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Taoiseach
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{{short description|Head of government (Prime Minister) of Ireland}}{{Redirect|Prime Minister of Ireland}}{{Use Irish English|date=January 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2014}}







factoids
Steward's LodgeGovernment Buildings,Merrion Street, Dublin, Republic of Ireland>Ireland|reports_to = Oireachtas|nominator = Dáil Éireann|appointer = President of Ireland|termlength = While commanding the confidence of the majority of Dáil Éireann. No term limits are imposed on the office.|formation = 29 December 1937Éamon de Valera{{refn>Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland, the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State. This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera from 1932–37.>name="Cosgrave"|group="note"}}taoiseach.gov.ie}}FIRST=HOUSES OF THEWEBSITE=WWW.OIREACHTAS.IE, 14 June 2017, |deputy = Tánaiste}}{{Politics of the Republic of Ireland}}The Taoiseach ({{IPAc-en|audio=Ga-Taoiseach.ogg|ˈ|t|iː|ʃ|ə|x}} {{respell|TEE|shəkh}},OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Taoiseach, 30 November 2013, {{IPA-ga|ˈt̪ˠiːʃəx|lang}}) is the prime minister and head of government of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament), and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The word means "chief" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister". Taoiseach is the official title of the head of government in both English and Irish, and is not used for other countries' prime ministers (who are referred to in Irish as '). The Irish form, ', is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach". Outside of Ireland, the Taoiseach is sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister of Ireland.NEWS,weblink Leo Varadkar, gay son of Indian immigrant, to be next Irish PM, McDonald, Henry, 2 June 2017, The Guardian, 16 July 2018, Leo Varadkar TD is the current Taoiseach; he took office on 14 June 2017,NEWS,weblink Finance and Expenditure combined as Cabinet is named, 14 June 2017, RTÉ News, 14 June 2017, following his election as leader of Fine Gael on 2 June 2017.NEWS,weblink Leo Varadkar voted leader of Fine Gael, Irish Times, 14 June 2017, Varadkar is the youngest Taoiseach in the history of the Irish state, having taken office at the age of 38; he is also the first openly LGBT person, and the first person of Indian descent to lead the Irish government.

Overview

Under the Constitution of Ireland, the Taoiseach is nominated by a simple majority of Dáil Éireann from among its members. He/she is then formally appointed to office by the President, who is required to appoint whomever the Dáil designates, without the option of declining to make the appointment. For this reason, it is often said that the Taoiseach is "elected" by Dáil Éireann.If the Taoiseach loses the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann, he/she is not automatically removed from office but, rather, is compelled either to resign or to persuade the President to dissolve the Dáil. The President may refuse to grant a dissolution and, in effect, force the Taoiseach to resign; to date, no president has exercised this prerogative, though the option arose in 1944 and 1994, and twice in 1982. The Taoiseach may lose the support of Dáil Éireann by the passage of a vote of no confidence, or implicitly through the failure of a vote of confidence; or alternatively, the Dáil may refuse supply.One example of the Dáil refusing supply occurred in January 1982, when the then Fine Gael–Labour Party coalition government of Garret FitzGerald lost a vote on the budget. weblink In the event of the Taoiseach's resignation, he/she continues to exercise the duties and functions of his/her office until the appointment of a successor.The Taoiseach nominates the remaining members of the Government, who are then, with the consent of the Dáil, appointed by the President. The Taoiseach also has authority to advise the President to dismiss cabinet ministers from office, advice the President is required to follow by convention. The Taoiseach is further responsible for appointing eleven members of the Seanad.The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department which supports and advises the Taoiseach in carrying out his/her various duties.

Salary

Since 2013, the Taoiseach's annual salary is €185,350.NEWS,weblink The Taoiseach, Ministers and every TD are having their pay cut today, TheJournal.ie, 4 July 2013, 18 December 2013, It was cut from €214,187 to €200,000 when Enda Kenny took office, before being cut further to €185,350 under the Haddington Road Agreement in 2013.A proposed increase of €38,000 in 2007 was deferred when Brian Cowen became TaoiseachNEWS,weblink Taoiseach to receive €38k pay rise, RTÉ News, 25 October 2007, and in October 2008, the government announced a 10% salary cut for all ministers, including the Taoiseach.NEWS,weblink Sharp exchanges in Dáil over Budget, RTÉ News, 15 October 2008, 29 January 2009, However this was a voluntary cut and the salaries remained nominally the same with both ministers and Taoiseach essentially refusing 10% of their salary. This courted controversy in December 2009 when a salary cut of 20% was based on the higher figure before the refused amount was deducted.WEB,weblink Opposition says Lenihan's salary cuts do not add up, Irish Independent, 10 December 2009, 29 December 2009, The Taoiseach is also allowed an additional €118,981 in annual expenses.

Residence

There is no official residence of the Taoiseach. In 2008 it was reported speculatively that the former Steward's Lodge at Farmleigh adjoining the Phoenix Park would become the official residence of the Taoiseach; however no official statements were made nor any action taken.WEB,weblink Opulent Phoenix Park lodge is set to become 'Fortress Cowen', Irish Independent, 18 May 2008, 18 May 2008, The house, which forms part of the Farmleigh estate acquired by the State in 1999 for €29.2m, was renovated at a cost of nearly €600,000 in 2005 by the Office of Public Works. Former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern did not use it as a residence, but his successor Brian Cowen used it "from time to time".NEWS,weblink Cowen questioned on use of Farmleigh, The Irish Times, 29 January 2009, 29 January 2009,

Salute

"Mór Chluana" ("More of Cloyne") is a traditional air collected by Patrick Weston Joyce in 1873.WEB,weblink P. W. Joyce: Ancient Irish Music » 47 - Mór Chluana, Na Píobairí Uilleann, 3 February 2014, WEB,weblink Joyce, Patrick Weston (1827–1914), Ainm.ie, Cló Iar-Chonnacht, Irish, 3 February 2014, "Amhrán Dóchais" ("Song of Hope") is a poem written by Osborn Bergin in 1913 and set to the air.BOOK, Ó Cuív, Brian, Brian Ó Cuív, W. E. Vaughan, Ireland Under the Union, 1870-1921,weblink 3 February 2014, A New History of Ireland, VI, 2010-04-01, Oxford University Press, 9780199583744, 425, Irish language and literature, 1845-1921, John A. Costello chose the air as his salute. The salute is played by army bands on the arrival of the Taoiseach at state ceremonies. Though the salute is often called "Amhrán Dóchais", Brian Ó Cuív argues "Mór Chluana" is the correct title.WEB,weblink Amhrán Dóchais, Library, Contemporary Music Centre, 3 February 2014, Ireland,

History

Origins and etymology

The words and Tánaiste (the title of the deputy prime minister) are both from the Irish language and of ancient origin. Though the Taoiseach is described in the Constitution of Ireland as "the head of the Government or Prime Minister",{{refn|Article 13.1.1° and Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland. The latter provision reads: "The head of the Government, or Prime Minister, shall be called, and is in this Constitution referred to as, the Taoiseach." |name="ConstitIrl"|group="note"}} its literal translation is chieftain or leader.WEB,weblink Youth Zone School Pack, Department of the Taoiseach, 23 June 2010, Although Éamon de Valera, who introduced the title in 1937, was neither a Fascist nor a dictator, it has sometimes been remarked that the meaning leader in 1937 made the title similar to the titles of Fascist dictators of the time, such as Führer (Hitler), Duce (Mussolini) and Caudillo (Franco).NEWS,weblink WT became the most ruthless of them all, Irish Independent, John-Paul McCarthy, 10 January 2010, 22 November 2016, While Taoiseach itself carried with it some initially unpleasant assonances with Caudillo, Fuhrer and Duce, all but one of the 12 men who wielded the prime ministerial sceptre have managed to keep their megalomaniacal tendencies in check., BOOK,weblink Great Gaels: Ireland at Peace in a World at War, Martin Quigley, Jr, 18, 1944, 22 November 2016, Eamon de Valera is An Taoiseach or “boss Gael.” That title goes considerably beyond the English “prime minister” or the American “president.” It is the Gaelic equivalent of the German “Fuehrer,” the Italian “Duce” and the Spanish “Caudillo., Published in New York, 1944 (publisher not identified); Original from University of Minnesota; Digitized 6 May 2016BOOK,weblink Administration – Volume 18, Institute of Public Administration (Ireland), 153, 1970, 22 November 2016, ... and let alone the names of the Prime Minister (the Taoiseach, a word that is related to Duce, Fuhrer, and Caudillo) (translated from the original Irish language, Irish: ... agus fiú amháin ainmeacha an Phríomh-Aire (An Taoiseach, focal go bhfuil gaol aige le Duce, Fuhrer, agus Caudillo), Original from the University of California; Digitized 6 Dec 2006 Tánaiste, in turn, refers to the system of tanistry, the Gaelic system of succession whereby a leader would appoint an heir apparent while still living.In Scottish Gaelic, tòiseach translates as clan chief and both words originally had similar meanings in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland.BOOK,weblink The book of the thanes of Cawdor: a series of papers selected from the charter room at Cawdor. 1236–1742, Volume 1236, Issue 1742, Spalding Club, John Frederick Vaughan Campbell Cawdor, Innes Cosmo, 1742, xiii, 23 June 2013, As we cannot name the first Celtic chieftain who consented to change his style of Toshach and his patriarchal sway for the title and stability of King's Thane of Cawdor, so it is impossible to fix the precise time when their ancient property and offices were acquired., HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=YWZULEA6OXSC&PG=PA32&LPG=PA32&DQ=TOSHACH+CELTIC&SOURCE=BL&OTS=OKGLWN66-6&SIG=R9E9BDP-L1AVEUQ7NA7NNETZEXK&HL=EN&SA=X&EI=U-VLUEIBGS-34AOR0IGQCW&REDIR_ESC=Y#V=ONEPAGE&Q=TOSHACH%20CELTIC&F=FALSE >TITLE=SCOTLAND UNDER HER EARLY KINGS: A HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM TO THE CLOSE OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY PART ONEKESSINGER PUBLISHING>AUTHOR=E. WILLIAM ROBERTSONPAGE=32ISBN=9781417946075ACCESSDATE=27 JUNE 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131202232058/HTTP://WWW.DSL.AC.UK/GETENT4.PHP?PLEN=4336&STARTSET=43732115&DTEXT=SND&QUERY=TOISEACH DF=, HTTP://WWW.TARTANREGISTER.GOV.UK/TARTANDETAILS.ASPX?REF=4140 >TITLE=TARTAN DETAILS – TOSHACH SCOTTISH REGISTER OF TARTANS >ACCESSDATE=27 JUNE 2013 QUOTE=TOSHACH IS AN EARLY CELTIC TITLE GIVEN TO MINOR TERRITORIAL CHIEFS IN SCOTLAND (NOTE EIRE PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICIAL TITLE IS THIS). ARCHIVEDATE=2 DECEMBER 2013 Welsh language word tywysog (current meaning: prince) has a similar origin and meaning.{{citation>title=Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopediapublisher=ABC-CLIOisbn=1851094407quote=An early word meaning 'leader' appears on a 5th- or 6th-century inscribed stone as both ogam Irish and British genitive TOVISACI: tywysog now means 'prince' in Welsh, the regular descriptive title used for Prince Charles, for example; while in Ireland, the corresponding Taoiseach is now the correct title, in both Irish and English, for the Prime Minister of the Irish Republic (Éire).}} It is hypothesized that both derive ultimately from the Proto-Celtic language *(wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Celtic/towissākos>towissākos) "chieftain, leader".The plural of taoiseach is taoisigh ({{IPA-ga|t̪ˠiːʃiː|lang}}).Although the Irish form An Taoiseach is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach",WEB,weblink's_Press_Releases/Statement_by_An_Taoiseach_on_the_death_of_Cardinal_Desmond_Connell.html, Statement by An Taoiseach on the death of Cardinal Desmond Connell, Department of the Taoiseach, 9 February 2017, 5 March 2017, The Taoiseach has learnt with regret ..., the English version of the Constitution states that he or she "shall be called ... the Taoiseach". In the 2010s "The Teesh" neologism has emerged as a more jocular form."The Sun", Irish edition, 16 January 2019

Debate on the title

In 1937 when the draft Constitution of Ireland was being debated in the Dáil, Frank MacDermot, an opposition politician, moved an amendment to substitute "Prime Minister" for the proposed "Taoiseach" title in the English text of the Constitution. It was proposed to keep the "Taoiseach" title in the Irish language text. The proponent remarked:Frank Mr. MacDermot of the Centre Party (Ireland)] – Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) – Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 67 No. 9].The President of the Executive Council, Éamon de Valera, gave the term's meaning as "chieftain" or "Captain". He said he was "not disposed" to support the proposed amendment and felt the word "Taoiseach" did not need to be changed. The proposed amendment was defeated on a vote and "Taoiseach" was included as the title ultimately adopted by plebiscite of the people.– Bunreacht na hÉireann (Dréacht)—Coiste (Ath-thógaint) – Wednesday, 26 May 1937; Dáil Éireann Debate Vol. 67 No. 9.

Modern office

File:Dublin Dept Taoiseach.jpg|thumb|Department of the Taoiseach at Government Buildings, Merrion StreetMerrion StreetThe modern position of Taoiseach was established by the 1937 Constitution of Ireland and is the most powerful role in Irish politics. The office replaced the position of President of the Executive Council of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. The positions of Taoiseach and President of the Executive Council differed in certain fundamental respects. Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State, the latter was vested with considerably less power and was largely just the chairman of the cabinet, the Executive Council. For example, the President of the Executive Council could not dismiss a fellow minister on his own authority. Instead, the Executive Council had to be disbanded and reformed entirely in order to remove a member. The President of the Executive Council also did not have the right to advise the Governor-General to dissolve Dáil Éireann on his own authority, that power belonging collectively to the Executive Council.In contrast, the Taoiseach created in 1937 possesses a much more powerful role. He can both advise the President to dismiss ministers and dissolve Parliament on his own authority—advice that the President is almost always required to follow by convention.Among the most famous ministerial dismissals have been those of Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney during the Arms Crisis in 1970, Brian Lenihan in 1990 and Albert Reynolds, Pádraig Flynn and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn in 1991. His role is greatly enhanced because under the Constitution, he is both de jure and de facto chief executive. In most other parliamentary democracies, the head of state is at least the nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In Ireland, however, executive power is explicitly vested in the Government, of which the Taoiseach is the leader.Since the Taoiseach is the head of government, and may remove ministers at will, many of the powers specified, in law or the constitution, to be exercised by the government as a collective body, are in reality at the will of the Taoiseach. The Government almost always backs the Taoiseach in major decisions, and in many cases often merely formalizes that decision at a subsequent meeting after it has already been announced. Nevertheless the need for collective decision making on paper acts as a safeguard against an unwise decision made by the Taoiseach.Historically, where there have been multi-party or coalition governments, the Taoiseach has been the leader of the largest party in the coalition. One exception to this was John A. Costello, who was not leader of his party, but an agreed choice to head the government, because the other parties refused to accept then Fine Gael leader Richard Mulcahy as Taoiseach. In 2010 Taoiseach Brian Cowen, in the midst of highly unpopular spending cuts after the global financial crash, maintained his position as Taoiseach until new elections, but stood down as leader of Fianna Fáil and allowed Micheál Martin (who had resigned in protest at the way Cowen responded to the crises) to succeed him.

List of office holders

Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution, the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council. This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera of Fianna Fáil from 1932–37. By convention, Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave;NEWS,weblink Coughlan new Tánaiste in Cowen Cabinet, The Irish Times, 17 May 2008, 17 May 2008, NEWS,weblink Taoiseach reveals new front bench, RTÉ News, 7 May 2008, 17 May 2008, NEWS,weblink Cowen confirmed as Taoiseach, BreakingNews.ie, 7 May 2008, 17 May 2008, WEB,weblink Former Taoisigh, Department of the Taoiseach, 23 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717202718weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, dmy-all, for example, Leo Varadkar is considered the 14th Taoiseach, not the 13th.{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"

President of the Executive Council

!No.!Portrait!width=20% |Name{{small|(Birth–Death)}}Constituency!colspan=2 width=15% |Term of office!Party!colspan=2 width=20% |Exec. Council{{small|Composition}}!colspan=2 width=15% |Vice President!Dáil(elected)!style="background:{{Cumann na nGaedheal/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=5 |1(File:William Thomas Cosgrave.jpg|60px)W. T. Cosgrave{{smallCarlow–Kilkenny (Dáil constituency)>Carlow–Kilkenny until 1927TD for Cork Borough from 1927}}{{smallCosgrave also headed the Irish Government from August 22, 1922, during the transitional period before the state became officially independent on December 6, 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919). group="note"}}{{small|9 March}}1932(Pro-Treaty)}}Government of the 3rd Dáil#1st Executive Council of the Irish Free State>1stSF (PT) (minority)}}Kevin O'HigginsMembers of the 3rd Dáil>3 {{small1922 Irish general election>1922)}}Cumann na nGaedhealGovernment of the 4th Dáil>2nd{{smallCumann na nGaedheal>CnG (minority)}}Members of the 4th Dáil>4 {{small1923 Irish general election>1923)}}Government of the 5th Dáil>3rdErnest BlytheMembers of the 5th Dáil>5 {{smallJune 1927 Irish general election>Jun.1927)}}Government of the 6th Dáil#4th Executive Council of the Irish Free State>4thMembers of the 6th Dáil {{small>(Sep.1927)}}Government of the 6th Dáil#5th Executive Council of the Irish Free State>5th!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=3 |2(File:Éamon de Valera.jpg|60px)Éamon de Valera{{smallClare (Dáil constituency)>Clare}}{{smallDe Valera also headed the pre-independence revolutionary Irish Government from 1 April 1919 to 9 January 1922 (See Irish heads of government since 1919). group="note"}}{{small|29 December}}1937Fianna FáilGovernment of the 7th Dáil>6th{{smallFianna Fáil>FF (minority)}}Seán T. O'KellyMembers of the 7th Dáil>7 {{small1932 Irish general election>1932)}}Government of the 8th Dáil>7thMembers of the 8th Dáil>8 {{small1933 Irish general election>1933)}}Government of the 9th Dáil#8th Executive Council of the Irish Free State>8thMembers of the 9th Dáil>9 {{small1937 Irish general election>1937)}}

Taoiseach

!No.!Portrait!width=20% |Name{{small|(Birth–Death)}}Constituency!colspan=2 width=15% |Term of office!Party!colspan=2 width=20% |Government{{small|Composition}}!colspan=2 width=15% |Tánaiste!Dáil(elected)!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=4 |{{small|(2)}}(File:Éamon de Valera.jpg|60px)Éamon de Valera{{smallClare (Dáil constituency)>Clare}}{{small|29 December}}1937{{small|18 February}}1948Fianna FáilGovernment of the 9th Dáil#1st Government of Ireland>1stFF (minority)}}Seán T. O'KellyMembers of the 9th Dáil>9 {{small|( ···· )}}Government of the 10th Dáil>2ndFF}}Members of the 10th Dáil>10 {{small1938 Irish general election>1938)}}Government of the 11th Dáil>3rdFF (minority)}}Members of the 11th Dáil>11 {{small1943 Irish general election>1943)}}Government of the 12th Dáil>4thFF}}|Seán LemassMembers of the 12th Dáil>12 {{small1944 Irish general election>1944)}}!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |360px)John A. Costello{{small>(1891–1976)TD for Dublin South-East}}18 February}}194813 June}}1951|Fine GaelGovernment of the 13th Dáil>5thFine Gael–Labour Party (Ireland)>Lab–Clann na Poblachta–Clann na Talmhan>CnT–National Labour Party (Ireland)–Independent politician>Ind}}|William NortonMembers of the 13th Dáil>13 {{small1948 Irish general election>1948)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |{{small|(2)}}60px)Éamon de Valera{{small>(1882–1975)TD for Clare}}13 June}}19512 June}}1954|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 14th Dáil>6thFF (minority)}}|Seán LemassMembers of the 14th Dáil>14 {{small1951 Irish general election>1951)}}!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |{{small|(3)}}60px)John A. Costello{{small>(1891–1976)TD for Dublin South-East}}2 June}}195420 March}}1957|Fine GaelGovernment of the 15th Dáil>7thFine Gael–Labour Party (Ireland)>Lab–CnT}}|William NortonMembers of the 15th Dáil>15 {{small1954 Irish general election>1954)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |{{small|(2)}}60px)Éamon de Valera{{small>(1882–1975)TD for Clare}}20 March}}195723 June}}1959|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 16th Dáil#8th Government of Ireland>8thFF}}|Seán LemassMembers of the 16th Dáil {{small>(1957)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=3 |4(File:Séan Lemass at Schiphol Airport (cropped).jpg|60px)Seán Lemass{{smallDublin South-Central (Dáil constituency)>Dublin South-Central}}{{small|23 June}}1959{{small|10 November}}1966Fianna FáilGovernment of the 16th Dáil#9th Government of Ireland>9thFF}}Seán MacEnteeGovernment of the 17th Dáil#10th Government of Ireland>10thFF (minority)}}Members of the 17th Dáil>17 {{small1961 Irish general election>1961)}}Government of the 18th Dáil#11th Government of Ireland>11thFF}}Frank AikenMembers of the 18th Dáil {{small>(1965)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=2 |5(File:Jack Lynch 1967 (cropped).jpg|60px)Jack Lynch{{smallCork Borough (Dáil constituency)>Cork Borough until 1969TD for Cork City North-West from 1969}}{{small|10 November}}1966{{small|14 March}}1973Fianna FáilGovernment of the 18th Dáil#12th Government of Ireland>12thFF}}Government of the 19th Dáil#13th Government of Ireland>13thFF}}Erskine Hamilton Childers>Erskine H. ChildersMembers of the 19th Dáil>19 {{small1969 Irish general election>1969)}}!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |660px)Liam Cosgrave{{small>(1920–2017)TD for Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown}}14 March}}19735 July}}1977|Fine GaelGovernment of the 20th Dáil>14thFine Gael–Labour Party (Ireland)>Lab}}|Brendan CorishMembers of the 20th Dáil>20 {{small1973 Irish general election>1973)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |{{small|(5)}}60px)Jack Lynch{{small>(1917–1999)TD for Cork City}}5 July}}197711 December}}1979|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 21st Dáil#15th Government of Ireland>15thFF}}George ColleyMembers of the 21st Dáil {{small>(1977)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |760px)Charles Haughey{{small>(1925–2006)TD for Dublin Artane}}11 December}}197930 June}}1981|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 21st Dáil#16th Government of Ireland>16thFF}}!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |860px)Garret FitzGerald{{small>(1926–2011)TD for Dublin South-East}}30 June}}19819 March}}1982|Fine GaelGovernment of the 22nd Dáil>17thFine Gael–Labour Party (Ireland)>Lab (minority)}}Michael O'Leary (politician)>Michael O'LearyMembers of the 22nd Dáil>22 {{small1981 Irish general election>1981)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |{{small|(7)}}60px)Charles Haughey{{small>(1925–2006)TD for Dublin North-Central}}9 March}}198214 December}}1982|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 23rd Dáil#18th Government of Ireland>18thFF (minority)}}|Ray MacSharryMembers of the 23rd Dáil>23 {{smallFebruary 1982 Irish general election>Feb.1982)}}!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=2 |{{small|(8)}}(File:Garret FitzGerald-Oval Office-Patricks Day 1976.jpg|60px)Garret FitzGerald{{smallDublin South-East (Dáil constituency)>Dublin South-East}}{{small|14 December}}1982{{small|10 March}}1987Fine Gael19th{{smallFine Gael>FG–Labour Party (Ireland)Fine Gael>FG (minority) from Jan 1987}}|Dick SpringMembers of the 24th Dáil {{small>(Nov.1982)}}|Peter Barry!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=3 |{{small|(7)}}(File:Charlie Haughey.jpeg|60px)Charles Haughey{{smallDublin North-Central (Dáil constituency)>Dublin North-Central}}{{small|10 March}}1987{{small|11 February}}1992Fianna FáilGovernment of the 25th Dáil#20th Government of Ireland>20thFF (minority)}}Brian LenihanMembers of the 25th Dáil>25 {{small1987 Irish general election>1987)}}21st{{smallFianna Fáil>FF–PD}}Members of the 26th Dáil {{small>(1989)}}John Wilson!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" rowspan=3 |9(File:Albert Reynolds crop.jpg|60px)Albert Reynolds{{smallLongford–Roscommon (Dáil constituency)>Longford–Roscommon}}{{small|11 February}}1992{{small|15 December}}1994Fianna FáilGovernment of the 26th Dáil#22nd Government of Ireland>22ndFianna Fáil–Progressive Democrats>PDFF (minority) from Nov 1992}}23rd{{smallFianna Fáil>FF–Labour Party (Ireland)Fianna Fáil>FF (minority) from Nov 1994}}|Dick SpringMembers of the 27th Dáil {{small>(1992)}}|Bertie Ahern!style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |1060px)John Bruton{{small>(b. 1947)TD for Meath}}15 December}}199426 June}}1997|Fine Gael24th Government of Ireland>24thFine Gael–Labour Party (Ireland)>Lab–DL}}|Dick Spring!rowspan=4 style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |11(File:BertieAhernBerlin2007-bis.jpg|60px)Bertie Ahern{{smallDublin Central (Dáil constituency)>Dublin Central}}{{small|26 June}}1997{{small|7 May}}2008Fianna FáilGovernment of the 28th Dáil#25th Government of Ireland>25thFianna Fáil–Progressive Democrats>PD (minority)}}Mary HarneyMembers of the 28th Dáil>28 {{small1997 Irish general election>1997)}}26th{{smallFianna Fáil>FF–PD}}Members of the 29th Dáil {{small>(2002)}}Michael McDowell (politician)>Michael McDowellGovernment of the 30th Dáil#27th Government of Ireland>27thFianna Fáil–Green Party (Ireland)>Green–PD}}|Brian CowenMembers of the 30th Dáil {{small>(2007)}}!style="background:{{Fianna Fáil/meta/color}}; color:white;" |1260px)Brian Cowen{{small>(b. 1960)TD for Laois–Offaly}}7 May}}20089 March}}2011|Fianna FáilGovernment of the 30th Dáil#28th Government of Ireland>28thFianna Fáil–Green Party (Ireland)>Green–Progressive DemocratsFianna Fáil>FF–Green Party (Ireland)–Independent politician>Ind from Nov 2009FF (minority) from Jan 2011}}Mary Coughlan (politician)>Mary Coughlan!rowspan=3 style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |13(File:Enda Kenny EPP 2014 (cropped).jpg|60px)Enda Kenny{{smallMayo (Dáil constituency)>Mayo}}{{small|9 March}}2011{{smallDATE=13 JUNE 2017RTÉ NEWS>ACCESSDATE=14 JUNE 2017, Fine Gael29th{{smallFine Gael>FG–Lab}}|Eamon GilmoreMembers of the 31st Dáil {{small>(2011)}}|Joan BurtonGovernment of the 32nd Dáil#30th Government of Ireland>30thFine Gael–Independent politician>Ind (minority)}}Frances FitzgeraldMembers of the 32nd Dáil {{small>(2016)}}! rowspan=2 style="background:{{Fine Gael/meta/color}}; color:white;" |14(File:Leo Varadkar 2016.jpg|60px)Leo Varadkar{{smallDublin West (Dáil constituency)>Dublin West}}{{smallTITLE=TAOISEACH-IN-WAITING MEETS MAN WAITING TO BE TAOISEACHACCESSDATE=10 JUNE 2017DATE=8 JUNE 2017, IncumbentFine Gael31st{{smallFine Gael>FG–Ind (minority)}}|Simon Coveney

Timeline

{{Timeline Taoiseach Horizontal}}

Living former officeholders

There are four living former taoisigh as of {{Monthyear}}:{|class="wikitable"!Taoiseach!Term of office!Date of birth|John Bruton1994–1997df=y5|18}}|Bertie Ahern1997–2008df=y9|12}}|Brian Cowen2008–2011df=y1|10}}|Enda Kenny2011–2017df=y4|24}}The most recent Taoiseach to die was Liam Cosgrave (served 1973–1977) on 4 October 2017, aged 97.

See also

Notes

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

The book Chairman or Chief: The Role of the Taoiseach in Irish Government (1971) by Brian Farrell provides a good overview of the conflicting roles for the Taoiseach. Though long out of print, it may still be available in libraries or from booksellers. Biographies are also available of de Valera, Lemass, Lynch, Cosgrave, FitzGerald, Haughey, Reynolds and Ahern. FitzGerald wrote an autobiography, while an authorised biography was produced of de Valera. There is a chapter by Garret FitzGerald on the role of the Taoiseach in a festschrift to Brian Farrell. There is a chapter by Eoin O'Malley on the Taoiseach and cabinet in Governing Ireland: From cabinet government to delegated governance (Eoin O'Malley and Muiris MacCarthaigh eds.) Dublin: IPA 2012.

Biographies

Some biographies of former Taoisigh and Presidents of the Executive Council:
  • Tim Pat Coogan, Éamon de Valera
  • John Horgan, Seán Lemass
  • Brian Farrell, Seán Lemass
  • T. P. O'Mahony, Jack Lynch: A Biography
  • T. Ryle Dwyer, Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch
  • Stephen Collins, The Cosgrave legacy
  • Garret FitzGerald, All in a Life
  • Garret FitzGerald, "Just Garret: Tales from the Political Frontline"
  • Raymond Smith, Garret: The Enigma
  • T. Ryle Dwyer, Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles Haughey
  • Martin Mansergh, Spirit of the Nation: The Collected Speeches of Haughey
  • Joe Joyce & Peter Murtagh The Boss: Charles Haughey in Government
  • Tim Ryan, Albert Reynolds: The Longford Leader
  • Albert Reynolds, My Autobiography (Reviewed here)
  • Bertie Ahern, My Autobiography (Reviewed here)

External links

{{Commons category|Taoisigh}} {{Prime Ministers of Ireland}}{{Government of Ireland}}{{Europe heads of state and government}}{{European Council}}{{Types of heads of government}}{{Prime Minister}}

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