Margaret Thatcher

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Margaret Thatcher
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{{Redirect|Iron Lady|the 2011 film|The Iron Lady (film)||Iron Lady (disambiguation)|and|Margaret Thatcher (disambiguation)}}{{Pp-semi|small=yes}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{short description|former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2016}}{{Use British English|date=May 2012}}


|image = Margaret Thatcher.png
|alt = portrait at half length of an old woman with coiffed, light golden brown hair, wearing jewellery, dressed in a dark suit, hands crossed, against a cloudy backdrop
|office = Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
|monarch = Elizabeth II

|deputy = Sir Geoffrey Howe {{nowrap|(1989–90)}}
|term_start = 4 May 1979
|term_end = 28 November 1990
|predecessor = James Callaghan
|successor = John Major
|office1 = Leader of the Opposition
|monarch1 = Elizabeth II
|primeminister1 = {{Unbulleted list
|Harold Wilson
|James Callaghan
|term_start1 = 11 February 1975
|term_end1 = 4 May 1979
|predecessor1 = Edward Heath
|successor1 = James Callaghan
|office2 = Leader of the Conservative Party
|deputy2 = The Viscount Whitelaw
|term_start2 = 11 February 1975
|term_end2 = 28 November 1990
|predecessor2 = Edward Heath
|successor2 = John Major
|module = {{collapsed infobox section begin |Ministerial offices
|titlestyle = border:1px dashed lightgrey}}


|alongside4 = {{Nowrap|Richard Sharples and Lynch Maydon}}
|term_start4 = 9 October 1961
|term_end4 = 16 October 1964
|predecessor4 = Patricia Hornsby-Smith
|successor4 = Norman Pentland{{collapsed infobox section end}}
|module2 = {{collapsed infobox section begin |Shadow Cabinet offices
|cont = yes
|titlestyle = border:1px dashed lightgrey}}


|term_start6 = 10 January 1967
|term_end6 = 20 June 1970
|predecessor6 = Richard Crossman
|successor6 = Edward Short{{collapsed infobox section end}}
|module3 = {{collapsed infobox section begin |Parliamentary offices
|cont = yes
|titlestyle = border:1px dashed lightgrey}}


|birth_name = Margaret Hilda Roberts
|birth_date = {{Birth date|1925|10|13|df=y}}
|birth_place = Grantham, Lincolnshire, England
|death_date = {{Death date and age|2013|4|8|1925|10|13|df=y}}
|death_place = Westminster, London, England
|resting_place = Royal Hospital Chelsea
|resting_place_coordinates = {{Coord|51.4874|-0.1582|region:GB_type:landmark|display=inline}}
|party = Conservative Party
|spouse = {{Marriage|Denis Thatcher|13 December 1951|26 June 2003|end=died}}
|children = {{Dotlist|Mark|Carol}}
|education = {{Longitem|Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School}}
|alma_mater = {{Unbulleted list
|Somerville College, Oxford
|Inns of Court School of Law
|parents = Alfred Roberts (father)
|occupation = {{Dotlist|Barrister|chemist|politician}}
|signature = Signature of Margaret Thatcher.svg
|signature_alt = cursive signature in ink
|website = {{Url||Foundation}}
}}}}{{Margaret Thatcher sidebar}}Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, {{post-nominals|country=GBR|LG|OM|DStJ|PC|FRS|HonFRSC|commas=on|size=100%}} ({{nee|Roberts}}; 13 October 1925{{spaced en dash}}8 April 2013) was a British (wikt:stateswoman|stateswoman) who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The 'Iron Lady{{'-}}", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style. As Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism.She studied chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, and worked briefly as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister. Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his Conservative government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom. She became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession.{{refn|In her foreword to the Conservative manifesto of 1979, Thatcher wrote of "a feeling of helplessness, that we are a once great nation that has somehow fallen behind".WEB, 1979 Conservative Party General Election Manifesto,weblink, 28 July 2009, |group=nb}} Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation (particularly of the financial sector), flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, and reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983. She survived an assassination attempt in the Brighton hotel bombing in 1984.Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge ("poll tax") was widely unpopular, and her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet. She resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87.Always a controversial figure, she is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers, and her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom; despite the passage of time, debate over the complicated legacy of Thatcherism persists.{{TOC limit|limit=3}}

Early life and education

{{Margaret Thatcher/birthplace}}Margaret Hilda Roberts was born on 13 October 1925, in Grantham, Lincolnshire.{{r|whoswho}} Her parents were Alfred Roberts (1892–1970), from Northamptonshire, and Beatrice Ethel (née Stephenson, 1888–1960), from Lincolnshire.{{r|whoswho}}{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=1}} She spent her childhood in Grantham, where her father owned two grocery shops. In 1938, prior to the Second World War, the Roberts family briefly gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl who had escaped Nazi Germany.{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|p=38–39}} Margaret, with her (wikt:penfriend|pen-friending) elder sister Muriel, saved pocket money to help pay for the teenager's journey.{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|p=38–39}}Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher,{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=8}} and brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist,NEWS, Maureen, Johnson, Bible-Quoting Thatcher Stirs Furious Debate, Associated Press, 28 May 1988, attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.NEWS, Filby, Eliza, God and Mrs. Thatcher: The Battle for Britain's Soul,weblink 21 April 2018, National Review, 31 October 2015, He came from a Liberal family but stood (as was then customary in local government) as an Independent. He served as Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=8}}(File:Margaret Thatcher aos 13 anos de idade (2).jpg|alt=photograph|thumb|upright|left|Aged 12–13 in 1938)Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School, a grammar school.{{Who's Who | author=Anon| surname = Thatcher | othernames = Baroness, (Margaret Hilda) | id = U37305 | year = 2017 | doi =10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U37305 |type=was | edition = online Oxford University Press|location=Oxford|accessed=15 December 2017 }} {{subscription required}}{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=5}} Her school reports showed hard work and continual improvement; her extracurricular activities included the piano, field hockey, poetry recitals, swimming and walking.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1p=6|2a1=Blundell|2y=2008|2pp=21–22}} She was head girl in 1942–43.WEB,weblink School aims, Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School, 9 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2013, yes, In her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at the University of Oxford's Somerville College, a women's college at the time, but she was initially rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1p=12|2a1=Blundell|2y=2008|2p=23}}

Oxford: 1943–1947

File:Somerville College.jpg|alt=photograph|thumb|upright|Roberts studied chemistry at Somerville College (pictured) in 1943–47]]Roberts arrived at Oxford in 1943 and graduated in 1947{{r|whoswho}} with Second-Class Honours, in the four-year Chemistry Bachelor of Science degree, specialising in X-ray crystallography under the supervision of Dorothy Hodgkin.{{sfnmp|1a1=Blundell|1y=2008|1pp=25–27|2a1=Beckett|2y=2006|2p=16}} Her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=65}} Thatcher did not devote herself entirely to studying chemistry as she only intended to be a chemist for a short period of time.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=47}} Even while working on the subject, she was already thinking towards law and politics.WEB, How Thatcher The Chemist Helped Make Thatcher The Politician,weblink Colin, Lecher, 8 April 2013, Popular Science, 22 November 2014, She was reportedly prouder of becoming the first Prime Minister with a science degree than becoming the first woman,NEWS, Runciman, David, David Runciman,weblink Rat-a-tat-a-tat-a-tat-a-tat, London Review of Books, 6 June 2013, 11 June 2013, and as Prime Minister attempted to preserve Somerville as a women's college.NEWS,weblink Thatcher fought to preserve women-only Oxford college, Bowcott, Owen, 30 December 2016, The Guardian, 31 December 2016, During her time at Oxford, she was noted for her isolated and serious attitude.NEWS, A side of Margaret Thatcher we've never seen,weblink Charles, Moore, Charles Moore (journalist), The Daily Telegraph, 19 April 2013, 25 July 2017, Her first boyfriend, Tony Bray (1926–2014), recalled that she was "very thoughtful and a very good conversationalist. That's probably what interested me. She was good at general subjects".{{r|Oxford1}}NEWS,weblink Tony Bray{{snd, obituary |newspaper=The Daily Telegraph |date=5 August 2014 |accessdate=25 July 2017}} Her enthusiasm for politics as a girl made him think of her as "unusual".{{r|Oxford1}} Bray later met Roberts' parents and described them as "slightly austere" and "very proper".{{r|Oxford1}}{{r|Bray}}At the end of the term at Oxford, Bray gradually became more distant and hoped for their relationship to "fizzle out". Bray later recalled that he thought Roberts had taken the relationship more seriously than he had done.{{r|Oxford1}} When asked about Bray in later life, Thatcher prevaricated but acknowledged the circumstances between herself and Bray.{{r|Oxford1}}{{r|Bray}}Roberts became President of the Oxford University Conservative Association in 1946.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1pp=20–21|2a1=Blundell|2y=2008|2p=28}} She was influenced at university by political works such as Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom (1944),{{sfnp|Blundell|2008|p=30}} which condemned economic intervention by government as a precursor to an authoritarian state.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=17}}

Postgraduate career: 1947–1951

{{rquote |align=right |width=22em |quote=This woman is headstrong, obstinate and dangerously self-opinionated.{{r|BBC2013}} |source=Assessment of Roberts by the ICI in 1948}}After graduating, Roberts moved to Colchester in Essex to work as a research chemist for BX Plastics near Manningtree.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=17}} In 1948 she applied for a job at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), but was rejected after the personnel department assessed her as "headstrong, obstinate and dangerously self-opinionated".WEB,weblink In quotes: Margaret Thatcher, BBC News, 8 April 2013, 12 April 2013, {{harvtxt|Agar|2011}} argues that her understanding of modern scientific research would later impact her views as Prime Minister.Roberts joined the local Conservative Association and attended the party conference at Llandudno, Wales, in 1948, as a representative of the University Graduate Conservative Association.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=22}} Meanwhile, she became a high-ranking affiliate of the Vermin Club,NEWS, Moore, Charles, Golly: now we know what's truly offensive,weblink 5 February 2009, 29 April 2017, The Daily Telegraph, MAGAZINE, J.C., The Economist, Gaffe-ology: why Mitchell had to go,weblink 21 October 2012, 29 April 2017, In 1948 Aneurin Bevan called the Conservative Party 'lower than vermin' ... The Tories embraced the phrase; some formed the Vermin Club in response (Margaret Thatcher was a member)., a group of grassroots Conservatives formed in response to a derogatory comment made by Aneurin Bevan.{{r|Vermin}} One of her Oxford friends was also a friend of the Chair of the Dartford Conservative Association in Kent, who were looking for candidates.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=22}} Officials of the association were so impressed by her that they asked her to apply, even though she was not on the party's approved list; she was selected in January 1950 (aged 24) and added to the approved list (wikt:post ante|post ante).{{sfnp|Blundell|2008|p=36}}At a dinner following her formal adoption as Conservative candidate for Dartford in February 1949 she met (wikt:divorcé#Latin|divorcé) Denis Thatcher, a successful and wealthy businessman, who drove her to her Essex train.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1p=22|2a1=Blundell|2y=2008|2p=36}} After their first meeting she described him to Muriel as "not a very attractive creature{{snd}}very reserved but quite nice".{{r|Oxford1}} In preparation for the election Roberts moved to Dartford, where she supported herself by working as a research chemist for J. Lyons and Co. in Hammersmith, part of a team developing emulsifiers for ice cream.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1p=22|2a1=New Scientist|2y=1983}} Shortly after her marriage to Denis, she and her husband began attending Anglican services and would later convert to Anglicanism.NEWS,weblink Mindy, Belz, Weather maker, World (magazine), World, 4 May 2013, 10 January 2017, NEWS,weblink Eliza, Filby, Margaret Thatcher: her unswerving faith shaped by her father, The Daily Telegraph, 14 April 2013, 10 January 2017,

Early political career

In the 1950 and 1951 general elections, Roberts was the Conservative candidate for the safe Labour seat of Dartford. The local party selected her as its candidate because, though not a dynamic public speaker, Roberts was well-prepared and fearless in her answers; prospective candidate Bill Deedes recalled: "Once she opened her mouth, the rest of us began to look rather second-rate."{{r|runciman20130606}} She attracted media attention as the youngest and the only female candidate.{{sfnmp|1a1=Beckett|1y=2006|1pp=23–24|2a1=Blundell|2y=2008|2p=37}} She lost on both occasions to Norman Dodds, but reduced the Labour majority by 6,000, and then a further 1,000.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|pp=23–24}} During the campaigns, she was supported by her parents and by future husband Denis Thatcher, whom she married in December 1951.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|pp=23–24}}NEWS,weblink 6 January 2012, 27 June 2003, Sir Denis Thatcher, Bt, The Daily Telegraph, Denis funded his wife's studies for the bar;{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=25}} she qualified as a barrister in 1953 and specialised in taxation.{{sfnp|Blundell|2008|p=35}} Later that same year their twins Carol and Mark were born, delivered prematurely by Caesarean section.{{sfnmp|1a1=Ogden|1y=1990|1p=70|2a1=Beckett|2y=2006|2p=26|3a1=Aitken|3y=2013|3p=74}}

Member of Parliament: 1959–1970

In 1954, Thatcher was defeated when she sought selection to be the Conservative party candidate for the Orpington by-election of January 1955. She chose not to stand as a candidate in the 1955 general election, in later years stating: "I really just felt the twins were ... only two, I really felt that it was too soon. I couldn't do that."{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=100}} Afterwards, Thatcher began looking for a Conservative safe seat and was selected as the candidate for Finchley in April 1958 (narrowly beating Ian Montagu Fraser). She was elected as MP for the seat after a hard campaign in the 1959 election.{{sfnp|Beckett|2006|p=27}}{{London Gazette|issue=41842|page=6433|date=13 October 1959}} Benefiting from her fortunate result in a lottery for backbenchers to propose new legislation,{{r|runciman20130606}} Thatcher's maiden speech was, unusually, in support of her private member's bill (the Public Bodies [Admission to Meetings] Act 1960), requiring local authorities to hold their council meetings in public; the bill was successful and became law.WEB,weblink HC S 2R [Public Bodies (Admission of the Press to Meetings) Bill] (Maiden Speech), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 5 February 1960, 8 April 2013, {{sfnp|Aitken|2013|p=91}} In 1961 she went against the Conservative Party's official position by voting for the restoration of birching as a judicial corporal punishment.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=134}}

On the frontbenches

Thatcher's talent and drive caused her to be mentioned as a future prime minister in her early 20s{{r|runciman20130606}} although she herself was more pessimistic, stating as late as 1970: "There will not be a woman prime minister in my lifetime{{snd}}the male population is too prejudiced."NEWS, Sandbrook, Dominic, Dominic Sandbrook,weblink Viewpoint: What if Margaret Thatcher had never been?, BBC News Magazine, 9 April 2013, 16 June 2013, In October 1961 she was promoted to the frontbench as Parliamentary Undersecretary at the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance by Harold Macmillan.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=4}} Thatcher was the youngest woman in history to receive such a post, and among the first MPs elected in 1959 to be promoted.{{sfnp|Scott-Smith|2003}} After the Conservatives lost the 1964 election she became spokesman on Housing and Land, in which position she advocated her party's policy of allowing tenants to buy their council houses.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=64}} She moved to the Shadow Treasury team in 1966 and, as Treasury spokesman, opposed Labour's mandatory price and income controls, arguing they would unintentionally produce effects that would distort the economy.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=64}}Jim Prior suggested Thatcher as a Shadow Cabinet member after the Conservatives' 1966 defeat, but party leader Edward Heath and Chief Whip William Whitelaw eventually chose Mervyn Pike as the Shadow Cabinet's sole woman member.{{sfnp|Scott-Smith|2003}} At the 1966 Conservative Party conference, Thatcher criticised the high-tax policies of the Labour government as being steps "not only towards Socialism, but towards Communism", arguing that lower taxes served as an incentive to hard work.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=64}} Thatcher was one of the few Conservative MPs to support Leo Abse's bill to decriminalise male homosexuality.HANSARD,weblink Sexual Offences (No. 2), 5 July 1966, House of Commons, 731, 267, She voted in favour of David Steel's bill to legalise abortion,{{sfnp|Thatcher|1995|p=150}}HANSARD,weblink Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill, 22 July 1966, House of Commons, 732, 1165, as well as a ban on hare coursing.HANSARD,weblink Hare Coursing Bill, 14 May 1970, House of Commons, 801, 1599–1603, She supported the retention of capital punishmentHANSARD,weblink Capital Punishment, 24 June 1969, House of Commons, 785, 1235, and voted against the relaxation of divorce laws.HANSARD,weblink Divorce Reform Bill, 9 February 1968, House of Commons, 758, 904–907, {{sfnp|Thatcher|1995|p=151}}

In the Shadow Cabinet

In 1967, the United States Embassy in London chose Thatcher to take part in the International Visitor Leadership Program (then called the Foreign Leader Program), a professional exchange programme that gave her the opportunity to spend about six weeks visiting various US cities and political figures as well as institutions such as the International Monetary Fund. Although she was not yet a Shadow Cabinet member, the embassy reportedly described her to the State Department as a possible future Prime Minister. The description helped Thatcher meet with prominent persons during a busy itinerary focused on economic issues, including Paul Samuelson, Walt Rostow, Pierre-Paul Schweitzer and Nelson Rockefeller. Following the visit, Heath appointed Thatcher to the Shadow Cabinet{{sfnp|Scott-Smith|2003}} as Fuel and Power spokesman.NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher's timeline: From Grantham to the House of Lords, via Arthur Scargill and the Falklands War, 8 April 2013, The Independent, 2 November 2016, Prior to the 1970 general election, she was promoted to Shadow Transport spokesman and later to Education.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=65}}In 1968 Enoch Powell delivered his "Rivers of Blood" speech in which he strongly criticised Commonwealth immigration to the United Kingdom and the then-proposed Race Relations Bill. When Heath telephoned Thatcher to inform her that he was going to sack Powell from the Shadow Cabinet, she recalled that she "really thought that it was better to let things cool down for the present rather than heighten the crisis". She believed that his main points about Commonwealth immigration were correct and that the selected quotations from his speech had been taken out of context.{{sfnp|Aitken|2013|page=117}} In a 1991 interview for Today, Thatcher stated that she thought Powell had "made a valid argument, if in sometimes regrettable terms".MAGAZINE, Christopher, Sandford, To See and to Speak, Chronicles (magazine), Chronicles, June 2012, Around this time she gave her first Commons speech as a Shadow Transport minister and highlighted the need for investment in British Rail. She argued: " ... if we build bigger and better roads, they would soon be saturated with more vehicles and we would be no nearer solving the problem."{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=189}} Thatcher made her first visit to the Soviet Union in the summer of 1969 as the Opposition Transport spokeswoman,{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=190}} and in October delivered a speech celebrating her ten years in Parliament.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=191}} A couple of months later, in early 1970, she told The Finchley Press that she would like to see a "reversal of the permissive society".{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=191}}

Education Secretary: 1970–1974

(File:Girls at Baldock County Council School in Hertfordshire enjoy a drink of milk during a break in the school day in 1944. D20552.jpg|thumb|left|upright|alt=Girls photographed at Baldock County Council School in Hertfordshire enjoy a drink of milk during a break in the school day in 1944.|Thatcher abolished free milk for children aged 7–11 (pictured) in 1970 as the previous government had done for older children in 1968)The Conservative Party led by Edward Heath won the 1970 general election, and Thatcher was subsequently appointed to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Education and Science. Thatcher caused controversy when after only a few days in office she withdrew Labour's Circular 10/65 which attempted to force comprehensivisation, without going through a consultation progress.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=222}} She was highly criticized for the speed in which she carried this out.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=222}} Consequently, she drafted her own new policy (Circular 10/70) which ensured that a local authority was not forced to go comprehensive.{{sfnp|Moore|2013|p=215}} Her new policy was not meant to stop the development of new comprehensives; she said: "We shall ... expect plans to be based on educational considerations rather than on the comprehensive principle."{{sfnp|Moore|2013|p=215}}Thatcher supported Lord Rothschild's 1971 proposal for market forces to affect government funding of research. Although many scientists opposed the proposal, her research background probably made her sceptical of their claim that outsiders should not interfere with funding.{{r|lecher20130408}} The department evaluated proposals for more local education authorities to close grammar schools and to adopt comprehensive secondary education. Although Thatcher was committed to a tiered secondary modern-grammar school system of education and attempted to preserve grammar schools,{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=14}} during her tenure as Education Secretary she turned down only 326 of 3,612 proposals (roughly 9 per cent){{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=224}} for schools to become comprehensives; the proportion of pupils attending comprehensive schools consequently rose from 32 per cent to 62 per cent.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|pp=248–249}} Nevertheless, she managed to save 94 grammar schools.{{sfnp|Moore|2013|p=215}}{{anchor|Milk Snatcher}}During her first months in office she attracted public attention as a consequence of the government's attempts to cut spending. She gave priority to academic needs in schools,{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=14}} while administering public expenditure cuts on the state education system, resulting in the abolition of free milk for schoolchildren aged seven to eleven.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=76}} She held that few children would suffer if schools were charged for milk, but agreed to provide younger children with â…“ pint daily for nutritional purposes.{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=76}} She also argued that she was simply carrying on with what the Labour government had started since they had stopped giving free milk to secondary schools.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=231}} Milk would still be provided to those children that required it on medical grounds and schools could still sell milk.{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=231}} The aftermath of the milk row hardened her determination, she told the editor-proprietor Harold Creighton of The Spectator: "Don't underestimate me, I saw how they broke Keith [Joseph], but they won't break me."{{sfnp|Campbell|2000|p=288}}Cabinet papers later revealed that she opposed the policy but had been forced into it by the Treasury.NEWS,weblink Tories move swiftly to avoid 'milk-snatcher' tag, Hickman, Martin, 9 August 2010, The Independent, 9 April 2013, Her decision provoked a storm of protest from Labour and the press,{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=15}} leading to her being notoriously nicknamed "Margaret Thatcher, Milk Snatcher".{{sfnp|Wapshott|2007|p=76}}NEWS, Smith, Rebecca, How Margaret Thatcher became known as 'Milk Snatcher',weblink 9 April 2013, The Sunday Telegraph, 8 August 2010, She reportedly considered leaving politics in the aftermath and later wrote in her autobiography: "I learned a valuable lesson [from the experience]. I had incurred the maximum of political odium for the minimum of political benefit."{{sfnmp|1a1=Reitan|1y=2003|1p=15|2a1=Thatcher|2y=1995|2p=182}}

Leader of the Opposition: 1975–1979

{{See also|Shadow Cabinet of Margaret Thatcher}}{{External media |headerimage=(File:Thatcher-loc.jpg|170px|border|Thatcher photographed at the White House) |caption=Thatcher in late 1975 |topic=1975 speech to the US National Press Club |audio1=SPEECH, National Press Club Luncheon Speakers: Margaret Thatcher,weblinkweblink yes, 2019-01-20, WebCite,  (starts at 7:39, finishes at 28:33)., WEB,weblink Speech to the National Press Club, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 19 September 1975, 28 October 2016, }}The Heath government continued to experience difficulties with oil embargoes and union demands for wage increases in 1973, subsequently losing the February 1974 general election.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=15}} Labour formed a minority government and went on to win a narrow majority in the October 1974 general election. Heath's leadership of the Conservative Party looked increasingly in doubt. Thatcher was not initially seen as the obvious replacement, but she eventually became the main challenger, promising a fresh start.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=16}} Her main support came from the parliamentary 1922 Committee{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=16}} and The Spectator,WEB, Cosgrave, Patrick, Patrick Cosgrave, Clear choice for the Tories,weblink 25 January 1975, 13 April 2013, 13 July 2017, The Spectator, but Thatcher's time in office gave her the reputation of a pragmatist rather than that of an ideologue.{{r|runciman20130606}} She defeated Heath on the first ballot and he resigned the leadership.NEWS,weblink limited, Thatcher leads tributes to Sir Edward Heath, 18 July 2005, 14 October 2008, The Times, Philippe, Naughton, In the second ballot she defeated Whitelaw, Heath's preferred successor. Thatcher's election had a polarising effect on the party; her support was stronger among MPs on the right, and also among those from southern England, and those who had not attended public schools or Oxbridge.{{sfnp|Cowley|Bailey|2000}}Thatcher became Conservative Party leader and Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 1975;WEB,weblink Press Conference after winning Conservative leadership (Grand Committee Room), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 11 February 1975, 29 September 2007, she appointed Whitelaw as her deputy. Heath was never reconciled to Thatcher's leadership of the party.{{sfnp|Moore|2013|pages=394–395, 430}}Television critic Clive James, writing in The Observer prior to her election as Conservative Party leader, compared her voice of 1973 to "a cat sliding down a blackboard".{{refn|{{harvtxt|James|1977|pp=119–120}}: "The hang-up has always been the voice. Not the timbre so much as, well, the {{em|tone}}{{snd}}the condescending explanatory whine which treats the squirming interlocutor as an eight-year-old child with personality deficiencies. It has been fascinating, recently, to watch her striving to eliminate this. BBC2 News Extra on Tuesday night rolled a clip from May 1973 demonstrating the Thatcher sneer at full pitch. (She was saying that she wouldn't {{em|dream}} of seeking the leadership.) She sounded like a cat sliding down a blackboard."NEWS, The Observer, James, Clive, 9 February 1975, Getting Mrs T into focus, 26, |group=nb}} Thatcher had already begun to work on her presentation on the advice of Gordon Reece, a former television producer. By chance, Reece met the actor Laurence Olivier, who arranged lessons with the National Theatre's voice coach.{{sfnp|Thatcher|1995|p=267}}NEWS, Moore, Charles, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, The Invincible Mrs. Thatcher, December 2011,weblink 25 February 2012, {{refn|Thatcher succeeded in completely suppressing her Lincolnshire dialect except when under stress, notably after provocation from Denis Healey in the Commons in 1983, when she accused the Labour frontbench of being (wikt:frit#Etymology 2|frit).NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, A miracle recovery for Finchley mother of two, Frank Johnson (journalist), Johnson, Frank, News, 22 April 1983, 28, 61513, NEWS, PM taunts Labour over early election, The Guardian, 20 April 1983, 5, Amid uproar from both sides of the house, Mrs Thatcher shouted: 'So you are afraid of an election are you? Afraid, Afraid, Afraid. Frightened, frit{{snd, couldn't take it. Couldn't stand it.'}}|group=nb}}Thatcher began attending lunches regularly at the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA), a think tank founded by Hayekian poultry magnate Antony Fisher; she had been visiting the IEA and reading its publications since the early 1960s. There she was influenced by the ideas of Ralph Harris and Arthur Seldon, and became the face of the ideological movement opposing the British welfare state. Keynesian economics, they believed, was weakening Britain. The institute's pamphlets proposed less government, lower taxes, and more freedom for business and consumers.{{sfnp|Beckett|2010|loc=chpt. 11}}{{multiple image|direction=vertical|image1=President Gerald Ford Meeting with Great Britain's Conservative Party Leader Margaret Thatcher in the Oval Office.jpg|alt1=photograph of Thatcher and Ford|caption1=Thatcher with President Gerald Ford in the Oval Office, 1975|image2=Shah and Margaret Thatcher.jpg|alt2=photograph of Thatcher and Mohammad Reza|caption2=Thatcher with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the Niavaran Complex, 1978}}Thatcher intended to promote neoliberal economic ideas at home and abroad. Despite setting the direction of her foreign policy for a Conservative government, Thatcher was distressed by her repeated failure to shine in the House of Commons. Consequently, Thatcher decided that as "her voice was carrying little weight at home", she would "be heard in the wider world".{{sfnp|Campbell |2000|p=344}} Thatcher undertook visits across the Atlantic, establishing an international profile and promoting her economic and foreign policies. She toured the United States in 1975 and met President Gerald Ford,WIKISOURCE, President Ford–Margaret Thatcher memcon, President Ford–Margaret Thatcher memcon (September 18, 1975), 18 September 1975, and visited again in 1977, when she met President Jimmy Carter.{{sfnp|Cooper|2010|pp=25–26}} Among other foreign trips, she met Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi during a visit to Iran in 1978.PRESS RELEASE, Press Conference concluding visit to Iran,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 13 April 2018, en, 1 May 1978, Thatcher chose to travel without being accompanied by her Shadow Foreign Secretary, Reginald Maudling, in an attempt to make a bolder personal impact.{{sfnp|Cooper|2010|pp=25–26}}In domestic affairs, Thatcher opposed Scottish devolution (home rule) and the creation of a Scottish Assembly. She instructed Conservative MPs to vote against the Scotland and Wales Bill in December 1976, which was successfully defeated, and then when new Bills were proposed she supported amending the legislation to allow the English to vote in the 1979 referendum on Scottish devolution.NEWS,weblink How Thatcher tried to thwart devolution, 27 April 2008, 20 April 2013, The Scotsman, Britain's economy during the 1970s was so weak that Foreign Secretary James Callaghan warned his fellow Labour Cabinet members in 1974 of the possibility of "a breakdown of democracy", telling them: "If I were a young man, I would emigrate."{{sfnp|Beckett|2010|loc=chpt. 7}} In mid-1978, the economy began to recover and opinion polls showed Labour in the lead, with a general election being expected later that year and a Labour win a serious possibility. Now Prime Minister, Callaghan surprised many by announcing on 7 September that there would be no general election that year and he would wait until 1979 before going to the polls. Thatcher reacted to this by branding the Labour government "chickens", and Liberal Party leader David Steel joined in, criticising Labour for "running scared".NEWS,weblink 7 September 1978: Callaghan accused of running scared, BBC News, On This Day 1950–2005, 13 January 2012, The Labour government then faced fresh public unease about the direction of the country and a damaging series of strikes during the winter of 1978–79, dubbed the "Winter of Discontent". The Conservatives attacked the Labour government's unemployment record, using advertising with the slogan "Labour Isn't Working". A general election was called after the Callaghan ministry lost a motion of no confidence in early 1979. The Conservatives won a 44-seat majority in the House of Commons and Thatcher became the first female British prime minister.{{sfnp|Butler|Kavanagh|1980|page=199}}

"The 'Iron Lady' Sounds the Alarm"

{{External media |topic=1976 speech to Finchley Conservatives |video1=SPEECH, Speech to Finchley Conservatives (admits to being an "Iron Lady"),weblink the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, }}|Thatcher embracing her Soviet nickname in 1976}}In 1976, Thatcher gave her "Britain Awake" foreign policy speech which lambasted the Soviet Union for seeking world dominance.WEB,weblink Speech at Kensington Town Hall ('Britain Awake') (The Iron Lady), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 19 January 1976, 2 November 2008, The Soviet Army journal Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star) rebutted her stance in a piece entitled "Iron Lady Raises Fears" by Captain Yuri GavrilovNEWS, Gavrilov, Yuri, The 'Iron Lady' Sounds the Alarm, Krasnaya zvezda, 24 January 1976, 3, 17, The Current Digest of the Soviet Press, 28, 1–13, (alluding to "Iron Chancellor" Bismarck of imperial Germany). The Sunday Times covered the Red Star article the next day,WEB, Maggie, the 'Iron Lady',weblink The Sunday Times, 25 January 1976, 28 October 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2016, and Thatcher embraced the (wikt:epithet|epithet) a week later; in a speech to Finchley Conservatives she compared it to the Duke of Wellington's nickname "The Iron Duke".WEB,weblink Speech to Finchley Conservatives (admits to being an 'Iron Lady'), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 31 January 1976, 17 October 2016, The metaphorical sobriquet followed her throughout her political career,{{sfnmp|1a1=Atkinson|1y=1984|1p=115|2a1=Kaplan|2y=2000|2p=60}} and has since become a generic descriptor for strong-willed female politicians.BLOG, Macpherson, Fiona, Fiona Macpherson, The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher's linguistic legacy,weblink 10 April 2013,, 20 May 2018, While it has been applied to other women since (from politicians to tennis players), the resonance with Margaret Thatcher remains the strongest.,

Premiership of the United Kingdom: 1979–1990

{{Further|First Thatcher ministry|Second Thatcher ministry|Third Thatcher ministry}}{{External media |topic=1979 remarks on becoming Prime Minister |video1=SPEECH, Remarks on becoming Prime Minister (St Francis's prayer),weblink the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, }}Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979. Arriving at Downing Street she said, paraphrasing the misattributed Prayer of Saint Francis:{{poemquote|Where there is discord, may we bring harmony;Where there is error, may we bring truth;Where there is doubt, may we bring faith;And where there is despair, may we bring hope.WEB,weblink Remarks on becoming Prime Minister (St Francis's prayer), 4 May 1979, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 21 March 2017, }}In office throughout the 1980s, Thatcher was frequently described as the most powerful woman in the world.{{sfnmp|1a1=Bern|1y=1987|1p=43|2a1=Ogden|2y=1990|2pp=9, 12}}MAGAZINE, Gail Sheehy on the most powerful woman in the world, Sheehy, Gail, Gail Sheehy, Vanity Fair, 52, 1989, 102, MAGAZINE, The most powerful woman in the world, Eisner, Jane, Jane Eisner, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Philadelphia Inquirer Magazine, B006RKBPBK, 7 June 1987, 1,

Domestic affairs

Thatcher was Leader of the Opposition and Prime Minister at a time of increased racial tension in Britain. Commenting on the local elections of 1977, The Economist noted: "The Tory tide swamped the smaller parties. That specifically includes the National Front (NF), which suffered a clear decline from last year."NEWS, The Economist, Votes go to Tories, and nobody else, 14 May 1977, 263, 6976, 24–28, WEB,weblink Conservative Party Campaign Guide Supplement 1978, Conservative Central Office, the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 19 June 2011, Her standing in the polls had risen by 11% after a 1978 interview for World in Action in which she said "the British character has done so much for democracy, for law and done so much throughout the world that if there is any fear that it might be swamped people are going to react and be rather hostile to those coming in", as well as "in many ways [minorities] add to the richness and variety of this country. The moment the minority threatens to become a big one, people get frightened".WEB, TV Interview for Granada World in Action ('rather swamped'),weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 27 January 1978, 23 July 2017, NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, Mrs Thatcher fears people might become hostile if immigrant flow is not cut, News, 31 January 1978, 2, 60224, In the 1979 general election, the Conservatives had attracted votes from the NF, whose support almost collapsed.{{sfnmp|1a1=Reitan|1y=2003|1p=26|2a1=Ward|2y=2004|2p=128}} In a July 1979 meeting with Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington and Home Secretary William Whitelaw, Thatcher objected to the number of Asian immigrants, in the context of limiting the total of Vietnamese boat people allowed to settle in the UK to fewer than 10,000 over two years.NEWS, The Daily Telegraph,weblink Margaret Thatcher complained about Asian immigration to Britain, 30 December 2009, 20 January 2011, Jon, Swaine, As Prime Minister, Thatcher met weekly with Queen Elizabeth II to discuss government business, and their relationship came under close scrutiny.{{sfnmp|1a1=Reitan|1y=2003|1p=28|2a1=Seward|2y=2001|2p=154}} {{harvtxt|Campbell|2011a|page=464}} states:Mrs Thatcher was six months older{{snd}}occupying parallel positions at the top of the social pyramid, one the head of government, the other head of state, they were bound to be in some sense rivals. Mrs Thatcher's attitude to the Queen was ambivalent. On the one hand she had an almost mystical reverence for the institution of the monarchy ... Yet at the same time she was trying to modernise the country and sweep away many of the values and practices which the monarchy perpetuated.}}Michael Shea, the Queen's press secretary, had reportedly leaked anonymous rumours of a rift, which were officially denied by her Private Secretary, William Heseltine. Thatcher later wrote: "I always found the Queen's attitude towards the work of the Government absolutely correct ... stories of clashes between 'two powerful women' were just too good not to make up."{{sfnp|Thatcher|1993|p=18}}">

Economy and taxation{| class"mw-datatable floatright" style"font-size:85%; margin-bottom:0.5em; margin-left:1.5em; text-align:center"

! height=55 style="line-height:normal; padding:0; width:15em;" | Economic growth and {{nobr|public spending}} sorted by functional classification! style="line-height:normal; padding:0; width:12em;" | % change in real terms1979/80 to 1989/90
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Economic growth (GDP)
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Total government spending
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Law and order
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Employment and training
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |NHS
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Social security
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Education
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Defence
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Environment
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Transport
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Trade and industry
! scope=row style="text-align: left; font-weight: normal;" |Housing
Source: {{harvtxt|Stewart|2013|loc="Appendix"}}
{{cquote|You turn if you want to. The lady's not for turning.WEB,weblink Speech to Conservative Party Conference ('the lady's not for turning'), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 10 October 1980, 31 March 2018, |source=Thatcher to the Conservative Party conference in 1980}}Thatcher's economic policy was influenced by monetarist thinking and economists such as Milton Friedman and Alan Walters.{{sfnp|Childs|2006|p=185}} Together with Chancellor of the Exchequer Geoffrey Howe, she lowered direct taxes on income and increased indirect taxes.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=30}} She increased interest rates to slow the growth of the money supply and thereby lower inflation,{{sfnp|Childs|2006|p=185}} introduced cash limits on public spending, and reduced expenditure on social services such as education and housing.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=30}} Cuts to higher education resulted in her becoming the first Oxford-educated post-war Prime Minister without an honorary doctorate from Oxford University, after a 738–319 vote of the governing assembly and a student petition.NEWS,weblink 29 January 1985: Thatcher snubbed by Oxford dons, 9 April 2007, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, Her new centrally-funded City Technology Colleges did not achieve much success, and the Funding Agency for Schools was set up to control expenditure by opening and closing schools; a right-wing think tank described it as having "an extraordinary range of dictatorial powers".{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=464}}Some Heathite Conservatives in the Cabinet, the so-called "wets", expressed doubt over Thatcher's policies.{{r|nft}} The 1981 England riots resulted in the British media discussing the need for a policy U-turn. At the 1980 Conservative Party conference, Thatcher addressed the issue directly, with a speech written by the playwright Ronald Millar{{sfnp|Jones|2007|p=224}} that included the lines: "You turn if you want to. The lady's not for turning."NEWS,weblink 10 October 1980: Thatcher 'not for turning', 21 December 2008, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, Thatcher's job approval rating fell to 23% by December 1980, lower than recorded for any previous Prime Minister.{{sfnp|Thornton|2006|p=18}} As the recession of the early 1980s deepened, she increased taxes,{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=31}} despite concerns expressed in a March 1981 statement signed by 364 leading economists,NEWS, An avalanche of economists, 31 March 1981,weblink limited, The Times, 17, 12 January 2011, which argued there was "no basis in economic theory ... for the Government's belief that by deflating demand they will bring inflation permanently under control", adding that "present policies will deepen the depression, erode the industrial base of our economy and threaten its social and political stability".WEB,weblink Economy: Letter of the 364 economists critical of monetarism (letter sent to academics and list of signatories), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 13 March 1981, 31 March 2018, By 1982, the UK began to experience signs of economic recovery;{{sfnp|Floud|Johnson|2004|p=392}} inflation was down to 8.6% from a high of 18%, but unemployment was over 3 million for the first time since the 1930s.NEWS,weblink 26 January 1982: UK unemployment tops three million, 16 April 2010, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, By 1983, overall economic growth was stronger, and inflation and mortgage rates had fallen to their lowest levels in 13 years, although manufacturing employment as a share of total employment fell to just over 30%,{{sfnp|Rowthorn|Wells|1987|page=234}} with total unemployment remaining high, peaking at 3.3 million in 1984.NEWS,weblink Unemployment among young workers hits 15 per cent, The Independent, 16 March 2009, 21 November 2010, Sean, O'Grady, During the 1982 Conservative Party Conference, Thatcher said: "We have done more to roll back the frontiers of socialism than any previous Conservative Government."WEB, Speech to Conservative Party Conference,weblink 8 October 1982, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 7 April 2018, She claimed at the Party Conference the following year that the British people had completely rejected state socialism and understood "the state has no source of money other than money which people earn themselves ... There is no such thing as public money; there is only taxpayers' money."WEB, Speech to Conservative Party Conference,weblink 14 October 1983, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 7 April 2018, By 1987, unemployment was falling, the economy was stable and strong and inflation was low. Opinion polls showed a comfortable Conservative lead, and local council election results had also been successful, prompting Thatcher to call a general election for 11 June that year, despite the deadline for an election still being 12 months away. The election saw Thatcher re-elected for a third successive term.NEWS,weblink 11 June 1987, BBC Politics 97, BBC News, 14 November 2011, Thatcher had been firmly opposed to British membership of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM, a precursor to European Monetary Union), believing that it would constrain the British economy,NEWS, Thatcher stands firm against full EMS role,weblink 8 October 2008, Riddell, Peter, Peter Riddell, 23 November 1987, Financial Times, despite the urging of both her Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson and Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe;{{sfnp|Thatcher|1993|p=712}} in October 1990 she was persuaded by John Major, Lawson's successor as Chancellor, to join the ERM at what proved to be too high a rate.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=484}}Thatcher reformed local government taxes by replacing domestic rates (a tax based on the nominal rental value of a home) with the Community Charge (or poll tax) in which the same amount was charged to each adult resident.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, 30 October 2008, 23 April 1990, Passell, Peter, Furor Over British Poll Tax Imperils Thatcher Ideology, The new tax was introduced in Scotland in 1989 and in England and Wales the following year,{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|pp=87–88}} and proved to be among the most unpopular policies of her premiership.{{r|polltax}} Public disquiet culminated in a 70,000 to 200,000-strongNEWS, Graham, David,weblink The Battle of Trafalgar Square: The poll tax riots revisited, 25 March 2010, 8 April 2013, The Independent, demonstration in London in March 1990; the demonstration around Trafalgar Square deteriorated into riots, leaving 113 people injured and 340 under arrest.NEWS,weblink 31 March 1990: Violence flares in poll tax demonstration, 30 October 2008, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, The Community Charge was abolished in 1991 by her successor, John Major.{{r|otd pt}} It has since transpired that Thatcher herself had failed to register for the tax, and was threatened with financial penalties if she did not return her form.NEWS,weblink limited, Threat of fine for unpaid poll tax sent to No 10, The Times, 30 December 2016, 2016-12-30, Narwan, Gurpreet, dmy-all,

Industrial relations

{{rquote |align=right |width=22em |quote=We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. We always have to be aware of the enemy within, which is much more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty.{{sfnp|Khabaz|2007|p=226}} |source=Thatcher on the ongoing miners' dispute in 1984}}Thatcher believed that the trade unions were harmful to both ordinary trade unionists and the public.{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|pp=89–90}} She was committed to reducing the power of the unions, whose leadership she accused of undermining parliamentary democracy and economic performance through strike action.{{sfnp|Thatcher|1993|pp=97–98, 339–340}} Several unions launched strikes in response to legislation introduced to limit their power, but resistance eventually collapsed.NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher, 29 October 2008, CNN,weblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2008, Only 39% of union members voted Labour in the 1983 general election.NEWS, Revzin, Philip, British Labor Unions Begin to Toe the Line, Realizing That the Times Have Changed, The Wall Street Journal, 23 November 1984, According to the BBC in 2004, Thatcher "managed to destroy the power of the trade unions for almost a generation".NEWS,weblink Enemies within: Thatcher and the unions, 29 October 2008, 5 March 2004, Wilenius, Paul, BBC News, The miners' strike of 1984–85 was the biggest and most devastating confrontation between the unions and the government under Thatcher.NEWS, Henry, John, When miners took on the government,weblink 5 March 2009, Yorkshire, BBC News, 20 May 2018, In March 1984, the National Coal Board (NCB) proposed to close 20 of the 174 state-owned mines and cut 20,000 jobs out of 187,000.NEWS, Robert, Glass, The Uncivilized Side of Britain Rears its Ugly Head, The Record, 16 December 1984, 37, NEWS, Black, David, Still unbowed, ex-miners to mark 25 years since the start of the strike,weblink The Journal, 21 February 2009, 5 July 2017, {{r|pits-closed}} Two-thirds of the country's miners, led by the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) under Arthur Scargill, downed tools in protest.{{r|Glass}}NEWS,weblink Iron Lady versus union baron, 20 November 2008, 6 March 2004, Hannan, Patrick, Patrick Hannan (presenter), BBC News, NEWS, Alan, Jones, A History of the Miners' Strike, Press Association, 3 March 2009, However, Scargill refused to hold a ballot on the strike,{{sfnp|Adeney|Lloyd|1988|pages=88–89}} having previously lost three ballots on a national strike (in January and October 1982, and March 1983).{{sfnp|Adeney|Lloyd|1988|page=169}} This led to the strike being declared illegal by the High Court of Justice.{{sfnp|Adeney|Lloyd|1988|page=170}}NEWS, 1984: Pit dispute 'illegal' says judge,weblink BBC News, On This Day 1950–2005, 28 September 1984, 26 December 2012, Thatcher refused to meet the union's demands and compared the miners' dispute to the Falklands War, declaring in a speech in 1984: "We had to fight the enemy without in the Falklands. We always have to be aware of the enemy within, which is much more difficult to fight and more dangerous to liberty."{{sfnp|Khabaz|2007|p=226}} Although Thatcher had only described the miners' leaders and left-wing authorities as the "enemy within", her opponents quickly misrepresented it as a reference to all miners and as a sign that she showed contempt for the organised working class. Consequently, the phrase was forever used against her.{{sfnp|Moore|2015|p=164}}After a year out on strike, in March 1985 the NUM leadership conceded without a deal. The cost to the economy was estimated to be at least £1.5 billion, and the strike was blamed for much of the pound's fall against the US dollar.NEWS, Harper, Timothy, Miners return to work today. Bitter coal strike wrenched British economy, society, The Dallas Morning News, 5 March 1985, 8, Thatcher reflected on the end of the strike by saying that "if anyone has won" it was "the miners who stayed at work" and all those "that have kept Britain going".{{sfnp|Moore|2015|p=178}}The government closed 25 unprofitable coal mines in 1985, and by 1992 a total of 97 mines had been closed;{{r|pits-closed}} those that remained were privatised in 1994.NEWS,weblink UK Coal sees loss crumble to £1m, 20 November 2008, 4 March 2004, BBC News, The resulting closure of 150 coal mines, some of which were not losing money, resulted in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs and had the effect of devastating entire communities.NEWS,weblink Watching the pits disappear, 20 November 2008, 5 March 2004, BBC News, Strikes had helped bring down Heath's government, and Thatcher was determined to succeed where he had failed. Her strategy of preparing fuel stocks, appointing hardliner Ian MacGregor as NCB leader, and ensuring that police were adequately trained and equipped with riot gear, contributed to her triumph over the striking miners.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=411}}The number of stoppages across the UK peaked at 4,583 in 1979, when more than 29 million working days had been lost. In 1984, the year of the miners' strike, there were 1,221, resulting in the loss of more than 27 million working days. Stoppages then fell steadily throughout the rest of Thatcher's premiership; in 1990 there were 630 and fewer than 2 million working days lost, and they continued to fall thereafter.{{sfnp|Butler|Butler|1994|p=375}} Thatcher's tenure also witnessed a sharp decline in trade union density, with the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union falling from 57.3% in 1979 to 49.5% in 1985.{{sfnp|Laybourn|1992|page=208}} In 1979 up until Thatcher's final year in office, trade union membership also fell, from 13.5 million in 1979 to fewer than 10 million.{{sfnp|Barrell|1994|p=127}}


File:Margaret Thatcher visiting Salford.jpg|thumb|alt=photograph|Thatcher during a visit to Salford UniversitySalford UniversityThe policy of privatisation has been called "a crucial ingredient of Thatcherism".{{sfnp|Seldon|Collings|2000|p=27}} After the 1983 election the sale of state utilities accelerated;{{sfnp|Feigenbaum|Henig|Hamnett|1998|p=71}} more than £29 billion was raised from the sale of nationalised industries, and another £18 billion from the sale of council houses.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=428}} The process of privatisation, especially the preparation of nationalised industries for privatisation, was associated with marked improvements in performance, particularly in terms of labour productivity.{{sfnp|Parker|Martin|1995}}Some of the privatised industries, including gas, water, and electricity, were natural monopolies for which privatisation involved little increase in competition. The privatised industries that demonstrated improvement sometimes did so while still under state ownership. British Steel Corporation had made great gains in profitability while still a nationalised industry under the government-appointed MacGregor chairmanship, which faced down trade-union opposition to close plants and halve the workforce.ODNB, 69687, Ian MacGregor, Regulation was also significantly expanded to compensate for the loss of direct government control, with the foundation of regulatory bodies such as Oftel (1984), Ofgas (1986), and the National Rivers Authority (1989).{{sfnp|Veljanovski|1990|pp=291–304}} There was no clear pattern to the degree of competition, regulation, and performance among the privatised industries.{{sfnp|Parker|Martin|1995}}In most cases privatisation benefited consumers in terms of lower prices and improved efficiency, but results overall have been mixed.{{sfnp|McAleese|2004|pp=169–70}} Not all privatised companies have had successful share price trajectories in the longer term.NEWS, Simon, Emma, Thatcher's legacy: how has privatisation fared?,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 12 April 2013, 5 July 2017, A 2010 review by the Institute of Economic Affairs states: "it does seem to be the case that once competition and/or effective regulation was introduced, performance improved markedly ... But I hasten to emphasise again that the literature is not unanimous."WEB, A Review of Privatisation and Regulation Experience in Britain,weblink Institute of Economic Affairs, 7 November 2000, 19 February 2018, Thatcher always resisted privatising British Rail and was said to have told Transport Secretary Nicholas Ridley: "Railway privatisation will be the (wikt:Waterloo#Noun|Waterloo) of this government. Please never mention the railways to me again." Shortly before her resignation in 1990, she accepted the arguments for privatisation, which her successor John Major implemented in 1994.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=495}}The privatisation of public assets was combined with financial deregulation in an attempt to fuel economic growth. Chancellor Geoffrey Howe abolished the UK's exchange controls in 1979,WEB, Robertson, Jamie,weblink How the Big Bang changed the City of London for ever, BBC News, 27 October 2016, 19 June 2017, which allowed more capital to be invested in foreign markets, and the Big Bang of 1986 removed many restrictions on the London Stock Exchange.{{r|Robertson}}

Northern Ireland

File:Margaret Thatcher on a visit to Northern Ireland.jpg|thumb|alt=photograph|Margaret and Denis ThatcherDenis ThatcherIn 1980 and 1981, Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) and Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) prisoners in Northern Ireland's Maze Prison carried out hunger strikes in an effort to regain the status of political prisoners that had been removed in 1976 by the preceding Labour government.{{r|strike}} Bobby Sands began the 1981 strike, saying that he would fast until death unless prison inmates won concessions over their living conditions.NEWS,weblink 3 October 1981: IRA Maze hunger strikes at an end, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, 5 January 2008, Thatcher refused to countenance a return to political status for the prisoners, having declared "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political",{{r|strike}} Nevertheless, the British government privately contacted republican leaders in a bid to bring the hunger strikes to an end.NEWS,weblink limited, Was Gerry Adams complicit over hunger strikers?, 20 April 2009, 5 April 2009, The Sunday Times, Clarke, Liam, After the deaths of Sands and nine others, the strike ended. Some rights were restored to paramilitary prisoners, but not official recognition of political status.{{r|CAIN-hs}} Violence in Northern Ireland escalated significantly during the hunger strikes.{{sfnp|English|2005|pp=207–08}}Thatcher narrowly escaped injury in an IRA assassination attempt at a Brighton hotel early in the morning on 12 October 1984.NEWS,weblink 29 October 2008, 12 October 1984: Tory Cabinet in Brighton bomb blast, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, Five people were killed, including the wife of minister John Wakeham. Thatcher was staying at the hotel to prepare for the Conservative Party conference, which she insisted should open as scheduled the following day.{{r|bbc-bomb}} She delivered her speech as planned,{{sfnp|Thatcher|1993|pp=379–383}} though rewritten from her original draft,NEWS, Travis, Alan, Thatcher was to call Labour and miners 'enemy within' in abandoned speech,weblink The Guardian, 3 October 2014, 25 May 2017, in a move that was widely supported across the political spectrum and enhanced her popularity with the public.{{sfnp|Lanoue|Headrick|1998}}On 6 November 1981, Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald had established the Anglo-Irish Inter-Governmental Council, a forum for meetings between the two governments.WEB,weblink The Hunger Strike of 1981{{snd, A Chronology of Main Events|work=Conflict Archive on the Internet|publisher=Ulster University|accessdate=27 January 2011}} On 15 November 1985, Thatcher and FitzGerald signed the Hillsborough Anglo-Irish Agreement, which marked the first time a British government had given the Republic of Ireland an advisory role in the governance of Northern Ireland. In protest, the Ulster Says No movement led by Ian Paisley attracted 100,000 to a rally in Belfast,WEB,weblink Anglo Irish Agreement Chronology, Conflict Archive on the Internet, Ulster University, 27 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2010, Ian Gow, later assassinated by the PIRA, resigned as Minister of State in the HM Treasury,NEWS, 15 November 1985: Anglo-Irish agreement signed,weblink 4 May 2010, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, {{sfnp|Moloney|2002|p=336}} and all 15 Unionist MPs resigned their parliamentary seats; only one was not returned in the subsequent by-elections on 23 January 1986.{{sfnp|Cochrane|2001|p=143}}


Thatcher supported an active climate protection policy;{{refn|group=nb|In retirement, Thatcher became sceptical about her policy, rejecting climate alarmism.NEWS, Booker, Christopher, Christopher Booker,weblink Was Margaret Thatcher the first climate sceptic?, The Daily Telegraph, 12 June 2010, 3 June 2017, }} she was instrumental in the passing of the Environmental Protection Act 1990,{{sfnp|Tewdwr-Jones|2003|page=47}} the founding of the Hadley Centre for Climate Research and Prediction,WEB,weblink Speech opening Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 25 May 1990, 17 June 2017, the establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,WEB, Harrabin, Roger, Roger Harrabin,weblink Margaret Thatcher: How PM legitimised green concerns, BBC News, 8 April 2013, 17 June 2017, and the ratification of the Montreal Protocol on preserving the ozone.WEB, Bourke, India, Will Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan be the unlikely saviours of the world from climate change?,weblink 14 October 2016, New Statesman, 6 December 2018, Thatcher helped to put climate change, acid rain and general pollution in the British mainstream in the late 1980s,{{r|Harrabin}}{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|page=642}} calling for a global treaty on climate change in 1989.WEB,weblink A brief history of climate change, BBC News, 20 September 2013, 17 June 2017, Her speeches included one to the Royal Society in 1988,WEB,weblink Speech to the Royal Society, 27 September 1988, 27 April 2016, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, followed by another to the UN General Assembly in 1989.

Foreign affairs

{{multiple image|direction=vertical|image1=Thatcher at Oval Office desk with Carter.jpg|alt1=photograph of Thatcher and Carter|caption1=Thatcher with President Jimmy Carter in the Oval Office, 1979|image2=Reagan et Thatcher.jpg|alt2=photograph of Thatcher and Reagan|caption2=Thatcher with President Ronald Reagan in the Oval Office, 1988|image3=Thatcher and Bush - 1990 - P14935-18A.jpg|alt3=photograph of Thatcher and Bush|caption3=Thatcher with President George H. W. Bush in Aspen, Colorado, 1990}}Thatcher appointed Lord Carrington, a senior member of the party and former Minister of Defence, as Foreign Minister in 1979.{{sfnp|Sked|Cook|1993|pages=364–422}} Although he was considered a "wet", he avoided domestic affairs and got along well with Thatcher. The first issue was what to do with Rhodesia, where the five-percent white population was determined to rule the prosperous, largely-black ex-colony in the face of overwhelming international disapproval. After the collapse of the Portuguese Empire in Africa in 1975, South Africa, which had been Rhodesia's chief supporter, realised that country was a liability. Black rule was inevitable, and Carrington brokered a peaceful solution at the Lancaster House conference in December 1979, attended by Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith, as well as the key black leaders: Abel Muzorewa, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo and Josiah Tongogara. The conference ended the Rhodesian Bush War. The end result was the new nation of Zimbabwe under black rule in 1980.{{sfnmp|1a1=Lewis|1y=1980|2a1=Soames|2y=1980}}

Cold War

Thatcher's first foreign policy crisis came with the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. She condemned the invasion, said it showed the bankruptcy of a détente policy, and helped convince some British athletes to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. She gave weak support to US President Jimmy Carter who tried to punish the USSR with economic sanctions. Britain's economic situation was precarious, and most of NATO was reluctant to cut trade ties.{{sfnp|Lahey|2013}} The Financial Times reported that her government had secretly supplied Saddam Hussein with military equipment since 1981.WEB, Stothard, Michael, 30 December 2011, UK secretly supplied Saddam,weblink limited, Financial Times, 11 October 2015, NEWS,weblink How £1bn was lost when Thatcher propped up Saddam, 27 February 2003, 2 August 2017, David, Leigh, David Leigh (journalist), Rob, Evans, The Guardian, Thatcher and her government backed the Khmer Rouge keeping their seat in the UN after they were ousted from power in Cambodia by the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Although Thatcher denied it at the time, it was revealed in 1991 that from 1983 the SAS was sent to secretly train the "non-Communist" members of the CGDK to fight against the Vietnamese-backed Kampuchea (PRK) government.HANSARD, House of Commons, 26 October 1990, 655, 667, Cambodia,weblink NEWS, The Observer, Butcher of Cambodia set to expose Thatcher's role, 9 January 2000,weblink 26 May 2011, {{r|newst}} The "non-communist members", such as the Sihanoukists and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front, "were dominated, diplomatically and militarily, by the Khmer Rouge". It was reported that the SAS had taught "the use of improvised explosive devices, booby traps and the manufacture and use of time-delay devices", in what activist Rae McGrath denounced as "a criminally irresponsible and cynical policy".NEWS,weblink How Thatcher gave Pol Pot a hand, 17 April 2000, John, Pilger, John Pilger, New Statesman, 6 November 2016, {{unreliable source?|date=September 2018}}Thatcher was one of the first Western leaders to respond warmly to reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Following Reagan–Gorbachev summit meetings and reforms enacted by Gorbachev in the USSR, she declared in November 1988 that "We're not in a Cold War now", but rather in a "new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was".NEWS,weblink Gorbachev Policy Has Ended The Cold War, Thatcher Says, 18 November 1988, Associated Press, The New York Times, 30 October 2008, She went on a state visit to the Soviet Union in 1984 and met with Gorbachev and Council of Ministers Chairman Nikolai Ryzhkov.{{sfnp|Zemcov|Farrar|2007|page=138}}

Ties with the US

File:Reagan-Thatcher cabinet talks.jpg|thumb|alt=photograph|Thatcher and her cabinet meeting with the Reagan cabinet in the White House Cabinet RoomWhite House Cabinet RoomThatcher became closely aligned with the Cold War policies of US President Ronald Reagan, based on their shared distrust of Communism.{{r|thatcher-cw}} A disagreement came in 1983 when Reagan did not consult with her on the invasion of Grenada.{{sfnp|Williams|2001}}WEB, Obituary: Reagan [Ronald] (1911–2004),weblink The Times, the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 6 June 2004, 5 July 2017, During her first year as Prime Minister she supported NATO's decision to deploy US nuclear cruise and Pershing II missiles in Western Europe,{{r|thatcher-cw}} permitting the US to station more than 160 cruise missiles at RAF Greenham Common, starting in November 1983 and triggering mass protests by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.{{r|thatcher-cw}} She bought the Trident nuclear missile submarine system from the US to replace Polaris, tripling the UK's nuclear forcesNEWS,weblink Trident is go, 16 January 2011, 28 July 1980, Time, at an eventual cost of more than £12 billion (at 1996–97 prices).WEB,weblink Vanguard Class Ballistic Missile Submarine, 16 January 2011, 5 November 1999, Federation of American Scientists, Thatcher's preference for defence ties with the US was demonstrated in the Westland affair of 1985–86, when she acted with colleagues to allow the struggling helicopter manufacturer Westland to refuse a takeover offer from the Italian firm Agusta in favour of the management's preferred option, a link with Sikorsky Aircraft. Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine, who had supported the Agusta deal, resigned from the government in protest.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=419}}In April 1986 she permitted US F-111s to use Royal Air Force bases for the bombing of Libya in retaliation for the alleged Libyan bombing of a Berlin discothèque,NEWS, Lou, Cannon, Lou Cannon, Reagan Acted Upon 'Irrefutable' Evidence,weblink The Washington Post, 15 April 1986, 5 July 2017, citing the right of self-defence under Article 51 of the UN Charter.NEWS, Peter, Riddell, Thatcher Defends US Use Of British Bases in Libya bombing raid, Financial Times, 16 April 1986, 1, {{refn|"The United States has more than 330,000 members of her forces in Europe to defend our liberty. Because they are here, they are subject to terrorist attack. It is inconceivable that they should be refused the right to use American aircraft and American pilots in the inherent right of self-defence, to defend their own people."HANSARD, House of Commons,weblink Engagements: HC Debate, 15 April 1986, 95, 723–728, |group=nb}} Polls suggested that fewer than one in three British citizens approved of her decision.NEWS, Anthony, Lejeune, A friend in need, National Review, 38, 23 May 1986, 27, 1, Thatcher was in the US on a state visit when Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein invaded neighbouring Kuwait in August 1990.WEB, PBS, Oral History: Margaret Thatcher,weblink 1 November 2008, During her talks with President George H. W. Bush, who succeeded Reagan in 1989, she recommended intervention,{{r|gw-pbs}} and put pressure on Bush to deploy troops in the Middle East to drive the Iraqi Army out of Kuwait.NEWS,weblink Abroad at Home; Will Bush Take Real Action?, Lewis, Anthony, Anthony Lewis, 7 August 1992, The New York Times, 1 November 2008, Bush was apprehensive about the plan, prompting Thatcher to remark to him during a telephone conversation: "This was no time to go wobbly!"WEB,weblink Gulf War: Bush–Thatcher phone conversation (no time to go wobbly), 26 August 1990, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 1 November 2008, WEB, Tisdall, Simon, Simon Tisdall, No-nonsense Iron Lady punched above UK's weight on world stage,weblink The Guardian, 8 April 2013, 18 June 2017, Thatcher's government supplied military forces to the international coalition in the build-up to the Gulf War, but she had resigned by the time hostilities began on 17 January 1991.{{sfnp|Aitken|2013|pp=600–601}}NEWS,weblink Thatcher reveals her doubts over basis for Iraq war, Grice, Andrew, 13 October 2005, The Independent, 22 September 2016, She applauded the coalition victory as a backbencher, while warning that "the victories of peace will take longer than the battles of war".WEB,weblink HC I [The Gulf] (liberation of Kuwait), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 28 February 1991, 18 June 2017, It was later disclosed that Thatcher suggested threatening Saddam with chemical weapons after the invasion of Kuwait.NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher suggested threatening Saddam with chemical weapons, BBC News, 20 July 2017, 22 July 2017, NEWS, Mance, Henry, Thatcher wanted to threaten Saddam with chemical weapons,weblink limited, 20 July 2017, Financial Times, 31 July 2017,

Crisis in the Falklands

On 2 April 1982 the ruling military junta in Argentina ordered the invasion of the British possessions of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, triggering the Falklands War.{{sfnp|Smith|1989|p=21}} The subsequent crisis was "a defining moment of [Thatcher's] premiership".{{sfnp|Jackling|2005|p=230}} At the suggestion of Harold Macmillan and Robert Armstrong,{{sfnp|Jackling|2005|p=230}} she set up and chaired a small War Cabinet (formally called ODSA, Overseas and Defence committee, South Atlantic) to oversee the conduct of the war,{{sfnp|Hastings|Jenkins|1983|pp=80–81}} which by 5–6 April had authorised and dispatched a naval task force to retake the islands.{{sfnp|Hastings|Jenkins|1983|p=95}} Argentina surrendered on 14 June and Operation Corporate was hailed a success, notwithstanding the deaths of 255 British servicemen and 3 Falkland Islanders. Argentine fatalities totalled 649, half of them after the nuclear-powered submarine {{HMS|Conqueror|S48|6}} torpedoed and sank the cruiser {{ship|ARA|General Belgrano}} on 2 May.NEWS, The Falklands: 25 years since the Iron Lady won her war,weblink The Times, 15 June 2007, Michael, Evans, limited, 5 July 2017, Thatcher was criticised for the neglect of the Falklands' defence that led to the war, and especially by Tam Dalyell in Parliament for the decision to torpedo the General Belgrano, but overall she was considered a highly capable and committed war leader.{{sfnp|Hastings|Jenkins|1983|pp=335–336}} The "Falklands factor", an economic recovery beginning early in 1982, and a bitterly divided opposition all contributed to Thatcher's second election victory in 1983.{{sfnp|Sanders|Ward|Marsh|1987}} Thatcher frequently referred after the war to the "Falklands spirit";WEB, Jenkins, Simon, Simon Jenkins, Falklands war 30 years on and how it turned Thatcher into a world celebrity,weblink 26 May 2017, The Guardian, 1 April 2012, {{harvtxt|Hastings|Jenkins|1983|p=329}} suggests that this reflected her preference for the streamlined decision-making of her War Cabinet over the painstaking deal-making of peacetime cabinet government.

Negotiating Hong Kong

In September 1982 she visited China to discuss with Deng Xiaoping the sovereignty of Hong Kong after 1997. China was the first communist state Thatcher had visited and she was the first British prime minister to visit China. Throughout their meeting, she sought the PRC's agreement to a continued British presence in the territory. Deng insisted that the PRC's sovereignty on Hong Kong was non-negotiable, but stated his willingness to settle the sovereignty issue with the British government through formal negotiations, and both governments promised to maintain Hong Kong's stability and prosperity.{{sfnp|Yahuda|1996|page=155}} After the two-year negotiations, Thatcher conceded to the PRC government and signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration in Beijing in 1984, agreeing to hand over Hong Kong's sovereignty in 1997.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=116}}

Apartheid in South Africa

Despite saying that she was in favour of "peaceful negotiations" to end apartheid,HANSARD, House of Commons, 25 February 1988, 128, 437, Hansard HC Debs,weblink HANSARD, House of Commons, 11 July 1988, 137, 3, 4W, Written Answers HC Deb,weblink Thatcher opposed sanctions imposed on South Africa by the Commonwealth and the European Economic Community (EEC).{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|p=322}} She attempted to preserve trade with South Africa while persuading the government there to abandon apartheid. This included "[c]asting herself as President Botha's candid friend", and inviting him to visit the UK in 1984,NEWS, Hanning, James,weblink The 'terrorist' and the Tories: What did Nelson Mandela really think of Margaret Thatcher?, The Independent, 8 December 2013, 24 October 2017, in spite of the "inevitable demonstrations" against his government.{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|p=325}} Alan Merrydew of the Canadian broadcaster BCTV News asked Thatcher what her response was "to a reported ANC statement that they will target British firms in South Africa?", to which she later replied: " ... when the ANC says that they will target British companies ... This shows what a typical terrorist organisation it is. I fought terrorism all my life and if more people fought it, and we were all more successful, we should not have it and I hope that everyone in this hall will think it is right to go on fighting terrorism."WEB, Plaut, Martin, Did Margaret Thatcher really call Nelson Mandela a terrorist?,weblink 6 September 2018, New Statesman, 29 August 2018, During his visit to Britain five months after his release from prison, Nelson Mandela praised Thatcher: "She is an enemy of apartheid ... We have much to thank her for."{{r|Hanning}}


{{External media |topic=1988 speech to the College of Europe |video1=SPEECH, Speech to the College of Europe ('The Bruges Speech'),weblink the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, }}Thatcher and her party supported British membership of the EEC in the 1975 national referendum,NEWS,weblink Conservatives favor remaining in market, Wilmington Morning Star, 4 June 1975, United Press International, 26 December 2011, 5, but she believed that the role of the organisation should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that the EEC approach was at odds with her views on smaller government and deregulation.{{sfnp|Senden|2004|p=9}} Her opposition to further European integration became more pronounced during her premiership and particularly after her third government in 1987. During a 1988 speech in Bruges, Thatcher outlined her opposition to proposals from the EEC, forerunner of the European Union, for a federal structure and increased centralisation of decision making.WEB,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 31 October 2008, 20 September 1988, Speech to the College of Europe ('The Bruges Speech'), She remarked: |source=Thatcher in her remarks to the College of Europe}}Thatcher, sharing the concerns of French President François Mitterrand,NEWS, Blitz, James, Mitterrand feared emergence of 'bad' Germans,weblink limited, 9 September 2009, Financial Times, 14 May 2017, was initially opposed to German reunification, telling Gorbachev that it "would lead to a change to postwar borders, and we cannot allow that because such a development would undermine the stability of the whole international situation and could endanger our security". She expressed concern that a united Germany would align itself more closely with the Soviet Union and move away from NATO.{{sfnp|Görtemaker|2006|p=198}} In March 1990, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl reassured Thatcher that he would keep her "informed of all his intentions about unification",WEB, Bowcott, Owen, Kohl offered Thatcher secret access to reunification plans,weblink The Guardian, 30 December 2016, 18 June 2017, and that he was prepared to disclose "matters which even his cabinet would not know".{{r|Bowcott}} In November 1989, Thatcher hailed the fall of the Berlin Wall as "a great day for freedom".WEB,weblink Remarks on the Berlin Wall (fall thereof), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 10 November 1989, 18 June 2017,

Challenges to leadership and resignation

File:Thatcher reviews troops.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=photograph|Thatcher reviewing the Royal Bermuda RegimentRoyal Bermuda RegimentThatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by the little-known backbench MP Sir Anthony Meyer in the 1989 leadership election.NEWS,weblink 1 November 2008, 5 December 1989: Thatcher beats off leadership rival, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, Of the 374 Conservative MPs eligible to vote, 314 voted for Thatcher and 33 for Meyer. Her supporters in the party viewed the result as a success, and rejected suggestions that there was discontent within the party.{{r|89election}}During her premiership Thatcher had the second-lowest average approval rating (40%) of any post-war Prime Minister. Since the resignation of Nigel Lawson as Chancellor in October 1989,{{sfnp|Crewe|1991}} polls consistently showed that she was less popular than her party.NEWS, Ridley, Matt, Matt Ridley, Et Tu, Heseltine?; Unpopularity Was a Grievous Fault, and Thatcher Hath Answered for It,weblinkweblink yes, 31 August 2017, The Washington Post, HighBeam Research, 25 November 1990, 5 July 2017, A self-described conviction politician, Thatcher always insisted that she did not care about her poll ratings and pointed instead to her unbeaten election record.NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, The poll tax incubus, Editorials/Leaders, 24 November 1990, 13, 63872, Opinion polls in September 1990 reported that Labour had established a 14% lead over the Conservatives,{{r|howe}} and by November the Conservatives had been trailing Labour for 18 months.{{r|ridley}} These ratings, together with Thatcher's combative personality and tendency to override collegiate opinion, contributed to discontent within her party.{{r|resign-nyt}}Thatcher removed Geoffrey Howe as Foreign Secretary in July 1989 after he and Lawson had forced her to agree to a plan for Britain to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). Britain joined the ERM in October 1990. On 1 November 1990, Howe, by then the last remaining member of Thatcher's original 1979 cabinet, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister, ostensibly over her open hostility to moves towards European Monetary Union.NEWS,weblink 1 November 2008, 1 November 1990: Howe resigns over Europe policy, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, NEWS, Millership, Peter, Thatcher's Deputy Quits in Row over Europe, Reuters, 1 November 1990, In his resignation speech on 13 November, Howe commented on Thatcher's openly dismissive attitude to the government's proposal for a new European currency competing against existing currencies (a "hard ECU"):NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, Sir Geoffrey Howe savages Prime Minister over European stance in resignation speech, Politics and Parliament, 14 November 1990, 3, 63863, }}Howe's resignation hastened the end to Thatcher's premiership.NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation was fatal blow in Mrs Thatcher's political assassination, Alan Walters, Walters, Alan, News, 5 December 1990, 12, 63881, On 14 November, Michael Heseltine mounted a challenge for the leadership of the Conservative Party.NEWS,weblink Heseltine challenges Thatcher for her job, The Washington Post, Glenn Frankel, Glenn, Frankel, 15 November 1990, 2 August 2017, {{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=473}} Opinion polls had indicated that he would give the Conservatives a national lead over Labour.NEWSPAPER THE TIMES, Poll swing followed downturn by Tories; Conservative Party leadership, David Lipsey, Baron Lipsey, Lipsey, David, News, 21 November 1990, 2, 63869, Although Thatcher led on the first ballot with the votes of 204 Conservative MPs (54.8%) to 152 votes (40.9%) for Heseltine and 16 abstentions, she was four votes short of the required 15% majority. A second ballot was therefore necessary.{{sfnp|Williams|1998|page=66}} Thatcher initially declared her intention to "fight on and fight to win" the second ballot, but consultation with her Cabinet persuaded her to withdraw.NEWS,weblink Change in Britain; Thatcher Says She'll Quit; 11½ Years as Prime Minister Ended by Party Challenge, 1 November 2008, 23 November 1990, The New York Times, Whitney, Craig R., NEWS,weblink 22 November 1990: Thatcher quits as prime minister, 1 November 2008, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, After holding an audience with the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech,WEB,weblink HC S: [Confidence in Her Majesty's Government], 22 November 1990, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 21 March 2017, on 28 November she left Downing Street in tears. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=474}} Her resignation was a shock to many outside Britain, with such foreign observers as Henry Kissinger and Gorbachev expressing private consternation.NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher's resignation shocked politicians in US and USSR, files show, Travis, Alan, The Guardian, 30 December 2016, Thatcher was replaced as Prime Minister and party leader by Chancellor John Major, who prevailed over Heseltine in the subsequent ballot. Major oversaw an upturn in Conservative support in the 17 months leading to the 1992 general election and led the party to a fourth successive victory on 9 April 1992.NEWS,weblink Pollsters taxed, The Guardian, 4 April 2005, 23 January 2011, Kettle, Martin, Martin Kettle, Thatcher favoured Major in the leadership contest, but her support for him waned in later years.NEWS,weblink Major attacks 'warrior' Thatcher, 1 November 2008, 3 October 1999, BBC News,

Later life

File:Margaret Thatcher at the Council.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=photograph|Thatcher speaking in Chicago, IllinoisChicago, IllinoisThatcher returned to the backbenches as a constituency parliamentarian after leaving the premiership.{{sfnp|Reitan|2003|p=118}} Her domestic approval rating recovered after her resignation; the balance of public opinion was that her government had been good for the country.{{sfnp|Crewe|1991}}WEB, Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013),weblink Ipsos MORI, 8 April 2013, 25 May 2017, At the time of her resignation ... 52% of the public said that they thought her government had been good for the country and 40% that it had been bad., Aged 66, she retired from the House at the 1992 general election, saying that leaving the Commons would allow her more freedom to speak her mind.NEWS,weblink 30 June 1992: Thatcher takes her place in Lords, 1 November 2008, On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News,

Post-Commons: 1992–2003

Upon leaving the Commons, Thatcher became the first former Prime Minister to set up a foundation;WEB, Thatcher Archive,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 26 August 2013, the British wing of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation was dissolved in 2005 due to financial difficulties.NEWS,weblink End of an era for Thatcher foundation, Barkham, Patrick, 11 May 2005, The Guardian, 27 April 2013, She wrote two volumes of memoirs, The Downing Street Years (1993) and The Path to Power (1995). In 1991 she and her husband Denis moved to a house in Chester Square, a residential garden square in central London's Belgravia district.NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher's estate still a family secret, 9 April 2013, 14 April 2013, Taylor, Matthew, The Guardian, Thatcher was hired by the tobacco company Philip Morris as a "geopolitical consultant" in July 1992, for $250,000 per year and an annual contribution of $250,000 to her foundation.NEWS, Tobacco Company Hires Margaret Thatcher as Consultant,weblink 25 May 2017, Associated Press, Los Angeles Times, 19 July 1992, Thatcher earned $50,000 for each speech she delivered.NEWS,weblink Into the void, 3 February 2007, 16 January 2011, Harris, John, John Harris (critic), The Guardian, Thatcher became an advocate of Croatian and Slovenian independence.NEWS,weblink TV Interview for HRT (Croatian radiotelevision), 22 December 1991, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 21 March 2011, Commenting on the Yugoslav Wars, in a 1991 interview for Croatian Radiotelevision, she was critical of Western governments for not recognising the breakaway republics of Croatia and Slovenia as independent and for not supplying them with arms after the Serbian-led Yugoslav Army attacked.NEWS,weblink Thatcher Close to Break With Her Replacement, Whitney, Craig R., 24 November 1991, The New York Times, 21 March 2011, In August 1992 she called for NATO to stop the Serbian assault on Goražde and Sarajevo, in order to end ethnic cleansing during the Bosnian War, comparing the situation in Bosnia–Herzegovina to "the barbarities of Hitler's and Stalin's".NEWS, 6 August 1992,weblink Stop the Excuses. Help Bosnia Now, The New York Times, 2 December 2007, Thatcher, Margaret, She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the Maastricht Treaty,{{r|lords}} describing it as "a treaty too far" and stated: "I could never have signed this treaty."WEB, House of Lords European Communities (Amendment) Bill Speech, 7 June 1993,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 9 April 2007, She cited A. V. Dicey when arguing that, as all three main parties were in favour of the treaty, the people should have their say in a referendum.WEB, House of Commons European Community debate, 20 November 1991,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 9 April 2007, Thatcher served as honorary chancellor of the College of William & Mary in Virginia from 1993 to 2000,WEB, Chancellor's Robe,weblink College of William & Mary, 18 January 2010, while also serving as chancellor of the private University of Buckingham from 1992 to 1998,NEWS, Thatcher installed as chancellor of private university, 1 October 1992,weblink The Independent, 12 January 2010, Charles, Oulton, WEB, Kealey, Terence, Terence Kealey,weblink University mourns death of Lady Thatcher,weblink 8 April 2013, 19 August 2013, University of Buckingham, 25 May 2017, a university she had formally opened in 1976 as the former Education Secretary.{{r|Kealey}}After Tony Blair's election as Labour Party leader in 1994, Thatcher praised Blair as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since Hugh Gaitskell", adding: "I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair. I think he genuinely has moved."NEWS, Castle, Stephen, Thatcher praises 'formidable' Blair,weblink The Independent, 28 May 1995, 5 July 2017, Blair responded in kind: "She was a thoroughly determined person, and that is an admirable quality."NEWS, Woodward, Robert, Bob Woodward, Thatcher seen closer to Blair than Major,weblink The Nation, Reuters, London, UK, 15 March 1997, 25 May 2017, In 1998, Thatcher called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations. She cited the help he gave Britain during the Falklands War.NEWS, Pinochet â€“ Thatcher's ally, 22 October 1998,weblink 15 January 2010, BBC News, In 1999, she visited him while he was under house arrest near London.NEWS, Thatcher stands by Pinochet, 26 March 1999,weblink 15 January 2010, BBC News, Pinochet was released in March 2000 on medical grounds by Home Secretary Jack Straw.NEWS, Pinochet set free, 2 March 2000,weblink 15 January 2010, BBC News, File:Margaret Thatcher.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=photograph|Thatcher touring the Kennedy Space CenterKennedy Space CenterAt the 2001 general election, Thatcher supported the Conservative campaign, as she had done in 1992 and 1997, and in the Conservative leadership election following its defeat, she endorsed Iain Duncan Smith over Kenneth Clarke.WEB, Letter supporting Iain Duncan Smith for the Conservative leadership published in the Daily Telegraph, 21 August 2001,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 9 April 2007, In 2002 she encouraged George W. Bush to aggressively tackle the "unfinished business" of Iraq under Saddam Hussein,NEWS, Thatcher, Margaret, 11 February 2002, Advice to a Superpower,weblink The New York Times, 11 October 2015, and praised Blair for his "strong, bold leadership" in standing with Bush in the Iraq War.NEWS, Harnden, Toby, Toby Harnden, 11 December 2002, Thatcher praises Blair for standing firm with US on Iraq,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 11 October 2015, She broached the same subject in her (Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World), which was published in April 2002 and dedicated to Ronald Reagan, writing that there would be no peace in the Middle East until Saddam Hussein was toppled. Her book also said that Israel must trade land for peace, and that the European Union (EU) was a "fundamentally unreformable", "classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure".{{sfnp|Glover|Economides|2010|page=20}} She argued that Britain should renegotiate its terms of membership or else leave the EU and join the North American Free Trade Area.NEWS,weblink Britain must quit EU, says Thatcher, Wintour, Patrick, Patrick Wintour, 18 March 2002, The Guardian, 8 May 2014, Following several small strokes she was advised by her doctors not to engage in further public speaking.PRESS RELEASE, Statement from the office of the Rt Hon Baroness Thatcher LG OM FRS, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 22 March 2002,weblink 9 November 2008, In March 2002 she announced that on doctors' advice she would cancel all planned speaking engagements and accept no more.{{sfnp|Campbell|2003|pp=796–798}}
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}}On 26 June 2003, Thatcher's husband Sir Denis died of pancreatic cancer, and was cremated on 3 July.NEWS,weblink Lady Thatcher bids Denis farewell, 20 January 2011, BBC News, NEWS,weblink Sir Denis Thatcher dies aged 88, Matthew, Tempest, Matthew Tempest, The Guardian, 26 June 2003, 8 August 2017,

Final years: 2003–2013

(File:Margaret Thatcher DF-SD-06-15534.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|alt=photograph|Thatcher arriving for the funeral of President Reagan in 2004)On 11 June 2004, Thatcher (against doctor's orders) attended the state funeral service for Ronald Reagan.NEWS, Thatcher: 'Reagan's life was providential', CNN, 1 November 2008, 11 June 2004,weblink She delivered her eulogy via videotape; in view of her health, the message had been pre-recorded several months earlier.NEWS, Thatcher's final visit to Reagan, 1 November 2008, 10 June 2004,weblink BBC News, NEWS, Russell, Alec, Alec Russell, Sparrow, Andrew, Thatcher's taped eulogy at Reagan funeral,weblink 18 July 2016, The Daily Telegraph, 7 June 2004, Thatcher flew to California with the Reagan entourage, and attended the memorial service and interment ceremony for the president at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.NEWS,weblink 1 November 2008, 12 June 2004, Private burial for Ronald Reagan, BBC News, In 2005, Thatcher criticised the way the decision to invade Iraq had been made two years previously. Although she still supported the intervention to topple Saddam Hussein, she said that (as a scientist) she would always look for "facts, evidence and proof", before committing the armed forces.{{r|grice}} She celebrated her 80th birthday on 13 October at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in Hyde Park, London; guests included the Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Alexandra and Tony Blair.NEWS,weblink Thatcher marks 80th with a speech, 1 November 2008, 13 October 2005, BBC News, Lord (Geoffrey) Howe of Aberavon was also in attendance and said of Thatcher: "Her real triumph was to have transformed not just one party but two, so that when Labour did eventually return, the great bulk of Thatcherism was accepted as irreversible."NEWS,weblink 1 November 2008, 13 October 2005, Birthday tributes to Thatcher, BBC News, Thatcher's daughter Carol n:Margaret Thatcher suffering from dementia, says daughter|first revealed]] that her mother had dementia in 2005,{{r|Langley}} saying "Mum doesn't read much any more because of her memory loss". In her 2008 memoir, Carol wrote that her mother "could hardly remember the beginning of a sentence by the time she got to the end".NEWS, Langley, William, Carol Thatcher, daughter of the revolution,weblink 11 February 2013, The Daily Telegraph, 30 August 2008, She later recounted how she was first struck by her mother's dementia when, in conversation, Thatcher confused the Falklands and Yugoslav conflicts; she recalled the pain of needing to tell her mother repeatedly that her husband Denis was dead.NEWS, Elliott, Francis, Margaret Thatcher's struggle with dementia revealed in daughter's memoir,weblink The Times, 25 August 2008, 7 July 2017, the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, {{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|title=Thatcher in the US, 2006|image1=Thatcher 2006 September 11 event.jpg|alt1=Thatcher photographed standing with Dick and Lynne Cheney|caption1=Thatcher (left) at a Washington memorial service on the fifth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks|image2=Margaret Thatcher 060912-F-0193C-006.jpg|alt2=Thatcher photographed sharing a laugh with Rumsfeld and Pace|caption2=Thatcher with Donald Rumsfeld and General Pace at the Pentagon}}In 2006, Thatcher attended the official Washington, D.C. memorial service to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the 11 September attacks on the US. She was a guest of Vice President Dick Cheney, and met Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice during her visit.WEB, 9/11 Remembrance Honors Victims from More Than 90 Countries, 1 November 2008, US Department of State, 11 September 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2006, In February 2007 Thatcher became the first living British prime minister to be honoured with a statue in the Houses of Parliament. The bronze statue stands opposite that of her political hero, Sir Winston Churchill,{{r|bronze}} and was unveiled on 21 February 2007 with Thatcher in attendance; she remarked in the Members' Lobby of the Commons: "I might have preferred iron{{snd}}but bronze will do ... It won't rust."NEWS, 21 February 2007,weblink Iron Lady is honoured in bronze, 9 April 2007, BBC News, Thatcher was a public supporter of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism and the resulting Prague Process, and sent a public letter of support to its preceding conference.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, 9 June 2008, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation,weblink 13 May 2011, yes, 24 October 2011, After collapsing at a House of Lords dinner, Thatcher, suffering low blood pressure,NEWS, Moore, Charles, Thatcher risks becoming a national treasure,weblink 9 March 2008, 31 May 2017, The Daily Telegraph, was admitted to St Thomas' Hospital in central London on 7 March 2008 for tests. In 2009 she was hospitalised again when she fell and broke her arm.NEWS,weblink Lady Thatcher treated after fall, BBC News, 12 June 2009, 20 April 2013, Thatcher returned to 10 Downing Street in late November 2009 for the unveiling of an official portrait by artist Richard Stone,NEWS, Margaret Thatcher returns to Downing Street, The Daily Telegraph,weblink 23 November 2009, an unusual honour for a living former Prime Minister. Stone was previously commissioned to paint portraits of the Queen and Queen Mother.{{r|ThatcherReturns}}On 4 July 2011, Thatcher was to attend a ceremony for the unveiling of a {{convert|10|ft|m|abbr=on}} statue to Ronald Reagan, outside the US Embassy in London, but was unable to attend due to her frail health.NEWS,weblink Ronald Reagan statue unveiled at US Embassy in London, BBC News, 4 July 2011, She last attended a sitting of the House of Lords on 19 July 2010,{{sfnp|UK Parliament|2013}} and on 30 July 2011 it was announced that her office in the Lords had been closed.NEWS, Walker, Tim,weblink Baroness Thatcher's office is closed, 30 July 2011, 21 August 2011, The Daily Telegraph, Earlier that month, Thatcher was named the most competent Prime Minister of the past 30 years in an Ipsos MORI poll.NEWS,weblink limited, Thatcher heads poll of most competent PMs, Stacey, Kiran, 3 July 2011, 31 July 2011, Financial Times,

Death and funeral: 2013

File:Margaret Thatcher coffin at St. Pauls X8A2604.jpg|thumb|left|alt=photograph|Thatcher's coffin being carried up the steps of St Paul's CathedralSt Paul's CathedralBaroness Thatcher died on 8 April 2013, at the age of 87, after suffering a stroke. She had been staying at a suite in the Ritz Hotel in London since December 2012 after having difficulty with stairs at her Chester Square home in Belgravia.NEWS, Swinford, Steven,weblink Margaret Thatcher: final moments in hotel without her family by her bedside, The Daily Telegraph, 8 April 2013, Her death certificate listed the primary causes of death as a "cerebrovascular accident" and "repeated transient ischaemic attack";NEWS, Mason, Rowena, Margaret Thatcher described as 'retired stateswoman' on death certificate,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 16 April 2013, 11 June 2017, secondary causes were listed as a "carcinoma of the bladder" and dementia.{{r|Mason}}q:Death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher|Reactions to the news of Thatcher's death]] were mixed across the UK, ranging from tributes lauding her as Britain's greatest-ever peacetime Prime Minister to public celebrations of her death and expressions of hatred and personalised vitriol.NEWS, Burns, John F., John Fisher Burns, Cowell, Alan, Alan Cowell,weblink limited, Parliament Debates Thatcher Legacy, as Vitriol Flows Online and in Streets, The New York Times, 10 April 2013, 25 April 2013, File:MTgrave1.jpeg|thumb|alt=photograph|Graves of Margaret and Denis Thatcher at the Royal Hospital ChelseaRoyal Hospital ChelseaDetails of Thatcher's funeral had been agreed with her in advance.NEWS, Wright, Oliver, Funeral will be a 'ceremonial' service in line with Baroness Thatcher's wishes,weblink 12 April 2013, The Independent, 8 April 2013, She received a ceremonial funeral, including full military honours, with a church service at St Paul's Cathedral on 17 April.NEWS,weblink Ex-Prime Minister Baroness Thatcher dies, aged 87, 8 April 2013, BBC News, NEWS, Margaret Thatcher funeral set for next week,weblink 9 April 2013, BBC News, Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh attended her funeral,NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher: Queen leads mourners at funeral, BBC News, 17 April 2013, 4 May 2013, marking only the second time in the Queen's reign that she attended the funeral of any of her former prime ministers; the first and only precedent being that of Winston Churchill, who received a state funeral in 1965.NEWS, Davies, Caroline,weblink Queen made personal decision to attend Lady Thatcher's funeral, The Guardian, 10 April 2013, 3 May 2013, After the service at St Paul's Cathedral, Thatcher's body was cremated at Mortlake Crematorium, where her husband had been cremated. On 28 September, a service for Thatcher was held in the All Saints Chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea's Margaret Thatcher Infirmary. In a private ceremony, Thatcher's ashes were interred in the grounds of the hospital, next to those of her husband.NEWS, Baroness Thatcher's ashes laid to rest,weblink 28 September 2013, The Daily Telegraph, NEWS, Margaret Thatcher's ashes laid to rest at Royal Hospital Chelsea,weblink 28 September 2013, BBC News,


Political impact

{{Thatcherism}}Thatcherism represented a systematic and decisive overhaul of the post-war consensus, whereby the major political parties largely agreed on the central themes of Keynesianism, the welfare state, nationalised industry, and close regulation of the economy, and high taxes. Thatcher generally supported the welfare state, while proposing to rid it of abuses.{{sfnp|Moore|2013|page=87|ps=: "Neither at the beginning of her career nor when she was prime minister, did Margaret Thatcher ever reject the wartime foundations of the welfare state, whether in health, social policy or education. In this she was less radical than her critics or some of her admirers supposed. Her concern was to focus more on abuse of the system, on bureaucracy and union militancy, and on the growth of what later came to be called the dependency culture, rather than on the system itself."}}She promised in 1982 that the highly popular National Health Service was "safe in our hands".{{sfnp|Klein|1985}} At first she ignored the question of privatising nationalised industries. Heavily influenced by right-wing think tanks, and especially by Keith Joseph,{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=358}} Thatcher broadened her attack. Thatcherism came to refer to her policies as well as aspects of her ethical outlook and personal style, including moral absolutism, nationalism, interest in the individual, and an uncompromising approach to achieving political goals.ENCYCLOPAEDIA,weblink Young, Hugo, Hugo Young, Margaret Thatcher profile, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., 30 October 2008, NEWS, Margaret Thatcher: the economic achievements and legacy of Thatcherism,weblink Bootle, Roger, Roger Bootle, The Daily Telegraph, 8 April 2013, 24 July 2017, {{refn|{{harvtxt|Lawson|1992|p=64}} lists the Thatcherite ideals as "a mixture of free markets, financial discipline, firm control over public expenditure, tax cuts, nationalism, 'Victorian values' (of the Samuel Smiles self-help variety), privatisation and a dash of populism".|group=nb}}Thatcher defined her own political philosophy in a major and controversial break with the one-nation conservatism of Edward Heath{{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|pages=530–532}} and her predecessors in an interview published in Woman's Own magazine, three months after her victory in the 1987 general election:}}


The number of adults owning shares rose from 7 per cent to 25 per cent during her tenure, and more than a million families bought their council houses, giving an increase from 55 per cent to 67 per cent in owner occupiers from 1979 to 1990. The houses were sold at a discount of 33–55 per cent, leading to large profits for some new owners. Personal wealth rose by 80 per cent in real terms during the 1980s, mainly due to rising house prices and increased earnings. Shares in the privatised utilities were sold below their market value to ensure quick and wide sales, rather than maximise national income.{{sfnp|Marr|2007|p=430}}NEWS,weblink What is Thatcherism?, BBC News, 10 April 2013, 2 August 2017, The "Thatcher years" were also marked by periods of high unemployment and social unrest,NEWS, Evaluating Thatcher's legacy,weblink BBC News, 4 May 2004, 11 April 2013, WEB, The Thatcher years in statistics,weblink 9 April 2013, BBC News, 6 January 2019, and many critics on the left of the political spectrum fault her economic policies for the unemployment level; many of the areas affected by mass unemployment as well as her monetarist economic policies remained blighted for decades, by such social problems as drug abuse and family breakdown.{{sfnp|Richards|2004|p=63}} Unemployment did not fall below its May 1979 level during her tenure,NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher: How the economy changed, 8 April 2013, BBC News, 5 November 2016, only marginally falling below its April 1979 level in 1990.WEB, Denman, James, McDonald, Paul,weblink Unemployment statistics from 1881 to the present day, January 1996, 16 May 2017, Government Statistical Service, 7, The long-term effects of her policies on manufacturing remain contentious.NEWS, Industrialists split over Thatcher legacy,weblink limited, Financial Times, 13 November 2016, {{sfnp|Campbell|2011a|page=79}}Speaking in Scotland in 2009, Thatcher insisted she had no regrets and was right to introduce the "poll tax" and withdraw subsidies from "outdated industries, whose markets were in terminal decline", subsidies that created "the culture of dependency, which had done such damage to Britain".NEWS, Margaret Thatcher: I did right by Scots,weblink The Sunday Times, 26 April 2009, Jason, Allardyce, limited, 5 July 2017, Political economist Susan Strange termed the neoliberal financial growth model "casino capitalism", reflecting her view that speculation and financial trading were becoming more important to the economy than industry.{{sfnp|Gamble|2009|p=16}}Critics on the left describe her as divisiveNEWS,weblink BBC News, Who has been UK's greatest post-war PM?, 16 September 2008, 16 April 2011, and claim she condoned greed and selfishness.{{r|legacy-bbc}} Leading Welsh politician Rhodri Morgan,NEWS, Margaret Thatcher: A 'Marmite' prime minister, says Rhodri Morgan,weblink BBC News, 8 April 2013, 11 April 2017, among others,{{sfnmp|1a1=West|1y=2012|1p=176|2a1=Blundell|2y=2013|2p=88}} characterised Thatcher as a "Marmite" figure. Journalist Michael White, writing in the aftermath of the 2007–08 financial crisis, challenged the view that her reforms were still a net benefit.MAGAZINE, Her 'freer, more promiscuous version of capitalism' (in Hugo Young's phrase) is reaping a darker harvest., Michael, White, The making of Maggie,weblink New Statesman, 26 February 2009, 11 April 2017, Others consider her approach to have been "a mixed bag"{{sfnp|Rothbard|1995|loc=chpt. 63}}WEB, The economic legacy of Mrs. Thatcher is a mixed bag, Van Reenen, John, John Van Reenen (economist),weblink London School of Economics, 10 April 2013, 11 April 2017, and "[a] Curate's egg".{{sfnp|Johnson|1991|loc=chpt. 8}}Thatcher did "little to advance the political cause of women" either within her party or the government.{{sfnp|Evans|2004|p=25}} {{harvtxt|Burns|2009|p=234}} states that some British feminists regarded her as "an enemy". {{harvtxt|Purvis|2013}} claims that, although Thatcher had struggled laboriously against the sexist prejudices of her day to rise to the top, she made no effort to ease the path for other women. Thatcher did not regard women's rights as requiring particular attention as she did not, especially during her premiership, consider that women were being deprived of their rights. She had once suggested the shortlisting of women by default for all public appointments, yet had also proposed that those with young children ought to leave the work force.{{sfnp|Gelb|1989|pages=58–59}}Thatcher's stance on immigration in the late 1970s was perceived as part of a rising racist public discourse,{{sfnp|Witte|2014|page=54}} which {{harvtxt|Barker|1981}} terms "new racism".{{sfnp|Chin|2009|p=92}} In opposition, Thatcher believed that the National Front (NF) was winning over large numbers of Conservative voters with warnings against floods of immigrants. Her strategy was to undermine the NF narrative by acknowledging that many of their voters had serious concerns in need of addressing. In 1978 she criticised Labour immigration policy with the goal of attracting voters away from the NF and to the Conservatives.{{sfnp|Witte|2014|pages=53–54}} Her rhetoric was followed by an increase in Conservative support at the expense of the NF. Critics on the left accused her of pandering to racism.{{sfnp|Friedman|2006|page=13}}{{refn|group=nb|{{harvtxt|Mitchell|Russell|1989}} argues that Thatcher had been badly misinterpreted and that race was never an important focus of Thatcherism. Throughout her tenure, the Labour and Conservative parties took similar positions on immigration policy;{{sfnmp|1a1=Ward|1y=2004|1p=128|2a1=Vinen|2y=2009|2pp=227, 279}} the British Nationality Act was passed with bipartisan support in 1981.{{sfnp|Hansen|2000|pages=207–208}} There were no policies passed or proposed by the Thatcher government aimed at restricting legal immigration, and the subject of race was never highlighted by Thatcher in any of her major speeches as Prime Minister.{{sfnp|Anwar|2001}}}}Many Thatcherite policies had an influence on the Labour Party,NEWS, Kampfner, John, John Kampfner,weblink Margaret Thatcher, inspiration to New Labour, 17 April 2008, The Daily Telegraph, 12 May 2017, {{sfnp|Seldon|2007|page=14}} which returned to power in 1997 under Tony Blair. Blair rebranded the party "New Labour" in 1994 with the aim of increasing its appeal beyond its traditional supporters,NEWS, Assinder, Nick,weblink How Blair recreated Labour, 10 May 2007, BBC News, 18 May 2017, and to attract those who had supported Thatcher, such as the "Essex man".NEWS, Smith, Jodie,weblink 'Essex Man' 2015: Does the Thatcher-era stereotype still pack a political punch?, 30 March 2015, BBC News, 17 May 2017, Thatcher is said to have regarded the "New Labour" rebranding as her greatest achievement.NEWS, McSmith, Andy, Andy McSmith, Chu, Ben, Garner, Richard,weblink Margaret Thatcher's legacy: Spilt milk, New Labour, and the Big Bang{{snd, she changed everything|date=8 April 2013|newspaper=The Independent|accessdate=30 December 2016}}Shortly after Thatcher's death in 2013, Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond argued that her policies had the "unintended consequence" of encouraging Scottish devolution.NEWS,weblink First Minister: Her policies made Scots believe that devolution was essential, The Herald, Robbie, Dinwoodie, 9 April 2013, 9 April 2013, Lord Foulkes of Cumnock agreed on Scotland Tonight that she had provided "the impetus" for devolution.WEB,weblink Scotland Tonight, 8 April 2013, STV Player, 9 April 2013, Writing for The Scotsman, Thatcher had argued against devolution on the basis that it would eventually lead to Scottish independence.WEB, Article for the Scotsman (devolution referendum), 9 September 1997,weblink Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 11 June 2017,


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}}Thatcher's tenure of 11 years and 209 days as Prime Minister was the longest since Lord Salisbury (13 years and 252 days, in three spells) and the longest continuous period in office since Lord Liverpool (14 years and 305 days).{{sfnp|Gardiner|Thompson|2013|page=12}}NEWS, Mackay, Robert,weblink Thatcher longest serving British prime minister, United Press International, 28 December 1987, 26 June 2017, She remains the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such, as the post was only officially given recognition in the order of precedence in 1905.{{sfnp|Marriott|1923|page=83}}Having led the Conservative Party to victory in three consecutive general elections, twice in a landslide, she ranks among the most popular party leaders in British history in terms of votes cast for the winning party; over 40 million ballots were cast in total for the Conservatives under her leadership.WEB, UK General Election May 1979: Results and statistics, Kimber, Richard,weblink Political Science Resources, 19 March 2017, WEB, General Election Results, 9 June 1983,weblink UK Parliament, 31 December 2016, WEB, General Election Results, 11 June 1987,weblink UK Parliament, 31 December 2016, Her electoral successes were dubbed a "historic (wikt:hat trick|hat trick)" by the British press in 1987.{{YouTube|id=P0p5r_ibGT4|title="UK General Election Results"}}{{Retrieved|prepend=.{{sp}}|accessdate=21 March 2017|note=Broadcast 12 June 1987}}Thatcher ranked highest among living persons in the 2002 BBC poll 100 Greatest Britons.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2002, Great Britons{{snd, Top 100|magazine=BBC History|accessdate=11 April 2013 }} In 1999, Time deemed Thatcher one of the (Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century|100 most important people of the 20th century).NEWS, Margaret Thatcher{{snd, Time 100 People of the Century|url=,9171,26473,00.html|magazine=Time|first=Joshua|last=Quittner|authorlink=Josh Quittner|date=14 April 1999|accessdate=22 December 2012}} In 2015 she topped a poll by Scottish Widows, a major financial services company, as the most influential woman of the past 200 years;NEWS, Boult, Adam, Margaret Thatcher voted most influential woman of past 200 years,weblink 30 December 2016, The Daily Telegraph, 1 December 2015, and in 2016 topped BBC Radio 4's Woman's Hour Power List of women judged to have had the biggest impact on female lives over the past 70 years.WEB, Woman's Hour{{snd, The 7 women who've changed women's lives{{snd}}BBC Radio 4|url=|publisher=BBC|accessdate=15 December 2016|quote=Topping the 2016 Power List{{snd}}in our only ranked position{{snd}}is the UK's first female Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.}}NEWS,weblink Margaret Thatcher tops Woman's Hour Power List, 14 December 2016, BBC News, Despite a relatively poor average poll rating as Prime Minister,{{r|Ipsos}} Thatcher has since ranked highly in retrospective opinion polling and, according to YouGov, she is "see[n] in overall positive terms" by the British public.WEB, Smith, Matthew, David Cameron was the best Prime Minister since Thatcher,weblink 10 August 2016, YouGov, 7 December 2018, She was voted the fourth-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by MORI.WEB,weblink Rating British Prime Ministers, Ipsos MORI, 24 August 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2011, y,

Cultural depictions

According to theatre critic Michael Billington,WEB,weblink Events: Michael Billington: 'State of the Nation', 8 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2008, yes, Thatcher left an "emphatic mark" on the arts while Prime Minister.NEWS, Billington, Michael, Margaret Thatcher casts a long shadow over theatre and the arts,weblink The Guardian, 8 April 2013, 8 May 2017, One of the earliest satires of Thatcher as Prime Minister involved satirist John Wells (as writer and performer), actress Janet Brown (voicing Thatcher) and future Spitting Image producer John Lloyd (as co-producer), who in 1979 were teamed up by producer Martin Lewis for the satirical audio album The Iron Lady, which consisted of skits and songs satirising Thatcher's rise to power. The album was released in September 1979.NEWS,weblink 'I'm There' song reissue mocks Margaret Thatcher on day of funeral, USA Today, 16 April 2013, 25 April 2013, NEWS, Lewis, Randy,weblink Album skewering Margaret Thatcher to be reissued on April 17, Los Angeles Times, 16 April 2013, 25 April 2013, Thatcher was the subject or the inspiration for 1980s protest songs. Musicians Billy Bragg and Paul Weller helped to form the Red Wedge collective to support Labour in opposition to Thatcher.NEWS,weblink Rocking against Thatcher, BBC News, 4 May 2004, Heard, Chris, 2 August 2011, Known as "Maggie" by supporters and opponents alike, the chant song "Maggie Out" became a signature rallying cry among the left during the latter half of her premiership.{{sfnmp|1a1=Vinen|1y=2009|1pp=1947–1948|2a1=Barr|2y=2013|2pp=178, 235}}Thatcher was parodied by Wells in several media. He collaborated with Richard Ingrams on the spoof "Dear Bill" letters, which ran as a column in Private Eye magazine; they were also published in book form and became a West End stage revue titled Anyone for Denis?, with Wells in the role of Denis Thatcher. It was followed by a 1982 TV special directed by Dick Clement, in which Thatcher was played by Angela Thorne.WEB, Anyone for Denis?,weblink British Film Institute, 19 January 2011, Since her resignation as Prime Minister in 1990, Thatcher has been portrayed in a number of television programmes, documentaries, films and plays.NEWS, Chilton, Martin,weblink People who have played Margaret Thatcher, The Daily Telegraph, London, UK, 8 February 2011, 15 April 2017, She was portrayed by Patricia Hodge in Ian Curteis's long unproduced The Falklands Play (2002) and by Andrea Riseborough in the TV film The Long Walk to Finchley (2008). She is the protagonist in two films, played by Lindsay Duncan in Margaret (2009) and by Meryl Streep in The Iron Lady (2011),NEWS,weblink Image of Meryl Streep as Margaret Thatcher unveiled, 9 February 2011, 8 February 2011, BBC News, in which she is depicted as suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's disease.WEB, Steinberg, Julie,weblink 'The Iron Lady' Draws Fire For Depicting Margaret Thatcher With Alzheimer's, The Wall Street Journal, 22 December 2011, 28 February 2012,

Titles, awards and honours

File:Margaret Thatcher awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom.jpg|thumb|alt=photograph|Thatcher receiving the Presidential Medal of FreedomPresidential Medal of FreedomThatcher became a Privy Councillor (PC) upon becoming Secretary of State for Education and Science in 1970.WEB, Gay, Oonagh, Rees, Anwen, The Privy Council, Parliament and Constitution Centre, House of Commons Library, 5 July 2005,weblink 27 February 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2011, She was the first woman entitled to full membership rights as an honorary member of the Carlton Club on becoming Leader of the Conservative Party in 1975.NEWS, The Sunday Times, Carlton Club to vote on women, Jon, Ungoed-Thomas, 8 February 1998, As Prime Minister, Thatcher received two honorary distinctions:
  • {{Timeline-event |date= |event=Honorary Fellowship (Hon.) of the Royal Institute of Chemistry (FRIC),WEB,weblink Speech to the Chemical Society and the Royal Institute of Chemistry (honorary fellowship), Margaret Thatcher Foundation, 24 October 1979, 25 April 2016, which was merged into the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC) the following year;WEB, Our origins,weblink Royal Society of Chemistry, 11 September 2018, 2016-03-18, dmy-all, }}
  • {{Timeline-event |date= |event=Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS), a point of controversy among some of the then-existing Fellows.{{sfnp|New Scientist|1983}}}}
{{multiple image|title=Orders of chivalry|align=righttotal_width=185|image1=Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png|alt1=Ribbon of the Order of the GarterOrder of the Garter>{{flagiconsize=20px}} 1995}}|image2=Ord.GoodHope-ribbon.gif|alt2=Ribbon of the Order of Good HopeOrder of Good Hope>{{flagicon1982|size=20px}} 1991}}|image3=Order of Merit (Commonwealth realms) ribbon.png|alt3=Ribbon of the Order of MeritOrder of Merit>{{flagiconsize=20px}} 1990}}|image4=Order of St John (UK) ribbon -vector.svg|alt4=Ribbon of the Order of St JohnOrder of Saint John (chartered 1888)>{{flagiconsize=20px}} 1991}}|footer=These are the ribbons of each order bestowed upon Thatcher.}}Two weeks after her resignation, Thatcher was appointed Member of the Order of Merit (OM) by the Queen. Her husband Denis was made a hereditary baronet at the same time.{{London Gazette|issue=52360|page=19066|date=11 December 1990|nolink=yes}} As his wife, Thatcher was entitled to use the honorific style "Lady",WEB, Family of a Baronet, Debrett's,weblink 2 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2015, an automatically conferred title that she declined to use.NEWS, Tuohy, William, William Tuohy, It's Now 'Lady Thatcher', but She'll Stick With 'Mrs.',weblink 5 March 2017, London, UK, Los Angeles Times, 8 December 1990, NEWS, Headliners; Call Her Mrs.,weblink 23 April 2017, The New York Times, 9 December 1990, NEWS, Orth, Maureen, Maureen Orth, Maggie's Big Problem,weblink 11 April 2017, Vanity Fair, June 1991, Since he was now a baronet, might she care to be known as Lady Thatcher?, She became Lady Thatcher in her own right upon her ennoblement in the House of Lords.NEWS, Tuohy, William, 'Iron Lady' Is Made Baroness Thatcher,weblink 11 April 2017, London, UK, Los Angeles Times, 6 June 1992, In the Falklands, Margaret Thatcher Day has been marked each 10 January since 1992,NEWS, Falklands to make 10 January Thatcher Day, Reuters, 6 January 1992, commemorating her first visit to the Islands in January 1983, six months after the end of the Falklands War in June 1982.WEB,weblink Margaret Thatcher in Falkland Islands after Argentina's surrender, 1983, Rare Historical Photos, 9 October 2016, 2014-08-08, dmy-all, Thatcher became a member of the Lords in 1992 with a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire.{{r|lords}}{{London Gazette|issue=52978|page=11045|date=26 June 1992|nolink=yes}} Subsequently, the College of Arms granted her usage of a personal coat of arms; she was allowed to revise these arms upon her appointment as Lady of the Order of the Garter (LG) in 1995, the highest order of chivalry for women.{{London Gazette|issue=54017|page=6023|date=25 April 1995|nolink=yes}}{| class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="font-size:95%; margin:auto; text-align:center" Coats of arms of Baroness Thatcher
Order of the Garter>Garter appointment style="width:0.2em;"|Post{{ndash}}Garter appointment
(File:Coat of Arms of Margaret Thatcher, The Baroness Thatcher (1992–1995).svgillustration)(File:Coat of Arms of Margaret Thatcher, The Baroness Thatcher (1995–2013).svgillustration){{pad150px|illustration of variant)
|Lozenge (heraldry)>Lozenge: 1995–2013Escutcheon (heraldry)>Escutcheon: 1995–2013
In the US, Thatcher received the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award,WEB,weblink The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award, Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation, 19 July 2017, and was later designated Patron of The Heritage Foundation in 2006,REPORT,weblink Jim DeMint on Lady Thatcher, The Heritage Foundation, 27 April 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2016, WEB,weblink Baroness Thatcher, The Heritage Foundation, 20 July 2017, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2013, where she established the Margaret Thatcher Center for Freedom.NEWS, Honoring the Iron Lady, Ileana, Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen,weblink The Washington Times, 13 September 2006, 22 April 2018,

Styles of address

{{Div col}}
  • 1925{{ndash}}1951: Miss Margaret Roberts
  • 1951{{ndash}}1959: Mrs Margaret Thatcher
  • 1959{{ndash}}1970: Mrs Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|MP}}
  • 1970{{ndash}}1979: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|MP}}
  • 1979{{ndash}}1980: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|MP|HonFRIC}}
  • 1980{{ndash}}1983: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|MP|HonFRSC}}
  • 1983{{ndash}}1990: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|MP|FRS|HonFRSC}}
  • 1990{{ndash}}1991: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|OM|MP|FRS|HonFRSC}}
  • 1991{{ndash}}1992: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|OM|DStJ|MP|FRS|HonFRSC}}
  • 1992: The Rt Hon Margaret Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|OM|DStJ|FRS|HonFRSC}}
  • 1992{{ndash}}1995: The Rt Hon The Baroness Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|OM|DStJ|PC|FRS|HonFRSC}}
  • 1995{{ndash}}2013: The Rt Hon The Baroness Thatcher {{post-nominals|country=GBR|LG|OM|DStJ|PC|FRS|HonFRSC}}
{{Div col end}}

Published works

  • BOOK, Thatcher, Margaret, (1993), The Downing Street Years, The Downing Street Years, HarperCollins, 978-0-00-255049-9,
  • BOOK, Thatcher, Margaret, (1995), The Path to Power, The Path to Power (Margaret Thatcher), HarperCollins, 978-0-00-255050-5,
  • BOOK, Thatcher, Margaret, (2003), Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World, Harper Perennial, 978-0-06-095912-8,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Margaret Thatcher}}







  • BOOK

, harv
, Adeney, Martin
, Lloyd, John, John Lloyd (journalist)
, 1988
, The Miners' Strike 1984–85: Loss Without Limit
, Routledge
, 978-0-7102-1371-6,

, harv
, Agar, Jon
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, Thatcher, scientist
, Notes and Records
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, 10.1098/2010.0096, 2019-01-13, dmy-all,
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, harv
, Aitken, Jonathan, Jonathan Aitken
, 2013
, Margaret Thatcher: Power and Personality
, {{Google books, HW-rAAAAQBAJ, yes,
|publisher=A & C Black

, harv
, Anwar, Muhammad
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, The participation of ethnic minorities in British politics
, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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, 10.1080/136918301200266220,
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, harv
, Atkinson, Max, Max Atkinson
, 1984
, Our Masters' Voices: The Language and Body Language of Politics
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, harv
, Barker, Martin
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, The New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe
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, Barr, Damian, Damian Barr
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, Maggie and Me
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, Barrell, Ray
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, The UK Labour Market: Comparative Aspects and Institutional Developments
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, Beckett, Andy, Andy Beckett
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, harv
, Beckett, Clare
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, The 20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century: Thatcher
, {{Google books, QeIHpjNolKAC, yes,
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, harv
, Bern, Paula
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, How to Work for a Woman Boss, Even If You'd Rather Not
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, Blundell, John, John Blundell (economist)
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, Margaret Thatcher: A Portrait of the Iron Lady
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, {{harvid, Blundell, 2013,
|last=Blundell |first=John |author-mask=(2013)
|title=Remembering Margaret Thatcher: Commemorations, Tributes, and Assessments
|url={{Google books|4MYn9j-gftAC|plainurl=yes}}
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, harv
, Burns, William E.
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, Butler, David, David Butler (psephologist), 1
, Kavanagh, Dennis, Dennis Kavanagh
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, The British General Election of 1979
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, {{harvid, Butler, Butler, 1994,
|last=Butler |first=David |author-mask=(1994)
|title=British Political Facts 1900–1994
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, harv
, Byrd, Peter
, 1988
, British Foreign Policy under Thatcher
, St. Martin's Press
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, Campbell, John, John Campbell (biographer)
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, Margaret Thatcher: The Grocer's Daughter
, 1
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, {{harvid, Campbell, 2003,
|last=Campbell |first=John |author-mask=(2003)
|title=Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady
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, {{harvid, Campbell, 2011a,
|last=Campbell |first=John |author-mask=(2011a)
|title=Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady
|url={{Google books|RfHYhcFWbm4C|plainurl=yes}}
|publisher=Random House
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, {{harvid, Campbell, 2011b,
|last=Campbell |first=John |author-mask=(2011b)
|editor-last=Freeman |editor-first=David
|title=The Iron Lady: Margaret Thatcher, from Grocer's Daughter to Prime Minister
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, harv
, Childs, David, David Childs (academic)
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, Cochrane, Feargal
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, harv
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, Cowley, Philip, Philip Cowley
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, {{harvid, New Scientist, 1983,
|date=1983-07-07 |df=dmy
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, harv
, Crewe, Ivor, Ivor Crewe
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, 2017-03-01, dmy-all
, The Public Perspective
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, Dale, Iain, Iain Dale
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, English, Richard, Richard English
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, Gelb, Joyce
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, Görtemaker, Manfred
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External links

{{Sister project links|s=Author:Margaret Thatcher}}
  • Margaret Thatcher Centre
  • Margaret Thatcher Foundation
  • {{Hansard-contribs | mrs-margaret-thatcher | Margaret Thatcher }}
  • {{Internet Archive author |sname=Margaret Thatcher}}
  • {{Library resources about}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=3625}}
  • {{UK National Archives ID}}
  • {{C-SPAN|margaretthatcher}}
  • {{IMDb name|0857137}}
  • {{Guardian topic}}
  • {{NYTtopic|people/t/margaret_h_thatcher}}
  • {{NPG name|05827}}
  • NEWS,weblink Obituary: Margaret Thatcher, BBC News,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2013, no, 2013-04-08, dmy-all,
  • SERIAL,weblink Val Meets ... Margaret Thatcher, Val Meets The VIPs, Val Meets The VIPs, BBC iPlayer, 1, 7 March 1973, I don't think there will be a woman Prime Minister in my lifetime.,
  • WEB,weblink History of Baroness Margaret Thatcher,,weblink 5 October 2013, no,
  • ARCHIVE,weblink Records of the Prime Minister's Office: Correspondence and Papers, 1979–1997, PREM, 19, National Archives,
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