Republic of Ireland

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Republic of Ireland
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{pp-protect|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{About|the sovereign state||Ireland (disambiguation)}}{{Short description|Country in Europe on the island of Ireland}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}{{Use Irish English|date=August 2013}}

}}ga|Éire}}|common_name = Ireland|linking_name = the Republic of Ireland|area_link = #Geography|image_flag = Flag of Ireland.svg|flag_caption = Flag|symbol_width = 65px|image_coat = Coat of arms of Ireland.svgCoat of arms of Ireland>Coat of arms|image_map = EU-Ireland.svglocation_color=dark green region_color=dark grey |subregion=the European Unioncountry=Ireland}}()}}(File:United States Navy Band - Amhrán na bhFiann.ogg>center)#Languages>Official languages
  • Irish{{ref label|national language|b{edih}
  • EnglishWEB,weblink Official Languages Act 2003, Office of the Attorney-General, 18 February 2012, }}
Irish people>Irish|capital = DublinACCESSDATE=28 APRIL 2017, 82.2% White Irish 2.6% Not stated 2.1% Asian Irish}}{{}}{{nowrap{{nowrap{{nowrapBlack African}} 0.7% Irish Travellers}} > 0.1% Other Black}}53N16.05type:city}}{{CoordNWscale:10000000}}|largest_city = capital|government_type = Unitary parliamentary republicPresident of Ireland>President|leader_name1 = Michael D. Higgins|leader_title2 = Taoiseach|leader_name2 = Leo Varadkar|leader_title3 = Tánaiste|leader_name3 = Simon CoveneyChief Justice of Ireland>Chief JusticeFrank Clarke (judge)>Frank Clarke|legislature = Oireachtas|upper_house = Seanad|lower_house = Dáil|area_km2 = 70,273|area_sq_mi = 27,133|area_rank = 118th |percent_water = 2.00DATE=27 AUGUST 2019, |population_estimate_year = 2019|population_estimate_rank = 122nd|population_density_km2 = {{#expr: 4921500/70273 round 1}}|population_density_sq_mi = {{#expr: 4921500/27133 round 1}} |population_density_rank = 113th|GDP_PPP_year = 2018PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 1 October 2017, |GDP_PPP_rank = 56th|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $79,925|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 7th|GDP_nominal = $385 billion|GDP_nominal_rank = 42nd|GDP_nominal_year = 2018|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $80,641|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 4th|Gini_year = 2017|Gini_change = increase |Gini = 30.6PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESS-DATE=7 MARCH 2019, |Gini_rank =23rd|HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increase |HDI = 0.938 YEAR=2017 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, |HDI_rank = 4thHistory of the Republic of Ireland>Stages of independenceUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland>United KingdomProclamation of the Irish Republic>Proclamation|established_date1 = 24 April 1916Irish Declaration of Independence>Declaration|established_date2 = 21 January 1919|established_event3 = Anglo-Irish Treaty|established_date3 = 6 December 1921Constitution of the Irish Free State>1922 constitution|established_date4 = 6 December 1922Constitution of Ireland>1937 constitution|established_date5 = 29 December 1937Republic of Ireland Act 1948>Republic Act|established_date6 = 18 April 1949European Economic Community>EEC|established_date7 = 1 January 1973Euro (Euro sign>€)Prior to 2002, Ireland used the punt (Irish pound) as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.|currency_code = EURGMT/Western European Time>WET|utc_offset = ⁠Time in Ireland>IST/WEST|utc_offset_DST = +1|date_format = dd/mm/yyyyRight- and left-hand traffic>left|calling_code ={{ref label>tld|c}}nomenclature}} Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".JOHN COAKLEY >TITLE=POLITICS IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND ACCESSDATE=2 MAY 2011 PUBLISHER=TAYLOR & FRANCIS PAGE=76, national language}} Also the sole national language, as per the Section 2 of the Official Languages Act 2003.tld}} The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.}}Ireland ( {{IPA-ga|ˈeːɾʲə||Eire_pronunciation.ogg}}), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island. Around a third of the country's population of 4.9 million people resides in the greater Dublin area."Population and Migration Estimates, April 2018", Central Statistics Office, released 28 August 2018 The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.{{citation|title=Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States|author1=L. Prakke|author2=C. A. J. M. Kortmann|author3=J. C. E. van den Brandhof|publisher=Kluwer|location=Deventer|page=429|quote=Since 1937 Ireland has been a parliamentary republic, in which ministers appointed by the president depend on the confidence of parliament|year=2004|isbn=9013012558}} The legislature, the ', consists of a lower house, ', an upper house, ', and an elected President (') who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the ' (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.Ireland ranks among the top ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,WEB, Country Comparison: GDP â€“ per capita (PPP),weblink World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 29 August 2011, and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.WEB, Legatum Prosperity Index,weblink The Legatum Institute., 7 June 2016, After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth. The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash."EU: Causes of Growth differentials in Europe", WAWFA think tankNEWS, Nicoll, Ruaridh,weblink Ireland: As the Celtic Tiger roars its last, 16 May 2009, The Guardian, 30 March 2010, London, However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015,WEB, Financial Times,weblink, FT, 7 June 2016, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2017, Ireland was ranked fourth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2018 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators", Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, 22–25, 14 September 2018, It also performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,WEB,weblink NATO – Member countries, NATO, NATO, 29 December 2014, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace and aspects of PESCO.


The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".BOOK, Coleman, Marie, The Irish Revolution, 1916–1923, 2013, Routledge, 978-1317801467, 230,weblink 12 February 2015, The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution.Gallagher, Michael, "The changing constitution", in BOOK, Gallagher, Michael, Coakley, John, Politics in the Republic of Ireland, 2010, 0415476712, 978-0415476713,weblink 12 February 2015, The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" (without the diacritic) and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state;Oliver, J.D.B., What's in a Name, in BOOK, Tiley, John, Studies in the History of Tax Law, 2004, Hart Publishing, 1841134732, 181–3,weblink 12 February 2015, Note: the author incorrectly uses "Éire", with the diacritic it was not until the 1998 Good Friday Agreement that it used the name "Ireland".Oliver (2004), p. 178; Daly (2007), p. 80As well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is also referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South".BOOK, Acciano, Reuben, Western Europe, 2005, Lonely Planet, 1740599276, 616,weblink 12 February 2015, In an Irish republican context it is often referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties".BOOK, Smith, M.L.R, Fighting for Ireland?: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement, 2002, Routledge, 1134713975, 2,weblink 12 February 2015,


{{For|the history of the entire island|History of Ireland}}

Home-rule movement

From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated, mostly to the United States.JOURNAL, Mokyr, Joel, Joel Mokyr, New Developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850, Irish Economic and Social History, XI, 101–121, 1984, harv, 10197/1406,weblink This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s.WEB,weblink Central Statistics Office (Ireland), CSO, Population of Ireland 1841–2011, 6 September 2018, WEB,weblink, Wesley Johnston, Patrick Abbot, Prelude to the Irish Famine – Demographics, 6 September 2018, WEB,weblink Population Change and Historical Perspective, 6 September 2018, CSO, File:Charles Stewart Parnell - Brady-Handy.jpg|thumb|upright|The Irish Parliamentary Party was formed in 1882 by Charles Stewart ParnellCharles Stewart ParnellFrom 1874, and particularly under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence. This was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, and secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, that had been in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy.Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, and John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power. In the late 19th and early 20th century unionism was particularly strong in parts of Ulster, where industrialisation was more common in contrast to the more agrarian rest of the island, and where the Protestant population was more prominent, with a majority in four counties.BOOK, A History of Ulster, Bardon, Jonathan, Jonathan Bardon, 1992, Blackstaff Press, 0856404985, 402, 405, Under the leadership of the Dublin-born Sir Edward Carson of the Irish Unionist Party and the Ulsterman Sir James Craig of the Ulster Unionist Party, unionists became strongly militant in order to oppose "the Coercion of Ulster".BOOK,weblink Ireland In The 20th Century, Coogan, Tim Pat, 2009, Random House, 127–128, 9781407097213, After the Home Rule Bill passed parliament in May 1914, to avoid rebellion with Ulster, the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced an Amending Bill reluctantly conceded to by the Irish Party leadership. This provided for the temporary exclusion of Ulster from the workings of the bill for a trial period of six years, with an as yet undecided new set of measures to be introduced for the area to be temporarily excluded.

Revolution and steps to independence

File:Easter Proclamation of 1916.png|thumb|upright|Easter Proclamation, 1916]]Though it received the Royal Assent and was placed on the statute books in 1914, the implementation of the Third Home Rule Act was suspended until after the First World War which defused the threat of civil war in Ireland. With the hope of ensuring the implementation of the Act at the end of the war through Ireland's engagement in the war, Redmond and his Irish National Volunteers supported the UK and its Allies. 175,000 men joined Irish regiments of the 10th (Irish) and 16th (Irish) divisions of the New British Army, while Unionists joined the 36th (Ulster) divisions.WEB, Irish Soldiers in the First World War,weblink 1916 Commemorations, Department of the Taoiseach, 29 August 2011, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2011, The remainder of the Irish Volunteers, who opposed any support of the UK, launched an armed insurrection against British rule in the 1916 Easter Rising, together with the Irish Citizen Army. This commenced on 24 April 1916 with the declaration of independence. After a week of heavy fighting, primarily in Dublin, the surviving rebels were forced to surrender their positions. The majority were imprisoned but fifteen of the prisoners (including most of the leaders) were executed as traitors to the UK. This included Patrick Pearse, the spokesman for the rising and who provided the signal to the volunteers to start the rising, as well as James Connolly, socialist and founder of the Industrial Workers of the World union and both the Irish and Scottish Labour movements. These events, together with the Conscription Crisis of 1918, had a profound effect on changing public opinion in Ireland.WEB,weblink The Hay Plan & Conscription in Ireland During WW1, Hennessy, Dave, Waterford County Museum, 6 September 2018, In January 1919, after the December 1918 general election, 73 of Ireland's 106 Members of Parliament (MPs) elected were Sinn Féin members who refused to take their seats in the British House of Commons. Instead, they set up an Irish parliament called Dáil Éireann. This first Dáil in January 1919 issued a Declaration of Independence and proclaimed an Irish Republic. The Declaration was mainly a restatement of the 1916 Proclamation with the additional provision that Ireland was no longer a part of the United Kingdom. The new Irish Republic was recognised internationally only by the Russian Soviet Republic.BOOK, Desmond, Fennell, Heresy: the Battle of Ideas in Modern Ireland, Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1993, 0-85640-513-2, 33, Both the new Irish Republic and the labour movement were sympathetic to the new soviet regime in Russia. The government of the Soviet Union recognised the Republic, and the Dáil authorised the establishment of diplomatic relations., The Irish Republic's Ministry of Dáil Éireann sent a delegation under (Head of Council, or Speaker, of the Daíl) Seán T. O'Kelly to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but it was not admitted.File:Dáil Chamber.jpg|thumb|left|In 1922 a new parliament called the Oireachtas was established, of which Dáil Éireann became the lower houselower houseAfter the War of Independence and truce called in July 1921, representatives of the British government and the Irish treaty delegates, led by Arthur Griffith, Robert Barton and Michael Collins, negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty in London from 11 October to 6 December 1921. The Irish delegates set up headquarters at Hans Place in Knightsbridge, and it was here in private discussions that the decision was taken on 5 December to recommend the treaty to Dáil Éireann. On 7 January 1922, the Second Dáil ratified the Treaty by 64 votes to 57.WEB,weblink Oireachtas, Dáil Éireann debates, 7 January 1922: Debate on Treaty, In accordance with the treaty, on 6 December 1922 the entire island of Ireland became a self-governing Dominion called the Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann). Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State, the Parliament of Northern Ireland had the option to leave the Irish Free State one month later and return to the United Kingdom. During the intervening period, the powers of the Parliament of the Irish Free State and Executive Council of the Irish Free State did not extend to Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland exercised its right under the treaty to leave the new Dominion and rejoined the United Kingdom on 8 December 1922. It did so by making an address to the King requesting, "that the powers of the Parliament and Government of the Irish Free State shall no longer extend to Northern Ireland."WEB,weblink Northern Ireland Parliamentary Report, 7 December 1922,, 7 December 1922, 9 July 2009, The Irish Free State was a constitutional monarchy sharing a monarch with the United Kingdom and other Dominions of the British Commonwealth. The country had a governor-general (representing the monarch), a bicameral parliament, a cabinet called the "Executive Council", and a prime minister called the President of the Executive Council.

Irish Civil War

File:De Valera LCCN2016822004 (crop).jpg|thumb|upright|Éamon de ValeraÉamon de ValeraThe Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923) was the consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. Anti-treaty forces, led by Éamon de Valera, objected to the fact that acceptance of the treaty abolished the Irish Republic of 1919 to which they had sworn loyalty, arguing in the face of public support for the settlement that the "people have no right to do wrong".BOOK, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow,weblink 21 de Valera Stands Tall, Tim Pat, Tim Pat Coogan, 1993, Coogan, They objected most to the fact that the state would remain part of the British Empire and that members of the Free State Parliament would have to swear what the Anti-treaty side saw as an oath of fidelity to the British King. Pro-treaty forces, led by Michael Collins, argued that the treaty gave "not the ultimate freedom that all nations aspire to and develop, but the freedom to achieve it".WEB, dead, 21 July 2011, Dáil Éireann,weblink" title="">weblinkweblink Dáil Éireann – Volume T – 19 December, 1921 (Debate on Treaty), At the start of the war, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) split into two opposing camps: a pro-treaty IRA and an anti-treaty IRA. The pro-treaty IRA disbanded and joined the new National Army. However, because the anti-treaty IRA lacked an effective command structure and because of the pro-treaty forces' defensive tactics throughout the war, Michael Collins and his pro-treaty forces were able to build up an army with many tens of thousands of World War I veterans from the 1922 disbanded Irish regiments of the British Army, capable of overwhelming the anti-treatyists. British supplies of artillery, aircraft, machine-guns and ammunition boosted pro-treaty forces, and the threat of a return of Crown forces to the Free State removed any doubts about the necessity of enforcing the treaty. The lack of public support for the anti-treaty forces (often called the Irregulars) and the determination of the government to overcome the Irregulars contributed significantly to their defeat.

Constitution of Ireland 1937

Following a national plebiscite in July 1937, the new Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) came into force on 29 December 1937.WEB,weblink Irish Statute Book, Constitution of Ireland, 1 July, 1937, 6 September 2018, This replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State and called the state Éire.T. Garvin, 1922: the birth of Irish democracy, Gill & Macmillan: Dublin, 2005.BOOK, The Irish Civil War 1922–23, Peter Cottrell, 85, 978-1-84603-270-7, Osprey Publishing, 2008, Irish voters approved a new constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann, in 1937 renaming the country Éire or simply Ireland., WEB, Guide to Irish Law, Dr. Darius Whelan, June 2005,weblink 11 September 2009, This Constitution, which remains in force today, renamed the state Ireland (Article 4) and established four main institutions â€“ the President, the Oireachtas (Parliament), the Government and the Courts., John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara, 2006. While Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution defined the national territory to be the whole island, they also confined the state's jurisdiction to the area that had been the Irish Free State. The former Irish Free State government had abolished the Office of Governor-General in December 1936. Although the constitution established the office of President of Ireland, the question over whether Ireland was a republic remained open. Diplomats were accredited to the king, but the president exercised all internal functions of a head of state.JOURNAL, Daly, Mary E., Mary E. Daly, January 2007, The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?, Journal of British Studies, 46, 1, 72–90, 10.1086/508399, 10.1086/508399, After the enactment of the 1936 External Relations Act and the 1937 Constitution, Ireland's only remaining link with the crown had been the accreditation of diplomats. The president of Ireland was the head of state. When opposition deputies asked de Valera whether Ireland was a republic—a favorite pastime in the mid-1940s—he tended to resort to dictionary definitions showing that Ireland had all the attributes of a republic., For instance, the President gave assent to new laws with his own authority, without reference to King George VI who was only an "organ", that was provided for by statute law.Ireland remained neutral during World War II, a period it described as The Emergency.BOOK, The Emergency: Neutral Ireland 1939–45, Girvin, Brian, Pan, 2007, 9780330493291, Ireland's Dominion status was terminated with the passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, which came into force on 18 April 1949 and declared that the state was a republic.IRISH LEGISLATION, The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (Commencement) Order, 1949, 27, si, 1, BOOK, Whyte, J. H., John Henry Whyte, Hill, J. R., A New History of Ireland, Volume VII: Ireland, 1921-84, 2010, Oxford University Press, 978-0191615597, 277 (footnote 20),weblink 6 August 2019, Ecomomic crisis and political cold war, 1949-57, The Republic of Ireland Act, 1948...repealed the external relations act, and provided for the declaration of a republic, which came into force on 18 Apr. 1949, when Ireland left the commonwealth., At the time, a declaration of a republic terminated Commonwealth membership. This rule was changed 10 days after Ireland declared itself a republic, with the London Declaration of 28 April 1949. Ireland did not reapply when the rules were altered to permit republics to join. Later, the Crown of Ireland Act was repealed in Ireland by the Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962.WEB,weblink Irish Statute Book, Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act, 1962, 6 September 2018,

Recent history

File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|In 1973 Ireland joined the European Economic Community along with the United Kingdom and Denmark. The country signed the Lisbon TreatyLisbon TreatyIreland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, after having been denied membership because of its neutral stance during the Second World War and not supporting the Allied cause.NEWS, November getaways,weblink Ireland at the UN,, 22 August 2010, 12 November 2010, At the time, joining the UN involved a commitment to using force to deter aggression by one state against another if the UN thought it was necessary.NEWS, November getaways,weblink Ireland's UN affairs,, 26 June 2010, 12 November 2010, Interest towards membership of the European Economic Community (EEC) developed in Ireland during the 1950s, with consideration also given to membership of the European Free Trade Area. As the United Kingdom intended on EEC membership, Ireland applied for membership in July 1961 due to the substantial economic linkages with the United Kingdom. However, the founding EEC members remained skeptical regarding Ireland's economic capacity, neutrality, and unattractive protectionist policy.WEB,weblink National Archives – Ireland and European Unity,, 12 November 2010, Many Irish economists and politicians realised that economic policy reform was necessary. The prospect of EEC membership became doubtful in 1963 when French President General Charles de Gaulle stated that France opposed Britain's accession, which ceased negotiations with all other candidate countries. However, in 1969 his successor, Georges Pompidou, was not opposed to British and Irish membership. Negotiations began and in 1972 the Treaty of Accession was signed. A referendum held in 1972 confirmed Ireland's entry, and it finally joined the EEC in 1973.WEB,weblink Joining the European Community,, 31 July 1961, 12 November 2010, The economic crisis of the late 1970s was fuelled by the Fianna Fáil government's budget, the abolition of the car tax, excessive borrowing, and global economic instability including the 1979 oil crisis.WEB,weblink Taxations And savings in Ireland, O'Toole, Francis, Warrington, Trinity Economic Papers Series, Trinity College, Dublin, 19, 17 June 2008, There were significant policy changes from 1989 onwards, with economic reform, tax cuts, welfare reform, an increase in competition, and a ban on borrowing to fund current spending. This policy began in 1989–1992 by the Fianna Fáil/Progressive Democrat government, and continued by the subsequent Fianna Fáil/Labour government and Fine Gael/Labour/Democratic Left government. Ireland became one of the world's fastest growing economies by the late 1990s in what was known as the Celtic Tiger period, which lasted until the global Financial crisis of 2007–08. However, since 2014, Ireland has experienced increased economic activity.WEB,weblink CSO, National Income and Expenditure 2017 (Figure 1.1 Growth Rates), 6 September 2018, In the Northern Ireland question, the British and Irish governments started to seek a peaceful resolution to the violent conflict involving many paramilitaries and the British Army in Northern Ireland known as "The Troubles". A peace settlement for Northern Ireland, known as the Good Friday Agreement, was approved in 1998 in referendums north and south of the border. As part of the peace settlement, the territorial claim to Northern Ireland in Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution of Ireland was removed by referendum. In its white paper on Brexit the United Kingdom government reiterated its commitment to the Good Friday Agreement. With regard to Northern Ireland's status, it said that the UK Government's "clearly-stated preference is to retain Northern Ireland’s current constitutional position: as part of the UK, but with strong links to Ireland".REPORT, HM Government, The United Kingdom's exit from and new partnership with the European Union, Cm 9417, February 2017,


File:Cliffs_of_Moher_bei_bestem_Wetter_(2007).jpg|thumb|The Cliffs of MoherCliffs of MoherThe state extends over an area of about five-sixths ({{convert|70273|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}) of the island of Ireland ({{convert|84421|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}), with Northern Ireland constituting the remainder. The island is bounded to the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the northeast by the North Channel. To the east, the Irish Sea connects to the Atlantic Ocean via St George's Channel and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.The western landscape mostly consists of rugged cliffs, hills and mountains. The central lowlands are extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, as well as significant areas of bogland and several lakes. The highest point is Carrauntoohil ({{convert|1038|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}), located in the MacGillycuddy's Reeks mountain range in the southwest. River Shannon, which traverses the central lowlands, is the longest river in Ireland at {{convert|386|km|mi|disp=or}} in length. The west coast is more rugged than the east, with numerous islands, peninsulas, headlands and bays.File:Macgillycuddy%27s_Reeks,_Lough_Callee_and_Cnoc_na_P%C3%A9iste_(Knocknapeasta)|thumb|left|MacGillycuddy's Reeks, mountain range in County KerryCounty KerryIreland is the least forested country in Europe."History of Forestry in Ireland". Teagasc. Until the end of the Middle Ages, the land was heavily forested with native trees such as oak, ash, hazel, birch, alder, willow, aspen, elm, rowan, yew and Scots pine.Native Species. Tree Council of Ireland. The growth of blanket bog and the extensive clearing of woodland for farming are believed to be the main causes of deforestation.WEB,weblink History of Forestry in Ireland, 15 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, Today, only about 10% of Ireland is woodland,WEB,weblink Forest Statistics – Ireland 2017, Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 29 January 2019, 3, 63, most of which is non-native conifer plantations, and only 2% of which is native woodland."Native trees cover just 2% of Ireland. How can this be increased?". The Irish Times, 6 July 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2019."Ireland’s native woodlands are quietly disappearing". The Irish Times, 19 June 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2019. The average woodland cover in European countries is over 33%. Ideal soil conditions, high rainfall and a mild climate give Ireland the highest growth rates for forests in Europe. Hedgerows, which are traditionally used to define land boundaries, are an important substitute for woodland habitat, providing refuge for native wild flora and a wide range of insect, bird and mammal species.WEB,weblink Hedgerows, 15 June 2011, File:Glendalough.jpg|thumb|Glendalough valley in County WicklowCounty WicklowAgriculture accounts for about 64% of the total land area.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 4 October 1999, Agriculture in Ireland,, 12 November 2010, This has resulted in limited land to preserve natural habitats, in particular for larger wild mammals with greater territorial requirements.WEB, Land cover and land use, Environmental Protection Agency, 2000,weblink 30 July 2007, The long history of agricultural production coupled with modern agricultural methods, such as pesticide and fertiliser use, has placed pressure on biodiversity.WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook, Ireland, Central Intelligence Agency, 28 August 2011,


The Atlantic Ocean and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream affect weather patterns in Ireland.WEB,weblink, Climate in Ireland, 22 October 2009, Temperatures differ regionally, with central and eastern areas tending to be more extreme. However, due to a temperate oceanic climate, temperatures are seldom lower than {{convert|-5|°C|°F}} in winter or higher than {{convert|26|°C|°F}} in summer.WEB,weblink, The Ireland Climate and What to Wear, 22 October 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2009, dead, The highest temperature recorded in Ireland was {{convert|33.3|°C|°F}} on 26 June 1887 at Kilkenny Castle in Kilkenny, while the lowest temperature recorded was {{convert|-19.1|°C|°F}} at Markree Castle in Sligo.WEB,weblink, Temperature in Ireland, 22 October 2009, Rainfall is more prevalent during winter months and less so during the early months of summer. Southwestern areas experience the most rainfall as a result of south westerly winds, while Dublin receives the least. Sunshine duration is highest in the southeast of the country. The far north and west are two of the windiest regions in Europe, with great potential for wind energy generation.WEB,weblink, Wind over Ireland, 22 October 2009, Ireland normally gets between 1100 and 1600 hours of sunshine each year, most areas averaging between 3.25 and 3.75 hours a day. The sunniest months are May and June, which average between 5 and 6.5 hours per day over most of the country. The extreme southeast gets most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month, with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the extreme southeast. The sunniest summer in the 100 years from 1881 to 1980 was 1887, according to measurements made at the Phoenix Park in Dublin; 1980 was the dullest.WEB,weblink, Sunshine and Solar Radiation, 22 January 2018,weblink 22 January 2018, dead,


Ireland is a constitutional republic with a parliamentary system of government. The is the bicameral national parliament composed of the President of Ireland and the two Houses of the Oireachtas:' (Senate) and ' (House of Representatives).Article 15.2 of the Constitution of Ireland. Áras an Uachtaráin is the official residence of the President of Ireland, while the houses of the Oireachtas meet at Leinster House in Dublin.File:President Higgins's visit FINIRISH BATT HQ, Lebanon (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|left|President Michael D. HigginsMichael D. HigginsThe President serves as head of state, and is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once. The President is primarily a figurehead, but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers with the advice of the Council of State. The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality.WEB,weblink Office of the President – Powers and Functions, 4 January 2011, Michael D. Higgins became the ninth President of Ireland on 11 November 2011.NEWS,weblink President Michael D promises seven years of new ideas, 11 November 2011, Irish Independent, 11 November 2011, The ' (Prime Minister) serves as the head of government and is appointed by the President upon the nomination of the . Most ' have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections. It has become customary for coalitions to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since 1989.BOOK, McGrath, Conor, Eoin O'Malley, Irish political studies reader: key contributions, Conor McGrath, Eoin O'Malley, Routledge, 2007, 54, 978-0-415-44648-8,weblink 15 March 2011, Leo Varadkar succeeded Enda Kenny as Taoiseach on 14 June 2017.File:Leo_Varadkar_2011.jpg|thumb|upright|Taoiseach Leo VaradkarLeo VaradkarThe is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the , six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis. The has 158 members () elected to represent multi-seat constituencies under the system of proportional representation and by means of the single transferable vote.The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. No more than two members can be selected from the , and the , (Deputy Prime Minister) and Minister for Finance must be members of the . The Dáil must be dissolved within five years after its first meeting following the previous election,IRISH LEGISLATION, 1992, pub, 23, 33, Electoral Act, 1992, and a general election for members of the Dáil must take place no later than thirty days after the dissolution. According to the Constitution of Ireland, parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law. The current government is a Fine Gael–led minority government led by Leo Varadkar as Taoiseach and Simon Coveney as Tánaiste, with two independent TDs, Shane Ross and Katherine Zappone, in cabinet. The minority government is held in place by a confidence and supply deal with Fianna Fáil. Opposition parties in the current are Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, the Labour Party, Solidarity–People Before Profit, Social Democrats, Workers and Unemployed Action, the Green Party as well as a number of independents.Ireland has been a member state of the European Union since 1973, but is not part of the Schengen Area. Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the Common Travel Area, which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. However, some identification is required at airports and seaports.

Local government

File:Government buildings2 (8162790757).jpg|thumb|Government BuildingsGovernment BuildingsThe Local Government Act 1898WEB,weblink Local Government Reform Act 2014,, 2 June 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2014, is the founding document of the present system of local government, while the Twentieth Amendment to the constitution of 1999 provided for its constitutional recognition. The twenty-six traditional counties of Ireland are not always coterminous with administrative divisions although they are generally used as a geographical frame of reference by the population of Ireland. The Local Government Reform Act 2014 provides for a system of thirty-one local authorities – twenty-six county councils, two city and county councils and three city councils. Below this (with the exception of the Dublin Region and the three city councils) are municipal districts, replacing a previous system of town councils.{| style="margin: 1em auto;"{| style="margin:auto;" cellpadding="10"250px|right)
  1. Fingal
  2. Dublin City
  3. Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown
  4. South Dublin
  5. Wicklow
  6. Wexford
  7. Carlow
  8. Kildare
  9. Meath
  10. Louth
  11. Monaghan
  12. Cavan
  13. Longford
  14. Westmeath
  15. Offaly
  16. Laois
KilkennyWaterfordCork CityCorkKerryLimerickTipperaryClareGalwayGalway CityMayoRoscommonSligoLeitrimDonegalLocal authorities are responsible for matters such as planning, local roads, sanitation, and libraries. Dáil constituencies are required to follow county boundaries as much as possible. Counties with greater populations have multiple constituencies, some of more than one county, but generally do not cross county boundaries. The counties are grouped into eight regions, each with a Regional Authority composed of members delegated by the various county and city councils in the region. The regions do not have any direct administrative role as such, but they serve for planning, coordination and statistical purposes.


File:Dublin four courts.JPG|thumb|The Four CourtsFour CourtsIreland has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. The court system consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the High Court, the Circuit Court and the District Court, all of which apply the Irish law and hear both civil and criminal matters. Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The High Court, Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court have authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public.{{citation needed|date=April 2019}}File:CriminalCourtofJusticeDublin.jpg|thumb|left|The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for criminal courts]]Garda Síochána na hÉireann (Guardians of the Peace of Ireland), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí, is the state's civilian police force. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed members do not routinely carry firearms. Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray.NEWS,weblink Poll: Should the Garda Síochána be armed?, 4 July 2011,, 20 November 2012, The Military Police is the corps of the Irish Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas. Other wartime roles include control of prisoners of war and refugees.WEB,weblink The Defence Forces,, 12 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2009, Ireland's citizenship laws relate to "the island of Ireland", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. Therefore, anyone born in Northern Ireland who meets the requirements for being an Irish citizen, such as birth on the island of Ireland to an Irish or British citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live in Northern Ireland or the Republic without restriction on their residency,WEB,weblink Irish citizenship through birth or descent,, 12 November 2010, may exercise an entitlement to Irish citizenship, such as an Irish passport.Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956–2011 (unofficial consolidated version)

Foreign relations

{{See also|Ireland–NATO relations}}Foreign relations are substantially influenced by membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United Kingdom and United States are also important.See Michael J. Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Ireland's Quest for Membership of the EEC, 1957–73 (Institute of Public Administration, 2009) ({{ISBN|978-1-904541-83-7}}) It held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union on six occasions, most recently from January to June 2013.WEB,weblink Official Journal of the European Union, 12 November 2010, File:Institutions europeennes IMG 4300.jpg|thumb|left|Ireland has been a member state of the European Unionmember state of the European UnionIreland tends towards independence in foreign policy; thus the country is not a member of NATO and has a longstanding policy of military neutrality. This policy has helped the Irish Defence Forces to be successful in their contributions to peace-keeping missions with the United Nations since 1960, during the Congo Crisis and subsequently in Cyprus, Lebanon and Bosnia and Herzegovina.WEB,weblink Ireland and the United Nations, 15 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2010, {{Disputed inline|text=disputed content|Talk page section|date=November 2015}}Despite Irish neutrality during World War II, Ireland had more than 50,000 participants in the war through enlistment in the British armed forces. During the Cold War, Irish military policy, while ostensibly neutral, was biased towards NATO.WEB, Kennedy, Michael, Ireland's Role in Post-War Transatlantic Aviation and Its Implications for the Defence of the North Atlantic Area, Royal Irish Academy, 8 October 2014,weblink 10 October 2007, During the Cuban Missile Crisis, Seán Lemass authorised the search of Cuban and Czechoslovak aircraft passing through Shannon and passed the information to the CIA.Irish Times, 28 December 2007 p. 1 {{webarchive |url= |date=7 July 2012}}. Ireland's air facilities were used by the United States military for the delivery of military personnel involved in the 2003 invasion of Iraq through Shannon Airport. The airport had previously been used for the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, as well as the First Gulf War.WEB, Private Members' Business. – Foreign Conflicts: Motion (Resumed), Government of Ireland, 30 January 2003,weblink 10 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, – Tony Gregory speaking in Dáil ÉireannSince 1999, Ireland has been a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), which is aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union.NEWS,weblink State joins Partnership for Peace on Budget day, Patrick Smyth, 29 November 1999, The Irish Times, 6 May 2008, WEB,weblink Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document, NATO website, 21 April 2008, 6 May 2008,


{{See also|Irish neutrality}}File:State Visit by The President of the Republic of Mozambique011 (14173266347).jpg|thumb|upright= 1.2|Soldiers of the Irish Army form a guard of honourguard of honourIreland is a neutral country,{{harvnb|Gilland|2001|p=143}}. and has "triple-lock" rules governing the participation of Irish troops in conflict zones, whereby approval must be given by the UN, the Dáil and Government.WEB, Minister for Defence, Mr. Willie O'Dea TD secures formal Cabinet approval today for Ireland's participation in an EU Battlegroup, Department of Defense,weblink 26 August 2008, Accordingly, its military role is limited to national self-defence and participation in United Nations peacekeeping.The Defence Forces are made up of the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and Reserve Defence Force. It is small but well equipped, with almost 10,000 full-time military personnel and over 2,000 in reserve.NEWS, Lally, Conor,weblink Numbers in Defence Forces hit 40-year low, Irish Times, 25 November 2009, 12 November 2010, WEB,weblink Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas (Hansard), Written Replies Nos. 437 to 450 – Defence Forces Reserve, 13 January 2016, Daily deployments of the Defence Forces cover aid to civil power operations, protection and patrol of Irish territorial waters and EEZ by the Irish Naval Service, and UN, EU and PfP peace-keeping missions. By 1996, over 40,000 Irish service personnel had served in international UN peacekeeping missions.BOOK, United States. National Archives and Records Administration, United States. Office of the Federal Register, Weekly compilation of Presidential documents, Volume 32, Issue 2, 1996, Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1050,weblink 29 August 2012, The Irish Air Corps is the air component of the Defence Forces and operates sixteen fixed wing aircraft and eight helicopters. The Irish Naval Service is Ireland's navy, and operates eight patrol ships, and smaller numbers of inflatable boats and training vessels, and has armed boarding parties capable of seizing a ship and a special unit of frogmen. The military includes the Reserve Defence Forces (Army Reserve and Naval Service Reserve) for part-time reservists. Ireland's special forces include the Army Ranger Wing, which trains and operates with international special operations units. The President is the formal Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but in practice these Forces answer to the Government via the Minister for Defence.{{citation needed|date=April 2019}}In 2017, Ireland signed the United Nations Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.WEB,weblink Chapter XXVI: Disarmament â€“ No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, United Nations Treaty Collection, 7 July 2017,


{{See also|Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland}}File:BlueEurozone.svg|thumb|Ireland is part of the EU (dark blue & light blue) and EurozoneEurozoneIreland is an open economy (6th on the Index of Economic Freedom), and ranks first for "high-value" foreign direct investment (FDI) flows.NEWS,weblink Ireland named best country for high-value FDI for sixth year in a row, Irish Times, 31 August 2017, Using the metric global GDP per capita, Ireland ranks 5th of 187 (IMF) and 6th of 175 (World Bank). The alternative metric modified Gross National Income (GNI) is intended to give a more accurate view of "activity in the domestic economy".WEB,weblink Press Statement Macroeconomic Releases Year 2016 and Quarter 1 2017 – CSO – Central Statistics Office,, en, 21 August 2018, This is particularly relevant in Ireland 's small globalised economy, as GDP includes income from non-Irish owned companies, which flows out of Ireland.WEB,weblink Modified Gross National Income – CSO – Central Statistics Office, en, 21 August 2018, Indeed, foreign multinationals are the driver of Ireland's economy, employing a quarter of the private sector workforce,WEB,weblink IRELAND Trade and Statistical Note 2017, OECD, 2017, and paying 80% of Irish business taxes.WEB,weblink 20 multinationals paid half of all Corporation tax paid in 2016, RTE News, 21 June 2017, WEB,weblink Most of Ireland's huge corporate tax haul last year came from foreign firms, sunday Business Post FORA, 14 May 2016, WEB,weblink An Analysis of 2015 Corporation Tax Returns and 2016 Payments, Revenue Commissioners, April 2017, 14 of Ireland's top 20 firms (by 2017 turnover) are US-based multinationalsNEWS,weblink Ireland's Top 1000 Companies, Irish Times, 2018, (80% of foreign multinationals in Ireland are from the US;WEB,weblink Winning FDI 2015–2019 Strategy, IDA Ireland, March 2015, WEB,weblink IDA Ireland Competitiveness, IDA Ireland, March 2018, there are no non-US/non-UK foreign firms in Ireland's top 50 firms by turnover, and only one by employees, that being German retailer Lidl at No. 41).Ireland adopted the euro currency in 2002 along with eleven other EU member states.The country officially exited recession in 2010, assisted by a growth in exports from US multinationals in Ireland.NEWS, Fottrell, Quentin,weblink Wall Street Journal, Ireland Officially Exits Recession,, 30 June 2010, 30 June 2011, However, due to a rise in the cost of public borrowing due to government guarantees of private banking debt, the Irish government accepted an €85 billion programme of assistance from the EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and bilateral loans from the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark.NEWS,weblink Ireland to receive €85 billion bailout at 5.8% interest rate,, 28 November 2010, 30 June 2011, Following three years of contraction, the economy grew by 0.7% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012.WEB,weblink Irish economy grew by 0.9% in 2012 – CSO, RTÉ, 21 March 2013, 30 May 2013, The unemployment rate was 14.7% in 2012, including 18.5% among recent immigrants.NEWS,weblink Irish anti-immigrant attitudes growing, report shows, Judith, Crosbie, The Irish Times, 26 June 2013, In March 2016 the unemployment rate was reported by the CSO to be 8.6%, down from a peak unemployment rate of 15.1% in February 2012.WEB,weblink#.UOIU2GeKBLM,, Monthly Unemployment March 2016 – CSO – Central Statistics Office,, 30 July 2017, In addition to unemployment, net emigration from Ireland between 2008 and 2013 totalled 120,100,NEWS,, One Irish person emigrates every six minutes, Financial Times, 29 August 2010, 2 May 2015, or some 2.6% of the total population according to the Census of Ireland 2011. One-third of the emigrants were aged between 15 and 24.Ireland exited its EU-IMF bailout programme on 15 December 2013.WEB,weblink Ireland becomes first country to exit eurozone bailout programme, Henry, McDonald, 13 December 2013, 30 July 2017, The Guardian, Having implemented budget cuts, reforms and sold assets, Ireland was again able to access debt markets. Since then, Ireland has been able to sell long term bonds at record rates.WEB,weblink Republic of Ireland raises €3.75 billion from sale of new 10-year benchmark bond,, 2 February 2017, However, the stabilisation of the Irish credit bubble required a large transfer of debt from the private sector balance sheet (highest OECD leverage), to the public sector balance sheet (almost unleveraged, pre-crisis), via Irish bank bailouts and public deficit spending.WEB,weblink Irish government debt four times pre-crisis level, NTMA says, 10 July 2017, WEB,weblink 42% of Europe's banking crisis paid by Ireland, 16 January 2013, The transfer of this debt means that Ireland, in 2017, still has one of the highest levels of both public sector indebtedness, and private sector indebtedness, in the EU-28/OECD.NEWS,weblink Who owes more money – the Irish or the Greeks?, Irish Times, 4 June 2015, NEWS,weblink Why do the Irish still owe more than the Greeks?, Irish Times, 7 March 2017, NEWS,weblink Ireland's colossal level of indebtedness leaves any new government with precious little room for manoeuvre, Irish Independent, 16 April 2016, WEB,weblink Irish public debt levels 4th highest in EU28 June 2017 FAR Slide 7, Irish Fiscal Advisory Council, June 2017, NEWS,weblink Irish household debt still amongst the highest in Europe, Irish Times, 11 September 2017, NEWS,weblink Net National debt now €44000 per head, 2nd highest in the World, Irish Independent, 7 July 2017, Ireland continues to de-leverage its domestic private sector while growing its US multinational-driven economy. Ireland became the main destination for US corporate tax inversions from 2009–2016 (mostly pharmaceutical), peaking with the blocked $160bn Allergan/Pfizer inversion (worlds largest inversion, and circa 85% of Irish GNI*).WEB,weblink Tracking Tax Runaways, Bloomberg News, 1 March 2017, NEWS,weblink Pfizer pulls out of €140bn Irish Allergan merger, Irish Independent, 6 April 2016, Ireland also became the largest foreign location for US "big cap" technology multinationals (i.e. Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook), which delivered a GDP growth rate of 26.3% (and GNP growth rate of 18.7%) in 2015. This growth was subsequently shown to be due to Apple restructuring its "double Irish" subsidiary (Apple Sales International, currently under threat of a €13bn EU "illegal state aid" fine for preferential tax treatment).

Taxation policy

Ireland's economy was transformed with the creation of a 10% low-tax "special economic zone", called the International Financial Services Centre (or "IFSC"), in 1987.WEB,weblink Dermot Desmond on the IFSC past and future, Finance Dublin, 2003, In 1999, the entire country was effectively "turned into an IFSC" with the reduction of Irish corporation tax from 32% to 12.5% (the birth of Ireland's "low-tax" model).WEB,weblink History of the Irish Corporate Tax System, Ernst and Young, 2014, WEB,weblink Report on Ireland's Relationship with Global Corporate Taxation Architecture, Department of Finance, 2014, This accelerated Ireland's transition from a predominantly agricultural economy into a knowledge economy focused on attracting US multinationals from high-tech, life sciences, and financial services industries seeking to avail of Ireland's attractive corporate tax rates and unique corporate tax system.The "multinational tax schemes" foreign firms use in Ireland materially distort Irish economic statistics. This reached a climax with the famous "leprechaun economics" GDP/GNP growth rates of 2015 (as Apple restructured its Irish subsidiaries in 2015). The Central Bank of Ireland introduced a new statistic, "modified GNI" (or GNI*), to remove these distortions. GNI* is 30% below GDP (or, GDP is 143% of GNI).NEWS,weblink CSO paints a very different picture of Irish economy with new measure, The Irish Times, 15 July 2017, NEWS,weblink New economic Leprechaun on loose as rate of growth plunges, Irish Independent, 15 July 2017, As such, Ireland's GDP and GNP should no longer be used.WEB,weblink ESRG Presentation and CSO Response, Central Statistics Office, 4 February 2017, WEB,weblink Leprechaun-proofing economic data, RTE News, 4 February 2017, WEB,weblink Report on the ESRG Review Group on GNI*, Central Statistics Office (Ireland), February 2017, From the creation of the IFSC, the country experienced strong and sustained economic growth which fuelled a dramatic rise in Irish consumer borrowing and spending, and Irish construction and investment, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period.WEB,weblink ESRI – Irish Economy,, 30 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2011, By 2007, Ireland had the highest private sector debt in the OECD with a household debt-to-disposable income ratio of 190%. Global capital markets, who had financed Ireland's build-up of debt in the Celtic Tiger period by enabling Irish banks to borrow in excess of the domestic deposit base (to over 180% at peakNEWS,weblink Irish Banks continue to grow deposits as loan books shrink, Irish Examiner, December 2012, ), withdrew support in the global financial crisis. Their withdrawal from the over-borrowed Irish credit system would precipitate a deep Irish property correction which would then lead to the collapse of the Irish banking system.WEB,weblink Ireland Financial System Stability Assessment 2016, International Monetary Fund, July 2016, WEB,weblink Crisis Recovery in a Country with a High Presence of Foreign Owned Companies, IMK Institute, Berlin, January 2017, Ireland's successful "low-tax" economy opens it to accusations of being a "corporate tax haven",WEB,weblink Ireland named world's 6th worst corporate tax haven,, 12 December 2016, NEWS, The United States' new view of Ireland: 'tax haven',weblink The Irish Times, January 2017, NEWS,weblink Europe points finger at Ireland over tax avoidance, The Irish Times, 7 March 2018, and led to it being "blacklisted".NEWS,weblink Blacklisted by Brazil, Dublin funds find new ways to invest, Reuters, 20 March 2017, NEWS,weblink Oregon Department of Revenue made a recommendation that Ireland be included as a 'listed jurisdiction' or tax haven, Irish Independent, 26 March 2017, A 2017 study ranks Ireland as the 5th largest global Conduit OFC (conduits legally route funds to tax havens). A serious challenge is the passing of the US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (whose FDII and GILTI regimes target Ireland's "multinational tax schemes").NEWS,weblink Trump's US tax reform a significant challenge for Ireland, The Irish Times, 30 November 2017, NEWS, US corporations could be saying goodbye to Ireland,weblink The Irish Times, 17 January 2018, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump singles out Ireland in tax speech, The Irish Times, 29 November 2017, MAGAZINE,weblink Breaking Down the New U.S. Corporate Tax Law, Harvard Business Review, 26 December 2017, The EU's 2018 Digital Sales Tax (DST)WEB,weblink MEPs approve new EU corporate tax plan which embraces "digital presence", European Parliament, 15 March 2018, (and desire for a CCCTBWEB,weblink What the EU's new taxes on the tech giants mean – and how they would hurt Ireland,, 24 March 2018, ) is also seen as an attempt to restrict Irish "multinational tax schemes" by US technology firms.NEWS,weblink Shake-up of EU tax rules a 'more serious threat' to Ireland than Brexit, Irish Independent, 14 September 2017, NEWS,weblink Why Ireland faces a fight on the corporate tax front, The Irish Times, 14 March 2018, NEWS,weblink EU digital levy could hit tech FDI and tax revenue here, Irish Independent, 21 March 2018,


File:La Touche House, Dublin ( DSC6350).jpg|thumb|The International Financial Services CentreInternational Financial Services CentreAlthough multinational corporations dominate Ireland's export sector, exports from other sources also contribute significantly to the national income. The activities of multinational companies based in Ireland have made it one of the largest exporters of pharmaceutical agents, medical devices and software-related goods and services in the world. Ireland's exports also relate to the activities of large Irish companies (such as Ryanair, Kerry Group and Smurfit Kappa) and exports of mineral resources: Ireland is the seventh largest producer of zinc concentrates, and the twelfth largest producer of lead concentrates. The country also has significant deposits of gypsum, limestone, and smaller quantities of copper, silver, gold, barite, and dolomite. Tourism in Ireland contributes about 4% of GDP and is a significant source of employment.Other goods exports include agri-food, cattle, beef, dairy products, and aluminum. Ireland's major imports include data processing equipment, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, textiles, and clothing. Financial services provided by multinational corporations based at the Irish Financial Services Centre also contribute to Irish exports. The difference between exports (€89.4 billion) and imports (€45.5 billion) resulted an annual trade surplus of €43.9 billion in 2010, which is the highest trade surplus relative to GDP achieved by any EU member state.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 11 February 2005, CSO – Main Trading Partners 2010,, 30 June 2011, The EU is by far the country's largest trading partner, accounting for 57.9% of exports and 60.7% of imports. The United Kingdom is the most important trading partner within the EU, accounting for 15.4% of exports and 32.1% of imports. Outside the EU, the United States accounted for 23.2% of exports and 14.1% of imports in 2010.


File:IMG WindfarmKilmuck1920.jpg|thumb|A wind farm in County WexfordCounty WexfordESB, Bord Gáis Energy and Airtricity are the three main electricity and gas suppliers in Ireland. There are 19.82 billion cubic metres of proven reserves of gas.Bord Gáis (2006). Natural Gas In Ireland. {{webarchive |url= |date=27 February 2012}} Gas and the Environment. Retrieved on 8 August 2006. Natural gas extraction previously occurred at the Kinsale Head until its exhaustion. The Corrib gas field was due to come on stream in 2013/14. In 2012, the Barryroe field was confirmed to have up to 1.6 billion barrels of oil in reserve, with between 160 and 600 million recoverable.Providence hits high as potential oil yield revised. The Irish Times (26 July 2012). Retrieved on 16 July 2013. {{webarchive |url= |date=21 December 2012}} That could provide for Ireland's entire energy needs for up to 13 years, when it is developed in 2015/16. There have been significant efforts to increase the use of renewable and sustainable forms of energy in Ireland, particularly in wind power, with 3,000 MegaWattsWEB,weblink Ireland's state power supplier is planning a major leap into solar energy, Fora, Staff,, 30 July 2017, of wind farms being constructed, some for the purpose of export.Wind farm firm to create 2,000 jobs by 2018 – RTÉ News. RTÉ.ie. Retrieved on 16 July 2013. The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) has estimated that 6.5% of Ireland's 2011 energy requirements were produced by renewable sources.{{citation|author=Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit |title=Renewable Energy in Ireland 2011 |work=2012 Report |page=3 |publisher=Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland |date=June 2012 |url= |accessdate=5 August 2013 |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=15 November 2013}} The SEAI has also reported an increase in energy efficiency in Ireland with a 28% reduction in carbon emissions per house from 2005 to December 2013 accessdate=19 December 2013 {{webarchive |url= |date=19 December 2013}}


File:Aerfort-bac.jpg|thumb|Terminal 1 and 2 at Dublin AirportDublin AirportThe country's three main international airports at Dublin, Shannon and Cork serve many European and intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights. The London to Dublin air route is the ninth busiest international air route in the world, and also the busiest international air route in Europe, with 14,500 flights between the two in 2017.NEWS, 10 January 2018,weblink live, 10 January 2018, Dublin to London named Europe's busiest air route in new OAG report,weblink 30 January 2018, Anita, McSorley, Irish Mirror, In 2015, 4.5 million people took the route, at that time, the world's second-busiest.NEWS, O'Halloran, Barry, Dublin-London second-busiest route in world,weblink 18 January 2018, Irish Times, 25 January 2016, Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland, although Ryanair is the country's largest airline. Ryanair is Europe's largest low-cost carrier,WEB,weblink Ash makes Ryanair cancel flights until Monday, 19 April 2010, Wayback machine, Forbes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2010, dead, 30 January 2018, the second largest in terms of passenger numbers, and the world's largest in terms of international passenger numbers.WEB, International Air Transport Association, 2008, WATS Scheduled Passengers Carried 53rd Edition,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2010, File:Intercity Heuston.jpg|thumb|left|InterCity Mark IV train at Heuston station ]]Railway services are provided by Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail), which operates all internal intercity, commuter and freight railway services in the country. Dublin is the centre of the network with two main stations, Heuston station and Connolly station, linking to the country's cities and main towns. The Enterprise service, which runs jointly with Northern Ireland Railways, connects Dublin and Belfast. The whole of Ireland's mainline network operates on track with a gauge of {{convert|5|ft|3|in|mm|abbr=on}}, which is unique in Europe and has resulted in distinct rolling stock designs. Dublin has a steadily improving public transport network including the DART, Luas, Dublin Bus, and dublinbikes.{{citation needed|date=April 2019}}Motorways, national primary roads and national secondary roads are managed by Transport Infrastructure Ireland, while regional roads and local roads are managed by the local authorities in each of their respective areas. The road network is primarily focused on the capital, but motorways connect it to other major Irish cities including Cork, Limerick, Waterford and Galway.WEB,weblink Transport 21 Website – What is Transport 21?,, 30 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 June 2011, Dublin is served by major infrastructure such as the East-Link and West-Link toll-bridges, as well as the Dublin Port Tunnel. The Jack Lynch Tunnel, under the River Lee in Cork, and the Limerick Tunnel, under the River Shannon, were two major projects outside Dublin. Several by-pass projects are underway in other urban areas.{{citation needed|date=April 2019}}


{{See also|Irish population analysis}}(File:Population of Ireland 1951-2011.png|thumb|Population of Ireland since 1951.)Genetic research suggests that the earliest settlers migrated from Iberia following the most recent ice age."Myths of British ancestry" Prospect magazine After the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age, migrants introduced a Celtic language and culture. Migrants from the two latter eras still represent the genetic heritage of most Irish people.Origins of the British, Stephen Oppenheimer, 2006JOURNAL, 1182057, 15309688, 10.1086/424697, 75, 4, The Longue Durée of genetic ancestry: multiple genetic marker systems and Celtic origins on the Atlantic facade of Europe, October 2004, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 693–702, McEvoy, B, Richards, M, Forster, P, Bradley, DG, Gaelic tradition expanded and became the dominant form over time. Irish people are a combination of Gaelic, Norse, Anglo-Norman, French, and British ancestry.The population of Ireland stood at 4,588,252 in 2011, an increase of 8.2% since 2006.WEB,weblink This is Ireland – Highlights from Census 2011, part 1, March 2012, 21 February 2013, Central Statistics Office Ireland, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2012, {{As of|2011}}, Ireland had the highest birth rate in the European Union (16 births per 1,000 of population).Ireland continues to have highest birth rate in the European Union. BBC News. (20 December 2012). Retrieved on 16 July 2013. In 2014, 36.3% of births were to unmarried women.WEB,weblink Vital Statistics Yearly Summary 2014 – CSO – Central Statistics Office,, 30 July 2017, Annual population growth rates exceeded 2% during the 2002–2006 intercensal period, which was attributed to high rates of natural increase and immigration.WEB,weblink Ireland's population still fastest-growing in EU, Thomas Crosbie Media, 18 December 2007, 9 July 2009, This rate declined somewhat during the subsequent 2006–2011 intercensal period, with an average annual percentage change of 1.6%. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2017 was estimated at 1.80 children born per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.2 children born per woman in 1850.{{citation|url=|title=Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries|author=Max Roser|date=2014|work=Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation}} In 2018 the median age of the Irish population was 37.1 years.{{citation|url=|title=World Factbook EUROPE : IRELAND|work=The World Factbook|date=July 12, 2018}} {{PD-notice}}At the time of the 2016 census, the number of non-Irish nationals was recorded at 535,475. This represents a 2% decrease from the 2011 census figure of 544,357. The five largest sources of non-Irish nationals were Poland (122,515), the UK (103,113), Lithuania (36,552), Romania (29,186) and Latvia (19,933) respectively. Compared with 2011, the number of UK, Polish, Lithuanian and Latvian nationals fell. There were four new additions to the top ten largest non-Irish nationalities in 2016: Brazilian (13,640), Spanish (12,112), Italian (11,732), and French (11,661).WEB,weblink Census 2016. Non-Irish Nationalities Living in Ireland, Central Statistics Office, 13 October 2018, {{See also|List of urban areas in the Republic of Ireland by population}}{| class="infobox" style="text-align:center; width:97%; margin-right:10px; font-size:90%"! colspan="8" style="background:#e9e9e9; padding:0.3em; line-height:1.2em;"|Largest urban centres by population (2016 census)!rowspan=30|(File:Dublin city Luftbild (21951181938).jpg|150px)Dublin(File:LimerickCity Riverpoint.jpg|150px)Limerick! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| #! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"| Settlement! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| Population! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| #! style="text-align:left; background:#f5f5f5;"| Settlement! style="text-align:center; background:#f5f5f5;"| Population!rowspan=21|(File:Cork City Hall - Anglesea Street - - 1405948.jpg|150px)Cork(File:Galway Harbour 2007.jpg|150px)Galway 1 align=left Dublin >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Kilkenny 26,512 2 align=left Cork (city)>Cork 208,669HTTP://CENSUS.CSO.IE/SAPMAP2016/RESULTS.ASPX?GEOG_TYPE=ST2016&GEOG_CODE=2640ADAE-4EBB-460C-BBD4-D666DEBB3C8A >TITLE=SETTLEMENT CORK CITY AND SUBURBS CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND)>CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE ACCESSDATE=21 JULY 2017, 12 align=left Ennis >| 25,276 3 align=left Limerick >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Carlow 24,272 4 align=left Galway >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Tralee 23,691 5 align=left Waterford >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 '''Newbridge, County Kildare''' >| 22,742 6 align=left Drogheda >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Portlaoise 22,050 7 align=left Swords, Dublin>Swords 39,248HTTP://CENSUS.CSO.IE/SAPMAP2016/RESULTS.ASPX?GEOG_TYPE=ST2016&GEOG_CODE=2B32F09A-1EA9-40C7-8EB5-9709E33C2983 >TITLE=SETTLEMENT SWORDS CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND)>CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE ACCESSDATE=29 JULY 2017, 17 align=left Balbriggan >| 21,722 8 align=left Dundalk >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Naas 21,393 9 align=left Bray, County Wicklow>Bray 32,600HTTP://CENSUS.CSO.IE/SAPMAP2016/RESULTS.ASPX?GEOG_TYPE=ST2016&GEOG_CODE=3AFC3DCF-1161-44B7-BDAE-C56872CF18A9 >TITLE=SETTLEMENT BRAY CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND)>CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE ACCESSDATE=29 JULY 2017, 19 align=left Athlone >| 21,349 10 align=left Navan >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (IRELAND) >YEAR=2016 Mullingar 20,928{{Clear}}

Functional urban areas

The following is a list of functional urban areas in Ireland and their population {{as of|2014|lc=y}}."Functional Urban Areas in OECD Countries: Ireland", June 2016{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:left;"style="font-size:100%; text-align:center;"!align=center|Functional urban areas!align=center|Population2014| Dublin1,836,119Cork (city)>Cork371,004| Galway209,669| Limerick165,800| Waterford111,525


(File:Percentage stating they speak Irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census.png|thumb|upright=1.15|The percentage who said they spoke Irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census.)The Irish Constitution describes Irish as the "national language", but English is the dominant language. In the 2006 census, 39% of the population regarded themselves as competent in Irish. Irish is spoken as a community language only in a small number of rural areas mostly in the west and south of the country, collectively known as the Gaeltacht. Except in Gaeltacht regions, road signs are usually bilingual.WEB,weblink S.I. No. 164/1970: Road Traffic (Signs) (Amendment) Regulations, 1970., Irish Statute Book, 16 July 1970, 9 July 2009, Most public notices and print media are in English only. While the state is officially bilingual, citizens can often struggle to access state services in Irish and most government publications are not available in both languages, even though citizens have the right to deal with the state in Irish. Irish language media include the TV channel TG4, the radio station RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta and online newspaper In the Irish Defence Forces, all foot and arms drill commands are given in the Irish language.As a result of immigration, Polish is the most widely spoken language in Ireland after English, with Irish as the third most spoken.WEB,weblink Irish is third most used language – Census, 29 March 2012,, 30 July 2017, Several other Central European languages (namely Czech, Hungarian and Slovak), as well as Baltic languages (Lithuanian and Latvian) are also spoken on a day-to-day basis. Other languages spoken in Ireland include Shelta, spoken by Irish Travellers, and a dialect of Scots is spoken by some Ulster Scots people in Donegal.An introduction to the Ulster-Scots Language, Ulster-Scots Agency. Most secondary school students choose to learn one or two foreign languages. Languages available for the Junior Certificate and the Leaving Certificate include French, German, Italian and Spanish; Leaving Certificate students can also study Arabic, Japanese and Russian. Some secondary schools also offer Ancient Greek, Hebrew and Latin. The study of Irish is compulsory for Leaving Certificate students, but some may qualify for an exemption in some circumstances, such as learning difficulties or entering the country after age 11.WEB,weblink Pupils exempt from the study of the Irish language (per Circular M10/94 – Revision of Rule 46 of the "Rules and Programme for Secondary Schools" in relation to exemption from Irish), Department of Education and Skills, 27 October 2010,


File:R.C.S.I Disease Research Centre.jpg|thumb|left|RCSI Disease and Research Centre at Beaumont Hospital in DublinDublinHealthcare in Ireland is provided by both public and private healthcare providers.WEB,weblink Health care, Irish Citizens Information Board, 29 December 2014, The Minister for Health has responsibility for setting overall health service policy. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability. All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department. However, visitors to emergency departments in non-emergency situations who are not referred by their GP may incur a fee of €100. In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived.{{citation|title=Charges for hospital services |publisher=Citizens Information board |date=26 July 2011}}Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals. Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges. Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it.The average life expectancy in Ireland in 2016 was 81.8 years (OECD 2016 list), with 79.9 years for men and 83.6 years for women.WEB,weblink OECD Better Life Index,, 30 July 2017, It has the highest birth rate in the EU (16.8 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to an EU average of 10.7)NEWS,weblink Ireland has EU's highest birth rate,, 7 July 2010, 30 June 2011, and a very low infant mortality rate (3.5 per 1,000 live births). The Irish healthcare system ranked 13th out of 34 European countries in 2012 according to the European Health Consumer Index produced by Health Consumer Powerhouse.WEB,weblink Euro Health Consumer Index 2012, Health Consumer Powerhouse, 15 May 2012, 23 November 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2017, dead, The same report ranked the Irish healthcare system as having the 8th best health outcomes but only the 21st most accessible system in Europe.


File:University-College-Cork-Panorama-2012.JPG|thumb|University College Cork was founded in 1845 and is a constituent university of the National University of IrelandNational University of IrelandIreland has three levels of education: primary, secondary and higher education. The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination.Education (Welfare) Act, 2000 (Section 17) {{webarchive |url= |date=30 September 2007}}There are approximately 3,300 primary schools in Ireland.WEB, Minister Hanafin announces intention to pilot new additional model of Primary School Patronage, 17 February 2007, 7 September 2010,weblink Department of Education and Skills, The vast majority (92%) are under the patronage of the Catholic Church. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof. A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached.File:Long Room Interior, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland - Diliff.jpg|thumb|Longroom at the Trinity College LibraryTrinity College LibraryThe Leaving Certificate, which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system. Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis.WEB,weblink Education Ireland – Leaving Certificate,, 12 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2010, Third-level education awards are conferred by at least 38 Higher Education Institutions – this includes the constituent or linked colleges of seven universities, plus other designated institutions of the Higher Education and Training Awards Council.The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Ireland as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD countries, in its 2012 assessment.NEWS, Irish teens perform significantly above average in maths, reading and science – OECD, Education, RTÉ News, 3 December 2013,weblink 27 August 2015, In 2012, Irish students aged 15 years had the second highest levels of reading literacy in the EU.WEB,weblink CSO – Measuring Ireland's Progress 2013, Central Statistics Office (Ireland), Central Statistics Office, 2014, 27 August 2015, Ireland also has 0.747 of the World's top 500 Universities per capita, which ranks the country in 8th place in the world.WEB,weblink World's top 500 Universities per capita,, 30 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2011, Primary, secondary and higher (university/college) level education are all free in Ireland for all EU citizens.WEB, Third-level student fees,weblink Free fees, Citizens Information Board, 25 July 2010, There are charges to cover student services and examinations.In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree, which is among the highest percentages in the world.Michael B. Sauter and Alexander E. M. Hess, The Most Educated Countries in the World, 24/7 Wall St., 21 September 2012Samantha Grossman, And the World's Most Educated Country Is..., Time, 27 September 2012


{{bar boxDATE = 12 OCTOBER 2017 URL = HTTP://WWW.CSO.IE/EN/CSOLATESTNEWS/PRESSRELEASES/2017PRESSRELEASES/PRESSSTATEMENTCENSUS2016RESULTSPROFILE8-IRISHTRAVELLERSETHNICITYANDRELIGION/ PUBLISHER = CSO.IE ACCESS-DATE = 5 JANUARY 2018, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Catholic|Yellow|78.3}}{{bar percent|Non-religious|Green|10.1}}{{bar percent|Protestant|Violet|4.2}}{{bar percent|Muslim|Black|1.3}}{{bar percent|Other|Orange|6.1}}}}Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from 84.2 percent in the 2011 census to 78.3 percent in the most recent 2016 census. Other results from the 2016 census are : 4.2% Protestant, 1.3% Orthodox, 1.3% as Muslim, and 9.8% as having no religion.WEB,weblink Census 2016 Summary Results – Part 1, 6 April 2017, According to a Georgetown University study, before 2000 the country had one of the highest rates of regular Mass attendance in the Western world.Weekly Mass Attendance of Catholics in Nations with Large Catholic Populations, 1980–2000 – World Values Survey (WVS)While daily attendance was 13% in 2006, there was a reduction in weekly attendance from 81% in 1990 to 48% in 2006, although the decline was reported as stabilising.Irish Mass attendance below 50% Catholic World News 1 June 2006 In 2011, it was reported that weekly Mass attendance in Dublin was just 18%, with it being even lower among younger generations.NEWS,weblink Fewer than one in five attend Sunday Mass in Dublin',, 30 May 2011, 30 June 2011, Jamie, Smyth, File:Procath.jpg|thumb|St Mary's Pro-Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Church in DublinDublinFile:14 St. Patricks Cathedral, Dublin.jpg|thumb|St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, is the national Cathedral of the Church of IrelandChurch of IrelandThe Church of Ireland, at 2.7% of the population, is the second largest Christian denomination. Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations. Significant Protestant denominations are the Presbyterian Church and Methodist Church. Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. In percentage terms, Orthodox Christianity and Islam were the fastest growing religions, with increases of 100% and 70% respectively.BOOK, Final Principal Demographic Results 2006,weblink 20 June 2010, 2007, Central Statistics Office, 978-0-7557-7169-1, 31 (Table Q), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, Ireland's patron saints are Saint Patrick, Saint Bridget and Saint Columba. Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations.As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century. In 1972, the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum. Article 44 remains in the Constitution: "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion." The article also establishes freedom of religion, prohibits endowment of any religion, prohibits the state from religious discrimination, and requires the state to treat religious and non-religious schools in a non-prejudicial manner.Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in 2001. Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations.NEWS, Daniszewski, John, Catholicism Losing Ground in Ireland,weblink LA Times, 29 August 2011, 17 April 2005, NEWS, Lawler, Phil, Ireland threatened by secularism, Pope tells new envoy,weblink 29 August 2011, Catholic World News, 17 September 2007, WEB, Irish poll shows parents no longer want to force religion on to children,weblink National Secular Society, 29 August 2011, United Kingdom, 13 April 2007,


Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic, and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture. Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere, Catholic Europe, and other Celtic regions. The Irish diaspora, one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science.


File:Jonathan Swift by Charles Jervas detail.jpg|thumb|upright|Jonathan SwiftJonathan SwiftIreland has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages. Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Other writers of importance during the 18th century and their most notable works include Laurence Sterne with the publication of The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman and Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield. Numerous Irish novelists emerged during the 19th century, including Maria Edgeworth, John Banim, Gerald Griffin, Charles Kickham, William Carleton, George Moore, and Somerville and Ross. Bram Stoker is best known as the author of the 1897 novel Dracula.James Joyce (1882–1941) published his most famous work Ulysses in 1922, which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin. Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in 1915. Dublin's Annie M. P. Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the 1920s and 1930s. After the Second World War, popular novels were published by, among others, Brian O'Nolan, who published as Flann O'Brien, Elizabeth Bowen, and Kate O'Brien. During the final decades of the 20th century, Edna O'Brien, John McGahern, Maeve Binchy, Joseph O'Connor, Roddy Doyle, Colm Tóibín, and John Banville came to the fore as novelists.File:Yeats1923.jpg|thumb|upright|left|W. B. YeatsW. B. YeatsPatricia Lynch was a prolific children's author in the 20th century, while Eoin Colfer's works were NYT Best Sellers in this genre in the early 21st century.NEWS,weblink Irish Times, Eoin Colfer signs Artemis Fowl spin-off series deal, 11 April 2018, 5 September 2018, Colfer is The New York Times best-selling author of eight books in the Artemis Fowl series, with sales in excess of 25 million copies, In the genre of the short story, which is a form favoured by many Irish writers, the most prominent figures include Seán Ó Faoláin, Frank O'Connor and William Trevor. Well known Irish poets include Patrick Kavanagh, Thomas McCarthy, Dermot Bolger, and Nobel Prize in Literature laureates William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney (born in Northern Ireland but resided in Dublin). Prominent writers in the Irish language are Pádraic Ó Conaire, Máirtín Ó Cadhain, Séamus Ó Grianna, and Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill.The history of Irish theatre begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland has significantly contributed to English drama. In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged. Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage. However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time. At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland rather than in Britain or the United States. Following in the tradition of acclaimed practitioners, principally Oscar Wilde, Literature Nobel Prize laureates George Bernard Shaw (1925) and Samuel Beckett (1969), playwrights such as Seán O'Casey, Brian Friel, Sebastian Barry, Brendan Behan, Conor McPherson and Billy Roche have gained popular success.BOOK, Houston, Eugenie, Working and Living in Ireland, Working and Living Publications, 2001, 0-9536896-8-9, registration,weblink Other Irish playwrights of the 20th century include Denis Johnston, Thomas Kilroy, Tom Murphy, Hugh Leonard, Frank McGuinness, and John B. Keane.

Music and dance

Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock. It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues. Ireland's best selling musical act is the rock band U2, who have sold 170 million copies of their albums worldwide since their formation in 1976.NEWS,weblink U2: What they're still looking for, CBS News, Anthony, Mason, 24 May 2015, 25 May 2015, File:U2 on Joshua Tree Tour 2017 Brussels 8-1-17.jpg|thumb|right|Dublin-based rock group U2U2There are a number of classical music ensembles around the country, such as the RTÉ Performing Groups.WEB,weblink Contemporary Music Ireland, Contemporary Music Centre – Links, 9 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2009, Ireland also has three opera organisations. Opera Ireland produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival, which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November.Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since 1965.WEB,weblink Showband legend Butch Moore dies, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ, 4 April 2001, 9 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 August 2012, Its first win was in 1970, when Dana won with All Kinds of Everything.WEB,weblink Dana, RTÉ Television, The Daily Show: Celebrity Guests, 11 March 2011, 9 February 2012, It has subsequently won the competition six more times,WEB,weblink Eurovision Song Contest Statistics,, 2011, 9 February 2012, WEB,weblink A Little Bit Eurovision, RTÉ Television, 6 July 2011, 9 February 2012, the highest number of wins by any competing country. The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the 1994 contest.WEB,weblink On The Road with Riverdance, RTÉ Radio 1, 1 December 2004, 9 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2012, Irish dance can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. Irish social dance can be divided into céilí and set dancing. Irish set dances are quadrilles, danced by 4 couples arranged in a square, while céilí dances are danced by varied formations of couples of 2 to 16 people. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms. Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed. Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance, popularised by the show Riverdance, is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary. The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet. The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe".


File:Monasterboice North Church and West Cross West Face 2013 09 27.jpg|thumb|left|The ruins of Monasterboice in County LouthCounty LouthIreland has a wealth of structures,WEB,weblink Megalithomania, The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland, 19 November 2011, surviving in various states of preservation, from the Neolithic period, such as Brú na Bóinne, Poulnabrone dolmen, Castlestrange stone, Turoe stone, and Drombeg stone circle.WEB,weblink, The Prehistoric Monuments of Ireland, 19 October 2009, As the Romans never conquered Ireland, architecture of Greco-Roman origin is extremely rare. The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture.WEB,weblink, AD 43–410 Roman Iron Age, 19 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2010, The Irish round tower originated during the Early Medieval period.Christianity introduced simple monastic houses, such as Clonmacnoise, Skellig Michael and Scattery Island. A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt.{{harvnb|Meinardus|2002|p=130}}. Gaelic kings and aristocrats occupied ringforts or crannógs.WEB,weblink, AD 410–1066 Early medieval, 19 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2010, Church reforms during the 12th century via the Cistercians stimulated continental influence, with the Romanesque styled Mellifont, Boyle and Tintern abbeys.{{harvnb|Moody|2005|p=735}}. Gaelic settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Kells, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent.WEB,weblink Altman 2007 Unpublished thesis, 5 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2011, Significant urban settlements only developed following the period of Viking invasions. The major Hiberno-Norse Longphorts were located on the coast, but with minor inland fluvial settlements, such as the eponymous Longford.File:CustomHouseDublin.JPG|thumb|Dublin Custom House is a neoclassical building from the late 18th century.]]Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle,WEB,weblink, Irish Castles, 19 October 2009, and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns.Butlin RA (1977): The Development of the Irish Town, Croom Helm Two significant waves of planned town formation followed, the first being the 16th- and 17th-century plantation towns, which were used as a mechanism for the Tudor English kings to suppress local insurgency, followed by 18th-century landlord towns.Butlin RA: op cit Surviving Norman founded planned towns include Drogheda and Youghal; plantation towns include Portlaoise and Portarlington; well-preserved 18th-century planned towns include Westport and Ballinasloe. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country.(File:Buildings on Dame Street, Dublin 20150808 1.jpg|thumb|left|Brick architecture of multi-storey buildings in Dame Street in Dublin)Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's, were also introduced by the Normans.{{harvnb|Greenwood|2003|p=813}}. Franciscans were dominant in directing the abbeys by the Late Middle Ages, while elegant tower houses, such as Bunratty Castle, were built by the Gaelic and Norman aristocracy.WEB,weblink, The Later Middle Ages: 1350 to 1540, 19 October 2009, Many religious buildings were ruined with the Dissolution of the Monasteries.WEB,weblink, Early Tudor Ireland: 1485 to 1547, 19 October 2009, Following the Restoration, palladianism and rococo, particularly country houses, swept through Ireland under the initiative of Edward Lovett Pearce, with the Houses of Parliament being the most significant.{{harvnb|Greenwood|2003|p=815}}.With the erection of buildings such as The Custom House, Four Courts, General Post Office and King's Inns, the neoclassical and Georgian styles flourished, especially in Dublin. Georgian townhouses produced streets of singular distinction, particularly in Dublin, Limerick and Cork. Following Catholic Emancipation, cathedrals and churches influenced by the French Gothic Revival emerged, such as St Colman's and St Finbarre's. Ireland has long been associated with thatched roof cottages, though these are nowadays considered quaint.WEB,weblink, Thatching in Ireland, 19 October 2009, File:Elysian tower Cork.JPG|thumb|upright|The Elysian tower in Cork is the second tallest storeyed building in the Republic of Ireland.]]Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in 1927, Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century.WEB, Exterior of Church of Christ the King, Turner's Cross, Parish of Turner's Cross,weblink 9 November 2008, Other developments include the regeneration of Ballymun and an urban extension of Dublin at Adamstown.WEB,weblink About Adamstown, South Dublin County Council, 13 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2015, Since the establishment of the Dublin Docklands Development Authority in 1997, the Dublin Docklands area underwent large-scale redevelopment, which included the construction of the Convention Centre Dublin and Grand Canal Theatre.WEB,weblink Docklands Authority – About Us, 31 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, dead, Completed in 2008, the Elysian tower in Cork is the tallest storeyed building in the Republic of Ireland (the Obel Tower in Belfast, Northern Ireland being the tallest in Ireland), at a height of {{convert|71|m|ft|abbr=off}}, surpassing Cork County Hall. The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state.WEB,weblink About the RIAI, 17 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2010,


Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ) is Ireland's public service broadcaster, funded by a television licence fee and advertising.WEB,weblink About RTÉ, RTÉ, 30 August 2011, RTÉ operates two national television channels, RTÉ One and RTÉ Two. The other independent national television channels are Virgin Media One, Virgin Media Two, Virgin Media Three and TG4, the latter of which is a public service broadcaster for speakers of the Irish language. All these channels are available on Saorview, the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service.WEB,weblink What is Saorview?, Saorview official website, 30 August 2011, Additional channels included in the service are RTÉ News Now, RTÉjr, and RTÉ One +1. Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland include Virgin Media and Sky.Supported by the Irish Film Board, the Irish film industry grew significantly since the 1990s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan.WEB,weblink Media landscape: Ireland, European Journalism Centre, 5 November 2010, 30 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2011, A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. A survey showed that a consistent 85% of adults listen to a mixture of national, regional and local stations on a daily basis.WEB,weblink Listenership 2011/1 Summary Results, JNLR/Ipsos MRB, 28 July 2011, 30 August 2011, RTÉ Radio operates four national stations, Radio 1, 2fm, Lyric fm, and RnaG. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk.Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions. The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines.Eurostat reported that 82% of Irish households had Internet access in 2013 compared to the EU average of 79% but only 67% had broadband access.Ireland still lags behind EU counterparts in access to broadband The Irish Times, 18 December 2013 (accessed on 19 December 2013) {{webarchive |url= |date=29 December 2013}}


{{Further|List of Irish dishes}}File:A pint of Guinness.jpg|thumb|upright|A pint of GuinnessGuinnessIrish cuisine was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood.Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty, colcannon, coddle, stew, and bacon and cabbage. Ireland is famous for the full Irish breakfast, which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. Apart from the influence by European and international dishes, there has been an emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways.{{citation needed|date=September 2018}} This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish, oysters, mussels and other shellfish, and the wide range of hand-made cheeses that are now being produced across the country. Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline. The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Traditional breads include soda bread and wheaten bread. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins, traditionally eaten on Halloween.NEWS, McElwain, Aoife, Now we know ... What's so spooky about barmbrack?,weblink 15 September 2018, The Irish Times, 28 October 2017, Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee. Alcoholic drinks associated with Ireland include Poitín and the world-famous Guinness, which is a dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain, and blended whiskey.WEB,weblink Food & Drink in Ireland, 19 January 2011,


File:Croke park hogan stand.jpg|thumb|Croke Park stadium is the headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic AssociationGaelic Athletic AssociationGaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports.WEB,weblink PDF, GAA attendances hold firm, GAA official website, 21 July 2011, 28 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2011, They are administered by the Gaelic Athletics Association on an all-Ireland basis. Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball and rounders.WEB,weblink About the GAA, GAA official website, 28 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2011, Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation.WEB,weblink Social and Economic Value of Sport in Ireland, 5 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2015, Although the League of Ireland is the national league, the English Premier League is the most popular among the public.BOOK, Whelan, Daire, Who Stole Our Game?, Gill & Macmillan Ltd, 2006, 0-7171-4004-0, The Republic of Ireland national football team plays at international level and is administered by the Football Association of Ireland.WEB,weblink About FAI, FAI official website, 28 August 2011, The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union, which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara, who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in 2009.WEB,weblink Ireland Are Grand Slam Champions!, IRFU, 21 March 2009, 23 February 2015, The success of the Irish Cricket Team in the 2007 Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket, which is also administered on an all-Ireland basis by Cricket Ireland.NEWS,weblink Ireland is learning to love cricket and deserves more visits from the elite, The Guardian, 17 March 2011, 28 August 2011, London, Mike, Selvey, Ireland are one of the twelve Test playing members of the International Cricket Council, having been granted Test status in 2017. Professional domestic matches are played between the major cricket unions of Leinster, Munster, Northern, and North West.Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team.Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over 300 courses countrywide.WEB,weblink Golf courses of Ireland, WorldGolf, 28 August 2011, The country has produced several internationally successful golfers, such as Pádraig Harrington, Shane Lowry and Paul McGinley.Horse Racing has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country. Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse, racing taking place since the 1860s, but racing taking place as early as the early 1700s. Popular race meetings also take place at Galway. Operations include Coolmore Stud and Ballydoyle, the base of Aidan O'Brien arguably one of the world's most successful horse trainers. Ireland has produced champion horses such as Galileo, Montjeu, and Sea the Stars.Boxing is Ireland's most successful sport at an Olympic level. Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association on an all-Ireland basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne, Andy Lee and Katie Taylor.Some of Ireland's highest performers in athletics have competed at the Olympic Games, such as Eamonn Coghlan and Sonia O'Sullivan. The annual Dublin Marathon and Dublin Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country.WEB,weblink A long and winding road, Dublin Marathon official website, 28 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2011, Rugby league is represented by the Ireland national rugby league team and administered by Rugby League Ireland (who are full member of the Rugby League European Federation) on an all-Ireland basis. The team compete in the European Cup (rugby league) and the Rugby League World Cup. Ireland reached the quarter finals of the 2000 Rugby League World Cup as well as reaching the semi finals in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup.WEB,weblink Ireland rugby league nation overview, Rugby League Planet, 28 August 2011, The Irish Elite League is a domestic competition for rugby league teams in Ireland.NEWS,weblink Irish Eye Super League, Sky Sports, 2 September 2011, The profile of Australian rules football has increased in Ireland due to the International rules series that take place annually between Australia and Ireland. Baseball and basketball are also emerging sports in Ireland, both of which have an international team representing the island of Ireland. Other sports which retain a strong following in Ireland include cycling, greyhound racing, horse riding, motorsport, and softball.


{{See also|Abortion in the Republic of Ireland|LGBT rights in the Republic of Ireland}}Ireland ranks fifth in the world in terms of gender equality.NEWS, Iceland 'best country for gender equality',weblink 12 October 2010, BBC News, 12 October 2010, In 2011, Ireland was ranked the most charitable country in Europe, and second most charitable in the world.NEWS, Ireland 'most charitable' country in Europe,weblink 20 December 2010, RTÉ News, 20 December 2010, Contraception was controlled in Ireland until 1979, however, the receding influence of the Catholic Church has led to an increasingly secularised society.WEB, Health (Family Planning) Act 1979, 23 July 1979, Irish Statute Book,weblink 28 September 2019, A constitutional ban on divorce was lifted following a referendum in 1995. Divorce rates in Ireland are very low compared to European Union averages (0.7 divorced people per 1,000 population in 2011) while the marriage rate in Ireland is slightly above the European Union average (4.6 marriages per 1,000 population per year in 2012). Abortion had been banned throughout the period of the Irish state, first through provisions of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and later by the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013. The right to life of the unborn was protected in the constitution by the Eighth Amendment in 1983; this provision was removed following a referendum, and replaced it with a provision allowing legislation to regulate the termination of pregnancy. The Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act 2018 passed later that year provided for abortion generally during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and in specified circumstances after that date.WEB, Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act 2018, 20 December 2018, Irish Statute Book,weblink 28 September 2019, Capital punishment is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal. The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in 1993.WEB, NORRIS v. IRELAND – 10581/83 [1988] ECHR 22, 26 October 2007, European Court of Human Rights,weblink 7 June 2007, Senator David Norris successfully challenged the law in the European Court of Human Rights in 1988, but Irish Government did not introduce and pass legislation to rectify the issue until 1993. The Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 permitted civil partnerships between same-sex couples.NEWS,weblink Civil partnership bill backed by Irish politicians, BBC News, 1 July 2010, 11 July 2010, NEWS, Carl, O'Brien, 'Historic advance' for equality as Civil Partnership Bill passed, The Irish Times, Dublin, Ireland, 2 July 2010, 1, WEB,weblink Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010, 19 July 2010, 28 September 2019, Irish Statute Book, The Children and Family Relationships Act 2015 allowed for adoption rights for couples other than married couples, including civil partners and cohabitants, and provided for donor-assisted human reproduction; however, significant sections of the Act have yet to be commenced.WEB,weblink Children and Family Relationships Act 2015, 6 April 2015, 28 September 2019, Irish Statute Book, Following a referendum held on 23 May 2015, Ireland became the eighteenth country to provide in law for same-sex marriage, and the first to do so in a popular vote.NEWS,weblink Irish Times, Ireland becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote, 23 May 2015, 23 May 2015, Ireland became the first country in the world to introduce an environmental levy for plastic shopping bags in 2002 and a public smoking ban in 2004. Recycling in Ireland is carried out extensively, and Ireland has the second highest rate of packaging recycling in the European Union. It was the first country in Europe to ban incandescent lightbulbs in 2008 and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco advertising and product display in 2009.WEB,weblink Traditional light bulbs to be scrapped, RTÉ, 10 October 2008, 9 July 2009, WEB,weblink Ban on in-store tobacco advertising, RTÉ, 30 June 2009, 9 July 2009, In 2015 Ireland became the second country in the world to introduce plain cigarette packaging.{{Citation | url=| title=Plain packaging for cigarettes signed into law in Ireland|| date=10 March 2015 | first=Mark|last=Hilliard| accessdate=13 March 2015}} Despite the above measures to discourage tobacco use, smoking rates in Ireland remain above 20% of the adult population and above those in other developed countries.accessed 10 December 2013

State symbols

{{Further|Symbols of the Republic of Ireland}}File:Seal of the President of Ireland.png|thumb|The seal of the President of Irelandseal of the President of IrelandThe state shares many symbols with the island of Ireland. These include the colours green and blue, animals such as the Irish wolfhound and stags, structures such as round towers and celtic crosses, and designs such as Celtic knots and spirals. The shamrock, a type of clover, has been a national symbol of Ireland since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St. Patrick's Day. These symbols are used by state institutions as well as private bodies in the Republic of Ireland.The flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. The flag originates with the Young Ireland movement of the mid-19th century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of 1916.WEB, Flags Used in Northern Ireland,weblink, Cain Web Service, The colours represent the Gaelic tradition (green) and the followers of William of Orange in Ireland (orange), with white representing the aspiration for peace between them.WEB, National Flag,weblink, Department of the Taoiseach, It was adopted as the flag of the Irish Free State in 1922 and continues to be used as the sole flag and ensign of the state. A naval jack, a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the bows of warships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances (e.g. when a ship is not underway). It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland dating from the 16th century.WEB, Ireland: The Naval Service,weblink, CRW Flags, Like the national flag, the national anthem, (), has its roots in the Easter Rising, when the song was sung by the rebels. Although originally published in English in 1912,JOURNAL, Sherry, Ruth, 4, 1, Spring 1996,weblink The Story of the National Anthem, History Ireland, Dublin, 39–43, the song was translated into Irish in 1923 and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today. The song was officially adopted as the anthem of the Irish Free State in 1926 and continues as the national anthem of the state.WEB,weblink Ceisteannea—Questions. Oral answers. – Saorstát National Anthem., 20 July 1926, Dáil Éireann – Volume 16, 15 April 2015, dead,weblink 10 September 2012, The first four bars of the chorus followed by the last five comprise the presidential salute.The arms of Ireland originate as the arms of the monarchs of Ireland and was recorded as the arms of the King of Ireland in the 12th century. From the union of the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603, they have appeared quartered on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Today, they are the personal arms of the President of Ireland whilst he or she is in office and are flown as the presidential standard. The harp symbol is used extensively by the state to mark official documents, Irish coinage and on the seal of the President of Ireland.

See also

{{clear right}}






  • BOOK, Ireland: Neutrality and the International Use of Force, Gilland, Karin, 2001, Routledge, 0-415-21804-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Rough guide to Ireland, Greenwood, Margaret, 2003, Rough Guides, 1-84353-059-7, harv,
  • BOOK, James Clarence Mangan – His Selected Poems, Mangan, James Clarence, 2007, Read Books, 978-1-4086-2700-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Two thousand years of Coptic Christianity, Meinardus, Otto Friedrich August, 2002, American Univ in Cairo Press, 977-424-757-4, harv,
  • BOOK, A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and early Ireland, Moody, Theodore William, 2005, Oxford University Press, 0-19-821737-4, harv,

Further reading

  • (the 1937 constitution)
  • The Irish Free State Constitution Act, 1922
  • J. Anthony Foley and Stephen Lalor (ed), Gill & Macmillan Annotated Constitution of Ireland (Gill & Macmillan, 1995) ({{ISBN|0-7171-2276-X}})
  • FSL Lyons, Ireland Since the Famine
  • Alan J. Ward, The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland 1782–1992 (Irish Academic Press, 1994) ({{ISBN|0-7165-2528-3}})
  • Michael J. Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Ireland's Quest for Membership of the EEC, 1957–73 (Institute of Public Administration, 2009) ({{ISBN|978-1-904541-83-7}})

External links

{{Sister project links|Ireland|voy=Ireland}}


  • Irish State – Official governmental portal
  • – Official presidential site
  • Taoiseach – Official prime ministerial site

General information

{{Ireland topics}}{{Navboxes|list1={{Gaels|state=collapsed}}{{Sovereign states of Europe}}{{British Isles|British-Irish Council area}}{{British-Irish Council|state=collapsed}}{{EU members}}{{Council of Europe members}}{{Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development}}{{World Trade Organization}}{{Celtic nations}}{{Irish states since 1171}}}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Republic of Ireland" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:46am EDT - Sun, Oct 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott