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Donald Rumsfeld
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{{redirect|Rumsfeld|the professor|John S. Rumsfeld}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|U.S. Secretary of Defense}}{{use mdy dates|date=March 2016}}













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name Donald Rumsfeld| image = Rumsfeld1.jpg| office = 13th and 21st United States Secretary of Defense| president = George W. Bush| deputy = {{Ubl
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WORK=OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE - HISTORICAL OFFICE, | predecessor = William Cohen| successor = Robert Gates| president1 = Gerald Ford| deputy1 = Bill Clements| term_start1 = November 20, 1975| term_end1 = January 20, 1977James R. Schlesinger>James SchlesingerHarold Brown (Secretary of Defense)>Harold Brown| office2 = 6th White House Chief of Staff| president2 = Gerald Ford| term_start2 = September 21, 1974| term_end2 = November 20, 1975| predecessor2 = Alexander Haig| successor2 = Dick CheneyUnited States Permanent Representative to NATO>United States Ambassador to NATO| president3 = Richard NixonGerald Ford| term_start3 = February 2, 1973| term_end3 = September 21, 1974David M. Kennedy>David KennedyDavid K. E. Bruce>David BruceEconomic Stabilization Act of 1970#Administrative history>Cost of Living Council| term_start4 = October 15, 1971| term_end4 = February 2, 1973| predecessor4 = Position established| successor4 = Position abolished| office5 = Counselor to the President| president5 = Richard Nixon| term_start5 = December 11, 1970Robert Finch (American politician)>Robert FinchBryce HarlowDaniel Patrick Moynihan>Pat Moynihan| successor5 = Robert Finch| office6 = 3rd Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity| president6 = Richard Nixon| term_start6 = May 27, 1969| term_end6 = December 11, 1970| predecessor6 = Bertrand Harding| successor6 = Frank Carlucci| state7 = IllinoisIL13th}}| term_start7 = January 3, 1963| term_end7 = March 20, 1969Marguerite S. Church>Marguerite Church| successor7 = Phil Crane| birth_name = Donald Henry Rumsfeld19329}}| birth_place = Chicago, Illinois, U.S.| death_date = | death_place = Republican Party (United States)>RepublicanJoyce Pierson}}| children = 3Princeton University (Bachelor of Arts>BA)| signature = Donald Rumsfeld Signature.svgrumsfeld.com|Library website}}United States}}United States Navy}}| nickname = "Rummy"United States Navy Reserve>Reserve)1975–1989 (Ready Reserve)25px) Captain}}Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is an American former politician. Rumsfeld served as Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977 under Gerald Ford, and again from January 2001 to December 2006 under George W. Bush.WEB,weblink Donald H. Rumsfeld - Gerald Ford Administration, Office of the Secretary of Defense - Historical Office, He is both the youngest and the second-oldest person to have served as Secretary of Defense. Additionally, Rumsfeld was a three-term U.S. Congressman from Illinois (1963–1969), Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity (1969–1970), Counsellor to the President (1969–1973), the United States Permanent Representative to NATO (1973–1974), and White House Chief of Staff (1974–1975). Between his terms as Secretary of Defense, he served as the CEO and chairman of several companies.Born in Illinois, Rumsfeld attended Princeton University, graduating in 1954 with a degree in political science. After serving in the Navy for three years, he mounted a campaign for Congress in Illinois's 13th Congressional District, winning in 1962 at the age of 30. While in Congress, he was a leading co-sponsor of the Freedom of Information Act. Rumsfeld reluctantly accepted an appointment by President Richard Nixon to head the Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969; appointed Counsellor by Nixon and entitled to Cabinet-level status, he would also head up the Economic Stabilization Program before being appointed Ambassador to NATO. Called back to Washington in August 1974, Rumsfeld was appointed Chief of Staff by President Ford. Rumsfeld recruited a young one-time staffer of his, Dick Cheney, to succeed him when Ford nominated him to be Secretary of Defense in 1975. When Ford lost the 1976 election, Rumsfeld returned to private business and financial life, and was named president and CEO of the pharmaceutical corporation G. D. Searle & Company. He was later named CEO of General Instrument from 1990 to 1993 and chairman of Gilead Sciences from 1997 to 2001.Rumsfeld was appointed Secretary of Defense for a second time in January 2001 by President George W. Bush. As Secretary of Defense, Rumsfeld played a central role in the invasion of Afghanistan and invasion of Iraq. Before and during the Iraq War, he claimed that Iraq had an active weapons of mass destruction program; no stockpiles were ever found.NEWS,weblink Truth, War And Consquences: Why War? - In Their Own Words - Who Said What When, PBS, Frontline (U.S. TV program), Frontline, 2019-05-28, WEB,weblink Anti-war Ad Says Bush, Cheney, Rumsfeld & Rice "Lied" About Iraq, Jackson, Brooks, 2005-09-26, FactCheck.org, en-US, 2019-05-28, A Pentagon Inspector General report found that Rumsfeld's top policy aide "developed, produced, and then disseminated alternative intelligence assessments on the Iraq and al Qaida relationship, which included some conclusions that were inconsistent with the consensus of the Intelligence Community, to senior decision-makers."NEWS,weblink Pentagon office produced 'alternative' intelligence on Iraq, Landay, Jonathan S., McClatchy, 2019-05-28, Rumsfeld's tenure became highly controversial for the use of torture, as well as the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal.NEWSPAPER,weblink Rumsfeld Says He Offered to Quit, The New York Times, June 28, 2017, 2005-02-04, Shanker, Thom, Rumsfeld gradually lost political support and he resigned in late 2006. In his retirement years, he published an autobiography (Known and Unknown: A Memoir) as well as Rumsfeld's Rules: Leadership Lessons in Business, Politics, War, and Life.

Early life

Donald Henry Rumsfeld was born on July 9, 1932, in Chicago, Illinois, the son of Jeannette Kearsley (née Husted) and George Donald Rumsfeld.WEB,weblink My autobiography, Donald, Rumsfeld, January 11, 1946, 2019-05-29, His father came from a German-American family that had emigrated in the 1870s from Weyhe in Lower Saxony,WEB,weblink George Donald Rumsfeld, {{Dead link|date=December 2014}}NEWS,weblink Donald Henry Rumsfeld, March 16, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140316195127weblink">weblink BOOK, By His Own Rules: The Ambitions, Successes, and Ultimate Failures of Donald Rumsfeld, Bradley Graham, PublicAffairs, 2009, 978-1-58648-421-7, {{rp|15-16}} but young Donald was sometimes ribbed about looking like a "tough German".{{rp|16 and 31}} Growing up in Winnetka, Illinois, Rumsfeld became an Eagle Scout in 1949 and is the recipient of both the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of AmericaJOURNAL, Speakers Highlight Scouting's Core Values, Jon C. Halter, Scouting (magazine), Scouting, 94, 4, 35,weblink September 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070629125741weblink">weblink June 29, 2007, no, and its Silver Buffalo Award in 2006. Living in Winnetka, his family attended a Congregational Church.WEB,weblink Nicholas G. Hahn III, Donald Rumsfeld's Golden Rule, Real Clear Religion,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130806172610weblink">weblink August 6, 2013, no, August 5, 2013, From 1943–1945, Rumsfeld lived in Coronado, California while his father was stationed on an aircraft carrier in the Pacific in World War II.NEWS, Mark, Larson,weblink Radio Interview with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld on KOGO Radio San Diego with Mark Larson,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100302023659weblink">weblink March 2, 2010, no, KOGO (AM), KOGO, defense.gov, 2019-05-29, He was a ranger at Philmont Scout Ranch in 1949.WEB,weblink Secretary Rumsfeld's Remarks at the White House Conference on Cooperative Conservation, United States Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Defense News Transcript, August 29, 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061002093420weblink">weblink October 2, 2006, no, File:Rumsfeld1954 princeton yearbook.jpg|thumb|left|upright|170px|Rumsfeld's 1954 yearbook portrait from Princeton ]]Rumsfeld attended Baker Demonstration School,WEB,weblink Known and Unknown - Donald Rumsfeld - Author Biography, Litlovers.com, 2017-04-17, and later graduatedWEB, Habermehl, Kris, January 25, 2007, Fire Breaks Out At Prestigious High School, June 28, 2008,weblink April 20, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090420212959weblink">weblink yes, from New Trier High School. He attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC partial scholarships. He graduated in 1954 with an A.B. in political science. During his time at Princeton, he was an accomplished amateur wrestler, becoming captain of the varsity wrestling team, and captain of the Lightweight Football team playing defensive back. His Princeton University senior thesis was titled "The Steel Seizure Case of 1952 and Its Effects on Presidential Powers".WEB,weblink Princeton University Senior Theses Full Record: Donald Henry Rumsfeld,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013201712weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, While at Princeton he was friends with another future Secretary of Defense, Frank Carlucci.Rumsfeld married Joyce P. Pierson on December 27, 1954. They have three children, six grandchildren, and one great grandchild. He attended Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Georgetown University Law Center, but did not take a degree from either institution.Rumsfeld served in the United States Navy from 1954 to 1957, as a naval aviator and flight instructor. His initial training was in the North American SNJ Texan basic trainer after which he transitioned to the T-28 advanced trainer. In 1957, he transferred to the Naval Reserve and continued his naval service in flying and administrative assignments as a drilling reservist. On July 1, 1958, he was assigned to Anti-submarine Squadron 662 at Naval Air Station Anacostia, District of Columbia, as a selective reservist.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120722191209weblink">weblink yes, 2012-07-22, Rumsfeld revealed: Secretary's Navy career spanned 35 years, Air Force Times, Rumsfeld was designated aircraft commander of Anti-submarine Squadron 731 on October 1, 1960, at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan, where he flew the S2F Tracker. He transferred to the Individual Ready Reserve when he became Secretary of Defense in 1975 and retired with the rank of captain in 1989.WEB,weblink DefenseLink's Rumsfeld Biography, July 7, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060707060729weblink">weblink yes,

Career in government (1962–1977)

Member of Congress

(File:Donald Rumsfeld congress.jpg|thumb|Rumsfeld during his time in Congress)In 1957, during the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, Rumsfeld served as Administrative Assistant to David S. Dennison Jr., a Congressman representing the 11th district of Ohio. In 1959, he moved on to become a staff assistant to Congressman Robert P. Griffin of Michigan.WEB,weblink RUMSFELD, Donald Henry, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, April 22, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070425194855weblink">weblink April 25, 2007, no, Engaging in a two-year stint with an investment banking firm, A. G. Becker & Co., from 1960 to 1962,NEWS, Associated Press, April 22, 2007,weblink Donald Rumsfeld,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070516103109weblink">weblink May 16, 2007, yes, Rumsfeld would instead set his sights on becoming a member of Congress.He was elected to the United States House of Representatives for Illinois's 13th congressional district in 1962, at the age of 30, and was re-elected by large majorities in 1964, 1966, and 1968.WEB,weblink Donald Rumsfeld, whitehouse.gov, April 22, 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080601094302weblink">weblink June 1, 2008, While in Congress, he served on the Joint Economic Committee, the Committee on Science and Aeronautics, and the Government Operations Committee, as well as on the Subcommittees on Military and Foreign Operations. He was also a co-founder of the Japanese-American Inter-Parliamentary CouncilWEB,weblink Donald Rumsfeld, White House, November 3, 1975, April 22, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070715153231weblink">weblink July 15, 2007, yes, in addition to being a leading cosponsor of the Freedom of Information Act.WEB,weblinkNSAEBB/NSAEBB194/index.htm, Freedom of Information Act at 40, National Security Archive, July 4, 2006, https:web.archive.org/web/20060704180357weblink July 4, 2006, no, As a young Congressman, Rumsfeld attended seminars at the University of Chicago, an experience he credits with introducing him to the idea of an all volunteer military, and to the economist Milton Friedman and the Chicago School of Economics.WEB, United States Department of Defense,weblink Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld speaking at Tribute to Milton Friedman (transcript),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060824220033weblink">weblink August 24, 2006, yes, He would later take part in Friedman's PBS series Free to Choose.WEB, Free to Choose Media,weblink Free to Choose: Tyranny of Control,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130506043939weblink">weblink May 6, 2013, no, During his years in Congress, Rumsfeld supported civil rights legislation such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act.NEWS,weblink Donald Rumsfeld Fast Facts, CNN, 2013-08-06, March 21, 2016, During Rumsfeld's years in Congress he supports the ... 1964 Civil Rights Act.,

Nixon Administration

(File:Richard Nixon and Donald Rumsfeld with son Nick.jpg|thumb|right|Rumsfeld with his son, Nick, in the Oval Office with President Nixon, 1973)Rumsfeld resigned from Congress in 1969{{snd}}his fourth term{{snd}}to serve President Richard Nixon in his administration, and he would serve in a variety of executive branch positions throughout the Nixon presidency. In 1969, Nixon sought to reform and reorganize the United States Office of Economic Opportunity, an organization created during the Kennedy administration and greatly expanded as a part of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs, rather than eliminate it outright. He appointed Rumsfeld Director of the organization with Cabinet rank.WEB,weblink President Richard Nixon's Daily Diary November 1, 1969 – November 15, 1969, Nixon Library, 2013-07-02, 2017-04-17, Rumsfeld had voted against the creation of OEO when he was in Congress, and initially rejected Nixon's offer, citing his own inherent belief that the OEO did more harm than good, and he felt that he was not the right person for the job.BOOK, Known and Unknown: A Memoir, Sentinel (publisher), Sentinel, Rumsfeld, Donald, February 8, 2011, 978-1-59523-067-6, Known and Unknown: A Memoir, {{rp|119–121}} He only accepted after personal pleas from the president.As Director, Rumsfeld sought to reorganize the Office to serve as "a laboratory for experimental programs".{{rp|125}} Several beneficial anti-poverty programs were saved by allocating funds to them from other less-successful government programs. During this time, he hired Frank Carlucci and Dick Cheney to serve under him.He was the subject of one of legendary writer Jack Anderson's columns, alleging that "anti-poverty czar" Rumsfeld had cut programs to aid the poor while spending thousands to redecorate his office. Rumsfeld dictated a four-page response to Anderson, labeling the accusations as falsehoods, and invited Anderson to tour his office. Despite the tour, Anderson did not retract his claims, and would only much later admit that his column was a mistake.{{rp|125}}When he left OEO in December 1970, Nixon named Rumsfeld Counselor to the President, a general advisory position; in this role, he retained Cabinet status.{{|75}} He was given an office in the West Wing in 1969 and regularly interacted with the Nixon administration hierarchy. He was named Director of the Economic Stabilization Program in 1970 as well, and later headed up the Cost of Living Council. In March 1971 Nixon was recorded saying about Rumsfeld "at least Rummy is tough enough" and "He's a ruthless little bastard. You can be sure of that."WEB,weblink Nixon White House conversation 464-12, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090124003134weblink">weblink January 24, 2009, BOOK, Andrew Cockburn, Rumsfeld: His Rise, Fall, and Catastrophic Legacy, Simon and Schuster, 2007, 20, Andrew Cockburn, BOOK, Craig Unger, The Fall of the House of Bush: The Untold Story of how a Band of True Believers Seized the Executive Branch, Started the Iraq War, and Still Imperils America's Future, Simon and Schuster, 2007, 50, Craig Unger, BOOK, Craig Unger, American Armageddon: How the Delusions of the Neoconservatives and the Christian Right Triggered the Descent of America – and Still Imperil Our Future, Simon and Schuster, 2008, 50, BOOK, Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt (publisher), Henry Holt, 2007, The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Naomi Klein, In February 1973, Rumsfeld left Washington to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Brussels, Belgium. He served as the United States' Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council and the Defense Planning Committee, and the Nuclear Planning Group. In this capacity, he represented the United States in wide-ranging military and diplomatic matters, and was asked to help mediate a conflict on behalf of the United States between Cyprus and Turkey.{{rp|157}}

Ford Administration

File:Ford meets with Rumsfeld and Cheney, April 28, 1975.jpg|thumb|right|Chief of Staff Rumsfeld (left) and Deputy-Chief of Staff Dick CheneyDick CheneyIn August 1974, after Nixon resigned as president in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, Rumsfeld was called back to Washington to serve as transition chairman for the new president, Gerald Ford. He had been Ford's confidant since their days in the House, before Ford was House minority leader. As the new president became settled in, Ford appointed Rumsfeld White House Chief of Staff, where he served from 1974 to 1975.(File:Ford-rumsfeld.jpg|thumb|left|Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld shares a laugh with President Ford in a Cabinet meeting, 1975)In October 1975, Ford reshuffled his cabinet in the Halloween Massacre. He named Rumsfeld to become the 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense; George H. W. Bush became Director of Central Intelligence. According to Bob Woodward's 2002 book Bush at War, a rivalry developed between the two men and "Bush senior was convinced that Rumsfeld was pushing him out to the CIA to end his political career."BOOK, Woodward, Bob, Bush At War, Simon and Schuster, 2002, 978-0-7432-4461-9,weblink 21–22, At the Pentagon, Rumsfeld oversaw the transition to an all-volunteer military. He sought to reverse the gradual decline in the defense budget and to build up U.S. strategic and conventional forces, skillfully undermining Secretary of State Henry Kissinger at the SALT talks.NEWS, Defense Choice Made a Name As an Infighter,weblink Elaine, Sciolino, Eric, Schmitt, January 8, 2001, The New York Times, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714182443weblink">weblink July 14, 2011, no, He asserted, along with Team B (which he helped to set up),NEWS,weblink Sidney Blumenthal, The Long March of Dick Cheney, History News Network, HNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051217110948weblink">weblink December 17, 2005, no, that trends in comparative U.S.-Soviet military strength had not favored the United States for 15 to 20 years and that, if continued, they "would have the effect of injecting a fundamental instability in the world". For this reason, he oversaw the development of cruise missiles, the B-1 bomber, and a major naval shipbuilding program.In 1977, Rumsfeld was awarded the nation's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Kissinger, his bureaucratic adversary, would later pay him a different sort of compliment, pronouncing him "a special Washington phenomenon: the skilled full-time politician-bureaucrat in whom ambition, ability, and substance fuse seamlessly".WEB,weblink Rumsfeld's Roots, Mann, James, October 8, 2003, The Atlantic, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080709025136weblink">weblink July 9, 2008, no, {{clear}}

Return to the private sector (1977–2000)

Business career

In early 1977 Rumsfeld briefly lectured at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School and Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, located in Chicago, Illinois. His sights instead turned to business, and from 1977 to 1985 Rumsfeld served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and then Chairman of G. D. Searle & Company, a worldwide pharmaceutical company based in Skokie, Illinois. During his tenure at Searle, Rumsfeld led the company's financial turnaround, thereby earning awards as the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). In 1985, Searle was sold to Monsanto Company.Rumsfeld served as chairman and chief executive officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development of the first all-digital high-definition television (HDTV) technology. After taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Rumsfeld returned to private business in late 1993.From January 1997 until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense in January 2001, Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences, Inc. Gilead Sciences is the developer of Tamiflu (Oseltamivir), which is used in the treatment of bird flu.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Gilead Sciences,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070619044137weblink">weblink June 19, 2007, Donald H. Rumsfeld Named Chairman of Gilead Sciences, January 3, 1997, As a result, Rumsfeld's holdings in the company grew significantly when avian flu became a subject of popular anxiety during his later term as Secretary of Defense. Following standard practice, Rumsfeld recused himself from any decisions involving Gilead, and he directed the Pentagon's General Counsel to issue instructions outlining what he could and could not be involved in if there were an avian flu pandemic and the Pentagon had to respond.NEWS, Roche, Gilead Sciences resolve Tamiflu conflict,weblink USA Today, Julie, Schmit, November 17, 2005, May 1, 2010, NEWS, October 31, 2005,weblink CNNMoney, Rumsfeld's growing stake in Tamiflu, Nelson D., Schwartz,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100314083340weblink">weblink March 14, 2010, no, May 1, 2010,

Part-time public service

During his business career, Rumsfeld continued part-time public service in various posts. In November 1983, Rumsfeld was appointed Special Envoy to the Middle East by President Ronald Reagan, at a turbulent time in modern Middle Eastern history when Iraq was fighting Iran in the Iran–Iraq War. The United States wished for the conflict to end, and Rumsfeld was sent to the Middle East to serve as a mediator on behalf of the President.File:Saddam rumsfeld.jpg|thumb|right|As President Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East, Rumsfeld met with Saddam Hussein during a visit to Baghdad in December 1983, during the Iran–Iraq War (see video (:File:Shakinghands high.OGG|here)).]]When Rumsfeld visited Baghdad on December 20, 1983, he met Saddam Hussein at Saddam's palace and had a 90-minute discussion. They largely agreed on opposing Syria's occupation of Lebanon; preventing Syrian and Iranian expansion; and preventing arms sales to Iran. Rumsfeld suggested that if U.S.-Iraq relations could improve the U.S. might support a new oil pipeline across Jordan, which Iraq had opposed but was now willing to reconsider. Rumsfeld also informed Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz that "Our efforts to assist were inhibited by certain things that made it difficult for us ... citing the use of chemical weapons."{{rp|159-60}}Rumsfeld wrote in his memoir Known and Unknown that his meeting with Hussein "has been the subject of gossip, rumors, and crackpot conspiracy theories for more than a quarter of a century ... Supposedly I had been sent to see Saddam by President Reagan either to negotiate a secret oil deal, to help arm Iraq, or to make Iraq an American client state. The truth is that our encounter was more straightforward and less dramatic."{{rp|6}}In addition to taking the position of Middle East envoy, Rumsfeld served as a member of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control (1982–1986); President Reagan's Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982–1983); a senior adviser to President Reagan's Panel on Strategic Systems (1983–1984); a member of the Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1983–1984); a member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987–1990); a member of the National Economic Commission (1988–1989); a member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense University (1988–1992); a member of the FCC's High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992–1993); a member of the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999–2000); a member of the Council on Foreign Relations; and Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization (2000). Among his most noteworthy positions was Chairman of the nine-member Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States from January to July 1998. In its findings, the commission concluded that Iraq, Iran, and North Korea could develop intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities in five to ten years and that U.S. intelligence would have little warning before such systems were deployed.WEB,weblink Report of the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, 15 July 1998, 2019-05-29, Federation of American Scientists, etal, Donald, Rumsfeld, During the 1980s, Rumsfeld became a member of the National Academy of Public Administration, and was named a member of the boards of trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation, the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and the National Park Foundation. He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the Congressional Leadership's National Security Advisory Group.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}} Rumsfeld was a member of the Project for the New American Century, a think-tank dedicated to maintaining U.S. primacy. In addition, he was asked to serve the U.S. State Department as a foreign policy consultant from 1990 to 1993. He also sat on European engineering giant Asea Brown Boveri's board from 1990 to 2001, a company which sold two light-water nuclear reactors to the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization for installation in North Korea, as part of the 1994 agreed framework reached under President Bill Clinton. Rumsfeld's office said that he did not "recall it being brought before the board at any time" though Fortune magazine reported that "board members were informed about this project."NEWS, Rummy's North Korea Connection; What did Donald Rumsfeld know about ABB's deal to build nuclear reactors there? And why won't he talk about it?, Fortune, May 12, 2003, 75,

Presidential and vice presidential aspirations

During the 1976 Republican National Convention, Rumsfeld received one vote for Vice President of the United States, although he did not seek the office, and the nomination was easily won by Ford's choice, Senator Bob Dole.WEB,weblink US Vice President - R Convention, OurCampaigns, May 29, 2019, During the 1980 Republican National Convention he also received one vote for Vice President.WEB, US Vice President - R Convention, OurCampaigns,weblink May 29, 2019, Economist Milton Friedman later noted that he, Friedman, regarded Reagan's pick of Bush as "the worst decision not only of his campaign but of his presidency," and that Rumsfeld was instead his preference. "Had he been chosen," Friedman said, "I believe he would have succeeded Reagan as president and the sorry Bush-Clinton period would never have occurred."BOOK,weblink Two Lucky People: Memoirs, Milton, Friedman, Milton Friedman, Rose, Friedman, Rose Friedman, June 8, 1998, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 391, 978-0226264141, Rumsfeld briefly sought the Presidential nomination in 1988, but withdrew from the race before primaries began.WEB, US President – R Primaries,weblink OurCampaigns, 2019-05-29, During the 1996 election season, he initially formed a presidential exploratory committee, but declined to formally enter the race. He was instead named national chairman for Republican nominee Bob Dole's campaign.WEB, AmericaLive, yes,weblink Donald Rumsfeld Biography, iReport, CNN, 2010-11-22, 2017-04-17,

Return to government (2001–2006)

File:Rumsfeld is sworn-in as Secretary of Defense, January 20, 2001.jpg|thumb|right|Rumsfeld is administered the oath of office as the 21st Secretary of Defense on January 20, 2001 by Director of Administration and Management David O. Cooke (left), as Joyce Rumsfeld holds the Bible in a ceremony at the Eisenhower Executive Office BuildingEisenhower Executive Office BuildingRumsfeld was named Secretary of Defense soon after President George W. Bush took office in 2001 despite Rumsfeld's past rivalry with the previous President Bush. Bush's first choice, FedEx founder Fred Smith, was unavailable and Vice President-elect Cheney recommended Rumsfeld for the job.Bush, George W. (2010), pp. 83–84Rumsfeld's second tenure as Secretary of Defense cemented him as the most powerful Pentagon chief since Robert McNamara and one of the most influential Cabinet members in the Bush administration.NEWS,weblink USA Today, November 17, 2011, December 9, 2002, Moniz, Dave, Rumsfeld's abrasive style sparks conflict, His tenure would prove to be a pivotal and rocky one which led the United States military into the 21st century. Following the September 11 attacks, Rumsfeld led the military planning and execution of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and the subsequent 2003 invasion of Iraq. He pushed hard to send as small a force as soon as possible to both conflicts, a concept codified as the Rumsfeld Doctrine.Throughout his time as Defense Secretary, Rumsfeld was noted for his candor and quick wit when giving weekly press conferences or speaking with the press.NEWS, January 20, 2002,weblink November 17, 2011, The New York Times, Wright, Robert, Rumsfeld's Moment, May 14, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514141146weblink">weblink U.S. News & World Report called him "a straight-talking Midwesterner" who "routinely has the press corps doubled over in fits of laughter". By the same token, his leadership was exposed to much criticism through provocative books covering the Iraq conflict, like Bob Woodward's State of Denial, Thomas E. Ricks' Fiasco, and Seymour Hersh's Chain of Command.

September 11, 2001

File:The Pentagon is functioning.jpg|thumb|"The Pentagon is functioning" was the message Rumsfeld stressed during a press conference in the Pentagon briefing room barely eight hours after terrorists crashed a hijacked commercial jetliner into the Pentagon. Rumsfeld is flanked, left to right, by Secretary of the Army Tom White, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Hugh Shelton, and Senators John Warner (R-VA), and Carl Levin (D-MI), the Ranking Member and Chairman of the Senate Armed Services CommitteeSenate Armed Services CommitteeThe United States was attacked on September 11, 2001 by al Qaeda terrorists who hijacked commercial airliners and crashed them in coordinated strikes into both towers of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and its target was likely a prominent building in Washington, D.C., most probably either the Capitol Building or the White House.NEWS,weblink 9/11 mystery: What was Flight 93's target?, November 13, 2011, September 12, 2006, Shuster, David, MSNBC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111028113524weblink">weblink October 28, 2011, yes, Within three hours of the start of the first hijacking and two hours after American Airlines Flight 11 struck the World Trade Center, Rumsfeld raised the defense condition signaling of the United States offensive readiness to DEFCON 3, the highest it had been since the Arab-Israeli war in 1973.REPORT,weblink The 9/11 Commission Report, 326, May 29, 2019, July 22, 2004,

Military decisions in the wake of 9/11

File:Rumsfeld and Giuliani at Ground Zero.jpg|thumb|Rumsfeld and New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani speak at the site of the World Trade Center attacks in Lower ManhattanLower ManhattanOn the afternoon of September 11, Rumsfeld issued rapid orders to his aides to look for evidence of possible Iraqi involvement in regard to what had just occurred, according to notes taken by senior policy official Stephen Cambone. "Best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H."{{snd}}meaning Saddam Hussein{{snd}}"at same time. Not only UBL" (Osama bin Laden), Cambone's notes quoted Rumsfeld as saying. "Need to move swiftly{{snd}}Near term target needs{{snd}}go massive{{snd}}sweep it all up. Things related and not."NEWS, Joel, Roberts, Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11, September 4, 2002, CBS News,weblink October 7, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090927043007weblink">weblink September 27, 2009, no, NEWS, Julian, Borger, Blogger bares Rumsfeld's post 9/11 orders, February 24, 2006,weblink Guardian Media Group, Guardian News and Media Limited, The Guardian, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090211113142weblink">weblink February 11, 2009, no, February 11, 2009, Rumsfeld wrote in Known and Unknown, "Much has been written about the Bush administration's focus on Iraq after 9/11. Commentators have suggested that it was strange or obsessive for the President and his advisers to have raised questions about whether Saddam Hussein was somehow behind the attack. I have never understood the controversy. I had no idea if Iraq was or was not involved, but it would have been irresponsible for any administration not to have asked the question."{{rp|347}}(File:Rumsfeld-Memo-HowStart.jpg|Rumsfeld-Memo-HowStart|right|Width=500px|frame|Excerpt from Donald Rumsfeld memo dated Nov 27 2001NEWS, February 27, 2014,weblink 'Building momentum for regime change': Rumsfeld's secret memos, March 13, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140313095516weblink">weblink )A memo written by Sec. Rumsfeld dated November 27, 2001 considers an Iraq war. One section of the memo questions "How start?", listing multiple possible justifications for a US-Iraq War.NEWS,weblink Newly-Released Memo by Donald Rumsfeld Proves Iraq War Started On False Pretenses, February 20, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017092732weblink">weblink October 17, 2007, no,

Iraq War

File:Donald Rumsfeld Tommy Franks.jpg|thumb|right|Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld (left) and the Commander of U.S. Central Command General Tommy FranksTommy FranksBefore and during the Iraq War, Rumsfeld claimed that Iraq had an active weapons of mass destruction program; no stockpiles were ever found. Bush administration officials also claimed that there was an operational relationship between Al Qaeda and Saddam Hussein. A Pentagon Inspector General report found that Rumsfeld's top policy aide, Douglas J. Feith, "developed, produced, and then disseminated alternative intelligence assessments on the Iraq and al Qaida relationship, which included some conclusions that were inconsistent with the consensus of the Intelligence Community, to senior decision-makers." After the war in Afghanistan was launched, Rumsfeld participated in a meeting in regard to the review of the Department of Defense's Contingency Plan in the event of a war with Iraq. The plan, as it was then conceived, contemplated troop levels of up to 500,000, which Rumsfeld felt was far too many. Gordon and Trainor wrote:Rumsfeld's plan resulted in a lightning invasion that took Baghdad in well under a month with very few American casualties. Many government buildings, plus major museums, electrical generation infrastructure, and even oil equipment were looted and vandalized during the transition from the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime to the establishment of the Coalition Provisional Authority. A violent insurrection began shortly after the military operation started. After the German and French governments voiced opposition to invading Iraq, Rumsfeld labeled these countries as part of "Old Europe", implying that countries that supported the war were part of a newer, modern Europe.NEWS, May 1, 2010, January 23, 2003,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100421002430weblink">weblink April 21, 2010, no, BBC News, Outrage at 'old Europe' remarks, As a result, Rumsfeld stirred controversy as to whether the forces that did invade Iraq were enough in size. In a September 2007 interview with The Daily Telegraph, General Mike Jackson, the head of the British army during the invasion, criticized Rumsfeld's plans for the invasion of Iraq as "intellectually bankrupt," adding that Rumsfeld is "one of those most responsible for the current situation in Iraq," and that he felt that "the US approach to combating global terrorism is 'inadequate' and too focused on military might rather than nation building and diplomacy."NEWS,weblink Robert Watts, Tim Shipman, Gen Sir Mike Jackson's attack draws US ire, The Daily Telegraph (online), The Sunday Telegraph, September 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017092732weblink">weblink October 17, 2007, London, no, In 2006, Rumsfeld responded to a question by Brit Hume of Fox News as to whether he pressed General Tommy Franks to lower his request for 400,000 troops for the war:}}Rumsfeld told Hume that Franks ultimately decided against such a troop level.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Blunt Talk About Iraq at Army School, Elisabeth, Bumiller, October 13, 2007, May 1, 2010, File:Defense.gov News Photo 020313-D-2987S-016.jpg|thumb|left|Rumsfeld with Russian Minister of Defense Sergei IvanovSergei IvanovFile:Secretary Rumsfeld is greeted by Ambassador Purnell and Minister of Defense Kodir Ghulomov as he arrives in Uzbekistan.jpg|thumb|Rumsfeld with Uzbek Defense Minister Kadyr Gulyamov. UzbekistanUzbekistanThere was also controversy between Rumsfeld at the Pentagon and the CIA over who had the authority to fire Hellfire missiles from Predator drones.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-02-05, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112165907weblink">weblink January 12, 2012, (pp. 189–90, 211–214) Even though the drones were not ready for deployment until 2002, Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon have argued that "these quarrels kept the Predator from being used against al Qaeda ... One anonymous individual who was at the center of the action called this episode 'typical' and complained that 'Rumsfeld never missed an opportunity to fail to cooperate. The fact is, the Secretary of Defense is an obstacle. He has helped the terrorists.'BOOK, Daniel Benjamin, Steven Simon, The Next Attack, New York City, New York, Times Books, 2005, 978-0-8050-7941-8, 161, After the Iraq invasion, U.S. troops were criticized for not protecting the historical artifacts and treasures located at the National Museum of Iraq. When asked at the time why U.S. troops did not actively seek to stop the lawlessness, Rumsfeld replied, "Stuff happens ... and it's untidy and freedom's untidy, and free people are free to make mistakes and commit crimes and do bad things. They're also free to live their lives and do wonderful things. And that's what's going to happen here."WEB,weblink DoD News Briefing - Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Myers, April 11, 2003, May 29, 2019, Department of Defense, defense.gov, He further commented that, "The images you are seeing on television you are seeing over, and over, and over, and it's the same picture of some person walking out of some building with a vase, and you see it 20 times, and you think, "My goodness, were there that many vases?"File:US Navy 031002-F-2828D-227 Secretary of Defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld responds to a reporter's question during a Pentagon press briefing.jpg|thumb|right|Secretary Rumsfeld responds to a reporter's question during a Pentagon press briefing. Rumsfeld and General Richard Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffChairman of the Joint Chiefs of StaffThroughout his tenure, Rumsfeld sought to remind the American people of the 9/11 attacks and threats against Americans, noting at one time in a 2006 memo to "[m]ake the American people realize they are surrounded in the world by violent extremists".NEWS,weblink Rumsfeld 'kept up fear of terror attacks', The Daily Telegraph, March 11, 2007, London, Boris, Johnson, no, November 16, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071116052736weblink">weblink As Secretary of Defense, Rumsfeld was deliberate in crafting the public message from the Department of Defense. People will "rally" to the word "sacrifice", Rumsfeld noted after a meeting. "They are looking for leadership. Sacrifice = Victory." In May 2004, Rumsfeld considered whether to redefine the war on terrorism as a fight against "worldwide insurgency". He advised aides "to test what the results could be" if the war on terrorism were renamed.NEWS,weblink From the Desk of Donald Rumsfeld ..., The Washington Post, November 1, 2007, Robin, Wright, Rumsfeld also ordered specific public Pentagon attacks on and responses to U.S. newspaper columns that reported the negative aspects of the war.In October 2003, Rumsfeld approved a secret Pentagon "roadmap" on public relations, calling for "boundaries" between information operations abroad and the news media at home. The Roadmap advances a policy according to which as long as the U.S. government does not intentionally target the American public, it does not matter that psychological operations reach the American public.BOOK
, National Security Archive
, Rumsfeld's Roadmap to Propaganda
, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book
, 177
, Kristin Adair
, January 26, 2006
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060204214137weblink">weblink
, February 4, 2006
, no
, The Australia Broadcasting Corporation reported that though Rumsfeld didn't specify a withdrawal date for troops in Iraq, "He says it would be unrealistic to wait for Iraq to be peaceful before removing US led forces from the country, adding that Iraq had never been peaceful and perfect."NEWS,weblink Australia Broadcasting Corporation, US troops can leave before Iraq peaceful: Rumsfeld, September 24, 2004, April 28, 2018,

Condolence letters

In December 2004, Rumsfeld was heavily criticized for using a signing machine instead of personally signing over 1000 letters of condolence to the families of soldiers killed in action in Iraq and Afghanistan. He promised to personally sign all letters in the future.NEWS,weblink Rumsfeld to personally sign all condolence letters, Dec 17, 2004, Stars and Stripes, 2017-10-20,

Prisoner abuse and torture concerns

(File:Rumsfeld-4 hours a day.png|thumb|Comment from Rumsfeld: "I stand for 8–10 hours a day. Why is standing [by prisoners] limited to 4 hours?"){{Further|Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse}}The Department of Defense's preliminary concerns for holding, housing, and interrogating captured prisoners on the battlefield were raised during the military build-up prior to the Iraq War. Because Saddam Hussein's military forces surrendered when faced with military action, many within the DOD, including Rumsfeld and United States Central Command General Tommy Franks, decided it was in the best interest of all to hand these prisoners over to their respective countries. Additionally, it was determined that maintaining a large holding facility was, at the time, unrealistic. Instead, the use of many facilities such as Abu Ghraib would be utilized to house prisoners of interest prior to handing them over, and Rumsfeld defended the Bush administration's decision to detain enemy combatants. Because of this, critics, including members of the U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, would hold Rumsfeld responsible for the ensuing Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. Rumsfeld himself said: "These events occurred on my watch as Secretary of Defense. I am accountable for them."NEWS,weblink CNN, Rumsfeld 'the best', May 9, 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040511033734weblink">weblink May 11, 2004, yes, He offered his resignation to President Bush in the wake of the scandal, but it was not accepted.Bush, George W. (2010), p. 88File:US Navy 041224-M-8096K-064 Secretary of Defense (SECDEF), Donald Rumsfeld takes a photo with some Marines at Camp Fallujah, Iraq.jpg|thumb|right|Rumsfeld poses with Marines during one of his trips to Camp FallujahCamp FallujahIn a memo read by Rumsfeld detailing how Guantanamo interrogators would induce stress in prisoners by forcing them to remain standing in one position for a maximum of four hours, Rumsfeld scrawled a handwritten note on the memo reading: "I stand for 8–10 hours a day. Why is standing [by prisoners] limited to 4 hours? D.R.".NEWS,weblink Rumsfeld OK'd harsh treatment, June 23, 2004, USA Today, John, Diamond, May 1, 2010, Various organizations, such as Human Rights Watch, have called for investigations of Rumsfeld regarding his involvement in managing the Iraq War and his support of the Bush administration's policies of "enhanced interrogation techniques", which are widely regarded as torture.WEB,weblink Bush Should Face Prosecution, Says UN Representative, January 21, 2009, Deutsche Welle (German Public Radio – World Service),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080601094302weblink">weblink June 1, 2008, no, WEB,weblink Getting Away with Torture? Human Rights Watch Calls for Accountability Into U.S. Abuse of Detainees, Democracy Now!, April 25, 2005, 2019-05-29, Amy, Goodman, Amy Goodman, Scholars have argued that Rumsfeld "might be held criminally responsible if [he] would be prosecuted by the ICC."JOURNAL, Smeulers, Alette, van Niekirk, Sander, Abu Ghraib and the War on Terror-A case against Donald Rumsfeld?, Crime, Law and Social Change, 2009, 51, 3–4, 327–349, 10.1007/s10611-008-9160-2,weblink In 2005 the ACLU and Human Rights First filed a lawsuit against Rumsfeld and other top government officials, "on behalf of eight men who they say were subjected to torture and abuse by U.S. forces under the command of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld".NEWS,weblink USA Today, Faye, Bowers, Lawsuit blames Rumsfeld for overseas torture, March 1, 2005, In 2005, a suit was filed against Rumsfeld by several human rights organizations for allegedly violating U.S. and international law that prohibits "torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment". Donald Vance and Nathan Ertel filed suit against the U.S. government and Rumsfeld on similar grounds, alleging that they were tortured and their rights of habeas corpus were violated.NEWS,weblink Former U.S. Detainee in Iraq Recalls Torment, Michael, Moss, December 18, 2006, The New York Times, December 18, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213025358weblink">weblink no, December 13, 2014, NEWS,weblink Donald Rumsfeld Faces Another Torture Lawsuit, Patrick G. Lee, August 9, 2011, The Wall Street Journal, WSJ, NEWS,weblink Court allows torture lawsuit against Rumsfeld, August 15, 2011, Press TV,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111007025540weblink">weblink October 7, 2011, no, NEWS,weblink Iraq crimes return to haunt Rumsfeld; Former US defence secretary can no longer deflect responsibility for abuse of detainees, August 11, 2011, Gulf News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110811062230weblink">weblink no, August 11, 2011, NEWS,weblink Two American men CAN sue Donald Rumsfeld after 'being tortured by U.S. army in Iraq when they worked for security firm', Oliver Pickup, August 9, 2011, Daily Mail, Mail Online, London, NEWS,weblink Rumsfeld must face torture suit, appeals court says, August 9, 2011, Bloomberg News, Boston.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120510072825weblink">weblink May 10, 2012, yes, In 2007, U.S. District Judge Thomas F. Hogan ruled that Rumsfeld could not "be held personally responsible for actions taken in connection with his government job".NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Matt, Apuzzo, Judge Dismisses Lawsuit Against Rumsfeld, March 28, 2007, The ACLU tried to revive the case in 2011 with no success.NEWS,weblink Donald Rumsfeld Torture Lawsuit Fizzles, Again, January 13, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110117092206weblink">weblink January 17, 2011, no, Huffington Post, Dan, Froomkin,

Resignation

File:Margaret Thatcher 060912-F-0193C-006.jpg|thumb|right|Rumsfeld with former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher alongside the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Peter PacePeter PaceEight retired generals and admirals called for Rumsfeld to resign in early 2006 in what was called the "Generals Revolt", accusing him of "abysmal" military planning and lack of strategic competence.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, More Retired Generals Call for Rumsfeld's Resignation, David S., Cloud, Eric, Schmitt, April 14, 2006, May 1, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121109133044weblink">weblink November 9, 2012, no, NEWS, Revenge of the battered generals, Baldwin, Tom,weblink April 18, 2006, The Times, London, August 22, 2008, May 10, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510022329weblink">weblink no, NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Bush Speaks Out for Rumsfeld, Peter, Baker, Josh, White, May 1, 2010, Commentator Pat Buchanan reported at the time that Washington Post columnist David Ignatius, who traveled often to Iraq and supported the war, said the generals "mirror the views of 75 percent of the officers in the field, and probably more".WEB, Patrick J., Buchanan, The Free Lance–Star, Pat Buchanan, Smackdown 2006: The Generals Vs. Rumsfeld for the Top Prize,weblink Rumsfeld rebuffed these criticisms, stating that "out of thousands and thousands of admirals and generals, if every time two or three people disagreed we changed the secretary of defense of the United States, it would be like a merry-go-round."NEWS,weblink How many retired generals are there?, Daniel Engber, Slate (magazine), Slate, April 17, 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060417173552weblink">weblink Bush defended his secretary throughout, and responded by stating that Rumsfeld is "exactly what is needed".NEWS, April 14, 2006, May 1, 2010, CNN,weblink Bush: Rumsfeld 'exactly what is needed',weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100826093036weblink">weblink August 26, 2010, no, (File:Bush and Rumsfeld shakes hands, November 8, 2006.jpg|thumb|right|Rumsfeld shakes President Bush's hand as he announces his resignation, November 8, 2006.)On November 1, 2006, Bush stated he would stand by Rumsfeld as defense secretary for the length of his term as president.NEWS,weblink NPR, November 2, 2006, Don, Gonyea, May 29, 2019, Bush Voices Support for Rumsfeld, Cheney, Rumsfeld wrote a resignation letter dated November 6, and, per the stamp on the letter, Bush saw it on Election Day, November 7.NEWS, Kristin, Roberts, Rumsfeld resigned before election, letter shows, August 15, 2007, Reuters,weblink Yahoo! News, August 8, 2011,weblink July 26, 2012, no, In the elections, the House and the Senate shifted to Democratic control. After the elections, on November 8, Bush announced Rumsfeld would resign his position as Secretary of Defense. Many Republicans were unhappy with the delay, believing they would have won more votes if voters had known Rumsfeld was resigning.Bush nominated Robert Gates to succeed Rumsfeld.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Rumsfeld replaced after poll loss, November 9, 2006, May 1, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512060317weblink">weblink May 12, 2011, no, NEWS,weblink Fox News, Rice Offered to Resign Following Bush's 2004 Re-Election, James, Rosen, James Rosen (journalist), October 2, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140316014334weblink">weblink March 16, 2014, yes, March 16, 2014, NEWS, Rumsfeld quitting as defense secretary,weblink CNN, November 9, 2006, November 8, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061108231100weblink">weblink November 8, 2006, no, On December 18, 2006, Rumsfeld's resignation took effect.

Retirement and later life (2006–present)

File:Donald Rumsfeld shares a laugh with Robert Gates.jpg|right|thumb|Rumsfeld shares a laugh with his successor, Robert GatesRobert GatesFile:Pentagon Memorial dedication 2008 1st bench.jpg|thumb|Dedication ceremony of the Pentagon MemorialPentagon MemorialIn the months after his resignation, Rumsfeld toured the New York publishing houses in preparation for a potential memoir.NEWS,weblink Gary, Shapiro, Publishers Abuzz Over Possible Rumsfeld Book, June 27, 2007, The New York Sun, 2019-05-29, After receiving what one industry source labeled "big bids", he reached an agreement with the Penguin Group to publish the book under its Sentinel HC imprint.In 2007, Rumsfeld established The Rumsfeld Foundation, which focuses on encouraging public service in the United States and supporting the growth of free political and free economic systems abroad. The educational foundation provides fellowships to talented individuals from the private sector who want to serve for some time in government.WEB,weblink About the Rumsfeld Foundation, November 13, 2011, Rumsfeld Foundation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111203085046weblink">weblink December 3, 2011, Rumsfeld personally financed the foundation.NEWS, Michael, Duffy,weblink Donald Rumsfeld's Next Move, Time (magazine), Time, May 18, 2007, 2019-05-29, As of January 2014, the foundation has sponsored over 90 fellows from Central Asia, provided over $1.2 million in tuition and stipend support for graduate students, awarded over $3 million in microfinance grants, and donated over $2.4 million to charities for veterans affairs.WEB, 2013 Annual Report,weblink Rumsfeld Foundation, March 26, 2014, no,weblink March 27, 2014, Rumsfeld declined to accept an advance for the publication of his memoir, and has said he is donating all proceeds from the work to veterans groups. His book, entitled (Known and Unknown: A Memoir), was released on February 8, 2011.NEWS,weblink Donald Rumsfeld's memoir: Ducking and diving – His study in self-defence, The Economist, February 17, 2011, February 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221190316weblink">weblink February 21, 2011, no, In conjunction with the publication of Known and Unknown, Rumsfeld established "The Rumsfeld Papers", a website with documents "related to the endnotes" of the book and his service during the George W. Bush administration;WEB,weblink About the Rumsfeld Archive, The Rumsfeld Papers, DHR Holdings LLC, June 21, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111023203730weblink">weblink October 23, 2011, no, during the months that followed the book's publication, the website was expanded to include over 4,000 documents from his archive. As of June 2011,{{update after|2012|6}} the topics include his Congressional voting record, the Nixon administration, documents and memos of meetings while he was part of the Ford, Reagan, and George W. Bush administrations, private sector documents, and NATO documents, among others.Rumsfeld was awarded the "Defender of the Constitution Award" at the 2011 Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington, D.C., on February 10, 2011.After his retirement from government, Rumsfeld criticized former fellow Cabinet member Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State in his memoir, asserting that she was basically unfit for office. In 2011 she responded, saying that Rumsfeld "doesn't know what he's talking about. The reader may imagine what can be correct about the conflicted matter."NEWS,weblink Rachel Rose, Hartman, April 28, 2011, Condoleezza Rice fires back at 'grumpy' Donald Rumsfeld, Yahoo! News, The Irish Times, The Ticket, April 28, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120307152139weblink">weblink March 7, 2012, In February 2011, Rumsfeld endorsed the repeal of the military's Don't Ask Don't Tell policy, saying that allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve "is an idea whose time has come".NEWS, Rumsfeld: "Time Has Come" To Allow Gays To Serve Openly,weblink Amy Bingham, Steven Portnoy, ABC News, February 11, 2011, May 29, 2019, Rumsfeld was the subject of the 2013 Errol Morris documentary The Unknown Known, the title a reference to his response to a question at a February 2002 press conference. In the film Rumsfeld "discusses his career in Washington D.C. from his days as a congressman in the early 1960s to planning the invasion of Iraq in 2003".WEB, The Unknown Known,weblink Internet Movie Database, April 11, 2014, In January 2016, in partnership with the literary and creative agency Javelin which handled design and development,NEWS, Churchill Solitaire,weblink Javelin, Rumsfeld released a mobile app game of solitaire called Churchill Solitaire, emulating a variant of the card game as played by Winston Churchill.NEWSPAPER, Donald Rumsfeld releases solitaire app, The Guardian,weblink January 25, 2016, 2016-01-25, Hern, Alex, Rumsfeld and the Churchill family said that profits from the game would be donated to charity.WEB, At 83, I Decided to Develop an App,weblink January 25, 2016, 2016-01-24, WEB, Former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld Just Released a Video Game,weblink GameSpot, 8 February 2016, 2016-01-25,

Electoral history

File:Defense.gov News Photo 050702-F-7203T-593.jpg|200px|thumb|Rumsfeld gives the command at the 2005 Pepsi 400, which he served as the grand marshalWEB, Lap-by-Lap: Pepsi 400,weblink NASCARNASCARDuring the four elections during which he ran to represent Illinois's 13th congressional district, Rumsfeld received shares of the popular vote that ranged from 58% (in 1964) to 76% (in 1966). In 1975 and 2001, Rumsfeld was overwhelmingly confirmed by the U.S. Senate after Presidents Gerald Ford and George W. Bush, respectively, appointed him as U.S. Secretary of Defense.

Awards and reputation

(File:Donald H. Rumsfeld.jpg|thumb|Donald H. Rumsfeld)Rumsfeld has been awarded 11 honorary degrees. Following his years as CEO, president, and later chairman of G. D. Searle & Company, he was recognized as Outstanding CEO in the pharmaceutical industry by the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981).WEB, Donald H. Rumsfeld,weblink Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, April 9, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140419191743weblink">weblink April 19, 2014, yes, Some of his other awards include: Secretary of State Henry Kissinger described Rumsfeld as "the most ruthless man" he knew.BBC News, 8 Nov. 2006 "Profile Donald Rumsfeld

Affiliation history

Institutional affiliations

Government posts, panels, and commissions

File:President Ford and Soviet General Secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev - NARA - 7162534 (crop).jpg|thumb|Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, President Ford and Rumsfeld in VladivostokVladivostokFile:Defense.gov News Photo 051024-F-5586B-016.jpg|thumb|Rumsfeld and Victoria Nuland at the NATO-Ukraine consultations in Vilnius, Lithuania, on October 24, 2005]]

Corporate connections and business interests

Education

Works

  • BOOK, Strategic imperatives in East Asia, Heritage Foundation
year=1998series= Heritage lectures, no. 605, Speech given March 3, 1998 in Washington, D.C.

See also

References

Notes{{reflist|30em}}Bibliography
  • BOOK, By His Own Rules: The Ambitions, Successes, and Ultimate Failures of Donald Rumsfeld, Bradley Graham, PublicAffairs, 2009, 978-1-58648-421-7,
  • BOOK, Rumsfeld's War: The Untold Story of America's Anti-Terrorist Commander, Rowan Scarborough, Regnery Publishing, 2004, 978-0-89526-069-7, Rowan Scarborough,
  • Rumsfeld: A Personal Portrait by Midge Decter (Regan Books, 2003) {{ISBN|0-06-056091-6}}
  • BOOK, The Rumsfeld Way: The Leadership Wisdom of a Battle-Hardened Maverick, Jeffrey A. Krames, McGraw-Hill, 2002, 978-0-07-140641-3, Jeffrey A. Krames,
  • BOOK, Succession management for senior military positions: the Rumsfeld model for Secretary of Defense involvement, RAND, Hoehn, Andrew R. Albert A. Robbert, Margaret C. Harrell, 2011, Santa Monica, CA, 978-0-8330-5228-5,
  • BOOK, Rumsfeld: His Rise, Fall, and Catastrophic Legacy, Andrew Cockburn, Charles Scribner's Sons, Scribners, 2007, 978-1-4165-3574-4,
  • BOOK, Rumsfeld's Wars: The Arrogance of Power, Dale R. Herspring, University Press of Kansas, 2008, 978-0-7006-1587-2,
  • BOOK, Decision Points, George W. Bush, Crown Publishing Group, Crown, 2010, 978-0-307-59061-9, Decision Points, George W. Bush,

External links

{{Commons}}{{wikisource author}}Works Government service Documentary video
  • {{Internet Archive short film|id=openmind_ep1204|name=A View from the White House, Part I (1975)}}
  • {{Internet Archive short film|id=openmind_ep1205|name=A View from the White House, Part II (1975)}}
  • {{Internet Archive short film|id=openmind_ep1209|name=A Single Six Year Term for President (1987)}}
  • {{Internet Archive short film|id=openmind_ep1210|name=Money, Television, and Politics (1988)}}
  • {{Internet Archive short film|id=openmind_ep1207|name=The Private Lives of Public Servants (1989)}}
  • Rumsfeld's War PBS Frontline, October 2004
  • The Unknown Known - Interview with Rumsfeld by Academy Award-winning documentarian Errol Morris, December 2013
  • Video clip of Rumsfeld (as special U.S. envoy to Middle East) meeting Hussein
Articles profiling Rumsfeld