, 2012, July 23, 2015,


File:New York state geographic map-en.svg|thumb|left|New York is bordered by five U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and alt=A topographic map of the state of New York, with urban and geographic features marked.New York covers {{convert|54555|sqmi|km2}} and ranks as the 27th largest state by size.WEB,weblink Land and Water Area of States (2000),, April 11, 2008, The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, at {{convert|5,344|ft|m|0|abbr=off|sp=us}} above sea level; while the state's lowest point is at sea level, on the Atlantic Ocean.WEB, April 29, 2005,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2009, Elevations and Distances in the United States, U.S. Geological Survey, November 6, 2006, In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Catskill Mountains; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. The rugged Adirondack Mountains, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley. The Great Appalachian Valley dominates eastern New York and contains the Lake Champlain Valley as its northern half and the Hudson Valley as its southern half within the state. The Tug Hill region arises as a cuesta east of Lake Ontario.WEB,weblink Tug Hill Region, New York State Tug Hill Commission, April 1, 2017, Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of New York State, 1619, 978-0-8156-0808-0, 2005, Syracuse University Press, Eisenstadt, Peter, Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania,BOOK, The Encyclopedia of New York State, 1437, 978-0-8156-0808-0, 2005, Syracuse University Press, Eisenstadt, Peter, and the North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–US border to everything north of the Mohawk River.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of New York State, 978-0-8156-0808-0, 2005, Syracuse University Press, Eisenstadt, Peter, New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale, which extends into Ohio and Pennsylvania.NEWS,weblink Citing Health Risks, Cuomo Bans Fracking in New York State, Thomas, Kaplan, December 17, 2014, The New York Times,



File:LI region DEM-2.jpg|thumb|right|Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long IslandLong IslandOf New York State's total area, 13.6% consists of water.WEB,weblink Area of each state that is water,, September 23, 2017, Much of New York's boundaries are in water, as is true for New York City: four of its five boroughs are situated on three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River: Manhattan Island; Staten Island; and Long Island, which contains Brooklyn and Queens at its western end. The state's borders include a water boundary in (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, which are connected by the Niagara River); the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, with New York and Ontario sharing the Thousand Islands archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River, while most of its border with Quebec is on land; it shares Lake Champlain with the New England state of Vermont; the New England state of Massachusetts has mostly a land border; New York extends into Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing a water border with Rhode Island, while Connecticut has land and sea borders. Except for areas near the New York Harbor, New York has a mostly land border with two Mid-Atlantic states, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.


The Hudson River begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes George or Champlain. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware River systems. Niagara Falls is shared between New York and Ontario as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system.WEB,weblink Delaware River Basin Commission, The State of New Jersey, April 3, 2017,


File:LakeEffectSnowBuffalo101206.gif|thumb|Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug HillTug HillIn general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2008, Climate of New York, New York State Climate Office – Cornell University, April 10, 2008, Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest.Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather warm summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York due to downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude. Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier.Summer daytime temperatures usually range from the upper 70s to mid-80s °F (25 to 29 Â°C), over much of the state. In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of {{convert|-13|F|C|0}} or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and {{convert|5|F|C|0}} or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier.New York ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the state population's high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities.NEWS, A Breath of Fresh New York Air, The New York Post, June 3, 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 6, 2007, June 6, 2007, {{Clear}}


{{multiple image| align = right | direction = horizontal |image1 = Map of New York Economic Regions.svg |caption1 = Economic regions|image2 = New York State Department Economic Development Regions.svg | caption2 = Tourism regions}}Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state. The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. The New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions. It divides the state into ten economic regions,WEB,weblink Age/sex/race in New York State: Based on Census 2010, May 15, 2012, which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents:{{Div col|colwidth=18em}}
  1. Western New York
  2. Finger Lakes
  3. Southern Tier
  4. Central New York
  5. North Country
  6. Mohawk Valley
  7. Capital District
  8. Hudson Valley
  9. New York City
  10. Long Island
{{div col end}}The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes:WEB,weblink Map of eleven regions,, October 2, 2010, {{Div col|colwidth=18em}}
  1. Chautauqua–Allegheny
  2. Niagara Frontier
  3. Finger Lakes
  4. Thousand Islands
  5. Central-Leatherstocking Region
  6. Adirondack Mountains
  7. Capital District
  8. Catskill Mountains
  9. Hudson Valley
  10. New York City
  11. Long Island
{{div col end}}

State parks

{{See also|List of New York state parks|New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation}}File:Adirondack and Catskill Parks Locator.svg|thumb|Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill ParkCatskill ParkNew York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United StatesWEB,weblink Publication #72 – Environmental Affairs in New York State: A Historical Overview, New York State Archives, 2001, Edmondson, Brad, 7–9, April 1, 2017, and the first to be created via eminent domain.WEB,weblink Niagara National Heritage Area Study Report, 26, National Park Service, 2005, April 1, 2017, In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont and the largest state park in the United States,Largest Park Area in the Contiguous US Remains Open to Visitors, Thursday, October 3, 2013. Regional Office of Sustainable Tourism / Lake Placid CVB. Retrieved July 26, 2014. was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon national parks combined. It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined.About the Adirondack Park, Adirondack Park Agency. Retrieved July 1, 2009.The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 2, 2006, Catskill Park History,, April 11, 2008, which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of {{convert|700000|acre|km2}} of land, the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region.WEB,weblink The Catskill Region,, September 15, 2014, The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over {{convert|300|mi|km}} of multi-use trails in the Park.The 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park at the easternmost tip of Long Island. Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are 4 National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places. File:Statue of Liberty, NY.jpg | thumb | left | The Statue of Liberty in New York HarborNew York Harbor

Administrative divisions

(File:New York Counties.svg|thumb|right|Map of the counties in New York)New York is divided into 62 counties. Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into towns and cities, incorporated under state law. Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlets. New York City is divided into five boroughs, each coterminous with a county.Downstate New York (New York City, Long Island, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley) can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis, an urbanized region stretching from New Hampshire to Virginia.The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. Today, the New York Thruway acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes.WEB,weblink New York State Thruway,, New York State Thruway Authority, September 15, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 22, 2014,

Cities and towns

{{Further|List of towns in New York|List of villages in New York|List of census-designated places in New York|New York statistical areas}}There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County. Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with over 700,000 residents.New York contains 13 metropolitan areas, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.WEB, County and Metro Area Population Estimates,weblink U.S. Census Bureau, 19 October 2019, EN-US, Major metro areas include New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, the Capital District (Albany, Schenectady, and Troy), Poughkeepsie, Syracuse, Utica, and Binghamton.{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = New YorkWEBSITE=NEW YORK – 2017 POPULATIONS, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of New York{{!}}County| city_1 = New York City| div_1 = Boroughs of New York City{{!}}Kings, Queens, New York, Bronx, Richmond| pop_1 = 8,622,698| img_1 = Above Gotham.jpg| city_2 = Buffalo, New York{{!}}Buffalo| div_2 = Erie County, New York{{!}}Erie| pop_2 = 258,612| img_2 = BuffaloSkyline.jpg| city_3 = Rochester, New York{{!}}Rochester| div_3 = Monroe County, New York{{!}}Monroe| pop_3 = 208,046| img_3 = Rochester picture.jpg| city_4 = Yonkers, New York{{!}}Yonkers| div_4 = Westchester County, New York{{!}}Westchester| pop_4 = 202,019| img_4 = Yonkers Main Library.jpg| city_5 = Syracuse, New York{{!}}Syracuse| div_5 = Onondaga County, New York{{!}}Onondaga| pop_5 = 143,396| img_5 =| city_6 = Albany, New York{{!}}Albany| div_6 = Albany County, New York{{!}}Albany| pop_6 = 98,251| img_6 =| city_7 = New Rochelle, New York{{!}}New Rochelle| div_7 = Westchester County, New York{{!}}Westchester| pop_7 = 79,946| img_7 =| city_8 = Mount Vernon, New York{{!}}Mount Vernon| div_8 = Westchester County, New York{{!}}Westchester| pop_8 = 68,703| img_8 =| city_9 = Schenectady, New York{{!}}Schenectady| div_9 = Schenectady County, New York{{!}}Schenectady| pop_9 = 65,625| img_9 =| city_10 = Utica, New York{{!}}Utica| div_10 = Oneida County, New York{{!}}Oneida| pop_10 = 60,635| img_10 =}}



{{US Census population|1790= 340120|1800= 589051|1810= 959049|1820= 1372812|1830= 1918608|1840= 2428921|1850= 3097394|1860= 3880735|1870= 4382759|1880= 5082871|1890= 6003174|1900= 7268894|1910= 9113614|1920= 10385227|1930= 12588066|1940= 13479142|1950= 14830192|1960= 16782304|1970= 18236967|1980= 17558072|1990= 17990455|2000= 18976457|2010= 19378102|estimate= 19542209|estyear= 2018UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU >WORK=2000 UNITED STATES CENSUS FORMAT=PDF URL=HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/PROD/CEN2000/PHC-3-34.PDF, (page 1 of the document, page 31 of the file)2018 Estimate}}{| style="float:right"|thumb|New York population distribution map)The nation's most populous state until the 1960s, New York is now the fourth most-populous state. The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area is growing, along with Saratoga County, while cities such as Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse and several others having been losing population for decades.WEB, Community Facts - Find popular facts (population, income, etc.) and frequently requested data about your community,weblink United States Census Bureau, July 4, 2017, New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2014 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – United States – Places of 50,000+ Population – 2014 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, October 29, 2015, Conversely, outside of the Ithaca area, population growth in much of Western New York is nearly stagnant. According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. Between 2000 and 2005, immigration failed to surpass out-migration to other parts of the United States, a trend that has been reversing since 2006. New York State lost two House seats in the 2011 congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another, contributing to New York becoming the U.S.'s fourth most populous state in 2015, behind Florida, Texas, and California.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 25, 2007, Domestic Migration Flows for States from the 2005 ACS, October 19, 2007, Microsoft Word, However, New York State has the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million {{as of|2008|lc=y}}; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan culture. New York has a pro-sanctuary city law.WEB,weblink Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. At least 11 other states have, too, CNN, Catherine E. Shoichet, CNN, May 9, 2019, The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New York was 19,542,209 on July 1, 2018, a 0.85% increase since the 2010 United States Census.WEB,weblink Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018, January 4, 2019, U.S. Census Bureau, January 4, 2019, Despite the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area,WEB, Timothy S. Parker,weblink New York Fact Sheet: NY agriculture income population food education employment farms top commodities exports counties financial indicators poverty organic farming farm income America USDA,, September 10, 2010, October 2, 2010, predominantly in the New York City metropolitan area.Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in New York City Metropolitan Area. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,WEB,weblink America's 5 biggest cities, Blake Ellis, CNN, March 25, 2011, November 12, 2013,
with an estimated record high population of 8,550,405 in 2015, incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States Census.NEWS, Roberts, Sam, Sam Roberts (newspaper journalist), Fewer People Are Abandoning the Bronx, Census Data Show,weblink The New York Times, March 14, 2013, At least twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles),WEB,weblink State & County QuickFacts Los Angeles (city), California, U.S. Census Bureau, July 9, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2012, and within a smaller area. Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population.WEB,weblink Kings County, New York QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, March 24, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 17, 2016, WEB,weblink Queens County, New York QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, March 24, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2014, WEB,weblink Nassau County, New York QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, March 24, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2011, WEB,weblink Suffolk County, New York QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, March 24, 2016,
6.5% of New York's population were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. Females made up 51.8% of the state's population.

Race and ethnicity

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010: 2.4% were of Mexican, 5.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were Italian (13.0%), Irish (12.1%), German (10.3%), American (5.4%), and English (5.2%).WEB,weblink 2015 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, WEB, 2011-2015 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables,weblink August 10, 2018, The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, has declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010.WEB,weblink New York QuickFacts, January 17, 2012, U.S. Census Bureau, April 18, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2015, {{As of|2011}}, 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities."Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012. New York's robustly increasing Jewish population, the largest outside of Israel,NEWS,weblink Cuomo, Visiting Israel, Joins Growing U.S. List, Thomas Kaplan, Jason Horowitz, yes, The New York Times, August 13, 2014, September 28, 2014, was the highest among states both by percentage and absolute number in 2012.WEB,weblink Jewish Population in the United States, by State, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, November 11, 2013, It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish families,NEWS,weblink The Orthodox Surge, David Brooks, David Brooks (commentator), The New York Times, March 7, 2013, November 11, 2013, particularly in Brooklyn and communities of the Hudson Valley.New York is home to the second-largest African American population (after Georgia) and the second largest Asian-American population (after California) in the United States. New York's uniracial Black population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800.WEB,weblink State & County QuickFacts – New York QuickLinks, United States Census Bureau, September 13, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2015, The Black population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa,WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 1, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, May 29, 2015, while established African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States.NEWS,weblink For New Life, Blacks in City Head to South, Dan Bilefsky, The New York Times, June 21, 2011, September 13, 2015, The New York City neighborhood of Harlem has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's uniracial Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244. Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population and is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States; it is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.NEWS,weblink Queens, New York, Sightseeing, Christine Kim, Demand Media, USA Today, July 19, 2014, WEB,weblink Queens, Andrew Weber,, April 30, 2013, July 19, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2015, New York's growing uniracial Hispanic-or-Latino population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010,WEB,weblink Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data, U.S. Census Bureau, October 3, 2015, a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000.WEB,weblink Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, U.S. Census Bureau, October 3, 2015, Queens is home to the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Jamaican American populations in the continental United States.The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State, which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state.WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 1, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, May 29, 2015, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 1, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, November 10, 2013, WEB,weblink Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 1, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, November 10, 2013, NEWS,weblink Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities, John, Marzulli, The New York Daily News, May 9, 2011, November 10, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2015, Multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County,WEB,weblink State & County QuickFacts Nassau County, New York QuickLinks, United States Census Bureau, November 14, 2013, on Long Island .WEB,weblink Join The Great Gatsby: Chinese Real Estate Buyers Fan Out To Long Island's North Shore, Heng Shao, Forbes, April 10, 2014, August 2, 2014, Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias () and a large Koreatown (), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. The annual New York City India Day Parade, held on or approximately every August 15 since 1981, is the world's largest Indian Independence Day parade outside of India.WEB,weblink Thousands celebrate at India Day Parade along Madison Avenue, Karina Cuevas, Metro International, August 16, 2015, August 16, 2015, In the 2000 Census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. According to the American Community Survey, New York had the largest Greek American population too, which counts 148,637 people (0.7% of the state). In Buffalo and western New York, German Americans comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country of New York, French Canadians represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec. Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants.{|class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto"|{| class="wikitable" style="margin:0.5em; border:none;"! Racial composition !! 1950 !! 1970 !! 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 25, 2008, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, !! 2000Population of New York: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts{{Dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}!! 2010WEB, 2010 Demographic Profile Data,weblink U.S. Census Bureau, !colspan="2" | Largest ancestry by county (2017)WEB,weblink 2017 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, 2017, March 3, 2019, White American>White 93.5% 86.8% 74.4% 67.9% 65.7% rowspan="7" style="border-right:0px"250px)rowspan="7" style="border-left:0px"#ccccccAmerican ancestry>American}}{{Legend|#d7ffd0 |English}}{{Legend|#ffd0d0|French/French Canadian}}{{Legend|#ffffd0|German}}{{Legend|#f2d0ff|Irish}}{{Legend|#9ec7f3|Italian}}{{Legend|#ffbc66|West Indian}}Black American>Black or African American 6.2% 11.9% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9%Native Americans in the United States>American Indian and Alaska Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%Asian American>Asian 0.2% 0.7% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%Pacific Islander American>Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander – – – 0.1% 0.0%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race – 0.4% 5.5% 7.1% 7.4%Multiracial American>Two or more races – – – 3.1% 3.0%">

Languages{| class"wikitable sortable floatright" style"margin-left:1em; font-size: 90%; display: inline-table"|+ Most common non-English languages (2010)

! Language !! PopulationSpanish language>Spanish 14.44%Chinese language>Chinese (incl. Cantonese and Standard Chinese)>| 2.61%Russian language>Russian 1.20%Italian language>Italian 1.18%French-based creole languages>French Creole 0.79%French language>French 0.75%Yiddish language>Yiddish 0.67%Korean language>Korean 0.63%Polish language>Polish 0.53%Bengali language>Bengali 0.43%In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City,WEB,weblink Endangered Language Alliance, 2012, November 11, 2013, NEWS,weblink Linguistics- Say what?, The Economist, September 10, 2011, November 11, 2013, WEB,weblink New Yorkers, Self-Assured and Opinionated, Defend Their Values, N. R. Kleinfield, The New York Times, MSN, January 15, 2016, January 15, 2016, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.NEWS,weblink Listening to (and Saving) the World's Languages, November 11, 2013, The New York Times, Sam, Roberts, April 28, 2010, {{As of|2010}}, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English.WEB,weblink New York, Modern Language Association, August 6, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2013,


{{expand section|date=November 2016}}In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported that the largest denominations were the Catholic Church with 6,286,916; Orthodox Judaism with 588,500; Islam with 392,953; and the United Methodist Church with 328,315 adherents.WEB, State Membership Report, The Association of Religion Data Archives,weblink November 27, 2013, {| class="wikitable collapsible floatright" style="font-size:90%; display: inline-table" Religious affiliation (2014)Pew Research Center, "Religious Landscape Study: New York"! Affiliation! colspan="2"|% of New York populationChristianity>Christian '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}}''' Catholic '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Protestant '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}''' Evangelical Protestant '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Mainline Protestant '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Black church '''{{bartable|background:lightblue}}''' Other Christian '''{{bartable|background:mediumblue}}'''Irreligion>Unaffiliated '''{{bartable|background:purple}}''' Nothing in particular '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}''' Agnostic '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}''' Atheist '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}'''| Jewish '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Muslim '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Buddhist '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Hindu '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Other faiths '''{{bartable|background:lightgreen}}'''| Don't know/refused answer '''{{bartable|background:#A020F0}}'''{{div col end}}Before the 1800s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in New England, with its Puritan population.WEB, Religions,weblink November 25, 2018, Religious revivals and the formation of new religious movements of the Second Great Awakening took place in the burned-over district of western and central regions of New York in the early 19th century.


{{further|Same-sex marriage in New York|LGBT culture in New York City}}Roughly 3.8 percent of the state's adult population self-identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of 570,388 individuals."LGBT Percentage Highest in D.C., Lowest in North Dakota". State of the States. Gallup Politics. February 15, 2013. In 2010, the number of same-sex couple households stood at roughly 48,932.Williams Inst. Census Snapshotweblink{{Dead link|date=January 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} New York was the fifth state to license same-sex marriages, after New Hampshire. Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, stated that "same-sex marriages in New York City have generated an estimated $259 million in economic impact and $16 million in City revenues" in the first year after the enactment of the Marriage Equality Act"."NYC Same-Sex Marriages Generate $259 Million in Economic Impact". New York City Mayor Bloomberg, retrieved November 26, 2013 Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.NEWS,weblink New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law, Nicholas Confessore, Michael Barbaro, yes, The New York Times, June 24, 2011, November 11, 2013, New York City is also home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016.NEWS,weblink De Blasio: NYC toilets won't discriminate by gender identity, Jennifer Fermino, New York Daily News, March 7, 2016, March 26, 2016, The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.WEB,weblink Revelers Take To The Streets For 48th Annual NYC Pride March, CBS New York, June 25, 2017, June 29, 2017, A sea of rainbows took over the Big Apple for the biggest pride parade in the world Sunday., File:Stonewall Inn 5 pride weekend_2016.jpg|thumb|left|The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rightsLGBT rightsThe Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood within Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movementWEB,weblink Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S., University of Kentucky, September 2, 2017, WEB,weblink Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement, Nell Frizzell, Pink News UK, June 28, 2013, August 31, 2017, WEB,weblink Stonewall riots, Encyclopædia Britannica, August 31, 2017, and the modern fight for LGBT rights.WEB, U.S. National Park Service, Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument,weblink Department of the Interior, October 17, 2016, August 31, 2017, WEB,weblink Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots, July 2, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 30, 2013, In June 2017, plans were announced for the first official monument to LGBT individuals commissioned by the State of New York, in contrast to the Stonewall National Monument, which was commissioned by the U.S. federal government. The State monument is planned to be built in Hudson River Park in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River piers which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's central role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities.NEWS,weblink A Winning Design for a New York Monument to Gay and Transgender People, Joshua Barone, The New York Times, June 25, 2017, June 29, 2017, Also as of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots.WEB,weblink Governor Cuomo Announces Commemoration of 50th Anniversary of Stonewall Rebellion in 2019, State of New York, June 25, 2017, July 14, 2018, In New York City, the Stonewall 50 - WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and shall include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that is open to all. Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world; it is believed that 2019 will be the largest international LGBT pride celebration held in history.WEB,weblink Governor Cuomo Announces Commemoration of 50th Anniversary of Stonewall Rebellion in 2019, State of New York, June 25, 2017, November 4, 2018,


{{See also|New York locations by per capita income}}New York's gross state product in 2018 was $1.7 trillion.weblink If New York State were an independent nation, it would rank as the 11th largest economy in the worldweblink However, in 2013, the multi-state, New York City-centered Metropolitan Statistical Area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly US$1.4 trillion,WEB,weblink Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of the United States in 2013, by metropolitan area (in billion current U.S. dollars), Statista, September 12, 2014, while in 2012, the corresponding Combined Statistical AreaWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 19, 2013, Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas, 106, Executive Office of the President – Office of Management and Budget, June 28, 2015, generated a GMP of over $1.7 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only nine nationsweblink

Wall Street

File:NYC NYSE.jpg|thumb|upright|The New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalizationmarket capitalizationAnchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world.WEB,weblink New York Boosts Lead on London as Leading Finance Center, John Glover, Bloomberg L.P, November 23, 2014, March 25, 2015, WEB,weblink UBS may move US investment bank to NYC, Ltd, June 10, 2011, March 25, 2015, WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 17, March 23, 2015, March 25, 2015, Long Finance,weblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2015, dead, Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.WEB,weblink 2013 WFE Market Highlights, World Federation of Exchanges, July 20, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 19, 2008, NYSE Listings Directory, March 25, 2015, Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, November 27, 2012, London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York, Ambereen Choudhury, Elisa Martinuzzi, Ben Moshinsky, yes, Bloomberg L.P., November 26, 2012, July 20, 2014, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.WEB,weblink Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York, Sanat Vallikappen, Bloomberg L.P, November 10, 2013, July 20, 2014, In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.WEB,weblink DiNapoli: Wall Street Bonuses Edge Up in 2014, Office of the New York State Comptroller, March 11, 2015, July 15, 2015, New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.WEB,weblink Sustaining New York's and the US' Global Financial Services Leadership, City of New York, McKinsey & Company and the New York City Economic Development Corporation, July 19, 2015, {{rp|31–32}}WEB,weblink Total debt securities, June 2013, Bank for International Settlements, July 19, 2015, New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.{{rp|34–35}} New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.NEWS,weblink Ranking the Biggest U.S. Banks: A New Entrant in Top 5, Saabira Chaudhuri, The Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2014, July 19, 2015, Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2) of office space in 2013,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, September 29, 2010, What is an office condominium?, Rudder Property Group, May 28, 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States,WEB,weblink Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market,, July 20, 2014, while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.WEB,weblink Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11, Cushman & Wakefield, Inc, July 20, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2013,

Silicon Alley

{{further|Tech:NYC|Tech companies in New York|Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New York}}Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment. High tech industries including digital media, biotechnology, software development, game design, and other fields in information technology are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,WEB, Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action, New York City Economic Development Corporation, March 2005,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2008, PDF, July 19, 2006, its intellectual capital, as well as its growing outdoor wireless connectivity.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, February 11, 2014, City opens nation's largest continuous Wi-Fi zone in Harlem, Ivan Pereira, amNewYork/Newsday, December 10, 2013, February 11, 2014, In December 2014, New York State announced a $50 million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and advanced materials; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money would facilitate entrepreneurs in bringing their research into the marketplace.WEB,weblink New York State Will Start $50 Million Venture-Capital Fund, Freeman Klopott, Bloomberg L.P, December 12, 2014, August 26, 2015, On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.NEWS,weblink Richard Pérez-Peña, Cornell Alumnus Is Behind $350 Million Gift to Build Science School in City, The New York Times, December 19, 2011, August 1, 2014, WEB,weblink 'Game-changing' Tech Campus Goes to Cornell, Technion, Anne, Ju, Cornell University, December 19, 2011, August 26, 2015,

Tech Valley

Albany,NEWS,weblink Made in Albany: IBM reveals breakthrough chip made at SUNY Poly, Larry Rulison, Albany Times-Union, July 10, 2015, July 12, 2015, Saratoga County,WEB,weblink Fab 8 Overview, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc, July 12, 2015, Rensselaer County, and the Hudson Valley, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing,WEB,weblink Better than advertised: Chip plant beats expectations, Keshia Clukey, Albany Business Review, June 27, 2014, July 20, 2015, involving companies including IBM and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center,NEWS,weblink IBM Scientists Find New Way to Shrink Transistors, John Markoff, The New York Times, October 1, 2015, October 2, 2015, and the three foreign-owned firms, GlobalFoundries, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor, among others.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, September 30, 2011, IBM, Intel Start $4.4 Billion in Chip Venture in New York, 2011 Bloomberg, Freeman Klopott, Xu Wang, Niamh Ring, yes, September 27, 2011, July 12, 2015, The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the SUNY Polytechnic Institute. In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, generated over US$163 million in venture capital investment. The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, similarly in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University.NEWS,weblink High Tech Rochester adds 4 businesses, Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, November 7, 2013, August 26, 2015, Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over US$1 billion in planned private investment as of 2016,WEB,weblink $1.2 Billion Project Could Make Westchester a Biotech Destination, John Jordan, Hudson Gateway Association of Realtors, January 2016, April 9, 2016, WEB,weblink Westchester's Unexpected Powerhouse Position In the Biotech Industry – Four years after our initial look at Westchester's biotech industry, the sector has gone from fledgling to behemoth., All around, there are signs of a Biochester bloom:, Steve Ditlea, Today Media, April 7, 2016,

Media and entertainment

File:1 times square night 2013.jpg|thumb|Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrianpedestrianCreative industries, which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge and information, such as new media, digital media, film and television production, advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.JOURNAL, Currid, Elizabeth, New York as a Global Creative Hub: A Competitive Analysis of Four Theories on World Cities, Economic Development Quarterly, 2006, 20, 330–350, 10.1177/0891242406292708, 4, {{As of|2014}}, New York State was offering tax incentives of up to $420 million annually for filmmaking within the state, the most generous such tax rebate among the U.S. states. New York has also attracted higher-wage visual-effects employment by further augmenting its tax credit to a maximum of 35% for performing post-film production work in Upstate New York.NEWS,weblink New York taking a larger bite out of Hollywood productions, Richard Verrier, Steven Zeitchik, yes, Los Angeles Times, May 4, 2014, July 15, 2015, The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015.WEB,weblink Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York City's Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy, City of New York Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment, October 15, 2015, April 10, 2016,


I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is a slogan, a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and has been used since 1977 to promote tourism in the state of New York,WEB,weblink I Love New York Logo, New York State Library – New York State Education Department, including New York City.Interview with Milton Glaser, The Believer The trademarked logo is owned by New York State Empire State Development.WEB,weblink I Love New York Logo, New York State Education Department, September 26, 2013, May 4, 2014, The Broadway League reported that Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.WEB,weblink Broadway Calendar-Year Statistics, The Broadway League, July 20, 2014, The I Love New York song is the state song of New York.WEB,weblink New York State Information – State Emblems, New York State Library – New York State Education Department, ''


New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers and electronics, cut diamonds, and other commodities. In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1 billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada (US$15 billion), the United Kingdom (US$6 billion), Switzerland (US$5.9 billion), Israel (US$4.9 billion), and Hong Kong (US$3.4 billion). New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber. The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments, mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions.New York is the nation's third-largest grape producing state, and second-largest wine producer by volume, behind California. The southern Finger Lakes hillsides, the Hudson Valley, the North Fork of Long Island, and the southern shore of Lake Erie are the primary grape- and wine-growing regions in New York, with many vineyards. In 2012, New York had 320 wineries and 37,000 grape bearing acres, generating full-time employment of nearly 25,000 and annual wages of over US$1.1 billion, and yielding US$4.8 billion in direct economic impact from New York grapes, grape juice, and wine and grape products.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 3, 2013, Welcome to New York Wine Country!, New York Wine & Grape Foundation, July 20, 2015, New York is a major agricultural producer overall, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products including maple syrup, apples, cherries, cabbage, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced $3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishery is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder.


{{further|New York energy law|Solar power in New York|List of power stations in New York}}In 2017, New York State consumed 156,370-gigawatthours (GWh) of electrical energy. Downstate regions (Hudson Valley, New York City, and Long Island) consumed 66% of that amount. Upstate regions produced 50% of that amount. The peak load in 2017 was 29,699 MW. The resource capability in 2017 was 42,839 MW.WEB,weblink NYISO 2018 Gold Book (pdf),, November 26, 2018, 13,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2018, dead, mdy-all, WEB,weblink 2018 Power Trends,, April 2018, November 29, 2018, 11,12,14, The NYISO's market monitor described the average all-in wholesale electric price as a range (a single value was not provided) from $25 per MWh to $53 per MWh for 2017.WEB,weblink 2017 State of the Market Report,, David B., Patton, Pallas, LeeVanSchaick, Jie, Chen, Raghu Palavadi, Naga, May 2018, ii,3, A-2, A-6, November 30, 2018,


The University of the State of New York accredits and sets standards for primary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York State Education Department oversees public schools and controls their standardized tests. The New York City Department of Education manages the New York City Public Schools system. In 1894, reflecting general racial discrimination then, the state passed a law that allowed communities to set up separate schools for children of African-American descent. In 1900, the state passed another law requiring integrated schools.Martha A. Sandweiss, Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception Across the Color Line, New York: Penguin Press, 2009, p. 213At the level of post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York (SUNY). The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges, and doctoral-granting institutions, including several universities. New York's largest public university is the State University of New York at Buffalo, which was founded by U.S. President Millard Fillmore.WEB,weblink SUNY Buffalo: Complete Campus List,, June 20, 2016, WEB,weblink Chancellors and Presidents of the University, June 20, 2016, University of Buffalo, The State University of New York, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2016, The four SUNY University Centers, offering a wide array of academic programs, are the University at Albany, Binghamton University, Stony Brook University, and the University at Buffalo. New York City has its own City University of New York (CUNY) system, which is funded by the city.Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, and the University of Rochester are widely regarded as the premier higher education institutions in New York, all of them leading, world-renowned private universities and members of the Association of American Universities, the pre-eminent group of research universities in the United States. Other notable large private universities include Syracuse University and Fordham University. Smaller notable private institutions of higher education include Rockefeller University, Mercy College, New York Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Yeshiva University, and Hofstra University. There are also a multitude of postgraduate-level schools in New York State, including medical, law, and engineering schools.West Point, the service academy of the U.S. Army, is located just south of Newburgh, on the west bank of the Hudson River. The federal Merchant Marine Academy is at Kings Point on Long Island.New York is also home to what are widely regarded as the best performing arts schools in the world. The Juilliard School, located in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is one of the world's leading music and dance schools.WEB,weblink Still 'best reputation' for Juilliard at 100, The Washington Times, September 15, 2013, BOOK, Juilliard, Frank Rich, Harry N. Abrams, 978-0810935365, Juilliard grew up with both the country and its burgeoning cultural capital of New York to become an internationally recognized synonym for the pinnacle of artistic achievement., 2003, 10,weblink WEB,weblink The Top 25 Drama Schools in the World, The Hollywood Reporter, September 15, 2013, The Eastman School of Music, a professional school within the University of Rochester, was ranked first among U.S. music schools by U.S. News & World Report for five consecutive years.WEB,weblink 2014 Best America's Top Music Schools Ranking, US College Rankings, June 16, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2015, dead, During the 2013 fiscal year, New York spent more on public education per pupil than any other state, according to U.S. Census Bureau statistics.WEB,weblink Education Spending Per Student by State, Governing, July 15, 2015,


File:R188 Subway Car, 7898, 7, September 5th, 2014.jpg|thumb|The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiestone of the world's busiestNew York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. Engineering challenges posed by the complex terrain of the state and the unique infrastructural issues of New York City brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome perennially. Population expansion of the state has followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River and Mohawk River, then the Erie Canal. In the 19th century, railroads were constructed along the river valleys, followed by the New York State Thruway in the 20th century.The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is the department of the government of New YorkTransportation Law § 11. "There shall be in the state government a department of transportation. The head of the department shall be the commissioner of transportation, [...]" Accessed July 19, 2015. responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways, and aviation facilities within New York State. The NYSDOT is headquartered at 50 Wolf Road in Colonie, Albany County. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the States of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the US Congress, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This {{convert|1500|sqmi|abbr=on|adj=on}} port district is generally encompassed within a {{convert|25|mi|adj=on|abbr=on}} radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.WEB,weblink 2002 Annual Report, PANY, 2003, PDF, . Accessed July 19, 2015. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan.In addition to the well known New York City Subway system – which is confined within New York City – four suburban commuter railroad systems enter and leave the city: the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and five of New Jersey Transit's rail lines. The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is the agency of the government of New York CityNew York City Charter § 2901; "There shall be a department of transportation, the head of which shall be the commissioner of transportation." Accessed July 19, 2015. responsible for the management of much of New York City's own transportation infrastructure. Other cities and towns in New York have urban and regional public transportation. In Buffalo, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority runs the Buffalo Metro Rail light-rail system; in Rochester, the Rochester Subway operated from 1927 until 1956, but fell into disuse as state and federal investment went to highways.File:JFK Plane Queue.jpg|thumb|John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gatewaybusiest international air passenger gatewayThe New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (NYSDMV or DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and inspecting automobiles and other motor vehicles, as well as licensing drivers in the State of New York. {{As of|2008}}, the NYSDMV has 11,284,546 drivers licenses on fileWEB,weblink NYS DMV – Statistics – NYS Driver Licenses on File – 2008, New York State Department of Motor Vehicles, July 2, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2010, and 10,697,644 vehicle registrations in force.WEB,weblink NYS DMV – Statistics – Vehicle Registrations in Force – 2008, New York State Department of Motor Vehicles, July 2, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2010, All gasoline-powered vehicles registered in New York State are required to have an emissions inspection every 12 months, in order to ensure that environmental quality controls are working to prevent air pollution. Diesel-powered vehicles with a gross weight rating over 8,500 lb that are registered in most Downstate New York counties must get an annual emissions inspection. All vehicles registered in New York State must get an annual safety inspection.Portions of the transportation system are intermodal, allowing travelers to switch easily from one mode of transportation to another. One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK which allows rail passengers to travel directly to terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport as well as to the underground New York City Subway system.


{{See also|Law of New York (state)}}File:NYSCapitolPanorama.jpg|thumb|The New York State CapitolNew York State CapitolThe Government of New York embodies the governmental structure of the State of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.The Governor is the State's chief executive and is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor. Both are elected on the same ticket. Additional elected officers include the Attorney General, and the Comptroller. The Secretary of State, formerly an elected officer, is currently appointed by the Governor.The New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The Assembly consists of 150 members, while the Senate varies in its number of members, currently having 63. The Legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the Governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York.The highest court of appeal in the Unified Court System is the Court of Appeals whereas the primary felony trial court is the County Court (or the Supreme Court in New York City). The Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters including small claims, traffic ticket cases, and local zoning matters, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The New York City courts make up the largest local court system.The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as authorities or development corporations. Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. The state also has 10 Indian reservations. There have been several movements regarding secession from the state of New York. Proposals have included a state of Long Island, consisting of everything on the island outside New York City; a state called Niagara, the western counties of New York state; the northern counties of New York state called Upstate New York; making the city of New York a state; a proposal for a new Peconic County on eastern Long Island; and for the borough of Staten Island to secede from New York City.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}

Capital punishment

Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the Pataki administration, but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appeals ruled in People v. LaValle that it violated the state constitution. The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in People v. John Taylor, and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor Paterson. No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. Legislative efforts to amend the statute have failed, and death sentences are no longer sought at the state level, though certain crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the federal government are subject to the federal death penalty.WEB,weblink New York Executions, October 25, 2005, April 9, 2009, Rob Gallagher,weblink" title="">weblink May 28, 2008, dead, NEWS,weblink Gov Pulls Switch on Death Cell, July 24, 2008, New York Post, Scott, Brendan, April 9, 2009, NEWS, Powell, Michael, In N.Y., Lawmakers Vote Not to Reinstate Capital Punishment,weblink The Washington Post, April 13, 2005, April 11, 2008,

Federal representation

{{See also|United States congressional delegations from New York#2013–2023: 27 seats|l1=Current United States congressional delegation from New York|New York's congressional districts}}File:Chuck Schumer and Kirstin Gillibrand June 2009.jpg|thumb|Kirsten Gillibrand (left) and alt=Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer are seen giving a speech promoting universal healthcare.New York is represented by Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in the United States Senate. There are twenty-seven congressional districts , the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36.WEB,weblink Directory of Representatives,, March 15, 2014, As of 2019, twenty-one districts are represented by members of the Democratic Party, while six are represented by Republicans. Representation was reduced from 29 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth.WEB, Rey, Jay, December 22, 2010,weblink N.Y.'s slow growth will mean loss of two seats in House,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2012, The Buffalo News, December 22, 2010, New York has 29 electoral votes in national presidential elections, a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953.The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis.WEB, New York's Balance of Payments in the Federal Budget – Federal Fiscal Year 2013, Thomas P. DiNapoli, State Comptroller, October 2015,weblink Office of the New York State Comptroller, April 27, 2016,


{{See also|Elections in New York (state)|Political party strength in New York}}File:Andrew Cuomo by Pat Arnow cropped.jpeg|thumb|upright|Andrew Cuomo (D), the 56th and current Governor of New YorkGovernor of New YorkAs of April 2016, Democrats represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting over twice as many registered voters as any other political party affiliation or lack thereof.NYSVoter Enrollment by County, Party Affiliation and Status {{webarchive |url= |date=July 30, 2016 }} Accessed April 30, 2016. Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with liberal politics. Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republicans. Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County and Long Island, have swung between the major parties since the 1980s, but more often than not support Democrats.New York City is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States for both major parties. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and Al Gore.NEWS, 2006 Election Overview: Top Zip codes,, May 16, 2005,weblinkweblink dead, March 2, 2006, July 19, 2006, The state of New York has the distinction of being the home state for both major-party nominees in three presidential elections. The 1904 presidential election saw former New York Governor and incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt face Alton B. Parker, chief judge of the New York Court of Appeals. The 1944 presidential election had Franklin D. Roosevelt, following in his cousin Theodore's footsteps as former New York Governor and incumbent president running for re-election against then-current New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. In the 2016 presidential election, former United States Senator from New York Hillary Clinton, a resident of Chappaqua, was the Democratic Party nominee. The Republican Party nominee was businessman Donald Trump, a resident of Manhattan and a native of Queens.WEB, Roy, Yancey, Clinton vs. Trump: 2 presidential candidates from one state,weblink Newsday, September 25, 2016, New York City is an important center for international diplomacy.WEB,weblink NYC Mayor's Office for International Affairs, The City of New York, June 24, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2015, The United Nations Headquarters has been situated on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan since 1952.


New York State is geographically home to one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park. Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent the New York metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey. New York also has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets (based in Queens). Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island Ducks, the Brooklyn Cyclones, and the Staten Island Yankees downstate, and the Rochester Red Wings, the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, the Syracuse Mets, the Auburn Doubledays, the Batavia Muckdogs, the Hudson Valley Renegades and the Buffalo Bisons upstate. New York is home to three National Hockey League franchises: the New York Rangers in Manhattan, the New York Islanders in Brooklyn, and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets in Brooklyn. New York is the home of a Major League Soccer franchise, New York City FC, currently playing in the Bronx. Although the New York Red Bulls represent the New York metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena in Harrison, New Jersey.New York hosted the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid. The 1980 Games are known for the USA–USSR ice hockey match dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal against Finland. Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland and Innsbruck, Austria, Lake Placid is one of the three cities to have hosted the Winter Olympic Games twice. New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics but lost to London.Several U.S. national sports halls of fame are or have been situated in New York. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is located in Cooperstown, Otsego County. The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, honors achievements in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. The physical facility of the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta, also in Otsego County, closed in 2010, although the organization itself has continued inductions. The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in the New York City borough of Queens.WEB,weblink US Open 2015, United States Tennis Association, July 6, 2015, {|class="wikitable sortable"! colspan=3 | New York State major league professional sports teams!Club!Sport!League|Buffalo BillsAmerican football>FootballNational Football League>NFL|Brooklyn Nets|BasketballNational Basketball Association>NBA|New York Knicks|BasketballNational Basketball Association>NBA|New York City FCAssociation football>Soccer|Major League Soccer|Buffalo Sabres|Ice hockey|National Hockey League|New York Islanders|Ice hockey|National Hockey League|New York Rangers|Ice hockey|National Hockey League|New York Mets|Baseball|Major League Baseball|New York Yankees|Baseball|Major League Baseball|New York GiantsAmerican football>Football|National Football League|New York JetsAmerican football>Football|National Football League|New York Red BullsAssociation football>Soccer|Major League Soccer

See also




Further reading

  • BOOK, French, John Homer, Historical and statistical gazetteer of New York State, R. Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, New York, 224691273,weblink 1860, {{via|GB}}
  • BOOK, New York: A Guide to the Empire State, New York State Historical Association, Oxford University Press, 1940, New York City, 504264143,weblink 978-1-60354-031-5, {{via|GB}}

External links

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