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Kingdom of Ireland
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{{short description|Historical kingdom on the island of Ireland between 1542 and 1801}}{{Hatnote|This article is about the Irish kingdom that existed from 1542 to 1800. For more ancient Irish kingdoms, see List of Irish kingdoms and Monarchy of Ireland. For other uses of "Ireland", see Ireland (disambiguation).}}{{EngvarB|date=October 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2013}}













factoids
conventional_long_name Kingdom of Ireland|common_name = Ireland|status = Client state
  • Client state of Great Britain {{small|(1707–1800){edih}}}
    • 1542–1800
    • {{nowrap|{{nobold|{{small|1652–60: Commonwealth{edih}}}}}}}|year_start = 1542|date_start =|year_end = 1801|date_end = 1 January
    Crown of Ireland Act}}Confederate Wars}}|date_event1 = 1642–52Commonwealth of England>Commonwealth|date_event2 = 1652–60Constitution of 1782>Legislative independence|date_event3 = 1782–1800Act of Union 1800>Act of Union|p1 = Lordship of Ireland22px|link=Lordship of Ireland)|p2 = Gaelic Ireland|s1 = United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|flag_s1 = Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|image_flag = Royal Standard of Ireland (1542–1801).svg|image_flag2 = Saint Patrick's Saltire.svgList of flags of Ireland>Royal Standard (1542–1801)Below: Saint Patrick's Flag (after 1783)|image_coat = Arms of Ireland (Historical).svg|symbol_type = Coat of arms1|image_map = Kingdom of Ireland 1789.svg|image_map_caption = Location of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1789|national_motto =|national_anthem =Dublin{{Coord>53N16|W}}English language>English, Classical Gaelic Henry VIII of England>Henry VIII (first)George III of the United Kingdom>George III (last)|year_leader1 = 1542–47|year_leader2 = 1760–1800List of Irish monarchs>Monarch|Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy of Ireland)>Anthony St Leger (first)Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis>Charles Cornwallis (last)|year_representative1 = 1542–48|year_representative2 = 1798–1800List of Lords Lieutenant of Ireland>Lord Lieutenant|Matthew Locke (administrator)>Matthew Locke (first)Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh>Robert Stewart (last)|year_deputy1 = 1660|year_deputy2 = 1798–1800List of Chief Secretaries for Ireland>Chief Secretary|Parliament of Ireland>ParliamentIrish House of Lords>House of LordsIrish House of Commons>House of Commons|population_link = Irish population analysis|stat_year1 = 1700–1800|stat_area1 = 84421|stat_year2 = 1700|stat_pop2 = 3,000,000|stat_year3 = 1800|stat_pop3 = 5,500,000Irish pound#First pound>Irish poundstyle=line-height:125%Ireland}}{{flag|United Kingdom}}}}}}#Coat of arms>coat of arms regarding use of a crowned harp as the arms of Ireland. Although numerous flags of Ireland existed during the period, the Kingdom of Ireland had no official flag.W. G. Perrin and Herbert S. Vaughan, 1922, "British Flags. Their Early History and their Development at Sea; with an Account of the Origin of the Flag as a National Device", Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 51–52: }}The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: '; Modern Irish: ') was a client state of England and then of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and then of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms. The kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy (the Lord Deputy, later Lord Lieutenant) to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature (the Parliament of Ireland), peerage (the Peerage of Ireland), legal system, and state church (the Protestant Church of Ireland).The territory of the Kingdom had formerly been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk greatly, and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland. The English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s. The conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain.In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland; although Catholic Queen Mary I was recognised as Queen of Ireland by Pope Paul IV. Catholics, who made up most of the population, were officially discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–53), the Williamite-Jacobite War (1689–91), the Armagh disturbances (1780s–90s) and the Irish Rebellion of 1798.The Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom.{{citation|first=Vincent|last=Morley|title=Irish opinion and the American Revolution, 1760–1783|page=4|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge|year=2002|quote=Féach ár bpian le sé chéad bliain aige Gaill in éigean, gan rí dár rialadh de Ghaeil, mo chian, i ríoghacht Éireann.…(the above Gaelic sentence is translated a few lines later as:) Consider our torment for six hundred years by violent foreigners, with no king of the Gaels ruling us, my grief, in the kingdom of Ireland.…Here can be seen, in close association, expressions of religious loyalty to the pre-Reformation faith represented by Creggan churchyard; dynastic loyalty to the house of Stuart; and national loyalty to 'ríocht Éireann' , 'the kingdom of Ireland'. |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iBrJz9XYzNgC&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q&f=false |accessdate=20 January 2012 }} The act was also passed by the Parliament of Great Britain. It established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain.

    History

    Background

    {{See also|Norman invasion of Ireland|Lordship of Ireland}}The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155. It granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae (Latin for "Lord of Ireland"). Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland, to bring the country into the European sphere. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope. This was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry had broken away from the Holy See and declared himself the head of the Church in England. He had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, and was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III. The Treason Act (Ireland) 1537 was passed to counteract this.

    Tudor Ireland

    {{See also|Tudor conquest of Ireland}}Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, Grey, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, and took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed at peace and under the control of the king's Dublin administration; a situation that was not to last for long.McCaffrey chapter (1914)Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament. The new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.Text of 1555 Bull The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England. This placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England.In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, and the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592.In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what later became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland.

    Stuart Ireland

    In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland in a personal union. The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England, Scotland and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660. This period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649.

    Grattan's Patriots

    Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788–89 a Regency crisis arose when King George III became ill. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales, later George IV, as Regent of Ireland. The king recovered before this could be enacted.

    United Irishmen

    File:Charlotte Schreiber - The Croppy Boy.jpg|thumb|Charlotte Schreiber's The Croppy Boy (1879), relating to the United Irishmen's Wexford RebellionWexford RebellionThe Irish Rebellion of 1798, and the rebels' alliance with Great Britain's longtime enemy the French, led to a push to bring Ireland formally into the British Union. By the Acts of Union 1800, voted for by both Irish and British Parliaments, the Kingdom of Ireland merged on 1 January 1801 with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Irish Parliament ceased to exist, though the executive, presided over by the Lord Lieutenant, remained in place until 1922. The union was later the subject of much controversy.de Beaumont, G pp114-115In 1937, the link to the British Crown was repealed, but the monarch was the de jure king in the new State until 1949. In the Republic of Ireland the 1542 Act was repealed in 1962.The Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962, section 1 and Schedule {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121011192652weblink |date=11 October 2012 }}

    Viceroy

    The Kingdom of Ireland was governed by an executive under the control of a Lord Deputy or viceroy. The post was held by senior nobles such as Thomas Radcliffe. From 1688 the title was usually Lord Lieutenant.In the absence of a Lord Deputy, lords justices ruled.While some Irishmen held the post, most of the lords deputy were English noblemen. While the viceroy controlled the Irish administration as the monarch's representative, in the eighteenth century the political post of Chief Secretary for Ireland became increasingly powerful.The Kingdom of Ireland was legislated by the bicameral Parliament of Ireland, made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The powers of the Irish parliament were circumscribed by a series of restrictive laws, mainly Poynings' Law of 1494.

    Parliament

    Roman Catholics and dissenters, mostly Presbyterians, Baptists, and Methodists, were excluded from membership of the Irish parliament from 1693 and their rights were restricted by a series of laws called the Penal Laws. They were denied voting rights from 1728 until 1793. The Grattan Parliament succeeded in achieving the repeal of Poynings' Law in 1782. This allowed progressive legislation and gradual liberalisation was effected. Catholics and Dissenters were given the right to vote in 1793, but Catholics were still excluded from the Irish Parliament and senior public offices in the kingdom. As in Great Britain and the rest of Europe, voting and membership of parliament was restricted to property owners. In the 1720s the new Irish Houses of Parliament were built in College Green, Dublin.

    Church of Ireland

    File:Blazon Trinity College Dublin.svg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Trinity College, DublinTrinity College, DublinWhen Henry VIII was excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church in 1538, all but two of the bishops of the Church in Ireland followed the doctrine of the Church of England,{{citation|author=Richard Mant|title=History of the Church of Ireland, from the Reformation to the Revolution|publisher=Parker|location=London|year=1840|page=275|quote=The enactments concerns the Church in Queen Elizabeth's first Parliament had no unpleasant effects upon its governors; save that by the Act of Supremacy, or rather their own obnoxious conduct in defiance of it, two bishops were deprived of their sees: Leverious, bishop of Kildare, who refused to take the Oath of Supremacy; and Walsh, bishop of Meath, who not only refused to take the oath, but preached also against the queen's supremacy, and against the Book of Common Prayer.}} although almost no clergy or laity did so. Having paid their Annates to the Papacy, the bishops had no reason to step down, and in the 1530s nobody knew how long the reformation would last. Unlike Henry VIII, this hierarchy was not excommunicated by the Papacy, and still controlled what became the State Church of the new Kingdom in 1542, and retained possession of most Church property (including a great repository of religious architecture and other items, though some were later destroyed). In 1553, Irish Catholics were heartened by the coronation of Queen Mary I, who persuaded the Papacy to recognise the Kingdom in 1555, via the papal bull "Ilius".Then in 1558 the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne, survived the 1570 bull Regnans in Excelsis, and all but one of the following monarchs were Anglican. Contrary to the official plan, the substantial majority of the population remained strongly Roman Catholic, despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the state church. Despite its numerical minority, however, the Church of Ireland remained the official state church until it was disestablished on 1 January 1871 by the Liberal government under William Ewart Gladstone.

    Ethnic conflict

    The legacy of the Kingdom of Ireland remains a bone of contention in Irish-British relations to this day because of the constant ethnic conflict between the native Irish inhabitants and primarily the New English ruling caste (as well as a parallel conflict with settled Ulster-Scots). The regime privileged English culture (law, language, dress, religion, economic relations and definitions of land ownership) in Ireland, while the Gaelic culture and Irish language, though maintained to a significant extent by the majority of the native population was presented as "barbaric", "savage" or otherwise the mark of undesirability. While the Lordship of Ireland had existed since the 12th century and nominally owed allegiance to the English monarchy, many kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland continued to exist; this came to an end with the Kingdom of Ireland, where the whole island was brought under the centralised control of an Anglocentric regime based at Dublin. This phase of Irish history marked the beginning of an officially organised policy of settler colonialism, orchestrated from London and the incorporation of Ireland into the British Empire (indeed Ireland is called "England's first colony"). The theme is prominently addressed in Irish postcolonial literature.The nominal religion of the native majority and its clergy; the Catholic Church in Ireland; was actively persecuted by the state and a set of Penal Laws in favour of the Anglican Church in Ireland, highly damaging to the native Irish Catholics, were erected. There is some controversy that during Tudor times, elements within the government at times engaged in and advanced a genocidal{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}} policy against the Irish Gaels, while during the Plantations of Ireland (particularly successful in Ulster) the local population were displaced in a project of ethnic cleansing where regions of Ireland became de-Gaelicised, which led in turn to bloody retaliations, which drags on to modern times. Some of the native inhabitants, including their leadership were permitted to flee into exile from the country following ending up on the losing side in conflicts (i.e. the Flight of the Earls and the Flight of the Wild Geese) or in the case of the Cromwellian regime were forced into indentured servitude in the Caribbean, following mass land confiscation for the benefit of New English settlers. Modern historians{{Who|date=July 2019}} would see the process in less emotive terms. In their worldwide expansions after 1500, the European kingdoms upset local polities and imposed new systems on the periphery of Europe{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}, and it should not be a surprise to find this in Ireland. Irish people who respected or adopted the official language and religions between 1542 and 1800 were treated in much the same way as later arrivals, as all were subjects of the same kingdom. The population, infrastructure and economy of the Kingdom all expanded during its existence{{Citation needed|reason=Reliable source needed for genocide|date=July 2019}}. This trend continued in Ireland until the Great Famine of 1845-1849. On the other hand, the fact that the kingdom had been a unitary state gave Irish nationalists{{Who|date=July 2019}} in 1912–22 a reason to expect that in the process of increasing self-government the island of Ireland would be treated as a single political unit.

    Coat of arms

    (File:Royal arms of Ireland.svg|upright=0.8|right|thumb|Coat of arms with the crest)The arms of the Kingdom of Ireland were blazoned: Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent. A crown was not part of the arms but use of a crowned harp was apparently common as a badge or as a device. A crowned harp also appeared as a crest although the delineated crest was: a wreath Or and Azure, a tower (sometime triple-towered) Or, from the port, a hart springing Argent.

    Notes

    {{reflist|group=nb}}

    References

    {{reflist|30em}}

    Bibliography

    • BOOK, The British Empire and its Contested Pasts, Blythe, Robert J, 2006, Irish Academic Press, harv, 978-0716530169,
    • BOOK, Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534-1660, Bradshaw, Brendan, 1993, Cambridge University Press, 0521416345, harv,
    • BOOK, 'And so began the Irish Nation': Nationality, National Consciousness and Nationalism in Pre-modern Ireland, Bradshaw, Brendan, 2015, Ashgate Publishing, 1472442563, harv,
    • BOOK, Making Ireland British, 1580-1650, Canny, Nicholas, 2001, OUP Oxford, 9780199259052, harv,
    • BOOK, Contested Island: Ireland 1460-1630, Connolly, S. J., 2009, OUP Oxford, 0199563713, harv,
    • BOOK, Divided Kingdom: Ireland 1630-1800, Connolly, S. J., 2010, OUP Oxford, 0199583870, harv,
    • BOOK, Wars of Words: The Politics of Language in Ireland 1537-2004, Crowley, Tony, 2008, OUP Oxford, 0199532761, harv,
    • de Beaumont, Gustave and William Cooke Taylor, Ireland Social, Political, and Religious :Translated by William Cooke Taylor : Contributor Tom Garvin, Andreas Hess: Harvard University Press : 2006 : {{ISBN|978-0-674-02165-5}} (reprint of 1839 original)
    • BOOK, Ireland in the Age of the Tudors, 1447-1603: English Expansion and the End of Gaelic Rule, Ellis, Steven G., 1998, Routledge, harv, 058201901X,
    • BOOK, The Militia in Eighteenth-Century Ireland: In Defence of the Protestant Interest, Garnham, Neal, 2012, Boydell Press, harv, 9781843837244,
    • BOOK, The Irish Regiments: 1683-1999, Harris, R G, 2001, Da Capo Press Inc, harv, 1885119623,
    • BOOK, The Politics and Culture of Honour in Britain and Ireland, 1541-1641, Kane, Brendan, 2010, Cambridge University Press, 0521898641, harv,
    • Keating, Geoffrey : The History of Ireland, from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion (Foras Feasa Ar Éirinn) Translated by John O'Mahony 1866 Full text at Google Books
    • BOOK, Consolidating Conquest: Ireland 1603-1727, Lenihan, Padraig, 2007, Routledge, 0582772176, harv,
    • BOOK, Sixteenth-Century Ireland: The Incomplete Conquest, Lennon, Colm, 2005, Gill Books, 0717139476, harv,
    • BOOK, The Irish Language in Ireland: From Goídel to Globalisation, Mac Giolla Chríost, Diarmait, 2005, Routledge, 0415320461, harv,
    • BOOK, Spenser's Monstrous Regiment: Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference, McCabe, Richard Anthony, 2002, Oxford University Press, harv, 9780198187349,
    • BOOK, The Irish Militia, 1793–1802, Ireland's Forgotten Army, Nelson, Ivan F., 2007, Four Courts Press, harv, 978-1-84682-037-3,
    • BOOK, To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, O'Callaghan, Sean, 2001, Brandon, 0863222870, harv,
    • BOOK, The Nine Years War, 1593-1603: O'Neill, Mountjoy and the military revolution, O'Neill, James, 2017, Four Courts Press, 9781846826368, harv,
    • BOOK, The Year Of Liberty: The Great Irish Rebellion of 1789: History of the Great Irish Rebellion of 1798, Pakenham, Thomas, 2000, Abacus, harv, 978-0349112527,
    • BOOK, The Severed Head and the Grafted Tongue: Literature, Translation and Violence in Early Modern Ireland, Palmer, Patricia, 2013, Cambridge University Press, harv, 978-1107041844,
    • Pawlisch, Hans S., : Sir John Davies and the Conquest of Ireland: A Study in Legal Imperialism :Cambridge University Press, 2002 : {{ISBN|978-0-521-52657-9}}
    • BOOK, Armies of the Irish Rebellion 1798, Reid, Stuart, 2011, Osprey Publishing, harv, 978-1849085076,
    • BOOK, The Redcoat and Religion: The Forgotten History of the British Soldier from the Age of Marlborough to the Eve of the First World War, Snape, Michael, 2013, Routledge, harv, 1136007423,

    External links

    {{Kingdom of Ireland}}{{British overseas territories}}{{Irish states since 1171}}{{Ireland topics}}{{British Isles|state=collapsed}}{{coord|53|20|N|6|15|W|type:country_source:kolossus-ptwiki|display=title}}

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