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Condoleezza Rice
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Birmingham, Alabama>Birmingham, Alabama, U.S.|death_date =|death_place =University of Denver (Bachelor of Arts>BA, Doctor of Philosophy)University of Notre Dame (Master of Arts>MA)|signature = Condoleezza Rice Signature 2.svg}}Condoleezza Rice ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|k|ɒ|n|d|ə|ˈ|l|iː|z|ə}}; born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female African-American Secretary of State, as well as the second African-American Secretary of State (after Colin Powell), and the second female Secretary of State (after Madeleine Albright). Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term, making her the first woman to serve in that position.Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up while the South was racially segregated. She obtained her bachelor's degree from the University of Denver and her master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. In 1981 she received a PhD from the School of International Studies at the University of Denver.NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice, Stanford Graduate School of Business, stanford.edu, April 11, 2018, en, NEWS, Plotz, David,weblink Condoleezza Rice: George W. Bush's celebrity adviser, Slate.com, May 12, 2000, May 27, 2019, She worked at the State Department under the Carter administration and pursued an academic fellowship at Stanford University, where she later served as provost from 1993 to 1999. Rice served on the National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification from 1989 to 1991. On December 17, 2000, she left her position and joined the Bush administration as National Security Advisor. In Bush's second term, she became Secretary of State.Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems (with U.S. backing). While in the position, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607012010weblink">weblink June 7, 2008publisher=Millennium Challenge Account>quote=The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board ..., January 21, 2009, In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.WEB,weblink Condi Rice website at Stanford University, Stanford University, tec.fsi.stanford.edu, May 27, 2009, WEB, Condoleezza, Rice,weblink Condi Rice website at the Hoover Institution, Hoover Institution, hoover.org, May 27, 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090429223043weblink">weblink April 29, 2009, In September 2010, she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy.WEB, Gloeckler, Geoff, Getting In Condoleezza Rice To Join Stanford B-School Faculty In September,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg.com, September 15, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101007123902weblink">weblink October 7, 2010, She is on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC.WEB,weblink About - Dropbox, Dropbox, en, March 12, 2018, WEB,weblink Dr. Condoleezza Rice - Makena Capital Management, makenacap.com, August 20, 2018, NEWS,weblink Marcus, Wohlsen, April 10, 2014, Internet Revolt Begins as Condi Rice Joins Dropbox Board, Wired (magazine), Wired, August 20, 2018,

Early life

Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, the only child of Angelena (née Ray) Rice, a high school science, music, and oratory teacher, and John Wesley Rice, Jr., a high school guidance counselor, Presbyterian minister,WEB, Sheryl Henderson, Blunt,weblink The Unflappable Condi Rice, Christianity Today, March 8, 2012, September 1, 2003, and dean of students at Stillman College, a historically black college in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.NEWS, Horton, Ebony, Stillman College educators recall Rice's ties to town,weblink January 1, 2018, The Tuscaloosa News, December 6, 2004, Rice moved from Titusville, near Birmingham, to Tuscaloosa in 1966 when her father, John Rice, became the dean of students at Stillman. The family resided on campus in a brick home behind Hay Residence Hall, while Rice, then 11, attended what is now Central High School., Her name, Condoleezza, derives from the music-related term con dolcezza, which in Italian means, "with sweetness". Rice has roots in the American South going back to the pre-Civil War era, and some of her ancestors worked as sharecroppers for a time after emancipation. Rice discovered on the PBS series Finding Your RootsNEWS,weblink Ancestry testing goes for pinpoint accuracy: Companies use whole genomes to trace geographical origins, Nature (journal), Nature, Ewen, Callaway, June 6, 2012, August 20, 2018, that she is of 51% African, 40% European, and 9% Asian or Native American genetic descent, while her mtDNA is traced back to the Tikar people of Cameroon.NEWS, Your Genetic Genealogist,weblink Episode 7: Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., DNA, August 20, 2018, Dr. Gates' team also ordered an admixture test for Condoleeza. This DNA analysis revealed that her genetic makeup is 51% African, 40% European and 9% Native American or Asian", and "Condoleezza was surprised to learn that her mtDNA traced back to the Tikar people of Cameroon., NEWS, Finding Your Roots,weblink Samuel L. Jackson, Condoleezza Rice and Ruth Simmons, April 29, 2012, August 20, 2018, In her 2017 book, (Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom), she writes, "My great-great-grandmother Zina on my mother's side bore five children by different slave owners" and "My great-grandmother on my father's side, Julia Head, carried the name of the slave owner and was so favored by him that he taught her to read."BOOK, Rice, Condoleezza, Democracy: Stories from the Long Road to Freedom, 2017, Grand Central Publishing, New York, 9781455540181, 27, Rice grew up in the TitusvilleNEWS, Growing up with Condoleezza Rice, Emma, Beck,weblink BBC News, February 28, 2005, September 25, 2013, neighborhood of Birmingham, and then Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at a time when the South was racially segregated. The Rices lived on the campus of Stillman College.

Early education

Rice began to learn French, music, figure skating and ballet at the age of three.JOURNAL, Hawkins, B. Denise, September–October 2002, Condoleezza Rice's Secret Weapon, Today's Christian,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080109235721weblink">weblink January 9, 2008, October 26, 2008, At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist.EPISODE, Condoleezza Rice,weblink Mad About Music, WNYC, January 2, 2005,weblink Mad About Music, October 18, 2014, dead,weblink May 26, 2019, While Rice ultimately did not become a professional pianist, she still practices often and plays with a chamber music group. She accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma playing Johannes Brahms' Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts Awards.NEWS, Anthony, Tommasini, Anthony Tommasini, Condoleezza Rice on Piano,weblink The New York Times, April 9, 2006, November 3, 2008, WEB,weblink Yo-Yo Ma and Condoleezza Rice perform a duet, C-SPAN, April 22, 2002, May 5, 2017,

High school and university education

In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado, and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father was then serving as an assistant dean.Rice initially majored in Music, and after her sophomore year, she went to the Aspen Music Festival and School. There, she later said, she met students of greater talent than herself, and she doubted her career prospects as a pianist. She began to consider an alternative major.WEB,weblink Tamara, Chapman, Facing Forward, Looking Back, University of Denver Magazine, Summer 2010, September 1, 2010, She attended an International Politics course taught by Josef Korbel, which sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations. Rice later described Korbel (who is the father of Madeleine Albright, then a future U.S. Secretary of State), as a central figure in her life.NEWS, Michael, Dobbs, Michael Dobbs, Josef Korbel's Enduring Foreign Policy Legacy; Professor Mentored Daughter Albright and Student Rice,weblink The Washington Post, December 28, 2000, May 27, 2019, In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, and was awarded a B.A., cum laude, in political science by the University of Denver. While at the University of Denver she was a member of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter.WEB,weblink Famous Alumnae, USC Alpha Chi Omega,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017051717weblink">weblink October 17, 2007, September 12, 2018, She obtained a master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1975. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. She would also study Russian at Moscow State University in the summer of 1979, and intern with the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California.BOOK, Rice, Condoleezza, Extraordinary Ordinary People: A Memoir of Family, Three Rivers Press, 2010, 184–8, 978-0-307-88847-1, In 1981, at age 26, she received her Ph.D. in political science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation centered on military policy and politics in what was then the communist state of Czechoslovakia.BOOK, Condoleezza, Rice, The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975., PhD dissertation, University of Denver, 1981, 51308999,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927073911weblink">weblink dead, 2013-09-27, From 1980 to 1981, she was a fellow at Stanford University's Arms Control and Disarmament Program, having won a Ford Foundation Dual Expertise Fellowship in Soviet Studies and International Security. The award granted a year-long fellowship at Harvard University, Stanford University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology or University of California, Los Angeles. Rice contacted both Harvard and Stanford, but states that Harvard ignored her. Her fellowship at Stanford began her academic affiliation with the University and time in Northern California.

Early political views

Rice was a Democrat until 1982, when she changed her political affiliation to Republican, in part because she disagreed with the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter,WEB, Balz, Dan, The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence, The Washington Post, August 1, 2000,weblink May 27, 2019, NEWS, Maki, Becker, 20 Things You Probably Didn't Know About,weblink Daily News (New York), Daily News, April 4, 2004, November 2, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081211065013weblink">weblink December 11, 2008, and because of the influence of her father, who was Republican. As she told the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father joined our party because the Democrats in Jim Crow Alabama of 1952 would not register him to vote. The Republicans did."NEWS, Rice, Condoleezza, Text: Condoleezza Rice at the Republican National Convention,weblink The Washington Post, August 1, 2000, October 27, 2008,

Academic career

(File:condi rice.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London)Rice was hired by Stanford University as an assistant professor of political science (1981–1987). She was promoted to associate professor in 1987, a post she held until 1993. She was a specialist on the Soviet Union and gave lectures on the subject for the Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC Berkeley Professor George W. Breslauer in the mid-1980s.At a 1985 meeting of arms control experts at Stanford, Rice's performance drew the attention of Brent Scowcroft, who had served as National Security Advisor under Gerald Ford.JOURNAL, Baker, Russell, April 3, 2008, Condi and the Boys, New York Review of Books, 55, 5, 9–11, 0028-7504,weblink March 19, 2008, With the election of George H. W. Bush, Scowcroft returned to the White House as National Security Adviser in 1989, and he asked Rice to become his Soviet expert on the United States National Security Council. According to R. Nicholas Burns, President Bush was "captivated" by Rice, and relied heavily on her advice in his dealings with Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.Because she would have been ineligible for tenure at Stanford if she had been absent for more than two years, she returned there in 1991. She was taken under the wing of George P. Shultz (Ronald Reagan's Secretary of State from 1982 to 1989), who was a fellow at the Hoover Institution. Shultz included Rice in a "luncheon club" of intellectuals who met every few weeks to discuss foreign affairs. In 1992, Shultz, who was a board member of Chevron Corporation, recommended Rice for a spot on the Chevron board. Chevron was pursuing a $10 billion development project in Kazakhstan and, as a Soviet specialist, Rice knew the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. She traveled to Kazakhstan on Chevron's behalf and, in honor of her work, in 1993, Chevron named a 129,000-ton supertanker SS Condoleezza Rice. During this period, Rice was also appointed to the boards of Transamerica Corporation (1991) and Hewlett-Packard (1992).At Stanford, in 1992, Rice volunteered to serve on the search committee to replace outgoing president Donald Kennedy. The committee ultimately recommended Gerhard Casper, the Provost of the University of Chicago. Casper met Rice during this search, and was so impressed that in 1993, he appointed her as Stanford's Provost, the chief budget and academic officer of the university in 1993 and she also was granted tenure and became full professor.MAGAZINE, Condoleezza Rice,weblink Forbes, October 18, 2001, October 27, 2008, Rice was the first female, first African-American, and youngest Provost in Stanford's history.NEWS, Condoleezza Rice: U.S. national security adviser,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020223173824weblink">weblink February 23, 2002, CNN, February 2002, October 27, 2008, She was also named a senior fellow of the Institute for International Studies, and a senior fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover Institution.

Provost promotion

Former Stanford President Gerhard Casper said the university was "most fortunate in persuading someone of Professor Rice's exceptional talents and proven ability in critical situations to take on this task. Everything she has done, she has done well; I have every confidence that she will continue that record as provost."PRESS RELEASE, Casper selects Condoleezza Rice to be next Stanford provost, Stanford University, May 19, 1993,weblink October 27, 2008, Acknowledging Rice's unique character, Casper told the New Yorker in 2002 that it "would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that she was a woman, the fact that she was black and the fact that she was young weren't in my mind."NEWS, Nicholas, Lemann, October 14, 2002, The New Yorker, Without a Doubt,weblink subscription, 181, NEWS,weblink Not Always Diplomatic in Her First Major Post, Los Angeles Times, January 16, 2005, Mark Z., Barabak, August 17, 2018,

Balancing school budget

As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the university's multibillion-dollar budget. The school at that time was running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she promised that the budget would be balanced within "two years." Coit Blacker, Stanford's deputy director of the Institute for International Studies, said there "was a sort of conventional wisdom that said it couldn't be done ... that [the deficit] was structural, that we just had to live with it." Two years later, Rice announced that the deficit had been eliminated and the university was holding a record surplus of over $14.5 million.JOURNAL, Robinson, James, June 9, 1999, Velvet-glove forcefulness: Seven years of provostial challenges and achievements, Stanford Report, Stanford University,weblink October 27, 2008,

Special interest issues

Rice drew protests when, as Provost, she departed from the practice of applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and unsuccessfully sought to consolidate the university's ethnic community centers.

Return to Stanford

During a farewell interview in early December 2008, Rice indicated she would return to Stanford and the Hoover Institution, "back west of the Mississippi where I belong," but beyond writing and teaching did not specify what her role would be.NEWS, George, Stephanopoulos, George Stephanopoulos, December 7, 2008, This Week (ABC TV series), This Week,weblink Interview on ABC's This Week With George Stephanopoulos, state.gov, ABC News, August 20, 2018, Rice's plans for a return to campus were elaborated in an interview with the Stanford Report in January 2009.WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice on returning to campus, Stanford Report, January 28, 2009, Gorlick, Adam, August 16, 2018, She returned to Stanford as a political science professor and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution on March 1, 2009.NEWS, Krieger, Lisa M., Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice returns to Stanford University, The Mercury News, March 1, 2009,weblink March 2, 2009, {{as of|2012}} she is on the Political Science faculty as a professor of political science and on the faculty of the Graduate School of Business as the Denning Professor in Global Business and the Economy, in addition to being the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice faculty page, Stanford University, May 17, 2012,

Role in nuclear strategy

In 1986, Rice was appointed special assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to work on nuclear strategic planning as part of a Council on Foreign Relations fellowship. In 2005, Rice assumed office as Secretary of State. Rice played a big responsibility in trying to stop the nuclear threat from North Korea and Iran.

North Korea

North Korea signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1985, but in 2002 revealed they were operating a secret nuclear weapons program that violated the 1994 agreement. The 1994 agreement between the United States and North Korea included North Korea agreeing to freeze and eventually dismantle its graphite moderated nuclear reactors, in exchange for international aid which would help them to build two new light-water nuclear reactors. In 2003, North Korea officially withdrew from the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Rice played a key role in the idea of "six-party talks" that brought China, Japan, Russia, and South Korea into discussion with North Korea and the United States.BOOK, Mabry, Marcus, Twice as good: Condoleezza Rice and her path to power, 2007, Rodale, Emmaus, Pa., 978-1-59486-362-2,weblink During these discussions, Rice gave strong talks to urge North Korea to dismantle their nuclear power program. In 2005, North Korea agreed to give up its entire nuclear program in exchange for security guarantees and economic benefits to ensure its survival. Despite the agreement in 2005, in 2006, North Korea test fired long range missiles. The UN Security Council demanded North Korea suspend the program. In 2007, Rice was involved in another nuclear agreement with North Korea (Pyongyang). Rice, other negotiators for the United States and four other nations (six-party talks) reached a deal with North Korea. In this deal North Korea agreed to close its main nuclear reactor in exchange for $400 million in fuel and aid.BOOK, Bumiller, Elisabeth, Condoleezza Rice: An American Life, December 11, 2007, Random House, New York, 978-1-4000-6590-5, 1st,weblink

India

In 2008, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced the Agreement for Cooperation between the United States and India involving peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As Secretary of State, Rice was involved in the negation of this agreement.

Music

File:yoyoma rice.jpg|thumb|Yo-Yo MaYo-Yo MaRice has played piano in public since she was a young girl. At the age of 15, she played Mozart with the Denver Symphony, and while Secretary of State she played regularly with a chamber music group in Washington. She does not play professionally, but has performed at diplomatic events at embassies, including a performance for Queen Elizabeth II,NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice plays piano for the Queen, The Daily Telegraph, December 1, 2008, August 20, 2018, NEWS,weblink Rice performs recital for the Queen, BBC News, December 2, 2008, August 20, 2018, and she has performed in public with cellist Yo-Yo Ma and singer Aretha Franklin.NEWS, The Washington Post,weblink Condoleezza Rice, Aretha Franklin: A Philadelphia show of a little R-E-S-P-E-C-T, July 29, 2010, Anne, Midgette, August 16, 2018, In 2005, Rice accompanied Charity Sunshine Tillemann-Dick, a 21-year-old soprano, for a benefit concert for the Pulmonary Hypertension Association at the Kennedy Center in Washington.NEWS,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, Edward, Epstein, January 1, 2007, Lantos the master storyteller, communicator, August 20, 2018, NEWS,weblink London, The Times, Roland, Watson, Condoleezza Rice plays it again for Charity, June 13, 2005, September 12, 2018, She performed briefly during her cameo appearance in the "Everything Sunny All the Time Always" episode of 30 Rock. She has stated that her favorite composer is Johannes Brahms, because she thinks Brahms's music is "passionate but not sentimental." On a complementary note, on Friday, April 10, 2009, on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, she stated that her favorite band is Led Zeppelin.As Secretary of State, Rice was ex officio a member of the Board of Trustees of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. As the end of their tenures approached in January 2009, outgoing President Bush appointed her to a six-year term as a general trustee, filling a vacancy on the board.

Private sector

Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Chevron honored Rice by naming an oil tanker Condoleezza Rice after her, but controversy led to its being renamed Altair Voyager.NEWS, Carla, Marinucci, Carla Marinucci, Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, May 5, 2001, October 13, 2008, NEWS, Marinucci, Carla,weblink Critics knock naming oil tanker Condoleezza, San Francisco Chronicle, April 5, 2001, August 20, 2018, She also served on the board of directors for the Carnegie Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation, and other organizations.In 1992, Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school program created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California.NEWS, Condoleezza Rice to visit program she started,weblink Don, Kazak, Palo Alto Online News, May 22, 2007, October 27, 2008, After her tenure as secretary of state, Rice was approached in February 2009 to fill an open position as a Pac-10 Commissioner,NEWS, July 8, 2011,weblink Rice not interested in being Pac-10 commissioner, February 3, 2009, July 8, 2011,weblink Associated Press, dead, but chose instead to return to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.In 2014 Rice joined the Ban Bossy campaign as a spokesperson advocating leadership roles for girls.NEWS, Jolie, Lee,weblink Beyonce, Jennifer Garner, Jane Lynch join 'Ban Bossy' campaign, USA Today, USAToday.com, May 10, 2014, August 8, 2014, NEWS, Facebook COO Sandberg's ludicrous crusade against bossy,weblink New York Post, March 20, 2014, March 17, 2014, Andrea, Peyser, NEWS, Beyoncé, Jennifer Garner, Jane Lynch join prominent women in #BanBossy campaign,weblink New York Daily News, August 8, 2014, March 10, 2014,

Early political career

In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, Rice served as special assistant to the director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.From 1989 through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H. W. Bush's administration as director, and then senior director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Rice wrote what would become known as the "Chicken Kiev speech" in which Bush advised the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's parliament, against independence. She also helped develop Bush's and Secretary of State James Baker's policies in favor of German reunification. She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, as the one who "tells me everything I know about the Soviet Union."NEWS, Steve, Kettmann, Steve Kettmann, Bush's secret weapon,weblink Salon.com, May 20, 2000, November 3, 2008, In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford, although she continued to serve as a consultant on the former Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that year, California Governor Pete Wilson appointed her to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw new state legislative and congressional districts in the state.In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential election campaign, Rice took a one-year leave of absence from Stanford University to serve as his foreign policy advisor. The group of advisors she led called itself The Vulcans in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would later go on to give a s:Remarks by Condoleezza Rice at the 2000 Republican National Convention|noteworthy speech]] at the 2000 Republican National Convention. The speech asserted that "...  America's armed forces are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."NEWS, Exclusive Interview: Conversation with Terror,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 11, 1999, November 3, 2008, WEB,weblink Republican National Convention: Remarks, Condoleezza, Rice, August 1, 2000, sbc.edu, May 27, 2019,

National Security Advisor (2001–2005)

File:Condoleezza Rice Colin Powell George W. Bush Donald Rumsfeld.jpg|thumb|left|Rice, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. BushGeorge W. BushOn December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford.NEWS, The 43rd President: The White House Staff; Bush Adviser Gets National Security Post, Richard A., Jr., Oppel, Frank, Bruni, December 18, 2000,weblink The New York Times, May 27, 2019, She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess", reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.NEWS,weblink #1 Condoleezza Rice, November 3, 2008, The Most Powerful Women, Forbes, Tatiana, Serafin, November 2005, On January 18, 2003, The Washington Post reported that Rice was involved in crafting Bush's position on race-based preferences. Rice has stated that "while race-neutral means are preferable", race can be taken into account as "one factor among others" in university admissions policies.NEWS, Rice says race can be 'one factor' in considering admissions,weblink CNN, January 18, 2003, November 3, 2008,

Terrorism

During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on American targets. On July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"NEWS, Philip, Shenon, Mark Mazzetti, Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda Threat,weblink The New York Times, October 2, 2006, November 3, 2008, held at the White House at Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential threat of an impending al Qaeda attack. Rice responded by asking Tenet to give a presentation on the matter to Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Attorney General John Ashcroft.NEWS, Jonathan S., Landay, Warren P. Strobel, John Walcott, Matt Stearns, Drew Brown, Rumsfeld, Ashcroft said to have received warning of attack,weblink The McClatchy Company, October 2, 2006, November 3, 2008, Rice characterized the August 6, 2001, President's Daily Brief Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US as historical information. Rice indicated "It was information based on old reporting."WEB,weblinkNSAEBB/NSAEBB116/testimony.htm, April 8, 2004, Excerpts from April 8, 2004 Testimony of Dr. Condoleezza Rice Before the 9/11 Commission Pertaining to The President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001, November 3, 2008, 9/11 Commission, National Security Archive, Sean Wilentz of Salon magazine suggested that the PDB contained current information based on continuing investigations, including that Bin Laden wanted to "bring the fighting to America."NEWS, Sean, Wilentz, Sean Wilentz, Don't know much about history, https:www.salon.com/2004/04/14/rice_12/, Salon.com, April 13, 2004, May 27, 2019, On September 11, 2001, Rice was scheduled to outline a new national security policy that included missile defense as a cornerstone and played down the threat of stateless terrorism.NEWS, Top Focus Before 9/11 Wasn't on Terrorism,weblink April 1, 2004, The Washington Post, Robin, Wright, August 20, 2018, (File:President George W. Bush addresses the media at the Pentagon on Sept. 17, 2001.jpg|thumb|President Bush addresses the media at the Pentagon on September 17, 2001)When asked in 2006 about the July 2001 meeting, Rice asserted she did not recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met repeatedly with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats. Moreover, she stated that it was "incomprehensible" to her that she had ignored terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks.In 2003, Rice received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.WEB,weblink Past Winners, Jefferson Awards Foundation, May 27, 2019, In August 2010, Rice received the U.S. Air Force Academy's 2009 Thomas D. White National Defense Award for contributions to the defense and security of the United States.WEB,weblink Dr. Condoleezza Rice receives 2009 TD White Award, August 30, 2010, Branum, Don, US Air force, December 12, 2010,

Subpoenas

In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested.NEWS, Transcript of Rice's 9/11 commission statement,weblink CNN, May 19, 2004, November 3, 2008, In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that Iraq sought yellowcake uranium from Niger.NEWS, Rice says Saddam questions answered,weblink The Washington Times, April 26, 2007, November 3, 2008,

Iraq

(File:Cheney, Rumsfeld, and Rice in Camp David.jpg|thumb|Cheney, Rice and Rumsfeld participate in a video conference with President Bush and Iraqi PM Maliki.)Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying".NEWS, Condoleezza, Rice, Why We Know Iraq Is Lying,weblink The New York Times, January 23, 2003, November 3, 2008, In a January 10, 2003, interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, Rice made headlines by stating regarding Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's nuclear capabilities: "The problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."NEWS, Wolf, Blitzer, Wolf Blitzer, Search for the 'smoking gun',weblink CNN, January 10, 2003, November 3, 2008, In October 2003, Rice was named to run the Iraq Stabilization Group, to "quell violence in Iraq and Afghanistan and to speed the reconstruction of both countries."NEWS, David E., Sanger, David E. Sanger, White House to Overhaul Iraq and Afghan Missions,weblink The New York Times, October 6, 2003, May 27, 2019, By May 2004, The Washington Post reported that the council had become virtually nonexistent.NEWS, Dana, Milbank, Stabilization Is Its Middle Name, The Washington Post, May 18, 2004, A17,weblink August 20, 2018, Leading up to the 2004 presidential election, Rice became the first National Security Advisor to campaign for an incumbent president. She stated that while: "Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the actual attacks on America, Saddam Hussein's Iraq was a part of the Middle East that was festering and unstable, [and] was part of the circumstances that created the problem on September 11."NEWS, Associated Press, Rice defends decision to go to war in Iraq,weblink CNN, October 22, 2004, November 3, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041117054631weblink">weblink November 17, 2004, After the invasion, when it became clear that Iraq did not have nuclear WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax", "deception" and "demagogic scare tactic".NEWS, Wayne, Drash, Report: No WMD stockpiles in Iraq,weblink CNN, October 7, 2004, November 3, 2008, JOURNAL, Morris, Roger, Roger Morris (American writer), July 27, 2005, The Source Beyond Rove: Condoleezza Rice at the Center of the Plame Scandal, CounterPunch,weblink November 3, 2008, Dana Milbank and Mike Allen wrote in The Washington Post: "Either she missed or overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to put caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she made public claims that she knew to be false".NEWS, Dana, Milbank, Dana Milbank, Mike Allen, Iraq Flap Shakes Rice's Image,weblink The Washington Post, A0, July 27, 2003, November 3, 2008,

Role in authorizing use of controversial interrogation techniques

A Senate Intelligence Committee reported that on July 17, 2002, Rice met with CIA director George Tenet to personally convey the Bush administration's approval of the proposed waterboarding of alleged Al Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. "Days after Dr Rice gave Mr Tenet her approval, the Justice Department approved the use of waterboarding in a top secret August 1 memo."NEWS, Nico, Hines, Condoleezza Rice gave nod for 'torture' techniques,weblink The Daily Telegraph, April 23, 2009, April 23, 2009, London, Waterboarding is considered to be torture by a wide range of authorities, including legal experts,WEB,weblink Open Letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, April 17, 2009, April 5, 2006, Human Rights Watch, NEWS, Benjamin, Davis, Endgame on Torture: Time to Call the Bluff, October 8, 2007, JURIST,weblink December 18, 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071220210424weblink">weblink December 20, 2007, JOURNAL, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 45, 2007, 2, Drop by Drop: Forgetting the History of Water Torture in U.S. Courts, Evan, Wallach, Evan Wallach,weblink 468–506, 0010-1931, A rough draft is also available.NEWS, National Lawyers Guild, White Paper on the Law of Torture and Holding Accountable Those Who Are Complicit in Approving Torture of Persons in U.S. Custody, National Lawyers Guild, International Association of Democratic Lawyers,weblink June 26, 2012, war veterans,NEWS, French Journalist Henri Alleg Describes His Torture Being Waterboarded by French Forces During Algerian War, November 5, 2007, Democracy Now!,weblink December 18, 2007, NEWS, John, McCain, John McCain, Torture's Terrible Toll, November 21, 2005, Newsweek,weblink April 17, 2009, intelligence officials,BOOK, Stephen, Grey, Stephen Grey, Ghost plane: the true story of the CIA torture program, St. Martin's Press, New York City, 2006, 226, 0-312-36023-1, 70335397, As one former CIA official, once a senior official for the directorate of operations, told me: 'Of course it was torture. Try it and you'll see.' Another, also a former higher-up in the directorate of operations, told me: 'Yes, it's torture ... ',weblink military judges,NEWS, Nicole, Bell, Retired JAGs Send Letter To Leahy: 'Waterboarding is inhumane, it is torture, and it is illegal.', November 2, 2007, Crooks and Liars,weblink April 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090202070251weblink">weblink February 2, 2009, human rights organizations,NEWS, CIA Whitewashing Torture, November 21, 2005, Human Rights Watch,weblink April 17, 2009, PRESS RELEASE, Amnesty International Response to Cheney's 'No-Brainer' Comment, Amnesty International, October 26, 2006,weblink April 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105062019weblink">weblink January 5, 2009, WEB,weblink Torture can never, ever be accepted,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921060134weblink">weblink September 21, 2013, Thomas Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights, Council of Europe, coe.int, September 12, 2018, NEWS,weblink UK Commons report casts doubt on US denial of torture techniques, Andrew, Gilmore, JURIST, July 20, 2008, September 12, 2018, NEWS,weblink UK 'must check' US torture denial, BBC News, July 19, 2008, September 12, 2018, NEWS,weblink Torture and America's Crisis of Faith â€“ The Senate's retreat from its initial demand that now-Attorney General Michael Mukasey denounce waterboarding is detrimental to the country's moral fabric. For the first time, torture bears an imprimatur of democratic approval, Jonathan, Hafetz, Jonathan Hafetz, The American Prospect, November 28, 2007, August 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink White House nears completion of new torture guidelines; Critics say administration's endorsement of 'enhanced interrogation' is 'immoral,' draw comparisons to Nazi war crimes, Arthur, Bright, The Christian Science Monitor, May 31, 2007, September 12, 2018, NEWS,weblink The U.S. Has a History of Using Torture, Alfred W., McCoy, History News Network, August 16, 2018, December 6, 2006, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder,NEWS,weblink Holder: Water-boarding is torture; president can't authorize it, USA Today, January 15, 2009, July 1, 2009, Mark, Memmott, and many senior politicians, including U.S. President Barack Obama.NEWS, Raw Data: Transcript of Obama's News Conference, Fox News, April 29, 2009,weblink May 7, 2009, In 2003 Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney and Attorney General John Ashcroft met with the CIA again and were briefed on the use of waterboarding and other methods including week-long sleep deprivation, forced nudity and the use of stress positions. The Senate report says that the Bush administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA program was lawful and reflected administration policy".The Senate report also "suggests Miss Rice played a more significant role than she acknowledged in written testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee submitted in the autumn." At that time, she had acknowledged attending meetings to discuss the CIA interrogations, but she claimed that she could not recall the details, and she "omitted her direct role in approving the programme in her written statement to the committee."NEWS, Associated Press, As Bush Adviser, Rice Gave OK to Waterboard, Fox News, April 22, 2009,weblink May 8, 2009, In a conversation with a student at Stanford University in April 2009, Rice stated that she did not authorize the CIA to use the enhanced interrogation techniques. Rice said, "I didn't authorize anything. I conveyed the authorization of the administration to the agency that they had policy authorization, subject to the Justice Department's clearance. That's what I did."NEWS, Kessler, Glenn,weblink Rice Defends Use Of Enhanced Techniques, The Washington Post, May 1, 2009, 4, August 12, 2018, She added, "We were told, nothing that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture. And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it did not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against Torture."In 2015, citing her role in authorizing the use of so-called "enhanced interrogation techniques", Human Rights Watch called for the investigation of Rice "for conspiracy to torture as well as other crimes."WEB,weblink No More Excuses: A Roadmap to Justice for CIA Torture, December 2015, Human Rights Watch, December 2, 2015,

Secretary of State (2005–2009)

File:RICEBUSHSIGN.jpg|thumb|left|Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching are, from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George W. BushGeorge W. BushFile:Condoleezza Rice and Michaëlle Jean.jpg|thumb|Condoleezza Rice visits Governor General of Canada, Michaëlle Jean in Ottawa, OntarioOttawa, OntarioOn November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85–13.NEWS, Associated Press, Rice sworn in as secretary of state, January 26, 2005,weblink NBCNews.com, January 29, 2013, The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism."WEB, Boxer, Barbara, This is just the beginning,weblink PAC for a Change, January 29, 2013, January 27, 2005, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511081726weblink">weblink May 11, 2013, Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Saddam's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice's appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."PRESS RELEASE, Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State, Robert Byrd, January 25, 2005,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100409005135weblink">weblink April 9, 2010, As Secretary of State, Rice championed the expansion of democratic governments and other American values: "American values are universal."JOURNAL,weblink Condoleezza, Rice, Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest, Foreign Affairs, 79, 1, January 2000, 50, September 12, 2018, "An international order that reflects our values is the best guarantee of our enduring national interest{{nbsp}}..."NEWS,weblink Condoleezza, Rice, Rethinking the National Interest, Foreign Affairs, 87, 4, July 2008, September 12, 2018, Rice stated that the September 11 attacks in 2001 were rooted in "oppression and despair" and so, the US must advance democratic reform and support basic rights throughout the greater Middle East.PRESS RELEASE, Princeton University's Celebration of the 75th Anniversary Of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, United States Department of State, September 30, 2005,weblink November 3, 2008, Rice also reformed and restructured the department, as well as US diplomacy as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the goal that Rice describes as "work[ing] with our many partners around the world ... [and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic, well-governed states that will respond to the needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system."PRESS RELEASE, Transformational Diplomacy, United States Department of State, January 18, 2006,weblink November 3, 2008, PRESS RELEASE, Georgetown University address, United States Department of State, January 18, 2006,weblink November 3, 2008, File:2006 02 22 riyadh1 600al-Faisal-Rice.jpg|thumb|Rice with Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal ]]As Secretary of State, Rice traveled heavily and initiated many diplomatic efforts on behalf of the Bush administration; she holds the record for most miles logged in the position.NEWS,weblink Scare Adds to Fears That Clinton's Work Has Taken Toll, Landler, Mark, The New York Times, January 4, 2013, September 12, 2018, Her diplomacy relied on strong presidential support and is considered to be the continuation of style defined by former Republican secretaries of state Henry Kissinger and James Baker.NEWS,weblink Rice travel diplomacy year â€“ up close and personal, Reuters, October 11, 2005, September 11, 2009, File:Rice and Putin.jpg|thumb|right|Condoleezza Rice speaks with Vladimir PutinVladimir Putin

Post–Bush administration

After the end of the Bush Administration, Rice returned to academia and joined the Council on Foreign Relations.WEB,weblink Membership Roster, Council on Foreign Relations, August 27, 2015, She appeared as herself in 2011 on the NBC sitcom 30 Rock in the fifth-season episode "Everything Sunny All the Time Always", in which she engages in a classical-music duel with Jack Donaghy (Alec Baldwin). Within the world of the show, Donaghy had had a relationship with Rice during the show's first season.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}}It was announced in 2013 that Rice was writing a book to be published in 2015 by Henry Holt & Company.NEWS, Condoleezza Rice to Write Book for Henry Holt,weblink The New York Times, Leslie, Kaufman, March 19, 2013, September 12, 2018, In August 2015, High Point University announced that Rice would speak at the 2016 commencement ceremony.WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice To Serve As 2016 Commencement Speaker, High Point University, August 18, 2015, High Point University, August 27, 2015, Her commencement address was highlighted by The Huffington Post,WEB,weblink Condoleeza Rice Tells Grads To Find People They Disagree WIth, May 17, 2016, The Huffington Post, May 27, 2016, Fortune,WEB,weblink 8 Inspiring Women Leaders Share Their Best Advice For 2016 Grads, May 25, 2016, Fortune, May 27, 2016, Business Insider,WEB,weblink Instagram photo by Business Insider • May 24, 2016 at 3:58pm UTC, Instagram, May 27, 2016, NBC News, Time, and USA Today.WEB,weblink Rutgers students decry Rice as commencement speaker, USA TODAY, en, 2019-02-19, File:Condoleezza Rice and Donald Trump in the Oval Office, March 2017.jpg|thumb|Rice with President Donald TrumpDonald TrumpIn May 2017, Rice said that alleged Russian hacking of DNC emails should "absolutely not" delegitimize Donald Trump's presidency.NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice: U.S. should 'move on' from Russian election interference, Yahoo News, May 9, 2017, August 16, 2018,

College Football Playoff Selection Committee

In October 2013, Rice was selected to be one of the thirteen inaugural members of the College Football Playoff selection committee.WEB,weblink College Football Playoff officially unveils 13-member selection committee, SI.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131019142849weblink">weblink October 19, 2013, September 12, 2018, Her appointment caused a minor controversy in the sport.NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice discusses her role on the selection committee, SI.com, October 16, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140330022935weblink">weblink March 30, 2014, September 12, 2018, In October 2014, she revealed that she watched "14 or 15 games every week live on TV on Saturdays and recorded games on Sundays."NEWS, Heather, Dinich,weblink Condi Rice talks committee ins, outs, ESPN, October 8, 2014, August 20, 2018, Her term on the committee expired at the conclusion of the 2016 college football season.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}}

Speculation on political future

As early as 2003, there were reports that Rice was considering a run for governor of California, while ruling out running for senate in 2004.NEWS,weblink Marinucci, Carla, Security adviser Rice weighs run for governor, San Francisco Chronicle, February 27, 2003, May 27, 2019, There was also speculation that Rice would run for the Republican nomination in the 2008 primaries, which she ruled out on Meet the Press. On February 22, 2008, Rice played down any suggestion that she may be on the Republican vice presidential ticket: "I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office in the United States."NEWS, Rice says has no plan to run for vice president, February 22, 2008, Reuters, March 28, 2008,weblink I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office., During an interview with the editorial board of The Washington Times on March 27, 2008, Rice said she was "not interested" in running for vice president.NEWS, Transcript of Secretary Condoleezza Rice's Interview with the Washington Times Editorial Board, The Washington Times, United States Department of State, March 28, 2008, March 28, 2008,weblink Question: "And would you consider vice president?" Rice: "Not interested." In a Gallup poll from March 24 to 27, 2008, Rice was mentioned by eight percent of Republican respondents to be their first choice to be John McCain's Republican vice presidential running mate, slightly behind Mike Huckabee and Mitt Romney.NEWS,weblink Gallup Polls on GOP VP Preferences, RealClearPolitics, April 4, 2008, September 12, 2018, Republican strategist Dan Senor said on ABC's This Week on April 6, 2008, that "Condi Rice has been actively, actually in recent weeks, campaigning for" the vice presidential nomination. He based this assessment on her attendance of Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax Reform conservative leader's meeting on March 26, 2008.NEWS, Mary, Bruce, Dan Senor: Condoleezza Rice Is Pursuing the VP Spot, ABC News, April 6, 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080407194621weblink">weblink April 7, 2008, September 12, 2018, In response to Senor's comments, Rice's spokesperson denied that Rice was seeking the vice presidential nomination, saying, "If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it."NEWS, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Rice: Still Not Running for VP,weblink The Washington Post, April 7, 2008, November 3, 2008, Sean McCormack, McCormack dismissed both as perfectly ordinary. 'I think if you look back at her tenure, in terms of her activities, you will find all of these activities perfectly normal and consistent with the way she has done her job over the past three years or so,' he said. 'If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it.', dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120326212451weblink">weblink March 26, 2012, In August 2008, the speculation about a potential McCain-Rice ticket finally ended when then-Governor Sarah Palin of Alaska was selected as McCain's running-mate.In early December 2008, Rice praised President-elect Barack Obama's selection of New York Senator Hillary Clinton to succeed her as Secretary of State, saying "she's terrific". Rice, who spoke to Clinton after her selection, said Clinton "is someone of intelligence and she'll do a great job".WEB,weblink Rice on Hillary: 'She's Terrific', ABC News, George, Stephanopoulos, George Stephanopoulos, December 7, 2008, December 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081208212642weblink">weblink December 8, 2008,

Political positions

Condoleeza Rice is often described as a centrist or moderate Republican.NEWS, Todd S., Purdum, February 24, 2015,weblink Dreaming of Condi, Politico, 2018-11-29, WEB,weblink The Condoleezza Rice effect, Washington Post, en, 2018-11-29, On The Issues, a non-partisan organization which rates candidates based on their policy positions, considers Rice to be a centrist.WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice on the Issues, OnTheIssues.org, www.ontheissues.org, 2018-11-29, She takes both liberal and conservative positions; she is pro-choice on abortion, supports gun rights, opposes same-sex marriage but supports civil unions, and supports building oil pipelines such as the Keystone XL pipeline.NEWS,weblink Rice's stance on controversial issues, POLITICO, 2018-11-29, en, NEWS,weblink The pros and cons of Condi - CNNPolitics, Correspondent, By Dana Bash, CNN Senior Congressional, CNN, 2018-11-29,

Terrorist activity

Rice's policy as Secretary of State viewed counter-terrorism as a matter of being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember that in this war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal activity where you can allow somebody to commit the crime and then you go back and you arrest them and you question them. If they succeed in committing their crime, then hundreds or indeed thousands of people die. That's why you have to prevent, and intelligence is the long pole in the tent in preventing attacks."WEB, U.S. State Department,weblink Interview on Fox News Sunday With Chris Wallace, December 18, 2005, September 12, 2018, File:Rangin Dadfar Spanta et Condoleezza Rice.jpg|thumb|left|Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Rangin Dadfar SpantaRangin Dadfar SpantaRice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence community's inability to cooperate and share information, which she believes is an integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one year after Osama bin Laden told Time "[h]ostility toward America is a religious duty," and a year before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rice warned onWJR Detroit: "You really have to get the intelligence agencies better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind of split responsibility, of course, between the CIA and foreign intelligence and the FBI and domestic intelligence." She then added: "There needs to be better cooperation because we don't want to wake up one day and find out that Osama bin Laden has been successful on our own territory."NEWS,weblink Rice Quotes Contradict Clarke Account,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120521050920weblink">weblink May 21, 2012, Newsmax, March 24, 2004, September 12, 2018, Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In a speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of democracy."WEB, U.S. State Department,weblink Remarks With Senator Richard Lugar on the U.S. Department of State and the Challenges of the 21st century, July 29, 2005, June 26, 2012, File:Former Secretary Rice Chats With a Member of the Saudi Royal Family.jpg|thumb|Rice chats with a member of the Saudi Royal Family after welcoming the new King Salman of Saudi ArabiaSalman of Saudi ArabiaIn January 2005, during Bush's second inaugural ceremonies, Rice first used the term "outposts of tyranny" to refer to countries Rice thought to threaten world peace and human rights. This term has been called a descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil", used to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which she said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea.

Abortion

Rice said "If you go back to 2000 when I helped the president in the campaign. I said that I was, in effect, kind of libertarian on this issue. And meaning by that, that I have been concerned about a government role in this issue. I am a strong proponent of parental choice—of parental notification. I am a strong proponent of a ban on late-term abortion. These are all things that I think unite people and I think that that's where we should be. I've called myself at times mildly pro-choice."NEWS,weblink 'Mildly Pro-Choice' Rice Won't Rule Out Presidential Bid, The Washington Post, March 13, 2005, August 22, 2017, Mike, Allen, She would not want the federal government "forcing its views on one side or the other."NEWS,weblink 2008 run, abortion engage her politically, The Washington Times, March 11, 2005, September 12, 2018, She does not want the Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion, Roe v. Wade, to be overturned.NEWS,weblink Women Closest to Bush Are Pro-Choice, The Washington Post, Gerhart, Ann, 2005-07-19, 2018-11-29, en-US, 0190-8286, Rice said she believes President Bush "has been in exactly the right place" on abortion, "which is we have to respect the culture of life and we have to try and bring people to have respect for it and make this as rare a circumstance as possible". However, she added that she has been "concerned about a government role" but has "tended to agree with those who do not favor federal funding for abortion, because I believe that those who hold a strong moral view on the other side should not be forced to fund" the procedure.

Affirmative Action

Rice has taken a centrist approach to "race and gender preferences" in affirmative action policies.NEWS,weblink Rice Considered a Centrist on Affirmative Action at Stanford, Silverstein, Stuart, 2003-01-25, Los Angeles Times, 2018-11-29, en-US, 0458-3035, She described affirmative action as being "still needed," but she does not support quotas.NEWS,weblink Rice Weighs In on Affirmative Action, 2015-03-25, Fox News, 2018-11-29, en-US,

Female empowerment advocacy

In March 2014 Rice joined and appeared in video spots for the Ban Bossy campaign, a television and social media campaign designed to ban the word "bossy" from general use because of its harmful effect on young girls. Several video spots with other notable spokespersons including Beyoncé, Jennifer Garner and others were produced along with a web site providing school training material, leadership tips, and an online pledge form to which visitors can promise not to use the word.

Immigration

Condoleezza Rice supported the comprehensive immigration plan backed by the Bush administration and shared that it was among her regrets that it did not pass through Congress.NEWS,weblink Valentina, Zarya, February 2, 2017, Condoleezza Rice and Madeleine Albright Say Trump's Immigration Ban Is a Bad Idea, Fortune, January 28, 2018, en, In 2014, Rice criticized the Obama administration from seeking to approve immigration reforms through executive action.NEWS, Kendall, Breitman,weblink Rice warns Obama on immigration, Politico, November 6, 2014, January 28, 2018, In February 2017 Rice publicly announced her opposition to the Trump administration's travel ban.

Gun rights

Rice says that she became a "Second Amendment absolutist" due to her experience of growing up in Birmingham and facing threats from the KKK. "Rice's fondness for the Second Amendment began while watching her father sit on the porch with a gun, ready to defend his family against the Klan's night riders."NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice's 'Extraordinary, Ordinary People', Garner, Dwight, October 12, 2010, The New York Times, January 28, 2018, en-US, 0362-4331,

Same-sex marriage and LGBT issues

While Rice does not support same-sex marriage, she does support civil unions. In 2010, Rice stated that she believed "marriage is between a man and a woman ... But perhaps we will decide that there needs to be some way for people to express their desire to live together through civil union."NEWS,weblink William, Bergstrom, July 13, 2012, Rice's stance on controversial issues, POLITICO, January 25, 2017, When asked to select a view on a survey, Rice selected a response that said "Same-sex couples should be allowed to form civil unions, but not marry in the traditional sense."WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice on Civil Rights, www.ontheissues.org, January 25, 2017,

Confederate monuments

In May 2017, Rice said she opposes the removal of Confederate monuments and memorials or the renaming of buildings named after Confederate generals.NEWS, Jagannathan, Meera, Condoleezza Rice argues tearing down slave owners' statues is 'sanitizing' history,weblink May 18, 2017, New York Daily News, May 8, 2017, She argued, "If you forget your history, you're likely to repeat it. ... When you start wiping out your history, sanitizing your history to make you feel better, it's a bad thing."NEWS, Condi Rice weighs in on Confederate history,weblink May 18, 2017, The Dothan Eagle, May 17, 2017,

Racial discrimination

Rice experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk proudly in public and to use the facilities at home rather than subject herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town. As Rice recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to allow the limits and injustices of their time to limit our horizons."NEWS,weblink Condoleezza Rice's Opening Statement, The Wall Street Journal, January 18, 2005, September 12, 2018, File:Bush signs Rosa Parks statue bill.jpg|thumb|President Bush signing bill for Rosa Parks statue at Statuary HallStatuary HallHowever, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered discrimination on account of her race, which included being relegated to a storage room at a department store instead of a regular dressing room, being barred from going to the circus or the local amusement park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being given bad food at restaurants.NEWS,weblink CNN Programs: People in the News, June 25, 2010, Also, while Rice was mostly kept by her parents from areas where she might face discrimination, she was very aware of the civil rights struggle and the problems of Jim Crow laws in Birmingham. A neighbor, Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and say things like, 'Did you see what Bull Connor did today?' She was just a little girl and she did that all the time. I would have to read the newspaper thoroughly because I wouldn't know what she was going to talk about." Rice herself said of the segregation era: "Those terrible events burned into my consciousness. I missed many days at my segregated school because of the frequent bomb threats."During the violent days of the Civil Rights Movement, Reverend Rice armed himself and kept guard over the house while Condoleezza practiced the piano inside. According to J. L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice called local civil rights leader Fred Shuttlesworth and his followers "uneducated, misguided Negroes."WEB,weblink J. L. Chestnut, Chestnut Jr., J. L., Condi Rice's Disdain for the Civil Rights Movement., CounterPunch, November 19, 2005, August 2, 2006, Also, Reverend Rice instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have to prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to be "twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.NEWS,weblink Profile: Condoleezza Rice, BBC News, September 25, 2001, August 2, 2006, Rice said "My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so well prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were revered in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow from racism. I would be able to confront white society on its own terms."NEWS, Russakoff, Dale,weblink Lessons of Might and Right: How Segregation and an Indomitable Family Shaped National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice, Washington Post Magazine, September 9, 2001, April 2, 2007, While the Rices supported the goals of the civil rights movement, they did not agree with the idea of putting their child in harm's way.Rice was eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was murdered in the bombing of the primarily black Sixteenth Street Baptist Church by white supremacists on September 15, 1963. Rice has commented upon that moment in her life:}}Rice states that growing up during racial segregation taught her determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good" as non-minorities.NEWS, Derrick Z., Jackson,weblink racematters.org, A lesson from Condoleezza Rice, November 20, 2002, February 21, 2006, Segregation also hardened her stance on the right to bear arms; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration had been mandatory, her father's weapons would have been confiscated by Birmingham's segregationist director of public safety, Bull Connor,WEB,weblink Condoleezza Rice and Guns in the Civil Rights Movement, Pepin, Gail, Uncommon Gunsense, January 26, 2011, May 5, 2017, leaving them defenseless against Ku Klux Klan nightriders.

Legacy

(File:Defense.gov News Photo 050515-F-0571C-017.jpg|left|thumb|Rice greets U.S. military personnel at the American Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, on May 15, 2005.)Rice has appeared four times on the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the world's 100 most influential people. Rice is one of only nine people in the world whose influence has been considered enduring enough to have made the list—first compiled in 1999 as a retrospective of the 20th century and made an annual feature in 2004—so frequently. However, the list contains people who have the influence to change for better or for worse, and Time has also accused her of squandering her influence, stating on February 1, 2007, that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to recognize the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined."NEWS, Elaine, Shannon, Romesh, Ratnesar,weblink Rice's Toughest Mission: How Condoleezza Rice hopes to bring peace to the Middle East - and salvage the Administration's foreign policy, Time (magazine), Time, February 1, 2007, September 12, 2018, In its March 19, 2007 issue it followed up stating that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."NEWS,weblink Cheney In Twilight, Time (magazine), Time, March 19, 2007, August 20, 2018, In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine and number two in 2006 (following the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel).NEWS, MacDonald, Elizabeth, Chana R., Schoenberger,weblink The World's Most Powerful Women, Forbes, September 1, 2006, August 16, 2018, File:Rice at Boston College.jpg|thumb|right|Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy.]]

Criticism from Senator Barbara Boxer

California Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer has also criticized Rice in relation to the war in Iraq. During Rice's confirmation hearing for US Secretary of State in January 2005, Boxer stated, "I personally believe—this is my personal view—that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."NEWS,weblink Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?, The Washington Post, January 22, 2005, Colbert I., King, Colbert I. King, September 12, 2018, On January 11, 2007, Boxer, during a debate over the war in Iraq, said, "Now, the issue is who pays the price, who pays the price? I'm not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old, and my grandchild is too young. You're not going to pay a particular price, as I understand it, within immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families, and I just want to bring us back to that fact."NEWS,weblink Barbara Boxer hits Condi below the belt, Foreign Policy, January 12, 2007, September 12, 2018, The New York Post and White House Press Secretary Tony Snow called Boxer's statement an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism."NEWS,weblink White House Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange With Secretary Rice, Fox News, January 13, 2007, August 20, 2018, Melissa, Drosjack, Greg, Simmons, Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn't have children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They're getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn't say. I'm saying, she's like me, we do not have families who are in the military."NEWS,weblink Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoint, The New York Times, January 12, 2007, Helene, Cooper, Thom, Shanker, August 20, 2018,

Conservative criticism

According to The Washington Post in late July 2008, former Undersecretary of State and U.N. Ambassador John R. Bolton was referring to Rice and her allies in the Bush Administration whom he believes have abandoned earlier hard-line principles when he said: "Once the collapse begins, adversaries have a real opportunity to gain advantage. In terms of the Bush presidency, this many reversals this close to the end destroys credibility ... It appears there is no depth to which this administration will not sink in its last days."NEWS, Dan, Eggen,weblink U.S. Talks With Iran Exemplify Bush's New Approaches, The Washington Post, A4, July 20, 2008, July 21, 2008, Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld repeatedly criticized Rice after their terms in office ended. In his book (Known and Unknown: A Memoir), he portrayed her as a young, inexperienced academic who did not know her place.NEWS,weblink Rumsfeld lashes out at John McCain, Condoleezza Rice, and others. Bush's former secretary of defence is still swinging, Luiza, Savage, February 14, 2011, April 5, 2012, Maclean's, In 2011 she responded, saying that Rumsfeld "doesn't know what he's talking about."NEWS,weblink Rachel Rose, Hartman, April 28, 2011, Condoleezza Rice fires back at 'grumpy' Donald Rumsfeld, The Ticket â€” Yahoo News, June 26, 2012, She further addresses the issue in her own book saying, "He would become frustrated when my staff would reach out to military officers in the Pentagon to coordinate the particulars of a policy among the agencies. This was a routine responsibility for the NSC, but for some reason Don interpreted such actions as a violation of his authority."BOOK, Rice, Condoleezza, 2011, No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years in Washington, eBook, New York, Broadway Books, 18, 978-0-307-95247-9, In his book In My Time, Dick Cheney suggested that Rice had misled the president about nuclear diplomacy with North Korea, saying she was naïve. He called her advice on the issue "utterly misleading." He also chided Rice for clashing with White House advisers on the tone of the president's speeches on Iraq and said that she, as the Secretary of State, ruefully conceded to him that the Bush administration should not have apologized for a claim the president made in his 2003 State of the Union address, on Saddam's supposed search for yellowcake uranium. She "came into my office, sat down in the chair next to my desk, and tearfully admitted I had been right," Cheney wrote. Rice responded: "It certainly doesn't sound like me, now, does it?", saying that she viewed the book as an "attack on my integrity."WEB,weblink September 1, 2011, Condi Rice fires back at Dick Cheney, Husna, Haq, The Christian Science Monitor, May 5, 2017, Rice has also been criticized by other conservatives. Stephen Hayes of the Weekly Standard accused her of jettisoning the Bush Doctrine, including the Iraq War troop surge of 2007.JOURNAL, Stephen F., Hayes,weblink In the Driver's Seat, Weekly Standard, 13, 36, October 9, 2006, May 27, 2019, Other conservatives criticized her for her approach to Russia policy and other issues.NEWS, Claudia, Rosett,weblink Georgia and the American Cowboy, National Review, August 12, 2008, May 27, 2019,

Views within the black community

File:RiceRatings.png|thumb|right|Rice's approval ratingapproval ratingRice's ratings decreased following a heated battle for her confirmation as Secretary of State and following Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Rice's rise within the George W. Bush administration initially drew a largely positive response from many in the black community. In a 2002 survey, then National Security Advisor Rice was viewed favorably by 41% of black respondents, but another 40% did not know Rice well enough to rate her and her profile remained comparatively obscure.WEB, Jonathon, Tilove,weblink For Black America, The Thrill of Powell and Rice Is Gone, Newhouse News Service, March 11, 2004, June 26, 2011, As her role increased, some black commentators began to express doubts concerning Rice's stances and statements on various issues. In 2005, Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so radically different from that of most black Americans?"NEWS, Eugene, Robinson,weblink What Rice Can't See, The Washington Post, October 25, 2005, August 16, 2018, File:Rice and Downer at the Reagan Library May 23, 2007.jpg|thumb|left|Rice and Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer participate in a news conference at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, CaliforniaCaliforniaIn August 2005, American musician, actor, and social activist Harry Belafonte, who serves on the Board of TransAfrica, referred to blacks in the Bush administration as "black tyrants."NEWS, Marc, Merano,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080417052022weblink">weblink April 17, 2008, Harry Belafonte Calls Black Republicans 'Tyrants', CNSNews.com, August 8, 2005,weblink September 12, 2018, Belafonte's comments received mixed reactions.Rice dismissed these criticisms during a September 14, 2005 interview when she said, "Why would I worry about something like that? ... The fact of the matter is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to tell me how to be black."WEB,weblink Interview with Bill O'Reilly of the O'Reilly Factor on Fox News, state.gov, O'Reilly Factor, September 14, 2005, June 26, 2012, Black commentators have defended Rice, including Mike Espy,NEWS, Mmegi,weblink March 3, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080303100627weblink">weblink Mrs President, October 25, 2005, August 16, 2018, Andrew Young, C. Delores Tucker (chair of the National Congress of Black Women),NEWS, Susan, Jones,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219020635weblink">weblink February 19, 2008, Black Democrats Don't Like Senate's Treatment of Rice, CNSNews.com, January 26, 2005, August 17, 2018,weblink Clarence Page,NEWS, Clarence, Page,weblink Why Condi's star is rising, Chicago Tribune, January 10, 2006
, July 29, 2006, Colbert King,NEWS, Colbert, King,weblink Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?, The Washington Post
, A17, January 22, 2005, August 29, 2006
, Dorothy Height (chair and president emerita of the National Council of Negro Women) and Kweisi Mfume (former Congressman and former CEO of the NAACP).NEWS, Associated Press,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080625034918weblink">weblink June 25, 2008, NAACP: Calling Rice 'Aunt Jemima' is wrong, November 22, 2004, August 17, 2018,

Family and personal life

Rice has never married and has no children. In the 1970s, she dated and was briefly engaged to professional American football player Rick Upchurch but left him because, according to biographer Marcus Mabry, she "knew the relationship wasn't going to work."Rice's mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer in August 1985, aged 61, when Rice was 30.WEB, Reitwiesner, William Addams,weblink The Ancestors of Condoleezza Rice, WARGS, William Addams Reitwiesner, September 12, 2018, In July 1989, Rice's father, John Wesley Rice, wed Clara Bailey,NEWS,weblink John Wesley Rice Jr., 77, Father of Bush Adviser, The New York Times, December 29, 2000, January 20, 2009, to whom he remained married until his death in December 2000, aged 77.WEB, William Addams, Reitwiesner,weblink Ancestry of Condoleezza Rice, March 8, 2010, William Addams Reitwiesner, {{Self-published inline|date=March 2010}}From 2003 to 2017, Rice co-owned a home in Palo Alto, California with Randy Bean. According to public records, the two initially purchased the home with a third investor, Stanford University professor Coit D. Blacker, who later sold his line of credit to the two women. The property arrangement was first revealed in Glenn Kessler's book The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy (2007), sparking rumors about the nature of Rice and Bean's relationship. Kessler has stated he "did not know if this meant there was something more to the relationship between the women beyond a friendship."NEWS, Claudine, Zap,weblink Ex-Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice Selling Palo Alto Home for $2.35M, Realtor.com, January 25, 2017, September 12, 2018, NEWS,weblink Yes, Condi, it is Relevant, HuffPost, Michael, Rogers, Michael Rogers (publisher), September 14, 2007, September 12, 2018, BOOK, Kessler, Glenn, September 4, 2007, The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy, St. Martin's Press, 978-0312363802, NEWS,weblink Condi's 'Closest Female Friend', The Gist, September 14, 2007, Michelangelo, Signorile, Michelangelo Signorile, September 12, 2018, On August 20, 2012, Rice was one of the first two women to be admitted as members to Augusta National Golf Club; the other was South Carolina financier Darla Moore.NEWS, Associated Press,weblink Augusta adds first woman members, ESPN.com, August 20, 2012, August 20, 2018, In 2014, Rice was named to the ESPNW Impact 25.WEB,weblink 2014 espnW Impact 25, espnW, August 27, 2015,

Honorary degrees

Condoleezza Rice has received honorary degrees from many universities, including the following:
Honorary degrees{| border="1" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%; margin:0.5em 1em 0.5em 0; border:1px #056 solid; border-collapse:collapse;"
! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| State !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:20%;"| Date !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:35%;"| School !! style="background:#f5f5f5; width:25%;"| DegreeGeorgia (U.S. state)}} Georgia 1991 Morehouse College Doctor of Laws (LL.D)Alabama}} 1994 University of Alabama Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)Indiana}} 1995 University of Notre Dame DoctorateDistrict of Columbia}} 2002 National Defense University Doctor of National Security AffairsMississippi}} 2003 Mississippi College School of Law Doctor of Laws (LL.D)Kentucky}} 2004 University of Louisville Doctor of Public ServiceMichigan}} Spring 2004 Michigan State University Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL)HTTPS://VP.RESEARCH.MSU.EDU/MSU-HONORARY-DEGREE-RECIPIENTS-ALPHABETICAL-LIST#R >TITLE=MSU HONORARY DEGREE RECIPIENTS: ALPHABETICAL LISTDATE=ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 27, 2015, Massachusetts}} May 22, 2006 Boston College Doctor of Laws (LL.D)HTTP://WWW.BC.EDU/BC_ORG/RVP/PUBAF/06/RICE.HTML >TITLE=CONDOLEEZZA RICE TO DELIVER COMMENCEMENT ADDRESSDATE=ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 27, 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=SEPTEMBER 23, 2015DF=MDY-ALL, Alabama}} April 14, 2008 Air University (United States Air Force) >Doctor of Letters (D. Litt)HTTPS://2001-2009.STATE.GOV/R/PA/PRS/PS/2008/APR/103394.HTM AUTHOR=WORK=STATE.GOV, August 27, 2015, North Carolina}} 2010 Johnson C. Smith University Doctor of Laws (LL.D)HTTP://WWW.JCSU.EDU/HONORARY-DEGREES >TITLE=JOHNSON C. SMITH UNIVERSITY â€“ HONORARY DEGREES DATE= ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 27, 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150725033011/HTTP://WWW.JCSU.EDU/HONORARY-DEGREES DF=, Texas}} May 12, 2012 Southern Methodist University Doctor of Laws (LL.D)HTTP://WWW.SMU.EDU/NEWS/2012/COMMENCEMENT-CITATION-RICE-07MAY2012>TITLE=CONDOLEEZZA RICE: HONORARY DEGREE CITATIONDATE=ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 27, 2015, Virginia}} May 2015 College of William and Mary Doctor of Public ServiceHTTPS://WWW.WM.EDU/NEWS/STORIES/2015/WM-CELEBRATES-MORE-THAN-2,000-NEW-GRADUATES.PHP >TITLE=W&M CELEBRATES MORE THAN 2,500 NEW GRADUATESDATE=MAY 16, 2015ACCESSDATE=MAY 20, 2017, Tennessee}} May 12, 2018 (Sewanee: The University of the South) Doctor of Civil LawHTTP://WWW.SEWANEE.EDU/NEWSTODAY/TOP-STORIES-HOMEPAGE/BACCALAUREATE-2018.PHP >TITLE=CONDOLEEZZA RICE:"EDUCATION IS TRANSFORMATIVEDATE=ACCESSDATE=MAY 19, 2018, {{Expand list|date=July 2015}}

Honors

See also

Published works

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

References

Further reading

Academic studies

  • John P. Burke; "Condoleezza Rice as NSC Advisor A Case Study of the Honest Broker Role" Presidential Studies Quarterly v 35 3 pp 554+.
  • James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (2004)

Popular books and commentary

  • Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S. Secretary Of State (Journey to Freedom) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100316181126weblink">Child's World {{ISBN|1-59296-231-9}}
  • Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience Franklin Watts {{ISBN|0-531-12307-3}}
  • Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical Species (Verso) {{ISBN|978-1-85984-587-5}}
  • Kessler, Glenn (2007). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420184029weblink">The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy. {{ISBN|978-0-312-36380-2}}
  • Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann. (2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051205052745weblink">Regan Books {{ISBN|0-06-083913-9}}
  • Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041230105522weblink">Facts on File {{ISBN|0-8160-5480-0}}
  • Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader Biography (Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane Publishers {{ISBN|1-58415-145-5}}, middle school audience
  • Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The Best Millbrook Press weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030922223357weblink">Lerner Books {{ISBN|0-7613-1927-1}}, middle school audience
  • Rice, Condoleezza (2010). Condoleezza Rice: A Memoir of My Extraordinary, Ordinary Family and Me Ember {{ISBN|978-0385738804}}

External links

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