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Allah
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{{about|the Arabic word "Allah"|the Islamic view of God|God in Islam|other uses|Allah (disambiguation)}}{{Pp-semi-indef}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}{{good article}}File:Allah3.svg|thumb|right|The word 'Allah' in Arabic calligraphy ]]Allah ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|æ|l|ə|,_|ˈ|ɑː|l|ə|,_|əl|ˈ|l|ɑː}};"Allah". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.WEB,weblink Allah - definition of Allah in English from the Oxford dictionary, oxforddictionaries.com, , {{IPA-ar|ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)|IPA|Ar-allah.ogg}}) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God in Islam.WEB,weblink God, Islam: Empire of Faith, PBS, 18 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140327034958weblink">weblink 2014-03-27, "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, L., Gardet, 2 May 2007, P., Bearman, Th., Bianquis, C.E., Bosworth, E., van Donzel, W.P., Heinrichs, Brill Online, The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic words for God.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Zeki Saritoprak, Allah, Oliver Leaman, The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2006, 34, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Vincent J. Cornell, God: God in Islam, Lindsay Jones, Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd, MacMillan Reference USA, 5, 2005, 724, The word Allah has been used by Arabic people of different religions since pre-Islamic times.BOOK, Christian Julien Robin, Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity,weblink 2012, OUP USA, 304–305, 9780195336931, More specifically, it has been used as a term for God by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and Arab Christians.WEB,weblink Allah, Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, 25 February 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140420121231weblink">weblink 2014-04-20, It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this way by Bábists, Bahá'ís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese Christians, and Mizrahi Jews.Columbia Encyclopedia, Allah"Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia BritannicaEncyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, AllahWillis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 {{ISBN|978-0-834-82414-0}} page 531 Similar usage by Christians and Sikhs in West Malaysia has recently led to political and legal controversies.Sikhs target of 'Allah' attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010, The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.Malaysia court rules non-Muslims can't use 'Allah', 14 October 2013, The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014.Malaysia's Islamic authorities seize Bibles as Allah row deepens, Niluksi Koswanage, 2 January 2014, Reuters. Accessed on line 15 January 2014. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140116121501weblink |date=16 January 2014 }}

Etymology

File:Component letters in Allah.svg|thumb|240px| The Arabic components that build up the word "Allah": {{ordered list |alif |hamzat waṣl () |lām |lām |shadda () |dagger alif () |hāʾhāʾThe etymology of the word Allāh has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. "Ilah", Vol. 3, p. 1093. Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it as either formed "spontaneously" (murtajal) or as the definite form of lāh (from the verbal root lyh with the meaning of "lofty" or "hidden"). Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article al- "the" and {{transl|ar|ALA|ilāh}} "deity, god" to {{transl|ar|ALA|al-lāh}} meaning "the deity", or "the God". The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2, p. 318Cognates of the name "Allāh" exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite El, the Mesopotamian ilu, and the biblical Elohim and Eloah, the word Allah is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists. The corresponding Aramaic form is Elah (), but its emphatic state is Elaha (). It is written as (ʼĔlāhā) in Biblical Aramaic and (ʼAlâhâ) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply "God".The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for ʼlh {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131018045941weblink |date=18 October 2013 }} Biblical Hebrew mostly uses the plural (but functional singular) form Elohim ({{Hebrew|אלהים}}), but more rarely it also uses the singular form Eloah ({{Hebrew|אלוהּ}}).Mohd Elfie Nieshaem Juferi, WEB, Do Muslims Worship Allah The Moon God? Refutation To The Myth By Etymological Evidence,weblink bismikaallahuma.org, June 13, 2018,

Usage

Pre-Islamic Arabians

Regional variants of the word Allah occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions.BOOK, Hitti, Philip Khouri, History of the Arabs, Palgrave Macmillan, 1970, 100–101, Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.Zeki Saritopak, Allah, The Qu'ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Oliver Leaman, p. 34 The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.L. Gardet, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. GibbGerhard Böwering, God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Allah (the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods. However, there is also evidence that Allah and Hubal were two distinct deities. According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh after their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad. Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we know nothing precise about this use. Some scholars have suggested that Allah may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities.BOOK, Jonathan Porter Berkey, The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800,weblink 2003, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-58813-3, 42, BOOK, Daniel C. Peterson, Muhammad, Prophet of God,weblink 26 February 2007, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-0754-0, 21, There is disagreement on whether Allah played a major role in the Meccan religious cult.BOOK, Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam,weblink 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1875-8, 107, No iconic representation of Allah is known to have existed.BOOK, Irving M. Zeitlin, The Historical Muhammad,weblink 19 March 2007, Polity, 978-0-7456-3999-4, 33, Muhammad's father's name was {{transl|ar|DIN|ʿAbd-Allāh}} meaning "the slave of Allāh".

Christianity

The Aramaic word for "God" in the language of Assyrian Christians is ʼĔlāhā, or Alaha. Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God". The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for "God" than "Allah".BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Holt, P. M., Holt, Peter R., Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford, The Cambridge history of Islam, University Press, Cambridge, Eng, 1977, 32, 978-0-521-29135-4, (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses Alla for "God".) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh al-ab}} () for God the Father, {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh al-ibn}} () for God the Son, and {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh al-rūḥ al-quds}} () for God the Holy Spirit. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim {{transl|ar|ALA|bismillāh}}, and also created their own Trinitized {{transl|ar|ALA|bismillāh}} as early as the 8th century. The Muslim {{transl|ar|ALA|bismillāh}} reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized {{transl|ar|ALA|bismillāh}} reads: "In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God." The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.Thomas E. Burman, Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs, Brill, 1994, p. 103According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, p. 156Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the servant/slave of Allah".James Bellamy, "Two Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscriptions Revised: Jabal Ramm and Umm al-Jimal", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 108/3 (1988)Enno Littmann, Arabic Inscriptions (Leiden, 1949)The name Allah can be found countless times in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite and Aksumite kingdomsIgnatius Ya`qub III, The Arab Himyarite Martyrs in the Syriac Documents (1966), Pages: 9-65-66-89A Christian leader named Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said "Allah is my lord".Alfred Guillaume& Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, (2002 [1955]). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh with Introduction and Notes. Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press, page 18.In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to Allah can be found in both Arabic and Aramaic, which called him "Allah" and "Alaha", and the inscription starts with the statement "By the Help of Allah".Adolf Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie II: Das Schriftwesen und die Lapidarschrift (1971), Wien: Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, Page: 6-8Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the Arabic Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century according to Dated Texts (1993), Atlanta: Scholars Press, Page:In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God was "Allah", as evidenced by some discovered Arabic versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.Frederick Winnett V, Allah before Islam-The Moslem World (1938), Pages: 239–248Pre-Islamic Arab Christians have been reported to have raised the battle cry "Ya La Ibad Allah" (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, page 418."Allah" was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid and Tanukhid poets in Syria and Northern Arabia.Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, Page: 452A. Amin and A. Harun, Sharh Diwan Al-Hamasa (Cairo, 1951), Vol. 1, Pages: 478-480Al-Marzubani, Mu'jam Ash-Shu'araa, Page: 302

Islam

{{see also|Names of God in Islam}}File:Istanbul, Hagia Sophia, Allah.jpg|thumb|Medallion showing "Allah Jalla Jalaluhu" in the Hagia Sophia, IstanbulIstanbulFile:Dcp7323-Edirne-Eski Camii Allah.jpg|thumb|150px|Allah script outside the Old Mosque in EdirneEdirneIn Islam, Allah is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God in other Abrahamic religions.According to Islamic belief, Allah is the most common word to represent God,Böwering, Gerhard, God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007. and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind." "He is unique ({{transl|ar|ALA|wāḥid}}) and inherently one ({{transl|ar|ALA|aḥad}}), all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures."In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God ({{transl|ar|ALA|al-asmā’ al-ḥusná}} lit. meaning: 'the best names' or 'the most beautiful names'), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.BOOK, Bentley, David, The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book, William Carey Library, September 1999, 978-0-87808-299-5, All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.BOOK, Murata, Sachiko, 1992, The Tao of Islam : a sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought, Albany NY USA, SUNY, 978-0-7914-0914-5, Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" (al-Raḥmān) and "the Compassionate" ({{transl|ar|ALA|al-Raḥīm}}).Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase {{transl|ar|ALA|in shā’ Allāh}} (meaning 'if God wills') after references to future events.Gary S. Gregg, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, Oxford University Press, p.30 Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of {{transl|ar|ALA|bismillāh}} (meaning 'in the name of God').Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Society in Practice, University Press of Florida, p. 24There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including "{{transl|ar|ALA|Subḥān Allāh}}" (Holiness be to God), "{{transl|ar|ALA|al-ḥamdu lillāh}}" (Praise be to God), "{{transl|ar|ALA|lā ilāha illā Allāh}}" (There is no deity but God) and "{{transl|ar|ALA|Allāhu akbar}}" (God is greater) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (dhikr).M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 144 In a Sufi practice known as dhikr Allah (lit. remembrance of God), the Sufi repeats and contemplates on the name Allah or other divine names while controlling his or her breath.Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond, Macmillan, p. 29According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Islam does not have associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God and jinn. Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Qur’ān insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews (QURAN, 29, 46, nosup, no, ). The Qur’an's Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham". Peters states that the Qur'an portrays Allah as both more powerful and more remote than Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows Israelites.F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003

Pronunciation of the word Allah

In order to pronounce the word Allah correctly, one has to focus on the second “l” (ل) in Allah (الله).NEWS,weblink How do you pronounce "Allah" (الله) correctly?, 2018-06-16, ARABIC for NERDS, 2018-06-16, en-US, When the word Allah is preceded by the vowel “a” (فَتْحة) or the vowel “u” (ضَمّة), then the Lām is pronounced in a distinct heavy manner – with Tafkhīm. This heavy Lām is thus articulated with the entire body of the tongue rather than its tip alone. For example, verse 58:22: “man haddaAllah” (ِمَنْ حَادَّ الله) which means: those who oppose Allah.WEB,weblink Surah Al-Mujadila [58:22], Surah Al-Mujadila [58:22], en-US, 2018-06-16, If, however, the preceding vowel is “i” (كَسْرة), then the Lām in Allah is light, such as in the Basmala: Bismillahi… (ِبِسْمِ الله الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ). So if a Muslim says “Bismillahi”, he should not pronounce the Lām with a heavy emphasis – instead, just with the tip of the tongue.

As a loanword

English and other European languages

The history of the name Allāh in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Allah but without any implication that Allah was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term Allah, though he allows that this "conception of God" seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.William Montgomery Watt, Islam and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45Languages which may not commonly use the term Allah to denote God may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word ojalá in the Spanish language and oxalá in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic (Arabic: إن شاء الله). This phrase literally means 'if God wills' (in the sense of "I hope so").Islam in Luce López Baralt, Spanish Literature: From the Middle Ages to the Present, Brill, 1992, p.25 The German poet Mahlmann used the form "Allah" as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey.Some Muslims leave the name "Allāh" untranslated in English.F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, p.12 The word has also been applied to certain living human beings as personifications of the term and concept.Nation of Islam – personification of Allah as Detroit peddler W D Fard {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130813190129weblink |date=13 August 2013 }}WEB,weblink A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, referring to Clarence Smith as Allah, Finalcall.com, 2014-01-14,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131022034331weblink">weblink 2013-10-22,

Malaysian and Indonesian language

File:Vocabulariumoft00dancgoog.djvu|page=78|thumb|left| The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "GodGodFile:GKKA Banjarmasin.jpg|thumb|Gereja Kalam Kebangunan Allah (Word of God Revival Church) in Indonesia. Allah is the word for "God" in the Indonesian language - even in Alkitab (Christian Bible, from الكتاب al-kitāb = the book) translations, while (wikt:Tuhan|Tuhan) is the word for "Lord".]]File:Seremban-Annunciation-feast-3808.jpg|thumb|Christians in Malaysia also use the word Allah for "God".]]Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia use Allah to refer to God in the Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of the Malay language). Mainstream Bible translations in the language use Allah as the translation of Hebrew Elohim (translated in English Bibles as "God").Example: Usage of the word "Allah" from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian bible versions (parallel view) as old as 1733 {{webarchive |url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131019125828weblink">weblink |date= 19 October 2013 }} This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century.The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society Sneddon, James M.; University of New South Wales Press; 2004The History of Christianity in India from the Commencement of the Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Media Corporation; 2001 The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "(:en:God|Godt)".BOOK,weblink Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. "Vocabularium ofte Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in 't Duytsch en Maleys". 1650:65, Books.google.co.id, 2014-01-14,weblink 2013-10-22, 1650, Ruyl also translated the Gospel of Matthew in 1612 into the Malay language (an early Bible translation into a non-European language,But compare:BOOK, Milkias, Paulos, Ge'ez Literature (Religious), Ethiopia,weblink Africa in Focus, Santa Barbara, California, ABC-CLIO, 2011, 299, 9781598842579, 2018-02-15, Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The Bible was translated during the time of the Nine Saints in the early sixth century [...]., made a year after the publication of the King James VersionBarton, John (2002–12). The Biblical World, Oxford, UK: Routledge. {{ISBN|978-0-415-27574-3}}.North, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Book of a Thousand Tongues, London: United Bible Societies.), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.{{Id icon}} Biography of RuylWEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Britannica.com, 2014-01-14,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131019171117weblink">weblink 2013-10-19, The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term Allah in any other but Muslim contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While Allah had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of Allah by the Roman Catholic newspaper The Herald. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict until the hearing of the appeal. In October 2013 the court ruled in favor of the government's ban.NEWS, No more 'Allah' for Christians, Malaysian court says, Simon, Roughneen,weblink The Christian Science Monitor, 14 October 2013, 14 October 2013, In early 2014 the Malaysian government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God in Peninsular Malaysia.WEB,weblink BBC News - More than 300 Bibles are confiscated in Malaysia, BBC, 2 January 2014, 14 January 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140125052310weblink">weblink 25 January 2014, no, However, the use of Allah is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.WEB,weblink Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir, Daily Express (Sabah), Daily Express, 9 January 2014, 10 January 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140110085352weblink">weblink 10 January 2014, no, WEB,weblink Worship without hindrance, Jane Moh, Peter Sibon, The Borneo Post, 29 March 2014, 29 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140329094134weblink">weblink 29 March 2014, no, The main reason it is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab (Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years. Both states also do not have similar Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia.In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a "10-point solution" to avoid confusion and misleading information.WEB,weblink Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Cabinet's 10-point solution, WEB,weblink Najib: 10-point resolution on Allah issue subject to Federal, state laws, The Star (Malaysia), The Star, 24 January 2014, 25 June 2014, The 10-point solution is in line with the spirit of the 18- and 20-point agreements of Sarawak and Sabah.WEB,weblink The 'Allah'/Bible issue, 10-point solution is key to managing the polarity
Idris Jala>publisher= The Staraccessdate= 25 June 2014, {{clear}}

In other scripts and languages

{{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh}} in other languages that use Arabic script is spelled in the same way. This includes Urdu, Persian/Dari, Uyghur among others.
  • Assamese, Allah
  • Chinese (Mandarin): ZhÄ“nzhÇ” (semantic translation as "the true lord"),BOOK, Kees Versteegh, Mushira Eid, Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed,weblink 2005, Brill, 978-90-04-14473-6, 379–, Ä€nlā, Ä€lā; or Húdà (Khoda, from Farsi: "God")
  • Czech, Allách
  • Filipino: Alā or Allah
  • Allah
  • Allāh
  • Aḷḷāh
  • Arā, Arrā, Arrāfu
  • or Allā
  • Alla
  • , also archaic ' or '
  • Russian, Ukrainian, Allakh
  • Serbian, Belarusian, Alah
  • Spanish, Alla
  • Tamil: அல்லாஹ்
  • Anláw
  • Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਅੱਲਾਹ Allāh, archaic ਅਲਹੁ Alahu (in Sikh scriptures)

Typography

File:Allah name in different languages.png|280px|thumbnail|The word Allah written in different writing systemwriting systemThe word {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh}} is always written without an {{transl|ar|ALA|alif}} to spell the {{transl|ar|ALA|ā}} vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using {{transl|ar|ALA|alif}} to spell {{transl|ar|ALA|ā}}. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic {{transl|ar|ALA|alif}} is added on top of the {{transl|ar|ALA|shaddah}} to indicate the pronunciation.One exception may be in the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,WEB, Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE,weblink Islamic Awareness, 17 March 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131013005808weblink">weblink 2013-10-13,
where it ends with an ambiguous sign that may be a lone-standing h with a lengthened start, or may be a non-standard conjoined {{transl|ar|ALA|l-h}}:-
  • : This reading would be {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh}} spelled phonetically with {{transl|ar|ALA|alif}} for the {{transl|ar|ALA|ā}}.
  • : This reading would be {{transl|ar|ALA|al-Ilāh}} = 'the god' (an older form, without contraction), by older spelling practice without {{transl|ar|ALA|alif}} for {{transl|ar|ALA|ā}}.
Many Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.

Unicode

Unicode has a code point reserved for {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh}}, {{script/Arabic|ﷲ}} = U+FDF2, in the Arabic Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for "compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms directly";The Unicode Consortium. FAQ - Middle East Scripts {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131001110649weblink |date=1 October 2013 }}WEB,weblink ''Unicode Standard 5.0'', p.479, 492, PDF, 2014-01-14,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140428184606weblink">weblink 2014-04-28, this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word {{transl|ar|ALA|Allāh}} should be represented by its individual Arabic letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired ligature.The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at code point U+262B (☫).

See also

Notes

{{reflist|30em}}

References

  • The Unicode Consortium, Unicode Standard 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2006, {{ISBN|978-0-321-48091-0}}, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080304160907weblink">About the Unicode Standard Version 5.0 Book

External links

{{Wikisource}}{{Commons and category|Allah}}

Typography
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080310022047weblink">Arabic Fonts and Mac OS X
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131006005022weblink">Programs for Arabic in Mac OS X
{{Islam topics|state=collapsed}}{{Names of God}}{{Authority control}}


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