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Ibn Kathir
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{{About|the historian and exegete|the canonical Qur'an transmitter|Ibn Kathir al-Makki}}{{More citations needed|date=November 2015}}













factoids
image ابن كثير.png| caption =
| name = Ismail Ibn Kathir| religion = Islam|
/ 701 H| birth_place = Bosra, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) now in Syria| death_date = 18 February 1373 / 774 H| death_place = Damascus, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), now in SyriaShafi'i IBN KATHĪR (D. 774/1373): HIS INTELLECTUAL CIRCLE, MAJOR WORKS AND QUR’ĀNIC EXEGESISAUTHOR=YOUNUS Y. MIRZAYEAR=2012JOURNAL = JOURNAL OF QUR'ANIC STUDIESISSN = 1465-3591VOLUME = 16DOI = 10.3366/JQS.2014.0130, | denomination = Sunni (Classical Salafism)| creed = Athari Mirza, Y. “Was Ibn Kathir the Spokesperson for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience.” Journal of Qur'anic Studies 16, no. 1 (2014), p. 5Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi>Nawawiweblink Ibn Asakir, Ibn Qayyim, Ibn Taymiyya,WAS IBN KATHīR THE ‘SPOKESPERSON’ FOR IBN TAYMIYYA? JONAH AS A PROPHET OF OBEDIENCE>URL = HTTP://WWW.EUPPUBLISHING.COM/DOI/ABS/10.3366/JQS.2014.0130DATE = 2014-02-01PAGE = 3ISSUE = 1QUOTE = JANE MCAULLIFE REMARKS THAT ‘CERTAINLY THE MOST FAMOUS OF IBN KATHīR’S TEACHERS, AND PERHAPS THE ONE WHO INFLUENCED HIM THE MOST, WAS THE ḤANBALī THEOLOGIAN AND JURISCONSULT IBN TAYMIYYAH’., Al-DhahabiTafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm (Tafsir Ibn Kathir), a Quranic exegesis; - Al-Bidāya wan Nihāya (“The Beginning and the End”), a 14-volume history of Islam; - Kitāb al-jāmiʿ, a hadith collection.HTTP://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/BIOGRAPHY/IBN-KATHIRWORK=ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA, 26 March 2016,



factoids



}}Ismail ibn Kathir ( (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi () {{circa|1300}} – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and faqīh (jurisprudence), he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history.JOURNAL, Was Ibn Kathīr the ‘Spokesperson’ for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience,weblink Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2014-02-01, 1465-3591, 1, 16, 1, 10.3366/jqs.2014.0130, Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.138. Scarecrow Press. {{ISBN|0810861615}}. Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “Ibn Kathir worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts () and chains of narrators (). He had a good memory; his books became popular during his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death.”Ad-Durar Al-Kaminah (الدرر الكامنة) by Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani{{page needed|date=March 2016}}

Biography

His full name was {{transl|ar|Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUmar ibn Kaṯīr}} () and had the honorary title of {{transl|ar|ʿImād ad-Dīn}} ( "pillar of the faith").He was born in Mijdal, a village on the outskirts of the city of Busra, to the east of Damascus, Syria, around aboutAH 701 (AD 1300/1){{citation needed|date=November 2014}}. He was taught by Ibn Taymiyya and Al-Dhahabi.Upon completion of his studies he obtained his first official appointment in 1341, when he joined an inquisitorial commission formed to determine certain questions of heresy.He married the daughter of Al-Mizzi, one of the foremost Syrian scholars of the period, which gave him access to the scholarly elite. In 1345 he was made preacher (khatib) at a newly built mosque in Mizza, the home town of his father-in-law. In 1366, he rose to a professorial position at the Great Mosque of Damascus.BOOK,weblink The Life of the Prophet Muhammad : English translation of Ibn Kathir's Al Sira Al Nabawiyya, Ibn Kathir I, Le Gassick T (translator), Fareed M (reviewer), 2000, In later life, he became blind. He attributes his blindness to working late at night on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in an attempt to rearrange it topically rather than by narrator.He died in February 1373 (AH 774) in Damascus. He was buried next to his teacher Ibn Taymiyya.JOURNAL, Was Ibn Kathīr the ‘Spokesperson’ for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience,weblink Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2014-02-01, 1465-3591, 2, 16, 1, 10.3366/jqs.2014.0130, Ibn Qāḍī al-Shuhba concludes mentioning that Ibn Kathīr was buried ‘next to his teacher (shaykhihi) Ibn Taymiyya’.,

Creed

Ibn Kathir shares some similarities with his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, such as advocating a militant jihad and adhering to the renewal of one singular Islamic ummah.R. Hrair Dekmejian Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World Syracuse University Press 1995 {{ISBN|978-0-815-62635-0}} page 40 Furthermore, like Ibn Taymiyyah, he counts as an anti-rationalistic, traditionalistic and hadith oriented.Barbara Freyer Stowasser Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation Oxford University Press 1994 {{ISBN|978-0-199-87969-4}} However Ibn Kathir distanced himself from the literal reading of God's attributes asserted by his teacher Ibn Taimiyya, who was accused of anthropomorphism, a view that was objectionable according to Ashʿarism.Juan Eduardo Campo Encyclopedia of Islam Infobase Publishing 2009 {{ISBN|978-1-438-12696-8}} page 340 Ibn Kathir did not interpret the mutashabihat, or 'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way. He states that:People have said a great deal on this topic and this is not the place to expound on what they have said. On this matter, we follow the early Muslims (salaf): Malik, Awza'i, Thawri, Layth ibn Sa'd, Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh, and others among the Imams of the Muslims, both ancient and modern that is, to let (the verse in question) pass as it has come, without saying how it is meant (min ghayr takyif), without likening it to created things (wa la tashbih), and without nullifying it (wa la ta'til): The literal meaning (zahir) that occurs to the minds of anthropomorphists (al-mushabbihin) is negated of Allah, for nothing from His creation resembles Him: "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing" (Qur'an 42:11)BOOK,weblink The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri, Spevack, Aaron, 2014-09-09, SUNY Press, 9781438453712, 129–130, en, BOOK, Tafsir al-Qur'an al-Azim, Ibn Kathir, Ismail, Maktabat Awlad al-Shaykh l'il Turath, 2000, Cairo, 6:320, ''

Works

Tafsir

Ibn Kathir wrote a famous commentary on the Qur'an named Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-Ê¿Aẓeem which linked certain hadith, or sayings of Muhammad, and sayings of the sahaba to verses of the Qur'an, in explanation and avoided the use of Isra'iliyyats. Many Sunni Muslims hold his commentary as the best after Tafsir al-TabariSohaib Sultan Koran für Dummies John Wiley & Sons 2014 {{ISBN|978-3-5277-1039-3}} page 114 (german) and it is highly regarded especially among Salafi school of thought.Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 {{ISBN|978-0-415-32639-1}} page 632 Although Ibn Kathir claimed to rely on at-Tabari, he introduced new methods and differs in content, in attempt to clear Islam from any Isra'iliyyat. His suspicion on Isra'iliyyat probably derived from Ibn Taimiyya's influence, who discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then.Karen Bauer Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'an: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses Cambridge University Press 2015 {{ISBN|978-1-316-24005-2}} page 115Aysha A. Hidayatullah Feminist Edges of the Qur'an Oxford University Press 2014 {{ISBN|978-0-199-35957-8}} page 25Egyptian scholar Ahmad Muhammad Shakir (1892–1958) edited Ibn Kathir's Tafsir as Ê¿Umdat at-TafsÄ«r in five volumespublished during 1956–1958.Faḍāʾil al-Qurʾān () was intended as an annex to the Tafsir. It is a brief textual history of the Qur'an and its collection after the death of Muhammad.

In academic discourse

Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem is controversial in academic circles. Henri Laoust regards it primary as a philological work and "very elementary". Norman Calder describes it as narrow-minded, dogmatic and sceptical against the intellectuel achievements of former exegetes. His concern is limited to rate the Quran by the corpus of hadith and is the first, who flat rates jewish sources as lying, while simultaneously use them, just as prophetic hadith, selectively to support his prefabricated opinion. Otherwise, Jane Dammen McAuliffe regards this tafsir as, deliberately and carefully selection, whose interpretation is unique to his own judgement to preserve, that he regards as best among his traditions.Johanna Pink Sunnitischer Tafs?r in der modernen islamischen Welt: Akademische Traditionen, Popularisierung und nationalstaatliche Interessen BRILL, 11.11.2010 {{ISBN|9789004185920}} p. 40 (German)

Hadith

(File:Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya (Ibn Kathir).jpg|150px|right)Al-Jāmi () is a grand collection of hadith texts intended for encyclopedic use. It is an alphabetical listing of the Companions of the Prophet and the sayings that each transmitted, thus reconstructing the chain of authority for each hadith.Al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth is an abridgement of the Muqaddimah by Ibn al-Salah in hadith terminologyAt-Takmil fi Ma`rifat Ath-Thiqat wa Ad-Du'afa wal Majdhil which Ibn Kathir collected from the books of his two Shaykhs Al-Mizzi and Adh-Dhahabi; Al-Kamal and Mizan Al-Ftiddl. He added several benefits regarding the subject of Al-Jarh and At-Ta'dil.Ibn Kathir wrote references for the ahadith of Adillat At-Tanbih, from the Shafi'i school of fiqh.

History & Biography

  • Al-Bidāya wa-n-Nihāya ( "The Beginning and The End") is a universal history of the world from the Creation to the end of time. Ibn Kathir's great ten-volume magnum opus contains accounts of the early nations of the world, the Prophets and their biographies (seerah) and Islamic history up to his own time. Within the Islamic literary corpus it is highly regarded for its great extent and range, and has been widely translated. Abridged edition available in English.BOOK, al Bidayah wan Nihayah Ibn Kathir Early Days,weblink
  • Al-Fitan, (كتاب الفتن والملاحم الواقعة في آخر الزمان) "The Sedition"; on the signs of the last hour; valuable for political details of his day. First printed in Cairo (1932–1939); several Arabic editions; Unavailable in English.BOOK, Kitab al-Fitan wa'l-Mulahim al-Waqa'a fi 'Akhir az-Zaman,weblink
  • Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya,() "Life of the Prophet Muhammad". Four vols.BOOK, as-Seera an-Nabawiyya,weblink Also available in EnglishBOOK, as-The Life of Prophet Muhammad,weblink .
  • Qisas Al-Anbiya, () "Tales of the Prophets"; a collection of tales of the Prophets of Islam and others of the Old Testament; Extract published as Tuhfat an-Nubla' min Qisas al'Anbia lil'Imam al-Hafiz ibn Kathir ( (Masterpiece of the Nobles from Tales of the Prophets by al-Hafiz ibn Kathir).BOOK, Tuhfat an-Nubla' min Qisas al'Anbia lil'Imam al-Hafiz ibn Kathir,weblink Available in English.

Jihad

Al-ijtihād fī ṭalab al-jihād (), written by commission of the Mamluk governor of Damascus, is a defense of armed jihad and ribat against the neighboring Christian powers (remnants of the Crusader States, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia) based on the evidence of the Qur'an and the sunnah.

Other

  • Al-Hadi was-Sunan fÄ« AḥādÄ«th Al-MasānÄ«d was-Sunan, aka JāmiÊ» al-masānÄ«d: collected narratives of the Imams Ahmad bin Hanbal, Al-Bazzar, Abu Ya'la Al-Mawsili, and Ibn Abi Shaybah, and six collected Hadiths: two á¹£aḥīḥs of (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) and four sunan of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasai and Ibn Majah. Classified under fiqh divisions.
  • Tabaqat Ash-Shafi'iyah ("The levels of the Shafi'i scholars").
  • Commentary on Sahih Al-Bukhari; unfinished work.
  • The ahkam - large volume on Laws (up to the Hajj rituals); unfinished work.
  • Summary of Al-Baihaqi's 'Al-Madkhal; unpublished.
  • Mawlid ("Celebrating the Birthday of the Holy Prophet").
NOTE: Many books listed here remain unpublished.

See also

Notes

{{reflist}}

References

  • Norman Calder, 'Tafsir from Tabari to Ibn Kathir, Problems in the description of a genre, illustrated with reference to the story of Abraham', in: G. R. Hawting / Abdul-Kader A. Shareef (eds.): Approaches to the Qur'an, London 1993, pp. 101–140.
  • Jane Dammen-McAuliffe, 'Quranic Hermeneutics, The views of al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir', in: Andrew Rippin (ed.): Approaches to the history of the interpretation of the Qur'an, Oxford 1988, pp.&nbs al hafid ibn kathir is not ash,ai

External links

{{wikisourcelang|ar|تفسير ابن كثير|Tafsir ibn Kathir}}{{Wikisourcelang|ar|البداية والنهاية|Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya}}{{Wikisource|Tafsir Ibn Kasir}} {{Shafi'i scholars}}{{Historians of Islam}}{{Authority control}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2017}}

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