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Human Development Index
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{{Redirect|HDI}}{{for|the complete ranking of countries|List of countries by Human Development Index}}{{pp-pc1}}{{short description|composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2017}}(File:2018 HDI.svg|thumb|World map of countries by Human Development Index categories in increments of 0.050 (based on 2017 data, published on 14 September 2018).{| border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="width:100%; background:none;"
{{Legend|#003C00|≥ 0.900}}{{Legend|#007F00|0.850–0.899}}{{Legend|#00C400|0.800–0.849}}{{Legend|#00F900|0.750–0.799}}{{Legend|#D3FF00|0.700–0.749}}{{Legend|#FFFF00|0.650–0.699}}{{Legend|#FFD215|0.600–0.649}}{{Legend|#FFA83C|0.550–0.599}}{{Legend|#FF852F|0.500–0.549}}{{Legend|#FF5B00|0.450–0.499}}{{Legend|#FF0000|0.400–0.449}}{{Legend|#A70000|≤ 0.399}}{{Legend|#808080|Data unavailable}}
|450x450px)The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.JOURNAL, A. Stanton, Elizabeth, February 2007, The Human Development Index: A History,weblink PERI Working Papers, 14–15, 28 February 2019,weblink 28 February 2019, live, dmy-all, WEB, Human Development Index,weblink Economic Times, 29 November 2017,weblink 1 December 2017, live, dmy-all, WEB, The Human Development concept,weblink UNDP, 29 July 2011, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120415134936weblink">weblink 15 April 2012, live, dmy-all, The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)". The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.BOOK,weblink The Courier, 1994, Commission of the European Communities, en, The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Amartya Sen, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. The freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different from someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine.WEB, What is Human Development,weblink UNDP, 27 October 2017, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171027132851weblink">weblink 27 October 2017, live, dmy-all,

Origins

File:Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg|upright=0.8|thumb|Mahbub ul HaqMahbub ul HaqFile:Amartya_Sen_,_c2000_(4379246038).jpg|upright=0.8|thumb|Amartya SenAmartya SenThe origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). These were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, and had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, and Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities. Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public, academics, and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being.(File:HDI explained the best way.png|thumb|upright=3.5|center|The underlying principle behind the Human Development Index.)

Dimensions and calculation

New method (2010 Index onwards)

File:2018 UN Human Development Report.svg|thumb|World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2017 data, published in 2018).WEB,weblink Table 2. Human Development Index Trends, 1990-2017, Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) (United Nations Development Programme]],weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170322121226weblink">weblink 22 March 2017, live, 14 September 2018, dmy-all, {| border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" style="width:100%; background:none;"
{{Legend|#00023a|0.800–1.000 (very high)}}{{Legend|#000074|0.700–0.799 (high)}}{{Legend|#0010c0|0.555–0.699 (medium)}}{{Legend|#aabdef|0.350–0.554 (low)}}{{Legend|#a0a0a0|Data unavailable}}
|400x400px)Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions:WEB, Human Development Report 2010, 4 November 2010, UNDP,weblink 15 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222145515weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB, Technical notes, 2013, UNDP,weblink 15 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150616130523weblink">weblink 16 June 2015, live, dmy-all, In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:1.{{anchor|Life Expectancy Index}} Life Expectancy Index (LEI) = frac{textrm{LE} - 20}{85-20}
LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.
2. Education Index (EI) = frac{{textrm{MYSI} + textrm{EYSI}}} {2}NEWS,weblink New method of calculation of Human Development Index (HDI), 2011-06-01, India Study Channel, 2017-11-19, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171110171412weblink">weblink 10 November 2017, live, dmy-all,
2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI) = frac{textrm{MYS}}{15}Mean years of schooling (of adults) (years) is a calculation of the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older in their lifetime based on education attainment levels of the population converted into years of schooling based on theoretical duration of each level of education attended. Source: JOURNAL, Barro, R. J., Robert Barro, J.-W., Lee, 2010, A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010, NBER Working Paper No. 15902,weblink 10.3386/w15902, 29 July 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110807191234weblink">weblink 7 August 2011, live, dmy-all,
Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) = frac{textrm{EYS}}{18}(ESYI is a calculation of the number of years a child is expected to attend school, or university, including the years spent on repetition. It is the sum of the age-specific enrollment ratios for primary, secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary and tertiary education and is calculated assuming the prevailing patterns of age-specific enrollment rates were to stay the same throughout the child's life. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. (Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2010). Correspondence on education indicators. March. Montreal.)
Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.
3. Income Index (II) = frac{ln(textrm{GNIpc}) - ln(100)}{ln(75,000) - ln(100)}
II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.
Finally, the HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices:textrm{HDI} = sqrt[3]{textrm{LEI}cdot textrm{EI} cdot textrm{II}}.LE: Life expectancy at birthMYS: Mean years of schooling (i.e. years that a person aged 25 or older has spent in formal education)EYS: Expected years of schooling (i.e. total expected years of schooling for children under 18 years of age)GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita

Old method (before 2010 Index)

The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: File:Human Development Index trends.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|HDI trends between 1975 and 2004{| style="width:100%;"
{{legend|black|OECD}}{{legend|#FF0000|Europe not in the OECD and CIS}}{{legend|#E45600|Latin America and the Caribbean}}{{legend|#D09B00|East Asia}}{{legend|#00FF00|Arab League}}{{legend|#003FD9|South Asia}}{{legend|#C600FF|Sub-Saharan AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaThis methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report.The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).Definition, Calculator, etc. at UNDP site {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071220162154weblink |date=20 December 2007 }} In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allows different indices to be added together), the following formula is used:
  • xtext{ index} = frac{x - a}{b - a}
where a and b are the lowest and highest values the variable x can attain, respectively.The Human Development Index (HDI) then represents the uniformly weighted sum with {{frac|1|3}} contributed by each of the following factor indices: Other organizations/companies may include other factors, such as infant mortality, which produces a different HDI.{{Clear}}

2017 Human Development Index (2018 report)

The Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 September 2018, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2017. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:WEB,weblink Human Development Indices and Indicators – 2018 Statistical Update, Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, 22–25,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170322153238weblink">weblink 22 March 2017, live, 14 September 2018, dmy-all,
  • {{Increase}} = increase.
  • {{Steady}} = steady.
  • {{Decrease}} = decrease.
{{clear}}{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
!scope="col" colspan="2"| Rank! scope="col" rowspan="2" style="width:250px;"| Country/Territory!scope="col" colspan="2"| HDI
! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2017 rankings! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change in rank from previous year! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2017 HDI! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change from previous year
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.004
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
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{{col-break}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"!scope="col" colspan="2"| Rank! scope="col" rowspan="2" style="width:250px;"| Country!scope="col" colspan="2"| HDI
! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2017 rankings! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change in rank from previous year! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2017 rankings! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change from previous year
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
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{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.001
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{col-end}}

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2018 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2018 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators", Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, 30–33, 14 September 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170322153238weblink">weblink 22 March 2017, live, dmy-all, is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 30).{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{Flag|Iceland{edih} 0.878
  2. {{Flag|Japan}} 0.876
  3. {{Flag|Norway}} 0.876
  4. {{Flag|Switzerland}} 0.871
  5. {{Flag|Finland}} 0.868
  6. {{Flag|Sweden}} 0.864
  7. {{Flag|Germany}} 0.861
  8. {{Flag|Australia}} 0.861
  9. {{Flag|Denmark}} 0.860
  10. {{Flag|Netherlands}} 0.857
  11. {{Flag|Ireland}} 0.854
  12. {{Flag|Canada}} 0.852
  13. {{Flag|New Zealand}} 0.846
  14. {{Flag|Slovenia}} 0.846
  15. {{Flag|Czech Republic}} 0.840
  16. {{Flag|Belgium}} 0.836
  17. {{Flag|United Kingdom}} 0.835
  18. {{Flag|Austria}} 0.835
  19. {{Flag|Singapore}} 0.816
  20. {{Flag|Luxembourg}} 0.811
  21. {{Flag|Hong Kong}} 0.809
  22. {{Flag|France}} 0.808
  23. {{Flag|Malta}} 0.805
  24. {{Flag|Slovakia}} 0.797
  25. {{Flag|United States}} 0.797
  26. {{Flag|Estonia}} 0.794
  27. {{Flag|Israel}} 0.787
  28. {{Flag|Poland}} 0.787
  29. {{Flag|South Korea}} 0.773
  30. {{Flag|Hungary}} 0.773
  31. {{Flag|Italy}} 0.771
  32. {{Flag|Cyprus}} 0.769
  33. {{Flag|Latvia}} 0.759
  34. {{Flag|Lithuania}} 0.757
  35. {{Flag|Croatia}} 0.756
  36. {{Flag|Belarus}} 0.755
  37. {{Flag|Spain}} 0.754
  38. {{Flag|Greece}} 0.753
  39. {{Flag|Montenegro}} 0.741
  40. {{Flag|Russia}} 0.738
  41. {{Flag|Kazakhstan}} 0.737
  42. {{Flag|Portugal}} 0.732
  43. {{Flag|Romania}} 0.717
  44. {{Flag|Bulgaria}} 0.710
  45. {{Flag|Chile}} 0.710
  46. {{Flag|Argentina}} 0.707
  47. {{Flag|Iran}} 0.707
  48. {{Flag|Albania}} 0.706
  49. {{Flag|Ukraine}} 0.701
  50. {{Flag|Uruguay}} 0.689
  51. {{Flag|Mauritius}} 0.683
  52. {{Flag|Georgia}} 0.682
  53. {{Flag|Azerbaijan}} 0.681
  54. {{Flag|Armenia}} 0.680
  55. {{Flag|Barbados}} 0.669
}}Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Liechtenstein, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Qatar, Brunei, Bahrain, Oman, Bahamas, Kuwait and Malaysia.

2015 Human Development Index (2016 report)

The 2016 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 21 March 2017, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2015. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2016, United Nations Development Programme,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170327135240weblink">weblink 27 March 2017, live, 12 July 2017, dmy-all,
  • {{Increase}} = increase.
  • {{Steady}} = steady.
  • {{Decrease}} = decrease.
{{clear}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"!scope="col" colspan="2"| Rank! scope="col" rowspan="2" style="width:250px;"| Country or region!scope="col" colspan="2"| Score
! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2016 estimates for 2015WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2016—'Human Development for everyone', Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office)United Nations Development Programme, 21 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170327135240weblink">weblink 27 March 2017, live, dmy-all, ! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change in rank from previous year! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2016 estimates for 2015! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change from previous year
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.013
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.004
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
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Inequality-adjusted HDI (2016 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)WEB,weblink Report, 2016, hdr.undp.org, 22 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170327135240weblink">weblink 27 March 2017, live, dmy-all, is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 206).{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{Flag|Norway{edih} 0.898
  2. {{Flag|Iceland}} 0.868
  3. {{Flag|Australia}} 0.861
  4. {{Flag|Netherlands}} 0.861
  5. {{Flag|Germany}} 0.859
  6. {{Flag|Switzerland}} 0.859
  7. {{Flag|Denmark}} 0.858
  8. {{Flag|Sweden}} 0.851
  9. {{Flag|Ireland}} 0.850
  10. {{Flag|Finland}} 0.843
  11. {{Flag|Canada}} 0.839
  12. {{Flag|Slovenia}} 0.838
  13. {{Flag|United Kingdom}} 0.836
  14. {{Flag|Czech Republic}} 0.830
  15. {{Flag|Luxembourg}} 0.827
  16. {{Flag|Belgium}} 0.821
  17. {{Flag|Austria}} 0.815
  18. {{Flag|France}} 0.813
  19. {{Flag|United States}} 0.796
  20. {{Flag|Slovakia}} 0.793
  21. {{Flag|Japan}} 0.791
  22. {{Flag|Spain}} 0.791
  23. {{Flag|Estonia}} 0.788
  24. {{Flag|Malta}} 0.786
  25. {{Flag|Italy}} 0.784
  26. {{Flag|Israel}} 0.778
  27. {{Flag|Poland}} 0.774
  28. {{Flag|Hungary}} 0.771
  29. {{Flag|Cyprus}} 0.762
  30. {{Flag|Lithuania}} 0.759
  31. {{Flag|Greece}} 0.758
  32. {{Flag|Portugal}} 0.755
  33. {{Flag|South Korea}} 0.753
  34. {{Flag|Croatia}} 0.752
  35. {{Flag|Latvia}} 0.742
  36. {{Flag|Montenegro}} 0.736
  37. {{Flag|Russia}} 0.725
  38. {{Flag|Romania}} 0.714
  39. {{Flag|Argentina}} 0.698
  40. {{Flag|Chile}} 0.691
}}Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Andorra, Bahrain, Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates.

2014 Human Development Index (2015 report)

The 2015 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 14 December 2015, and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2014. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries:WEB,weblink Statistics, 2015, hdr.undp.org, 20 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160319110553weblink">weblink 19 March 2016, live, dmy-all, The UN does not calculate the HDI of Macau. The government of Macau calculates its own HDI.Macau in Figures, 2015 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923220838weblink |date=23 September 2015 }}Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. WEB,weblink 2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI), 21 November 2011, 2011, Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C., Chinese,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020210541weblink">weblink 20 October 2014, live, dmy-all,
  • {{Increase}} = increase.
  • {{Steady}} = steady.
  • {{Decrease}} = decrease.
{{clear}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"!scope="col" colspan="2"| Rank! scope="col" rowspan="2" style="width:250px;"| Country!scope="col" colspan="2"| Score
! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2015 estimates for 2014WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2015—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience', Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office)United Nations Development Programme, 14 December 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160319110553weblink">weblink 19 March 2016, live, dmy-all, ! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change in rank from previous year! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| 2015 estimates for 2014! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change from previous year
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.004
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.005
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flagMacau in Figures, 2016 {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161011202314weblink |date=11 October 2016 }}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
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{{flagChina and the United Nations>does not recognize the Republic of China (Taiwan) as a sovereign state. The HDI report does not include Taiwan as part of the People's Republic of China when calculating China's figures. Taiwan's government calculated its HDI to be 0.882, based on 2010 new methodology of UNDP. HTTP://WWW.DGBAS.GOV.TW/PUBLIC/DATA/491716362790WG0X9I.PDF>TITLE=2011中華民國人類發展指數 (HDI)YEAR=2011LANGUAGE=CHINESEARCHIVE-DATE=20 OCTOBER 2014DF=DMY-ALL,
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
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{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2015 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".Note: The green arrows ({{increase}}), red arrows ({{decrease}}), and blue dashes ({{Steady}}) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 216).{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{Flag|Norway{edih} 0.893 ({{Steady}})
  2. {{Flag|Netherlands}} 0.861 ({{increase}} 1)
  3. {{Flag|Switzerland}} 0.861 ({{increase}} 1)
  4. {{Flag|Australia}} 0.858 ({{decrease}} 2)
  5. {{Flag|Denmark}} 0.856 ({{increase}} 3)
  6. {{Flag|Germany}} 0.853 ({{decrease}} 1)
  7. {{Flag|Iceland}} 0.846 ({{decrease}} 1)
  8. {{Flag|Sweden}} 0.846 ({{decrease}} 1)
  9. {{Flag|Ireland}} 0.836 ({{increase}} 1)
  10. {{Flag|Finland}} 0.834 ({{increase}} 1)
  11. {{Flag|Canada}} 0.832 ({{decrease}} 2)
  12. {{Flag|Slovenia}} 0.829 ({{Steady}})
  13. {{Flag|United Kingdom}} 0.829 ({{increase}} 3)
  14. {{Flag|Czech Republic}} 0.823 ({{increase}} 1)
  15. {{Flag|Luxembourg}} 0.822 ({{decrease}} 1)
  16. {{Flag|Belgium}} 0.820 ({{increase}} 1)
  17. {{Flag|Austria}} 0.816 ({{decrease}} 4)
  18. {{Flag|France}} 0.811 ({{Steady}})
  19. {{Flag|Slovakia}} 0.791 ({{increase}} 2)
  20. {{Flag|Estonia}} 0.782 ({{increase}} 4)
  21. {{Flag|Japan}} 0.780 ({{decrease}} 1)
  22. {{Flag|Israel}} 0.775 ({{decrease}} 3)
  23. {{Flag|Spain}} 0.775 ({{decrease}} 1)
  24. {{Flag|Italy}} 0.773 ({{decrease}} 1)
  25. {{Flag|Hungary}} 0.769 ({{increase}} 2)
  26. {{Flag|Malta}} 0.767 ({{Steady}})
  27. {{Flag|Poland}} 0.760 ({{increase}} 2)
  28. {{Flag|United States}} 0.760 ({{Steady}})
  29. {{Flag|Cyprus}} 0.758 ({{increase}} 1)
  30. {{Flag|Greece}} 0.758 ({{decrease}} 5)
  31. {{Flag|Lithuania}} 0.754 ({{Steady}})
  32. {{Flag|South Korea}} 0.751 ({{increase}} 1)
  33. {{Flag|Portugal}} 0.744 ({{decrease}} 1)
  34. {{Flag|Croatia}} 0.743 ({{increase}} 1)
  35. {{Flag|Belarus}} 0.741
  36. {{Flag|Latvia}} 0.730
}}Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: Andorra, Bahrain, Brunei, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates.

2013 Human Development Index (2014 report)

The 2014 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme was released on 24 July 2014 and calculates HDI values based on estimates for 2013. Below is the list of the "very high human development" countries or regions:WEB,weblink Data, 2014, hdr.undp.org, 25 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151018115808weblink">weblink 18 October 2015, live, dmy-all,
  • {{Increase}} = increase.
  • {{Steady}} = steady.
  • {{Decrease}} = decrease.
{{clear}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"!scope="col" colspan="2"| Rank! scope="col" rowspan="2" style="width:250px;"| Country or Region!scope="col" colspan="2"| HDI
! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| New 2014 estimates for 2013WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2014—'Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience', Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office)United Nations Development Programme, 25 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140727000647weblink">weblink 27 July 2014, live, dmy-all, ! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change in rank between 2014 report and 2013 report! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| New 2014 estimates for 2013! scope="col" style="width:75px;"| Change compared between 2014 report and 2013 report
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.011
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.017
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag|
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag|
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{decrease}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.003
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.001
{{flag| {{steady}}
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002
{{flag| {{increase}} 0.002

Countries not included

Some countries were not included for various reasons, primarily due to the lack of necessary data. The following United Nations Member States were not included in the 2014 report: North Korea, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Tuvalu.

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2014 report)

The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) is a "measure of the average level of human development of people in a society once inequality is taken into account".Note: The green arrows ({{increase}}), red arrows ({{decrease}}), and blue dashes ({{Steady}}) represent changes in rank. The rankings are not relative to the HDI list above due to the exclusion of countries which are missing IHDI data (p. 168).{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{Flag|Norway{edih} 0.891 ({{Steady}})
  2. {{Flag|Australia}} 0.860 ({{Steady}})
  3. {{Flag|Netherlands}} 0.854 ({{increase}} 1)
  4. {{Flag|Switzerland}} 0.847 ({{increase}} 3)
  5. {{Flag|Germany}} 0.846 ({{Steady}})
  6. {{Flag|Iceland}} 0.843 ({{increase}} 2)
  7. {{Flag|Sweden}} 0.840 ({{decrease}} 4)
  8. {{Flag|Denmark}} 0.838 ({{increase}} 1)
  9. {{Flag|Canada}} 0.833 ({{increase}} 4)
  10. {{Flag|Ireland}} 0.832 ({{decrease}} 4)
  11. {{Flag|Finland}} 0.830 ({{Steady}})
  12. {{Flag|Slovenia}} 0.824 ({{decrease}} 2)
  13. {{Flag|Austria}} 0.818 ({{decrease}} 1)
  14. {{Flag|Luxembourg}} 0.814 ({{increase}} 3)
  15. {{Flag|Czech Republic}} 0.813 ({{decrease}} 1)
  16. {{Flag|United Kingdom}} 0.812 ({{increase}} 3)
  17. {{Flag|Belgium}} 0.806 ({{decrease}} 2)
  18. {{Flag|France}} 0.804 ({{Steady}})
  19. {{Flag|Israel}} 0.793 ({{increase}} 1)
  20. {{Flag|Japan}} 0.779 (New)
  21. {{Flag|Slovakia}} 0.778 ({{increase}} 1)
  22. {{Flag|Spain}} 0.775 ({{decrease}} 2)
  23. {{Flag|Italy}} 0.768 ({{increase}} 1)
  24. {{Flag|Estonia}} 0.767 ({{increase}} 1)
  25. {{Flag|Greece}} 0.762 ({{increase}} 2)
  26. {{Flag|Malta}} 0.760 ({{decrease}} 3)
  27. {{Flag|Hungary}} 0.757 ({{decrease}} 1)
  28. {{Flag|United States}} 0.755 ({{decrease}} 12)
  29. {{Flag|Poland}} 0.751 ({{increase}} 1)
  30. {{Flag|Cyprus}} 0.752 ({{decrease}} 1)
  31. {{Flag|Lithuania}} 0.746 ({{increase}} 2)
  32. {{Flag|Portugal}} 0.739 ({{Steady}})
  33. {{Flag|South Korea}} 0.736 ({{decrease}} 5)
  34. {{Flag|Latvia}} 0.725 ({{increase}} 1)
  35. {{Flag|Croatia}} 0.721 ({{increase}} 4)
  36. {{Flag|Argentina}} 0.680 ({{increase}} 7)
  37. {{Flag|Chile}} 0.661 ({{increase}} 4)
}}Countries in the top quartile of HDI ("very high human development" group) with a missing IHDI: New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Liechtenstein, Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Cuba, and Kuwait.

Past top countries

The list below displays the top-ranked country from each year of the Human Development Index. Norway has been ranked the highest fourteen times, Canada eight times, and Japan three times. Iceland has been ranked highest twice.

In each original HDI

The year represents the time period from which the statistics for the index were derived. In parentheses is the year when the report was published.{hide}columns-list|colwidth=25em|
  • 2017 (2018): {{Flagcountry|Norway{edih}
  • 2015 (2016): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2014 (2015): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2013 (2014): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2012 (2013): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2011 (2011): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2010 (2010): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2007 (2009): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2006 (2008): {{Flagcountry|Iceland}}
  • 2005 (2007): {{Flagcountry|Iceland}}
  • 2004 (2006): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2003 (2005): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2002 (2004): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2001 (2003): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 2000 (2002): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 1999 (2001): {{Flagcountry|Norway}}
  • 1998 (2000): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1997 (1999): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1995 (1998): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1994 (1997): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1993 (1996): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1992 (1995): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • ???? (1994): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • ???? (1993): {{Flagcountry|Japan}}
  • 1990 (1992): {{Flagcountry|Canada}}
  • 1990 (1991): {{Flagcountry|Japan}}
  • ???? (1990): {{Flagcountry|Japan}}
}}

Geographical coverage

The HDI has extended its geographical coverage: David Hastings, of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, published a report geographically extending the HDI to 230+ economies, whereas the UNDP HDI for 2009 enumerates 182 economies and coverage for the 2010 HDI dropped to 169 countries.WEB,weblink Hastings, David A., 2009, Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Working Paper WP/09/02, 1 December 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110430104401weblink">weblink 30 April 2011, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Hastings, David A., 2011, A "Classic" Human Development Index with 232 Countries, HumanSecurityIndex.org, 9 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110503210307weblink">weblink 3 May 2011, live, dmy-all, Information Note linked to data

Country/region specific HDI lists

{{Div col}} {{Div col end}}

Criticism

File:Human welfare and ecological footprint.jpg|thumb|HDI vs. ecological footprintecological footprintThe Human Development Index has been criticized on a number of grounds, including alleged lack of consideration of technological development or contributions to the human civilization, focusing exclusively on national performance and ranking, lack of attention to development from a global perspective, measurement error of the underlying statistics, and on the UNDP's changes in formula which can lead to severe misclassification in the categorisation of "low", "medium", "high" or "very high" human development countries.JOURNAL, Wolff, Hendrik, Chong, Howard, Auffhammer, Maximilian, 2011, Classification, Detection and Consequences of Data Error: Evidence from the Human Development Index, Economic Journal, 121, 553, 843–870, 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02408.x,weblink

Sources of data error

Economists Hendrik Wolff, Howard Chong and Maximilian Auffhammer discuss the HDI from the perspective of data error in the underlying health, education and income statistics used to construct the HDI. They identified three sources of data error which are due to (i) data updating, (ii) formula revisions and (iii) thresholds to classify a country's development status and conclude that 11%, 21% and 34% of all countries can be interpreted as currently misclassified in the development bins due to the three sources of data error, respectively. The authors suggest that the United Nations should discontinue the practice of classifying countries into development bins because: the cut-off values seem arbitrary, can provide incentives for strategic behavior in reporting official statistics, and have the potential to misguide politicians, investors, charity donors and the public who use the HDI at large.In 2010, the UNDP reacted to the criticism and updated the thresholds to classify nations as low, medium, and high human development countries. In a comment to The Economist in early January 2011, the Human Development Report Office respondedNEWS,weblink UNDP Human Development Report Office's comments, January 2011, The Economist, 12 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110211083547weblink">weblink 11 February 2011, dead, dmy-all, to a 6 January 2011 article in the magazineNEWS,weblink The Economist (pages 60–61 in the issue of Jan 8, 2011), 6 January 2011, 12 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110113063006weblink">weblink 13 January 2011, live, dmy-all, which discusses the Wolff et al. paper. The Human Development Report Office states that they undertook a systematic revision of the methods used for the calculation of the HDI, and that the new methodology directly addresses the critique by Wolff et al. in that it generates a system for continuously updating the human-development categories whenever formula or data revisions take place.In 2013, Salvatore Monni and Alessandro Spaventa emphasized that in the debate of GDP versus HDI, it is often forgotten that these are both external indicators that prioritize different benchmarks upon which the quantification of societal welfare can be predicated. The larger question is whether it is possible to shift the focus of policy from a battle between competing paradigms to a mechanism for eliciting information on well-being directly from the population.JOURNAL, Monni, Salvatore, Spaventa, Alessandro, 2013, Beyond Gdp and HDI: Shifting the focus from Paradigms to Politics, Development, 56, 2, 227–231, 10.1057/dev.2013.30,

See also

Indices

{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}

Other

{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{commons category|Human Development Index}} {{Global economic classifications}}{{Population country lists}}{{Quality of life country lists}}{{Deprivation Indicators}}{{Authority control}}

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