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{{pp-sock|small=yes}}{{short description|Semitic people}}{{redirect-multi|2|Arab|Arabian}}

| native_name_lang = ar450 million}} (2011 est.)Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, {{ISBN|1931930252}}, page xxiii, 14Arab League}}CIA Factbook estimates an Arab population of 450 million, see article text.WORLD ARABIC LANGUAGE DAY {{!, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural|accessdate=18 December 2017}}Brazil}}PUBLISHER=BRAZZILA 2008 IBGE study indicates that residents of Middle Eastern origin (Oriente médio) were distributed in the regions of Amazonas (0.3%), Paraíba (0.0%), São Paulo (0.5%), Rio Grande do Sul (0.5%), Mato Grosso (0.1%), and the Federal District (0.0%).CARACTERíSTICAS éTNICO-RACIAIS DA POPULAçãO: CLASSIFICAçõES E IDENTIDADES>DATE=2013ISBN=9788524042447URL=HTTP://BIBLIOTECA.IBGE.GOV.BR/VISUALIZACAO/LIVROS/LIV63405.PDF, 20 June 2017, }}France}}TITLE=FRENCH-ARABS BATTLE STEREOTYPES – ENTERTAINMENT NEWS, FRENCH CINEMA, MEDIA DATE=29 JANUARY 2008 URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100221202920/HTTPS://VARIETY.COM/ARTICLE/VR1117979837.HTML?CATEGORYID=2879&CS=1, Indonesia}}DATE=20 AUGUST 2009, Turkey}}Including recent Syrian refugees}}HTTP://CADMUS.EUI.EU/HANDLE/1814/11298>TITLE=THE IRAQI REFUGEE CRISIS AND TURKEY: A LEGAL OUTLOOKLAST=KAYAWEBSITE=CADMUS.EUI.EUWEBSITE=WASHINGTONINSTITUTE.ORGWEBSITE=ALJAZEERA.COMAUTHOR=WEBSITE=UNHCR, 11 May 2017, United States}}PUBLISHER=AAIUSA.ORG URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=1 JUNE 2006, Argentina}}ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100620004217/HTTP://WWW.FEARAB.ORG.AR/INMIGRACION_SIRIO_LIBANESA_EN_ARGENTINA.PHP ARCHIVE-DATE=20 JUNE 2010, 20 June 2010, Israel}}WEBSITE=CBS.GOV.IL, 18 December 2017, Venezuela}}TITLE=ABDEL EL-ZABAYAR: FROM PARLIAMENT TO THE FRONTLINESWEBSITE=THE DAILY BEAST, 15 September 2013, Colombia}}PUBLISHER= SEMANA.COMLANGUAGE= SPANISH, There is an estimated population of 1,500,000 Arabs in Colombia.Iran}}URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=3 FEBRUARY 2012, 3 August 2013, Chad}}URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=24 APRIL 2013, 3 August 2013, Mexico}}TITLE=WORLD STATESMEN.ORG ACCESSDATE=17 SEPTEMBER 2011, Germany}}AUTHOR=MEDIENDIENST INTEGRATIONWEBSITE=WEBSITE=PUBLIC RADIO INTERNATIONAL, Greece}}| pop16 = Chile}}| pop17 = 700,000{{es icon}} weblink" title="">En Chile viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe.Italy}}ARAB WORLD>TITLE=CITTADINI STRANIERI IN ITALIA – 2016WEBSITE=TUTTITALIA.IT, United Kingdom}}PUBLISHER=NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH ARABS URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=29 MAY 2014, Canada}}Canada 2011 Census>2011 Census)HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/NHS-ENM/2011/DP-PD/PROF/DETAILS/PAGE.CFM?LANG=E&GEO1=PR&CODE1=01&DATA=COUNT&SEARCHTEXT=CANADA&SEARCHTYPE=BEGINS&SEARCHPR=01&A1=ALL&B1=ALL&CUSTOM=&TABID=1 >TITLE=2011 NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY: DATA TABLES ACCESSDATE=11 FEBRUARY 2014, Statistics Canada, Netherlands}}url=>url-status=deadtitle= Dutch media perceived as much more biased than Arabic media – Media & Citizenship Report conducted by University of Utrechtdate=10 September 2010 |accessdate=29 November 2010}} Australia}}ACCESSDATE=24 MARCH 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110719124226/HTTP://ELECPRESS.MONASH.EDU.AU/PNP/FREE/PNPV7N4/V7N4_3PRICE.PDF, 19 July 2011, Ecuador}}Honduras}}TITLE=THE ARABS OF HONDURASDATE=2001, 11 February 2016, Eritrea}}| pop25 = 119,413ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2015, El Salvador}}| pop26 = 100,000+| ref26 = HTTP://THEIDENTITYCHEF.COM/2009/09/06/LEBANESE-DIASPORA-WORLDWIDE-GEOGRAPHICAL-DISTRIBUTION, ZIELGERTITLE=EL SALVADOR: CENTRAL AMERICAN PALESTINE OF THE WEST?WEBSITE=THE DAILY STAR, 27 May 2015, | languages = ArabicIslam (Sunni Islam>Sunni{{·}}Shia Islam{{·}}Sufism>Sufi{{·}}Ibadi{{·}}Alawite)Sizable minority: Christianity (Greek Orthodox Church{{·}}Greek Catholic)Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze{{·}}Bahá'í Faith)Historically: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia>Pre-Islamic Arabian polytheismAfroasiatic languages>Afroasiatic-speaking peoples, especially Semitic peoples such as Assyrian people and Jews15300852YEAR=2004FIRST1=PFIRST2=TFIRST3=TFIRST4=VFIRST5=DFIRST6=DFIRST7=IFIRST8=EFIRST9=JVOLUME=24PAGES=248–60JOURNAL=HUMAN MUTATION, STUDIES SHOW JEWS' GENETIC SIMILARITY>FIRST= NICHOLASDATE=9 JUNE 2010WORK=NEW YORK TIMES, 10.1007/S004390000426>URL=HTTP://WWW.UCL.AC.UK/TCGA/TCGAPDF/NEBEL-HG-00-IPARABS.PDFYEAR=2000FIRST1=ALMUTFIRST2=DVORAFIRST3=DEBORAH A.FIRST4=MICHAELFIRST5=MARINAFIRST6=ARIELLAFIRST7=MARK G.VOLUME=107PAGES=630–41PUBLISHER=SCIENCEDAILY.COM ACCESS-DATE=12 APRIL 2013, 3032072>YEAR=2010FIRST1=GFIRST2=LFIRST3=IFIRST4=CFIRST5=AFIRST6=PFFIRST7=BFIRST8=EFIRST9=CVOLUME=86PAGES=850–59JOURNAL=AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, 20560205, a}} Arab ethnicity should not be confused with non-Arab ethnicities that are also native to the Arab world.{{smallsupc}} Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity.}}Arabs ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ær|ə|b|z|}};WEB, Arabs – Wiktionary,weblink, en, , ISO 233 {{transl|ar|‘arab}}; Arabic pronunciation: {{IPA-ar|ˈʕarab||Arabspronouncedar.oog.ogg}}) are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands. They also form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world.BOOK, Bureš, Jaroslav, Main characteristic and development trends of migration in the Arab world, 2008, Institute of International Relations, Prague, 978-8086506715, The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula.BOOK, Myers, E. A., The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources, Cambridge University Press, 9781139484817,weblink 18, 11 February 2010, The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BCE), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BCE), Achaemenid (539–332 BCE), Seleucid, and Parthian empires.
  • BOOK, Bowman, Alan K., Champlin, Edward, Lintott, Andrew, The Cambridge Ancient History, Cambridge University Press, 9780521264303,weblink en, 8 February 1996,
  • WEB, Jan, Retsö, Arabs (historical),weblink en,
  • WEB, The origin of the word "Arab",weblink, 18 December 2017, Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.
  • WEB, LAKHMIDS – Encyclopaedia Iranica,weblink, 18 December 2017, en,
  • BOOK, Bowersock, G.W., Brown, Peter, editors, Oleg Grabar, Late antiquity : a guide to the postclassical world, 1999, Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 978-0674511736, 2. print.,weblink
  • BOOK, Cameron, Averil, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity: AD 395–700, Routledge, 9781136673054,weblink en, 29 April 2015,
Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661 C.E.), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, and North and Lower Mesopotamia.
  • WEB,weblink Arab people, Encyclopædia Britannica, en,
  • BOOK, The Syrian desert : caravans, travel and exploration, 2003, Taylor and Francis, 978-1136192715, Hoboken, Grant, Christina Phelps,
  • WEB,weblink The Nomadic Tribes of Arabia, 2 October 2016, Boundless, en,
  • WEB,weblink Ê¿ARAB i. Arabs and Iran (pre-Islamic) – Encyclopaedia Iranica,,, en, 7 August 2017, Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
  • BOOK, A history of the Arab peoples, 2010, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 978-0674058194, 1st Harvard Press pbk., Cambridge, Mass., Ruthven, Albert Hourani ; with a new afterword by Malise,
  • WEB,weblink HISTORY OF MIGRATION,, 18 December 2017,
  • WEB,weblink Untitled Document,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2016,
  • WEB,weblink History of the Arabs (book),, 18 December 2017,
  • BOOK, Bernard Ellis Lewis, Buntzie Ellis Churchill, Islam: The Religion and the People, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, 137,weblink 21 August 2017, At the time of the Prophet's birth and mission, the Arabic language was more or less confined to Arabia, a land of deserts, sprinkled with oases. Surrounding it on land on every side were the two rival empires of Persia and Byzantium. The countries of what now make up the Arab world were divided between the two of them—Iraq under Persian rule, Syria, Palestine, and North Africa part of the Byzantine Empire. They spoke a variety of different languages and were for the most part Christians, with some Jewish minorities. Their Arabization and Islamization took place with the vast expansion of Islam in the decades and centuries following the death of the Prophet in 632 CE. The Aramaic language, once dominant in the Fertile Crescent, survives in only a few remote villages and in the rituals of the Eastern churches. Coptic, the language of Christian Egypt before the Arab conquest, has been entirely replaced by Arabic except in the church liturgy. Some earlier languages have survived, notably Kurdish in Southwest Asia and Berber in North Africa, but Arabic, in one form or another, has in effect become the language of everyday speech as well as of government, commerce, and culture in what has come to be known as "the Arab world.", The Arabs forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid (901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history.
  • WEB, Islam, The Arab Empire Of The Umayyads,weblink, 21 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2014, dead,
  • WEB, The Arab Empire {{!, Mohammed {{!}} Umayyad Empire History|url=||accessdate=18 December 2017}}
  • WEB, Top 10 Greatest Empires In History,weblink Listverse, 22 June 2010,
  • WEB, Pillalamarri, Akhilesh, The 5 Most Powerful Empires in History,weblink The National Interest, en,
  • WEB, 10 Greatest Empires in the History of World,weblink Top Ten Lists, 24 March 2010,

In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; which had ruled much of the Arab world since conquering the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517.
  • Page 8 – The Arab Revolt, 1916–18 Published by New Zealand History at
  • Sean McMeekin (2012) The Berlin–Baghdad Express. Belknap Press. {{ISBN|0674064321}}. pp. 288, 297 This resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states.
  • BOOK, Frontiers of the state in the late Ottoman Empire : Transjordan, 1850–1921, L., Rogan, Eugene, 1 January 2004, Cambridge University Press, 978-0521892230, 826413749,
  • Schsenwald, William L. "The Vilayet of Syria, 1901–1914: A Re-Examination of Diplomatic Documents As Sources." Middle East Journal (1968), Vol 22, No. 1, Winter: p. 73. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945.Arab League formed — This Day in History — 3/22/1945. Retrieved on 28 April 2014. The Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states.
  • BOOK, MacDonald, Robert W., The League of Arab States: A Study in Dynamics of Regional Organization, Princeton University Press, 9781400875283,weblink en, 8 December 2015,
  • WEB, Arab League from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed,weblink, en, 18 December 2017,
Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora.BOOK, Frishkopf, edited by Michael, Music and media in the Arab world, 2010, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, 978-9774162930, 1st, The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, linguistic, cultural, historical, identical, nationalist, geographical and political.
  • WEB, Who is an Arab?,weblink,
  • BOOK, Francis M. Deng, War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan,weblink 1 October 2011, Brookings Institution Press, 978-0-8157-2369-1, 405, The Arabs have their own customs, language, architecture, art, literature, music, dance, media, cuisine, dress, society, sports and mythology.
  • WEB, Culture and Tradition in the Arab Countries,weblink, 18 December 2017,
  • WEB, Arabic Culture & Traditions – Online Resources {{!, Pimsleur Approachâ„¢|url=…/useful-li…/culture-guides/||accessdate=18 December 2017}}
  • BOOK, El-Shamy, Hasan M., Folk traditions of the Arab world : a guide to motif classification, 1995, Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington u.a., 978-0253352224, 1. [Dr.]., The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million.
Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions. Some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, and a few individuals, the hanifs, apparently observed monotheism.
  • BOOK, Jonathan Porter Berkey, The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600–1800,weblink 2003, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-58813-3, 42,
  • BOOK, Robinson, Neal, Islam: A Concise Introduction, 2013, Routledge, 9781136817731,weblink en, Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam,WEB, Arabs facts, information, pictures, articles about Arabs, 21 April 2018,weblink 9 May 2018, and there are sizable Christian minorities.WEB,weblink Religious Diversity Around The World – Pew Research Center, 4 April 2014, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, Arab Muslims primarily belong to the Sunni, Shiite, Ibadi, and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians generally follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Catholic churches.
  • WEB, Walid, Phares, Walid Phares,weblink Arab Christians: An Introduction, Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry, 2001,
  • WEB, Majority and Minorities in the Arab World: The Lack of a Unifying Narrative,weblink Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs, Other smaller minority religions are also followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze.
Arabs have greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, language, philosophy, mythology, ethics, literature, politics, business, music, dance, cinema, medicine, science and technology
  • WEB,weblink Arab Civilization,, 1 November 2017,
  • Studies in the History of the Near East – Page 28 113627331X P.M. Holt – 2013 "He held the post until his death in 1624 and was succeeded by his former pupil, James Golius (1596–1667). Erpenius and Golius made outstanding contributions to the development of Arabic studies by their teaching, their preparation of texts, ..." in the ancient and modern history.


{{further|Arab (etymology)}}File:Epitaph Imru-l-Qays Louvre AO4083.jpg|thumb|Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of 'Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nemara in the Hauran (Southern SyriaSouthern SyriaThe earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria.BOOK, harv, Retsö, Jan, Jan Retsö, The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads,weblink 2003, Psychology Press, 978-0-7007-1679-1, , pages 105, 119, 125–127. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or "[the man] Gindibu belonging to the Arab (ar-ba-a-a being an adjectival nisba of the noun ʿarab). The related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general.Hans Wehr & J M. Cowan. A dictionary of modern written Arabic. Third Edition. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Language Services. p. 601.The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions. The term Arab occurs also in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of 'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar. The term is also mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.BOOK,weblink ABADY_Yemen_Archaeology_9_12, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Sana'a, 127, 128, The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr as "King of all the Arabs".BOOK, Recent Research on the Late Antique Countryside, William Bowden, Luke Lavan, Carlos Machado, 2004, 91, Brill,weblink 9789004136076, BOOK, A History of Islamic Societies, Ira M. Lapidus, 2014, 29,weblink Cambridge University Press, 9780521514309, Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, and the frankincense region (Southern Arabia). Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia (along the Euphrates), in Egypt (the Sinai and the Red Sea), southern Jordan (the Nabataeans), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Gerrha). Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Salles, Jean-François, Healey, J. F., Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics, Arabs,weblink en, 22 December 2015, 9780199381135, 10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.013.644, The most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdani had another view; he states that Arabs were called Gharab ("West") by Mesopotamians because Bedouins originally resided to the west of Mesopotamia; the term was then corrupted into "Arab".Yet another view is held by al-Masudi that the word "Arabs" was initially applied to the Ishmaelites of the "Arabah" valley. In Biblical etymology, "Arab" (in Hebrew Arvi ) comes both from the desert origin of the Bedouins it originally described (Arava means wilderness).The root ʿ-r-b has several additional meanings in Semitic languages—including "west/sunset," "desert," "mingle," "mixed," "merchant," and "raven"—and are "comprehensible" with all of these having varying degrees of relevance to the emergence of the name. It is also possible that some forms were metathetical from {{transl|sem|ʿ-B-R}} "moving around" (Arabic {{transl|ar|DIN|ʿ-B-R}} "traverse"), and hence, it is alleged, "nomadic."The meaning of Arab land in the historical sources {{webarchive|url= |date=15 March 2010 }}



{{History of the Arab States}}Pre-Islamic Arabia refers to the Arabian Peninsula prior to the rise of Islam in the 630s. The study of Pre-Islamic Arabia is important to Islamic studies as it provides the context for the development of Islam. Some of the settled communities in the Arabian Peninsula developed into distinctive civilizations. Sources for these civilizations are not extensive, and are limited to archaeological evidence, accounts written outside of Arabia, and Arab oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars. Among the most prominent civilizations was Dilmun, which arose around the 4th millennium BCE and lasted to 538 BCE, and Thamud, which arose around the 1st millennium BCE and lasted to about 300 CE. Additionally, from the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Southern Arabia was the home to a number of kingdoms, such as the Sabaean kingdom (,QURAN, 34, 15, 17, ns, possibly Sheba),WEB,weblink Saba / Sa'abia / Sheba, 27 June 2008, The History Files weblink The kingdom of Saba is known to have existed in the region of Yemen. By 1000 BC caravan trains of camels journeyed from Oman in south-east Arabia to the Mediterranean. As the camel drivers passed through the deserts of Yemen, experts believe that many of them would have called in at Ma'rib. Dating from at least 1050 BC, and now barren and dry, Ma'rib was then a lush oasis teeming with palm trees and introduced species, exotic plants. Ideally placed, it was situated on the trade routes and with a unique dam of vast proportions. It was also one of only two main sources of frankincense (the other being East Africa), so Saba had a virtual monopoly. Ma'rib's wealth accumulated to such an extent that the city became a byword for riches beyond belief throughout the Arab world. Its people, the Sabeans – a group whose name bears the same etymological root as Saba – lived in South Arabia between the tenth and sixth centuries BC. Their main temple – Mahram Bilqis, or temple of the moon god (situated about three miles (5 km) from the capital city of Ma'rib) – was so famous that it remained sacred even after the collapse of the Sabean civilisation in the sixth century BC – caused by the rerouting of the spice trail. By that point the dam, now in a poor state of repair, was finally breached. The irrigation system was lost, the people abandoned the site within a year or so, and the temple fell into disrepair and was eventually covered by sand. Saba was known by the Hebrews as Sheba [Note that the collapse of the dam was actually in 575 Common Era, CE, as shown in the timeline in the same article in the History Files, and attested by MacCulloch (2009)]., and the coastal areas of Eastern Arabia were controlled by the Parthian and Sassanians from 300 BCE.

Origins and early history

{{further|Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples|Proto-Arabic}}According to Arab-Islamic-Jewish traditions, Ishmael was father of the Arabs, to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites.
  • Both Judaism and Islam see him as the ancestor of Arab peoples. BOOK, Jones, Lindsay, Encyclopedia of religion, 2005, Macmillan Reference USA, 9780028657400,weblink en,
  • Ishmael is recognized by Muslims as the ancestor of several prominent Arab tribes and being the forefather of Muhammad. A–Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, Ishmael Muslims also believe that Muhammad was the descendant of Ishmael that would establish a great nation, as promised by God in the Old Testament.
  • {{bibleverse|Genesis|17:20|HE}}BOOK, A Muslim primer: beginner's guide to Islam, Volume 2, Zeep, Ira G., University of Arkansas Press, 2000, 978-1-55728-595-9, 5,
  • Ishmael was considered the ancestor of the Northern Arabs and Muhammad was linked to him through the lineage of the patriarch Adnan. Ishmael may also have been the ancestor of the Southern Arabs through his descendant Qahtan.
  • "Zayd ibn Amr" was another Pre-Islamic figure who refused idolatry and preached monotheism, claiming it was the original belief of their [Arabs] father Ishmael. The Beginning and the End by Ibn Kathir – Vol. 3, p. 323 The History by Ibn Khaldun, Vol, 2, p. 4
  • The tribes of Central West Arabia called themselves the "people of Abraham and the offspring of Ishmael". The Signs of Prophethood, Section 18, page 215.WEB, Signs of Prophethood in the Noble Life of Prophet Muhammad (part 1 of 2): Prophet Muhammad's Early Life – The Religion of Islam,weblink, en, 18 December 2017,
  • Gibb, Hamilton A.R. and Kramers, J.H. (1965) Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam. Ithaca:Cornell University Press. pp. 191–98
  • BOOK, Maalouf, Tony, Arabs in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line, Kregel Academic, 9780825493638,weblink en,
  • BOOK, Urbain, Olivier, Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics, 2008, I.B.Tauris, 9781845115289,weblink en,
File:Qahtanites.png|thumb|upright|Traditional QahtaniteQahtaniteThe first written attestation of the ethnonym Arab occurs in an Assyrian inscription of 853 BCE, where Shalmaneser III lists a King Gindibu of mâtu arbâi (Arab land) as among the people he defeated at the Battle of Qarqar. Some of the names given in these texts are Aramaic, while others are the first attestations of Ancient North Arabian dialects. In fact several different ethnonyms are found in Assyrian texts that are conventionally translated "Arab": Arabi, Arubu, Aribi and Urbi. Many of the Qedarite queens were also described as queens of the aribi. The Hebrew Bible occasionally refers to Aravi peoples (or variants thereof), translated as "Arab" or "Arabian." The scope of the term at that early stage is unclear, but it seems to have referred to various desert-dwelling Semitic tribes in the Syrian Desert and Arabia.{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}} Arab tribes came into conflict with the Assyrians during the reign of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, and he records military victories against the powerful Qedar tribe among others.Old Arabic diverges from Central Semitic by the beginning of the 1st millennium BCE.{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}File:NabateensRoutes.png|thumb|Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic ArabiaPre-Islamic ArabiaMedieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups:
  1. "Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as Ê¿Ä€d and Thamud, often mentioned in the Qur'an as examples of God's power to vanquish those who fought his prophets.
  2. "Pure Arabs" of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan. The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated from the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib).
  3. The "Arabized Arabs" (mustaʿribah) of Central Arabia (Najd) and North Arabia, descending from Ishmael the elder son of Abraham, through Adnan (hence, Adnanites). The Book of Genesis narrates that God promised Hagar to beget from Ishmael twelve princes and turn him to a great nation.({{Bibleverse||Genesis|17:20|HE}}) The Book of Jubilees claims that the sons of Ishmael intermingled with the 6 sons of Keturah, from Abraham, and their descendants were called Arabs and Ishmaelites:
File:Assyrian horsemen arabs.png|thumb|left|AssyriaAssyriaFile:Xerxes I tomb Arab soldier circa 470 BCE cleaned up.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: (Wikt:𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹|𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹), Arabāya)BOOK, DNa – Livius, DNa inscription Line 27,weblink en, of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes IXerxes IAssyrian and Babylonian Royal Inscriptions and North Arabian inscriptions from 9th to 6th century BCE, mention the king of Qedar as king of the Arabs and King of the Ishmaelites.BOOK, Delitzsche, Assyriesche Lesestuche, 1912, Leipzig, 2008786, BOOK, Montgomry, Arabia and the Bible, 1934, U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 639516, BOOK, Winnet, Ancient Records from North Arabia,weblink 1970, king of kedar (Qedarites) is named alternatively as king of Ishmaelites and king of Arabs in Assyrian Inscriptions, 79767, 51, 52, BOOK, Stetkevychc, Muhammad and the Golden Bough,weblink Indiana University Press, 2000, 978-0253332080, Assyrian records document Ishmaelites as Qedarites and as Arabs, Of the names of the sons of Ishmael the names "Nabat, Kedar, Abdeel, Dumah, Massa, and Teman" were mentioned in the Assyrian Royal Inscriptions as tribes of the Ishmaelites. Jesur was mentioned in Greek inscriptions in the 1st century BCE.BOOK, Hamilton, Victor P., The book of Genesis,weblink 1990, William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 978-0802823090, [Nachdr.], File:TCCKhaldun.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Life-size bronze bust sculpture of Ibn KhaldunIbn KhaldunIbn Khaldun's Muqaddima distinguishes between sedentary Arab Muslims who used to be nomadic, and Bedouin nomadic Arabs of the desert. He used the term "formerly nomadic" Arabs and refers to sedentary Muslims by the region or city they lived in, as in Yemenis.WEB,weblink, Islam,, 13 April 2010, The Christians of Italy and the Crusaders preferred the term Saracens for all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.WEB,weblink Eyewitnesstohistory,, 13 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2010, live, The Christians of Iberia used the term Moor to describe all the Arabs and Muslims of that time.Muslims of Medina referred to the nomadic tribes of the deserts as the A'raab, and considered themselves sedentary, but were aware of their close racial bonds. The term "A'raab" mirrors the term Assyrians used to describe the closely related nomads they defeated in Syria. The Qur'an does not use the word {{transl|ar|ʿarab}}, only the nisba adjective {{transl|ar|ʿarabiy}}. The Qur'an calls itself {{transl|ar|ʿarabiy}}, "Arabic", and {{transl|ar|Mubin}}, "clear". The two qualities are connected for example in ayat 43.2–3, "By the clear Book: We have made it an Arabic recitation in order that you may understand". The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the {{transl|ar|al-ʿarabiyya}}, the language of the Arabs. The term ʾiʿrāb has the same root and refers to a particularly clear and correct mode of speech. The plural noun {{transl|ar|ʾaʿrāb}} refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in at-Tawba 97,{{transl|ar|al-ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wanifāqān}} "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy".Based on this, in early Islamic terminology, {{transl|ar|ʿarabiy}} referred to the language, and {{transl|ar|ʾaʿrāb}} to the Arab Bedouins, carrying a negative connotation due to the Qur'anic verdict just cited. But after the Islamic conquest of the eighth century, the language of the nomadic Arabs became regarded as the most pure by the grammarians following Abi Ishaq, and the term {{transl|ar|kalam al-ʿArab}}, "language of the Arabs", denoted the uncontaminated language of the Bedouins.

Classical kingdoms

File:Petra, Al-Khazneh 2.jpg|thumb|Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the NabateansNabateansProto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, texts give a clearer picture of the Arabs' emergence. The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai (not in reality connected with Thamud).The Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who moved into territory vacated by the Edomites â€“ Semites who settled the region centuries before them. Their early inscriptions were in Aramaic, but gradually switched to Arabic, and since they had writing, it was they who made the first inscriptions in Arabic. The Nabataean alphabet was adopted by Arabs to the south, and evolved into modern Arabic script around the 4th century. This is attested by Safaitic inscriptions (beginning in the 1st century BCE) and the many Arabic personal names in Nabataean inscriptions. From about the 2nd century BCE, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw reveal a dialect no longer considered proto-Arabic, but pre-classical Arabic. Five Syriac inscriptions mentioning Arabs have been found at Sumatar Harabesi, one of which dates to the 2nd century CE.File:Temple of Bel, Palmyra 15.jpg|left|thumb|The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and ArameansArameansArabs arrived in the Palmyra in the late first millennium BCE.{{sfn|Bryce|2014|p= 278}} The soldiers of the sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BCE), were described as Arabs; Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra.{{sfn|Bryce|2014|p= 359}} Palmyra was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate after its 634 capture by the Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walid, who took the city on his way to Damascus; an 18-day march by his army through the Syrian Desert from Mesopotamia.{{sfn|Burns|2007|p= 99}} By then Palmyra was limited to the Diocletian camp.{{sfn|Speake|1996|p= 568}} After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province.{{sfn|Le Strange|1890|p= 36}}(File:Pergamon-Museum - Wandmalerei 3.jpg|thumb|upright|Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE)Palmyra prospered as part of the Umayyad Caliphate, and its population grew.{{sfn|Hillenbrand|1999|p= 87}} It was a key stop on the East-West trade route, with a large souq (, market), built by the Umayyads,{{sfn|Hillenbrand|1999|p= 87}}{{sfn|Bacharach|1996|p=31}} who also commissioned part of the Temple of Bel as a mosque.{{sfn|Bacharach|1996|p=31}} During this period, Palmyra was a stronghold of the Banu Kalb tribe.{{sfn|Grabar|Holod|Knustad|Trousdale|1978|p=156}} After being defeated by Marwan II during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745.{{sfn|Hawting|1991|p=624}} That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished.{{sfn|Speake|1996|p= 568}}{{sfn|Cobb|2001|p= 73}} In 750 a revolt, led by Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar and Umayyad pretender Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani, against the new Abbasid Caliphate swept across Syria;{{sfn|Cobb|2001|p= 47}} the tribes in Palmyra supported the rebels.{{sfn|Cobb|2001|p= 48}} After his defeat Abu Muhammad took refuge in the city, which withstood an Abbasid assault long enough to allow him to escape.{{sfn|Cobb|2001|p= 48}}

Late kingdoms

{{Further|Lakhmids|Ghassanids|Kindites}}File:NE 565ad.jpg|thumb|The Near EastNear EastThe Ghassanids, Lakhmids and Kindites were the last major migration of pre-Islamic Arabs out of Yemen to the north. The Ghassanids increased the Semitic presence in the then Hellenized Syria, the majority of Semites were Aramaic peoples. They mainly settled in the Hauran region and spread to modern Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan.File:Roman Empire 125 political map.svg|thumb|left|The imperial province of Arabia PetraeaArabia PetraeaGreeks and Romans referred to all the nomadic population of the desert in the Near East as Arabi. The Romans called Yemen "Arabia Felix".WEB, Dionysius Periegetes,weblink, 18 December 2017, The Romans called the vassal nomadic states within the Roman Empire Arabia Petraea, after the city of Petra, and called unconquered deserts bordering the empire to the south and east Arabia Magna.The Lakhmids as a dynasty inherited their power from the Tanukhids, the mid Tigris region around their capital Al-Hira. They ended up allying with the Sassanids against the Ghassanids and the Byzantine Empire. The Lakhmids contested control of the Central Arabian tribes with the Kindites with the Lakhmids eventually destroying Kinda in 540 after the fall of their main ally Himyar. The Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid dynasty in 602, being under puppet kings, then under their direct control.Harold Bailey The Cambridge history of Iran: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods, Volume 1, Cambridge University Press, 1983, {{ISBN|0-521-20092-X}} p. 59The Kindites migrated from Yemen along with the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, but were turned back in Bahrain by the Abdul Qais Rabi'a tribe. They returned to Yemen and allied themselves with the Himyarites who installed them as a vassal kingdom that ruled Central Arabia from "Qaryah Dhat Kahl" (the present-day called Qaryat al-Faw). They ruled much of the Northern/Central Arabian peninsula, until they were destroyed by the Lakhmid king Al-Mundhir, and his son 'Amr.

Medieval period

File:Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg|thumb|Age of the Caliphs {{legend|#a1584e|Expansion under Prophet Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1–11}} {{legend|#ef9070|Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11–40}} {{legend|#fad07d|Expansion during the Umayyad CaliphateUmayyad Caliphate

Arab caliphates

Rashidun era (632–661)

File:Tombstone of Umar (r.a) by mohammad adil rais.JPG|thumb|left|Tombstone of caliphs umar and abu bakr (right), MedinaMedinaAfter the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. It was larger and lasted longer than the previous Arab empire of Queen Mawia or the Aramean-Arab Palmyrene Empire. The Rashidun state was a completely new state and unlike the Arab kingdoms of its century such as the Himyarite, Lakhmids or Ghassanids.

Umayyad era (661–750 & 756–1031)

{{See also|Caliphate of Córdoba|Al-Andalus}}{{See also|Abbadid|Taifa|Nasrid dynasty (Sistan)|Zengid dynasty|Ikhshidid dynasty}}File:Great Mosque of Kairouan Panorama - Grande Mosquée de Kairouan Panorama.jpg|left|thumb|The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the MaghrebClifford Edmund Bosworth Historic cities of the Islamic world, Brill, Leyde, 2007, {{ISBN|90-04-15388-8}} p. 264 and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North AfricaNorth AfricaFile:Umayyad Mosquee panoramic.jpg|thumb|The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosquemosqueIn 661, the Rashidun Caliphate fell into the hands of the Umayyad dynasty and Damascus was established as the empire's capital. The Umayyads were proud of their Arab identity and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. They established garrison towns at Ramla, Raqqa, Basra, Kufa, Mosul and Samarra, all of which developed into major cities.BOOK, Lunde, Paul, Islam, 2002, Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 50–52, New York, 978-0-7894-8797-1, Caliph Abd al-Malik established Arabic as the Caliphate's official language in 686.John Joseph Saunders, A history of medieval Islam, Routledge, 1965, page 13 This reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples and fueled the Arabization of the region. However, the Arabs' higher status among non-Arab Muslim converts and the latter's obligation to pay heavy taxes caused resentment. Caliph Umar II strove to resolve the conflict when he came to power in 717. He rectified the disparity, demanding that all Muslims be treated as equals, but his intended reforms did not take effect, as he died after only three years of rule. By now, discontent with the Umayyads swept the region and an uprising occurred in which the Abbasids came to power and moved the capital to Baghdad.File:Dome of the Rock III, Jerusalem.jpg|thumb|The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik ]]Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa from the Byzantines. Before the Arab conquest, North Africa was conquered or settled by various people including Punics, Vandals and Romans. After the Abbasid Revolution, the Umayyads lost most of their territories with the exception of Iberia. Their last holding became known as the Emirate of Córdoba. It wasn't until the rule of the grandson of the founder of this new emirate that the state entered a new phase as the Caliphate of Córdoba. This new state was characterized by an expansion of trade, culture and knowledge, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture and the library of Al-Ḥakam II which housed over 400,000 volumes. With the collapse of the Umayyad state in 1031 CE, Islamic Spain was divided into small kingdoms.

Abbassid era (750–1258 & 1261–1517)

File:Mustansiriya University CPT.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Mustansiriya University in BaghdadBaghdad(File:Maqamat hariri.jpg|thumb|upright|Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.)The Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan. The Abbasids led a revolt against the Umayyads and defeated them in the Battle of the Zab effectively ending their rule in all parts of the Empire with the exception of al-Andalus. In 762, the second Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad and declared it the capital of the Caliphate. Unlike the Umayyads, the Abbasids had the support of non-Arab subjects.The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city of Baghdad. The Abbassids were influenced by the Qur'anic injunctions and hadith such as "The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of martyrs" stressing the value of knowledge. During this period the Muslim world became an intellectual centre for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the "House of Wisdom" () in Baghdad. Rival dynasties such as the Fatimids of Egypt and the Umayyads of al-Andalus were also major intellectual centres with cities such as Cairo and Córdoba rivaling Baghdad.Vartan Gregorian, "Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith", Brookings Institution Press, 2003, pg 26–38 {{ISBN|0-8157-3283-X}}File:Harun-Charlemagne.jpg|thumb|upright|Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by CharlemagneCharlemagneThe Abbasids ruled for 200 years before they lost their central control when Wilayas began to fracture in the 10th century; afterwards, in the 1190s, there was a revival of their power, which was ended by the Mongols, who conquered Baghdad in 1258 and killed the Caliph Al-Musta'sim. Members of the Abbasid royal family escaped the massacre and resorted to Cairo, which had broken from the Abbasid rule two years earlier; the Mamluk generals taking the political side of the kingdom while Abbasid Caliphs were engaged in civil activities and continued patronizing science, arts and literature.

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)

File:A side view of the front gate of Al Azhar mosque..jpg|thumb|left|upright|Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of CairoCairoThe Fatimid caliphate was founded by al-Mahdi Billah, a descendant of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, in the early 10th century. Egypt was the political, cultural, and religious centre of the Fatimid empire. The Fatimid state took shape among the Kutama Berbers, in the West of the North African littoral, in Algeria, in 909 conquering Raqqada, the Aghlabid capital. In 921 the Fatimids established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their new capital. In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan in Tunisia, and in 969 they conquered Egypt and established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate.Intellectual life in Egypt during the Fatimid period achieved great progress and activity, due to many scholars who lived in or came to Egypt, as well as the number of books available. Fatimid Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors.Shorter Shi'ite Encyclopaedia, By: Hasan al-Amin, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 5 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2010, The Fatimids were also known for their exquisite arts. Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today; the most defining examples include Al-Hakim Mosque and the Al-Azhar University.File:Panel hunters Louvre OA 6265-1.jpg|thumb|Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt]]It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. Starting with the 11th century, the Arab bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to the West. Having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Berber Zirids for abandoning Shias, they travelled westwards. The Banu Hilal quickly defeated the Zirids and deeply weakened the neighboring Hammadids. According to some modern historians. their influx was a major factor in the arabization of the Maghreb.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set, Shillington, Kevin, 4 July 2013, Routledge, 9781135456702, 668, en, BOOK,weblink Poems for the Millennium, Volume Four: The University of California Book of North African Literature, Joris, Pierre, Tengour, Habib, 2012, Univ of California Press, 9780520269132, 42, en, Although Berbers ruled the region until the 16th century (under such powerful dynasties as the Almoravids, the Almohads, Hafsids, etc.), the arrival of these tribes eventually helped Arabize much of it ethnically, in addition to the linguistic and political impact on local non-Arabs.{{Citation needed|date=June 2017}}

Ottoman Empire

File:030Arab.jpg|thumb|Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab RevoltFlag of the Arab RevoltFrom 1517 to 1918, much of the Arab world was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans defeated the Mamluk Sultanate in Cairo, and ended the Abbasid Caliphate. Arabs did not feel the change of administration because the Ottomans modeled their rule after the previous Arab administration systems.{{Citation needed|date=March 2011}}In 1911, Arab intellectuals and politicians from throughout the Levant formed al-Fatat ("the Young Arab Society"), a small Arab nationalist club, in Paris. Its stated aim was "raising the level of the Arab nation to the level of modern nations." In the first few years of its existence, al-Fatat called for greater autonomy within a unified Ottoman state rather than Arab independence from the empire. Al-Fatat hosted the Arab Congress of 1913 in Paris, the purpose of which was to discuss desired reforms with other dissenting individuals from the Arab world. However, as the Ottoman authorities cracked down on the organization's activities and members, al-Fatat went underground and demanded the complete independence and unity of the Arab provinces.Choueiri, pp.166–168.After World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was overthrown by the British Empire, former Ottoman colonies were divided up between the British and French as League of Nations mandates.

Modern period

(File:Arab World maps.png|thumb|A map of the Arab world)Arabs in modern times live in the Arab world, which comprises 22 countries in Western Asia, North Africa, and parts of the Horn of Africa. They are all modern states and became significant as distinct political entities after the fall and defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922).


{{Further|Arab identity}}Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity, and pre-dates the spread of Islam, with historically attested Arab Christian kingdoms and Arab Jewish tribes. Today, however, most Arabs are Muslim, with a minority adhering to other faiths, largely Christianity, but also Druze and Baha'i.BOOK,weblink The Arabs in Israel, 4 March 2014, Ori Stendel, 45, Sussex Academic Press, 978-1898723240, 1996, BOOK,weblink Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others, Mohammad Hassan Khalil, 1 March 2014, 297, Oxford University Press, 9780199945412, 31 January 2013, Paternal descent plays a strong part in the role of citizenship of an individual and maternal descent also plays an issue. Paternal descent is considered the main source of affiliation in the Arab world when it comes to membership into a kin group or clan.BOOK,weblink Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-state, Parolin, Gianluca Paolo, 2009, Amsterdam University Press, 9789089640451, en, File:NE 565ad-Lakhmid.jpg|thumb|The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kindah and HejazHejazToday, the main unifying characteristic among Arabs is Arabic, a Central Semitic language from the Afroasiatic language family. Modern Standard Arabic serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing. The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people dwelling in the central Arabian Peninsula subjugated by Upper Mesopotamia-based state of Assyria. The Arabs appear to have remained largely under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–605 BCE), and then the succeeding Neo-Babylonian Empire (605–539 BCE), Persian Achaemenid Empire (539–332 BCE), Greek Macedonian/Seleucid Empire and Parthian Empire.Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids begin to appear in the south Syrian deserts and southern Jordan from the mid 3rd century CE onwards, during the mid to later stages of the Roman Empire and Sasanian Empire. Also, before them the Nabataeans of Jordan and arguably the Emessans,BOOK, Bowman, Alan, Garnsey, Peter, Cameron, Averil, The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 9780521301992,weblink en, Edessans,BOOK, Bowman, Alan, Garnsey, Peter, Cameron, Averil, The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 9780521301992,weblink en, and HatransBOOK, Bowman, Alan, Garnsey, Peter, Cameron, Averil, The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 9780521301992,weblink en, all appear to have been an Aramaic speaking ethnic Arabs who came to rule much of the pre-Islamic fertile crescent often as vassals of the two rival empires, the Sasanian (Persian) and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman).BOOK,weblink The Fertile Crescent, on the edges of northern Arabia, formed part of the frontier between the two rival empires of the day, the Sasanian (Persian) and the Byzantine (Eastern Roman). Each of which had a client or vassal state lying between itself and its rival., Atlas of Islamic History, 9781317588979, Sluglett, Peter, Currie, Andrew, 30 January 2015, Thus, although a more limited diffusion of Arab culture and language was felt in some areas by these migrant minority Arabs in pre-Islamic times through Arabic-speaking Christian kingdoms and Jewish tribes, it was only after the rise of Islam in the mid-7th century that Arab culture, people and language began their wholesale spread from the central Arabian Peninsula (including the south Syrian desert) through conquest and trade.


{{Further|Tribes of Arabia}}File:Map of Arabia 600 AD.svg|thumb|Approximate locations of certain tribes of Arabia, including those descended from Adnan, Hawazin and QurayshQurayshArabs in the narrow sense are the indigenous Arabians who trace their roots back to the tribes of Arabia and their immediate descendant groups in the Levant and North Africa. Within the people of the Arabian Peninsula, distinction is made between:"Perishing Arabs" () are ancient tribes of whose history little is known. They include ʿĀd (),QURAN, 54, 21, 26, ns, Thamûd (,QURAN, 7, 73, 157, ns, Tasm, Jadis, Imlaq and others. Jadis and Tasm perished because of genocide. 'Aad and Thamud perished because of their decadence, as recorded in the Qur'an. Archaeologists have recently uncovered inscriptions that contain references to Iram dhāṫ al-'Imād (, Iram of the Pillars), which was a major city of the 'Aad. Imlaq is the singular form of 'Amaleeq and is probably synonymous to the biblical Amalek. "Pure Arabs" () or Qahtanites from Yemen, taken to be descended from Ya'rub ibn Yashjub ibn Qahtan and further from Hud. "Arabized Arabs" () or Adnanites, taken to be the descendants of Ishmael son of Abraham.Arabians are most prevalent in the Arabian Peninsula, but are also found in large numbers in Mesopotamia (Arab tribes in Iraq), the Levant and Sinai (Negev Bedouin, Tarabin bedouin), as well as the Maghreb (Eastern Libya, South Tunisia and South Algeria) and the Sudan region.(File:Pre Islamic Arabia.PNG|thumb|left|Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam)This traditional division of the Arabs of Arabia may have arisen at the time of the First Fitna. Of the Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad, the most prominent was the Quraysh. The Quraysh subclan, the Banu Hashim, was the clan of Muhammad. During the early Muslim conquests and the Islamic Golden Age, the political rulers of Islam were exclusively members of the Quraysh.The Arab presence in Iran did not begin with the Arab conquest of Persia in 633 CE. For centuries, Iranian rulers had maintained contacts with Arabs outside their borders, dealt with Arab subjects and client states (such as those of Iraq and Yemen), and settled Arab tribesmen in various parts of the Iranian plateau. It follows that the "Arab" conquests and settlements were by no means the exclusive work of Arabs from the Hejaz and the tribesmen of inner Arabia. The Arab infiltration into Iran began before the Muslim conquests and continued as a result of the joint exertions of the civilized Arabs (ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs (ahl al-wabar).ENCYCLOPEDIA, Daniel, E. L., Arab settlements in Iran, Encyclopædia Iranica, 9 April 2011,weblink The largest group of Iranian Arabs are the Ahwazi Arabs, including Banu Ka'b, Bani Turuf and the Musha'sha'iyyah sect. Smaller groups are the Khamseh nomads in Fars Province and the Arabs in Khorasan.File:AleppoEmirMudhem.jpg|thumb|Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near AleppoAleppoThe Arabs of the Levant are traditionally divided into Qays and Yaman tribes. This tribal division is likewise taken to date to the Umayyad period.The Yemen trace their origin to South Arabia or Yemen; they include Banu Kalb, Kindah, Ghassanids, and Lakhmids.Hugh Kennedy The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State p.33 Routledge, 17 June 2013 {{ISBN|1134531133}} Since the 1834 Peasants' revolt in Palestine, the Arabic-speaking population of Palestine has shed its formerly tribal structure and emerged as the Palestinians{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}.Native Jordanians are either descended from Bedouins (of which, 6% live a nomadic lifestyle),Lowi, Miriam R., Water and power: the politics of a scarce resource in the Jordan River basin, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.36 or from the many deeply rooted non bedouin communities across the country, most notably Al-Salt city west of Amman which was at the time of Emirate the largest urban settlement east of the Jordan River. Along with indigenous communities in Al Husn, Aqaba, Irbid, Al Karak, Madaba, Jerash, Ajloun, Fuheis and Pella.BOOK,weblink State, Society, and Land in Jordan, Michael R., Fischbach, 24 November 2017, BRILL, Google Books, 978-9004119123, In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants have Palestinian roots but they are estimated to constitute half of the population,WEB,weblink Assessment for Palestinians in Jordan, Minorities at Risk, 2006, 24 January 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 January 2016, WEB,weblink World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Jordan – Palestinians, Minority Rights Group International, 2008, 24 January 2016, which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics put their number at 3.24 million in 2009.WEB,weblink Palestinians at the end of 2012, Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 2009, 22 December 2013, (File:The Old Bedouin, aged over 112 years, and his Wife. (1918) - TIMEA.jpg|thumb|left|Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918)The Bedouins of western Egypt and eastern Libya are traditionally divided into Saʿada and Murabtin, the Saʿada having higher social status. This may derive from a historical feudal system in which the Murabtin were vassals to the SaʿadaIn Sudan, there are numerous Arabic-speaking tribes, including the Shaigya, Ja'alin and Shukria, who are ancestrally related to the Nubians. These groups are collectively known as Sudanese Arabs. In addition, there are other Afroasiatic-speaking populations, such as Copts and Beja.File:Chief of Mascara.jpg|thumb|Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu HilalBanu HilalThe medieval Arab slave trade in the Sudan drove a wedge between the Arabic-speaking groups and the indigenous Nilotic populations. Slavery substantially persists today along these lines.Hall, Bruce S., A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960. Cambridge University Press, 2011. It has contributed to ethnic conflict in the region, such as the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Northern Mali conflict, or the Boko Haram insurgency.The Arabs of the Maghreb are descendants of Arabian tribes of Banu Hilal, the Banu Sulaym and the Maqil native of Middle EastWEB, François Decret, Les invasions hilaliennes en Ifrîqiya – Clio – Voyage Culturel,weblink, 28 September 2015, Clio, and of other tribes native to Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Iraq. Arabs and Arabic-speakers inhabit plains and cities. The Banu Hilal spent almost a century in Egypt before moving to Libya, Tunisia and Algeria, and another century later some moved to Morocco, it is logical to think that they are mixed with inhabitants of Egypt and with Libya.Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique septentrionale par Ibn Khaldoun


The total number of Arabic speakers living in the Arab nations is estimated at 366 million by the CIA Factbook (as of 2014). The estimated number of Arabs in countries outside the Arab League is estimated at 17.5 million, yielding a total of close to 384 million.

Arab world

(File:Population Density in the Arab World.png|thumb|Population density of the Arab world in 2008)According to the Charter of the Arab League (also known as the Pact of the League of Arab States), the League of Arab States is composed of independent Arab states that are signatories to the Charter.WEB, Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945,weblink Yale Law School, 9 July 2016, Although all Arab states have Arabic as an official language, there are many non-Arabic-speaking populations native to the Arab world. Among these are Berbers, Toubou, Nubians, Jews, Kurds, Armenians.JOURNAL, Ghazi O. Tadmouri, Konduru S. Sastry, Lotfi Chouchane, Arab gene geography: From population diversities to personalized medical genomics, Global Cardiology Science and Practice, 2014, 2014, 4, 10.5339/gcsp.2014.54, 394–408, 4355514, 25780794, Additionally, many Arab countries in the Persian Gulf have sizable non-Arab immigrant populations (10–30%). Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman have a Persian speaking minority. The same countries also have Hindi-Urdu speakers and Filipinos as sizable minority. Balochi speakers are a good size minority in Oman. Additionally, countries like Bahrain, UAE, Oman and Kuwait have significant non-Arab and non-Muslim minorities (10–20%) like Hindus and Christians from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines.The table below shows the distribution of populations in the Arab world, as well as the official language(s) within the various Arab states.WEB, Ethnic Groups,weblink CIA, 10 July 2016, {| class="toccolours sortable" style="border-collapse:collapse; margin:auto;" style="background:#6495ed;"!Arab state! data-sort-type="number" |Population!Official language(s)Algeria}} 38,700,000CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: ALGERIA >URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/AG.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=12 JUNE 2007, Arabic co-official language with BerberBahrain}} 1,314,089CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: BAHRAIN>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/BA.HTML| Arabic official languageComoros}} 780,971CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: COMOROS>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/CO.HTMLComorian language>Comorian and FrenchDjibouti}} 810,179CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: DJIBOUTI>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/DJ.HTML| Arabic co-official language with FrenchEgypt}} 94,526,231EGYPT POPULATION (2017)>URL=HTTP://WWW.WORLDOMETERS.INFO/WORLD-POPULATION/EGYPT-POPULATION/| Arabic official languageIraq}} 32,585,692CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: IRAQ>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/IZ.HTMLKurdish language>KurdishJordan}} 9,531,712HTTP://WWW.JORDANTIMES.COM/NEWS/LOCAL/POPULATION-STANDS-AROUND-95-MILLION-INCLUDING-29-MILLION-GUESTS>TITLE=POPULATION STANDS AT AROUND 9.5 MILLION, INCLUDING 2.9 MILLION GUESTSWORK=THE JORDAN TIMESLAST=GHAZALDATE=22 JANUARY 2016, Arabic official languageKuwait}} 4,156,306KUWAIT POPULATION CENSUS>URL=HTTP://WWW.PACI.GOV.KW/ACCESS-DATE=22 MARCH 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=19 MARCH 2015| Arabic official languageLebanon}} 5,882,562CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: LEBANON>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/LE.HTML| Arabic official languageLibya}} 6,244,174CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: LIBYA>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/LY.HTML| Arabic official languageMauritania}} 3,516,806CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: MAURITANIA>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/MR.HTML| Arabic official languageMorocco}} 32,987,206CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: MOROCCO>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/MO.HTMLBerber languages>BerberOman}} 3,219,775CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: OMAN>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/MU.HTML| Arabic official languageState of Palestine}} State of Palestine >WEBSITE=PALESTINIAN CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140608204943/HTTP://WWW.PCBS.GOV.PS/PORTALS/_RAINBOW/DOCUMENTS/GOVER_E.HTM PUBLISHER=STATE OF PALESTINE | Arabic official languageQatar}} 2,123,160CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: QATAR>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/QA.HTML| Arabic official languageSaudi Arabia}} 27,345,986CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: SAUDI ARABIA>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/RESOURCES/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/SA.HTML| Arabic official languageSomalia}} 10,428,043CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: SOMALIA>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/SO.HTMLSomali language>SomaliSudan}} 35,482,233CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: SUDAN>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/SU.HTMLEnglish language>EnglishSyria}} 17,951,639CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: SYRIA>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/SY.HTML| Arabic official languageTunisia}} 10,937,521CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: TUNISIA >URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/TS.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=12 JUNE 2007, Arabic official languageUnited Arab Emirates}} 10,102,678CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: UNITED ARAB EMIRATES>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/AE.HTML| Arabic official languageYemen}} 26,052,966CIA WORLD FACTBOOK: YEMEN>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/YM.HTML| Arabic official language

Arab diaspora

File:The Syrian colony, Washington Street.jpg|thumb|Syrian immigrants in New York CityNew York CityArab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands in non-Arab countries, primarily in East Africa, South America, Europe, North America, Australia and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa. According to the International Organization for Migration, there are 13 million first-generation Arab migrants in the world, of which 5.8 million reside in Arab countries. Arab expatriates contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In 2009, Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries.Intra-Regional Labour Mobility in the Arab World, International Organization for Migration (IOM) Cairo The 250,000 strong Lebanese community in West Africa is the largest non-African group in the region.NEWS, Lebanese in west Africa: Far from home,weblink The Economist, 20 May 2011, NEWS, Tenacity and risk – the Lebanese in West Africa,weblink BBC News, 10 January 2010, Arab traders have long operated in Southeast Asia and along the East Africa's Swahili coast. Zanzibar was once ruled by Omani Arabs.NEWS, Zanzibar profile,weblink BBC News, 18 July 2012, Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab descent are Hadhrami people with origins in southern Yemen in the Hadramawt coastal region."The world's successful diasporas". 3 April 2007.File:Amel bent.JPG|thumb|left|Amel BentAmel BentThere are millions of Arabs living in Europe, mostly concentrated in France (about 6,000,000 in 2005). Most Arabs in France are from the Maghreb but some also come from the Mashreq areas of the Arab world. Arabs in France form the second largest ethnic group after ethnically French people.France's ethnic minorities: To count or not to count. The Economist (26 March 2009). Retrieved on 12 July 2013. The modern Arab population of Spain numbers between 800,000WEB,weblink Arab, Maghrebi in Spain, Joshua, Project,, 18 December 2017, WEB,weblink Arab, Lebanese in Spain, Joshua, Project,, 18 December 2017, and 1,800,000WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 9 June 2013, ¿Cuántos musulmanes hay en España?, 4 December 2013,, 18 December 2017, WEB,weblink Los musulmanes son el 3,6% de la población en España (1,7 millones), EDICIONES EL PAIS, S.L., Miguel Ángel Medina, varios,, 18 December 2017, WEB,weblink Los musulmanes en España superan los 1,8 millones, 30 March 2015,, 18 December 2017, WEB,weblink La cifra de musulmanes en España alcanza los 1,6 millones, de los que casi un tercio viven en Cataluña, 9 October 2012,, 18 December 2017, , and there have been Arabs in Spain since the early 8th century when the Umayyad conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus.WEB, spanish property,weblink, 18 December 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 November 2017, WEB, Arab Influences on Spanish Language and Culture {{!, don Quijote|url=|website=donQuijote}}NEWS, BBC – Religions – Islam: Muslim Spain (711–1492),weblink In Germany the Arab population numbers over 1,000,000WEB,weblink Archived copy, 27 September 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2013, , in Italy about 680,000, in the United Kingdom between 366,769WEB, REPORT ON THE 2011 CENSUS – MAY 2013 – Arabs and Arab League Population in the UK,weblink National Association of British Arabs, 9 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2014, and 500,000WEB, British Arabs,weblink, 18 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2015, dead, , and in Greece between 250,000 and 750,000WEB,weblink Refugees, migrants reach 54,574 in Greece on Wednesday, 19 May 2016, Kathimerini, 19 May 2016, {{not in citation given|date=March 2019}}). In addition, Greece is home to people from Arab countries who have the status of refugees (e.g. refugees of the Syrian civil war).BOOK, Hannes Kniffka, Elements of culture-contrastive linguistics,weblink June 1995, P. Lang, 978-0-8204-2927-4, 244, In Sweden the Arab population numbers 210,400WEB,weblink People groups: Sweden, Joshua Project, 24 October 2016, , in the Netherlands 180,000{{citation|url= |archive-url= |url-status=dead |archive-date=28 February 2019 |title=Dutch media perceived as much more biased than Arabic media – Media & Citizenship Report conducted by University of Utrecht |periodical=Utrecht University |date=10 September 2010 |accessdate=29 November 2010 }}, and in Denmark 121,000. Other European countries are also home to Arab populations, including Norway, Austria, Bulgaria, Switzerland, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia.{{citation|url=|publisher=International Organization for Migration|title=Intra-Regional Labour Mobility in the Arab World, Facts and Figures|year=2010|accessdate=21 July 2010}} As of late 2015, Turkey had a total population of 78.7 million, with Syrian refugees accounting for 3.1% of that figure based on conservative estimates{{by whom|date=March 2019}}. Demographics indicated that the country previously had 1,500,000WEB,weblink Turkey – Arabs,, to 2,000,000 Arab residents, so Turkey's Arab population is now 4.5 to 5.1% of the total population, or approximately 4–5 million people.File:Arab American National Museum.jpg|thumb|The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United StatesUnited StatesArab immigration to the United States began in sizable numbers during the 1880s. Today, it is estimated that nearly 3.7 million Americans trace their roots to an Arab country.BOOK, Kayyali, Randa, The Arab Americans, 2006, Greenwood Press, 26, WEB, Demographics – Arab American Institute,weblink, 18 December 2017, BOOK, Kayyali, Randa, The Arab Americans, 2006, Greenwood Press, 27, Arab Americans are found in every state, but more than two thirds of them live in just ten states: California, Michigan, New York, Florida, Texas, New Jersey, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Metropolitan Los Angeles, Detroit, and New York City are home to one-third of the population.BOOK, Kayyali, Randa, The Arab Americans, 2006, Greenwood Press, 35, Contrary to popular assumptions or stereotypes, the majority of Arab Americans are native-born, and nearly 82% of Arabs in the U.S. are citizens.BOOK, Orfalea, Gregory, The Arab Americans: A History, 2006, Olive Branch Press, 189, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 7 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2011, Arab American Population Highlights Arab American Institute FoundationWEB, G. Patricia, de la Cruz, Angela Brittingham,weblink The Arab Population: 2000, U.S. Census Bureau, December 2003, 17 October 2016, WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, US Bureau of Statistics, 18 March 2015, {{dead link|date=October 2016}}{{cbignore}} Arabs immigrants began to arrive in Canada in small numbers in 1882. Their immigration was relatively limited until 1945, after which time it increased progressively, particularly in the 1960s and thereafter.WEB, The Arab Community in Canada,weblink, 18 December 2017, According to the website "Who are Arab Canadians," Montreal, the Canadian city with the largest Arab population, has approximately 267,000 Arab inhabitants.WEB, Home,weblink Canadians of Arab Origin – Who are they?, 12 March 2015, File:06-07-2017 - Transmissão de Cargo de Presidente da República (34921333804).jpg|left|thumb|(Michel Temer]], the 37th President of Brazil, is of Lebanese descent.WEB,weblink Os planos de Michel Temer para o mundo árabe, Agência de Notícias Brasil-Árabe, Isaura Daniel, 25 March 2013, 26 April 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2016, WEB,weblink Conciliador, 'charmosão' e 'mordomo de filme de consternação': afinal, quem é Michel Temer, Entretenimento bit, 30 March 2016, 26 April 2016, WEB,weblink Origem de políticos brasileiros, Líbano tem rua com nome de Michel Temer, Folha de S. Paulo, Diogo Bercito, 14 June 2015, 2 May 2016, )Latin America has the largest Arab population outside of the Arab World.WEB, Out of MENA: Nine cities the Arab Diaspora calls home,weblink Al Bawaba, 8 May 2015, Latin America is home to anywhere from 17–25 to 30 million people of Arab descent,WEB, Articles: The Arabs of South America,weblink, 18 December 2017, which is more than any other diaspora region in the world.NEWS,weblink Arab roots grow deep in Brazil's rich melting pot, Washington Times, 17 April 2016, WEB,weblink Origem e destino dos imigrantes do Levante, ibge, 11 April 2016, The Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.WEB,weblink Lebanese Republic,, 18 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, dead, WEB,weblink Lebanon: Geography, pt, Embassy of Lebanon in Brazil, 1996, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2008, Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. According to research conducted by IBGE in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle East.IBGE. IBGE: Características Étnico-Raciais da População.MAGAZINE,weblink The Arabs of Brazil, Saudi Aramco World, 17 September 2011, NEWS,weblinkNews/Lebanon-News/2010/Apr-23/57092-sleiman-meets-brazilian-counterpart-lebanese-community.ashx#axzz0rLGUHTtA, Sleiman meets Brazilian counterpart, Lebanese community, The Daily Star, 23 April 2010, WEB,, O Líbano: Geografia, Lebanon: Geography, pt, Lebanese Embassy in Brazil, 1996, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 November 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 January 2013, Estadão de Hoje,, 17 September 2011, Other large Arab communities includes Argentina (about 4,500,000WEB,weblink Inmigración sirio-libanesa en Argentina, Syrian-Lebanese immigration in Argentina, es,, 13 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2010, WEB,weblink Sirios, turcos y libaneses, Syrians, Turks and Lebanese, es,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2008, WEB,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 24, October 2009, 4 November 2016, ) The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity.NEWS, Carolina, Barros, Argentina's Syrians,weblink's-syrians,, 23 August 2012, 4 November 2016, Venezuela (over 1,600,00weblink "Venezuela, where the estimated 1.6 million people of Arab descent..."Habeeb Salloum, "Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America: Generations of Immigrants in Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico", Al Jadid, Vol. 6, no. 30 (Winter 2000).), Colombia (over 1,600,000 to 3,200,000WEB,weblink Estimación de la mortalidad, 1985–2005, Estimation of mortality, 1985–2005, es, National Administrative Department of Statistics (Colombia), DANE, Postcensal Studies, Bogotá, Colombia, 7, March 2010, 29 March 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2007, WEB, Randa Achmawi,weblink Colombia awakens to the Arab world, Brazi-Arab News Agency, 21 July 2009, 22 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, WEB,weblink Proyecciones nacionales y departamentales de población. 2006–2020, National and departmental population projections. 2006–2020, es, DANE National Statistical Service, Columbia, September 2007, 22 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2007, ), Mexico (over 1,100,000), Chile (over 800,000WEB, S.A., Diario La Nación – Comunicaciones Lanet, Zalaquett pone a Chile como modelo de convivencia palestino-judía,weblink La Nación, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2016, WEB, Arabs In The Andes? Chile, The Unlikely Long-Term Home Of A Large Palestinian Community,weblink International Business Times, 31 October 2013, Arab and Jewish immigrants in Latin America: images and realities, by Ignacio Klich, Jeff Lesser, 1998, p. 165.NEWS, In Santiago Society, No One Cares If Your Name Is Carey or de Yrarrazaval, Enid, Nemy, 14 September 1969, New York Times,weblink ), and Central America, particularly El Salvador, and Honduras (between 150,000 and 200,000).WEB,weblink The Arabs of Honduras,, 27 June 1936, 17 September 2011, WEB,weblink Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome,, 7 April 2003, 17 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2011, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2009, 500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile,, 17 September 2011, is the fourth largest in the world after those in Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Arab Haitians (a large number of whom live in the capital) are more often than not, concentrated in financial areas where the majority of them establish businesses.WEB,weblink From Lebanon to Haiti: A Story Going Back to the 19th Century, 30 January 2014, (File:Caucasus 1060 map en.svg|thumb|Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate)In 1728, a Russian officer described a group of Arab nomads who populated the Caspian shores of Mughan (in present-day Azerbaijan) and spoke a mixed Turkic-Arabic language.Genko, A. The Arabic Language and Caucasian Studies. USSR Academy of Sciences Publ. Moscow-Leningrad. 8–109 It is believed that these groups migrated to the South Caucasus in the 16th century.Zelkina, Anna. Arabic as a Minority Language. Walter de Gruyter, 2000; {{ISBN|3-11-016578-3}} p. 101 The 1888 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica also mentioned a certain number of Arabs populating the Baku Governorate of the Russian Empire.Baynes, Thomas Spencer (ed). "Transcaucasia." Encyclopædia Britannica. 1888. p. 514 They retained an Arabic dialect at least into the mid-19th century,Golestan-i Iram by Abbasgulu Bakikhanov. Translated by Ziya Bunyadov. Baku: 1991, p. 21 there are nearly 30 settlements still holding the name Arab (for example, Arabgadim, Arabojaghy, Arab-Yengija, etc.). From the time of the Arab conquest of the South Caucasus, continuous small-scale Arab migration from various parts of the Arab world occurred in Dagestan. The majority of these lived in the village of Darvag, to the north-west of Derbent. The latest of these accounts dates to the 1930s. Most Arab communities in southern Dagestan underwent linguistic Turkicisation, thus nowadays Darvag is a majority-Azeri village.Seferbekov, Ruslan. Characters Персонажи традиционных религиозных представлений азербайджанцев Табасарана. {{webarchive |url= |date=16 December 2008 }}Stephen Adolphe Wurm et al. Atlas of languages of intercultural communication. Walter de Gruyter, 1996; p. 966 According to the History of Ibn Khaldun, the Arabs that were once in Central Asia have been either killed or have fled the Tatar invasion of the region, leaving only the locals.History of Ibn Khaldun However, today many people in Central Asia identify as Arabs. Most Arabs of Central Asia are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (for example, Tajiks, Uzbeks) but they use special titles to show their Arab origin such as Sayyid, Khoja or Siddiqui.Arabic As a Minority Language By Jonathan Owens, pg. 184(File:Ketchimalai Mosque- Beruwala, Sri Lanka.jpg|thumb|Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.|left)There are only two communities in India which self-identify as Arabs, the Chaush of the Deccan region and the Chavuse of Gujarat.People of India: Vol. XIII: Andhra Pradesh (3 Parts-Set)Edited by D.L. Prasada Rao, N.V.K. Rao and S. Yaseen Saheb, Affiliated East-West PressPeople of India: Volume XXII: Gujarat (3 Parts-Set): Edited by R.B. Lal, P.B.S.V. Padmanabham, Gopal Krishan and Md. Azeez Mohidden, Popular Prakashan for ASI, 2003. These groups are largely descended from Hadhrami migrants who settled in these two regions in the 18th century. However, neither community still speaks Arabic, although the Chaush have seen re-immigration to the Arab States of the Persian Gulf and thus a re-adoption of Arabic.Muslim society in transition Javed, Arifa Kulsoom {{ISBN|81-7169-096-3}} In South Asia, where Arab ancestry is considered prestigious, many communities have origin myths that claim Arab ancestry. These include the Mappilla of Kerala and the Labbai of Tamil Nadu.Frontiers of embedded Muslim communities in India / editor, Vinod K. Jairath {{ISBN|9780415668880}} Among North Indian and Pakistani Arabs, there are groups who claim the status of Sayyid and have origin myths that allege descent from Muhammad.Muslim caste in Uttar Pradesh: (a study of culture contact) by Ansari, G, (Ghaus) The South Asian Iraqi biradri may be considered Arabs because records of their ancestors who migrated from Iraq exist in historical documents. There are about 5,000,000 Native Indonesians with Arab ancestry.WEB, Shahab, Alwi, Komunitas Arab Di Pekojan Dan Krukut: Dari Mayoritas Menjadi Minoritas, 19 April 2015, 21 January 1996,weblink id,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2008, dead, dmy-all, Arab Indonesians are mainly of Hadrami descent.{{sfn|Cribb|Kahin|2004|pp=18–19}}{{sfn|Cribb|Kahin|2004|pp=18–19}} The Sri Lankan Moors are the third largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.23% of the country's total population.WEB, A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012,weblink Census of Population & Housing, 2011, Department of Census & Statistics, Sri Lanka, Some sources trace the ancestry of the Sri Lankan Moors to Arab traders who settled in Sri Lanka at some time between the 8th and 15th centuries.WEB,weblink Race in Sri Lanka What Genetic evidence tells us, 20 July 2014, JOURNAL, de Munck, Victor, Islamic Orthodoxy and Sufism in Sri Lanka, Anthropos, 100, 2, 2005, 401–414 [403], 40466546, JOURNAL, Mahroof, M. M. M., Spoken Tamil Dialects Of The Muslims Of Sri Lanka: Language As Identity-Classifier, Islamic Studies, 34, 4, 407–426 [408], 20836916, 1995, File:Baggara_Arabs_Belt.svg|thumb|BaggaraBaggaraAfro-Arabs are individuals and groups from Africa who are of partial Arab descent. Most Afro-Arabs inhabit the Swahili Coast in the African Great Lakes region, although some can also be found in parts of the Arab world.BOOK, Romero, Patricia W., Lamu, 1997, Markus Wiener, 978-1558761063, 7,weblink 25 November 2014, BOOK, Gunnar M Ahmad Abdel Ghaffar Muhammad Chr Michelsens Institutt, Sudan Divided: Continuing Conflict in a Contested State, 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1137338242, 90,weblink 25 November 2014, Large numbers of Arabs migrated to West Africa, particularly Côte d'Ivoire (home to over 100,000 Lebanese),WEB,weblink Ivory Coast – The Levantine Community,, 17 September 2011, Senegal (roughly 30,000 Lebanese),weblink" title="">Lebanese Immigrants Boost West African Commerce, By Naomi Schwarz,, 10 July 2007 Sierra Leone (roughly 10,000 Lebanese today; about 30,000 prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991), Liberia, and Nigeria.Lebanese man shot dead in Nigeria, BBC News Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Lebanese traders have become re-established in Sierra Leone.WEB, Joshua Project,weblink Sayyid Ethnic People in all Countries, Joshua Project, 17 September 2011, African Union Summit {{webarchive|url= |date=7 March 2012 }}NEWS, The night westerners were hunted for being white,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 19 November 2004, 26 June 2009, London, Colin, Randall, BOOK, Handloff, Robert E., Ivory Coast: A Country Study, Country Studies, 1988, United States Government Printing Office, GPO for the Library of Congress, Washington, DC, The Levantine Community,weblink The Arabs of Chad occupy northern Cameroon and Nigeria (where they are sometimes known as Shuwa), and extend as a belt across Chad and into Sudan, where they are called the Baggara grouping of Arab ethnic groups inhabiting the portion of Africa's Sahel. The Chadian Arabs are (2,391,000 to 2,500,00weblink cumulative total of Arab communities), Nigeria (289,000WEB,weblink Baggara, Shuwa Arab – Joshua Project, Joshua, Project,, dead,weblink 20 November 2017, ), Cameroon (171,000), Niger (150,000WEB,weblink Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion, 25 October 2006,, 18 December 2017, ), and the Central African Republic (107,000).Baggara of Sudan: Culture and Environment – Culture, Traditions and Livelihood by Biraima M Adam


File:Nemesis Allat and dedicater-MBA Lyon-IMG 0557.JPG|thumb|Bas-relief: (:en:Nemesis (mythology)|Nemesis), AllātAllātArabs are mostly Muslims with a Sunni majority and a Shia minority, one exception being the Ibadis, who predominate in Oman.See, for example:
  • BOOK,weblink The Arabs in Israel, Sussex Academic Press, 978-1898723240, 45, 4 March 2014, Ori Stendel, 1996,
  • BOOK,weblink Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others, Oxford University Press, 297, Mohammad Hassan Khalil, 1 March 2014, 9780199945412, 31 January 2013, Arab Christians generally follow Eastern Churches such as the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic churches, though a minority of Protestant Church followers also exists.WEB,weblink CHRISTIANS (in the Arab world),, United Networks, 13 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 June 2010, There are also Arab communities consisting of Druze and Baha'is.{{Citation|title=The Bahá'í World Centre: Focal Point for a Global Community|url=|archiveurl=|url-status=dead|publisher=The Bahá'í International Community|accessdate=2 July 2007|archivedate=29 June 2007}}"Shishakli and the Druzes: Integration and Intransigence"
Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal,WEB,weblink Is Hubal The Same As Allah?,, 13 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2010, live, Wadd, Allāt,BOOK,weblink Dictionary of Ancient Deities, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-514504-5, 2001, Manat, and Uzza. A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. Some tribes had converted to Christianity or Judaism. The most prominent Arab Christian kingdoms were the Ghassanid and Lakhmid kingdoms.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 16 March 2009, From Marib The Sabean Capital To Carantania,, 13 April 2010, When the Himyarite king converted to Judaism in the late 4th century,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Msn Encarta entry on Himyarites,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2004, live, the elites of the other prominent Arab kingdom, the Kindites, being Himyirite vassals, apparently also converted (at least partly). With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs were rapidly Islamized, and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared.WEB,weblink History of Islam, 6 January 2009,, 13 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 May 2010, WEB,weblink Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion,, 13 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 28 April 2010, live, File:Kaaba at night.jpg|thumb|left|The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi ArabiaSaudi ArabiaToday, Sunni Islam dominates in most areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Shia Islam is dominant among the Arab population in Bahrain and southern Iraq while northern Iraq is mostly Sunni. Substantial Shia populations exist in Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,WEB,weblink Shia Muslims in the Mideast,, Lionel Beehner, 13 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2010, live, northern Syria and Al-Batinah Region in Oman. There are small numbers of Ibadi and non-denominational Muslims too. The Druze community is concentrated in Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan. Many Druze claim independence from other major religions in the area and consider their religion more of a philosophy. Their books of worship are called Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). They believe in reincarnation and pray to five messengers from God. In Israel, the Druze have a status aparte from the general Arab population, treated as a separate ethno-religious community.File:Orthodox church in Amman1.jpg|thumb|right|A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, JordanJordanChristianity had a prominent presence In pre-Islamic Arabia among several Arab communities, including the Bahrani people of Eastern Arabia, the Christian community of Najran, in parts of Yemen, and among certain northern Arabian tribes such as the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Taghlib, Banu Amela, Banu Judham, Tanukhids and Tayy. In the early Christian centuries, Arabia was sometimes known as Arabia heretica, due to its being "well known as a breeding-ground for heterodox interpretations of Christianity."BOOK, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered, 2003, I.B.Tauris, 9781860649127, illustrated, reprint, revised, 88, Kamal S. Salibi, Christians make up 5.5% of the population of Western Asia and North Africa.BOOK, Christian Communities in the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-829388-0, Philippe Fargues, Andrea Pacini, A sizeable share of those are Arab Christians proper, and affiliated Arabic-speaking populations of Copts and Maronites. In Lebanon, Christians number about 40.5% of the population. In Syria, Christians make up 10% of the population. In West Bank and in Gaza Strip, Christians make up 8% and 0.7% of the populations, respectively.WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook: Gaza Strip, 3 November 2013, WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook: West Bank, 3 November 2013, In Egypt, Coptic Christians number about 10% of the population. In Iraq, Christians constitute 0.1% of the population.Arab Christians â€“ Who are they?. Retrieved on 3 January 2011. In Israel, Arab Christians constitute 2.1% (roughly 9% of the Arab population).WEB,weblink CIA The World Factbook â€“ Israel,, 18 July 2011,weblink 29 June 2011, live, Arab Christians make up 8% of the population of Jordan.WEB,weblink CIA The World Factbook – Jordan,, 18 July 2011,weblink 29 June 2011, live, Most North and South American Arabs are Christian,WEB,weblink The Arab American Institute | Arab Americans,, 10 March 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2010, dead, so are about half of the Arabs in Australia who come particularly from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. One well known member of this religious and ethnic community is Saint Abo, martyr and the patron saint of Tbilisi, Georgia.BOOK, Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus, Routledge, 1998, 978-0-7007-0633-4, 272, Mgaloblishvili, Tamila, Arab Christians also live in holy Christian cities such as Nazareth, Bethlehem and the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem and many other villages with holy Christian sites.


(File:ManuscriptAbbasid.jpg|thumb|left|upright|An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript){{Arab culture}}Arabic culture is the culture of Arab people, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea. Language, literature, gastronomy, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, mysticism (etc.) are all part of the cultural heritage of the Arabs.BOOK, Beauty in Arabic culture, Doris., Behrens-Abouseif, 1 January 1999, Markus Wiener Publishers, 978-1558761995, 40043536, Arabs share basic beliefs and values that cross national and social class boundaries. Social attitudes have remained constant because Arab society is more conservative and demands conformity from its members.WEB, ARAB CUSTOMS AND CULTURE,weblink, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2016,


File:Learning Arabic calligraphy.jpg|thumb|left|Arabic calligraphyArabic calligraphyAnother important and unifying characteristic of Arabs is a common language. Arabic is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic Family.NEWS,weblink Al-Jallad. The earliest stages of Arabic and its linguistic classification (Routledge Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, forthcoming),, 27 October 2016, Evidence of its first use appears in accounts of wars in 853 BCE. It also became widely used in trade and commerce. Arabic also is a liturgical language of 1.7 billion Muslims.WEB,weblink Executive Summary, Pew Research Center, Future of the Global Muslim Population, 22 December 2011, WEB,weblink Table: Muslim Population by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 27 January 2011,, 18 May 2014, Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations.WEB,weblink UN official languages,, 18 October 2015, It is revered as the language that God chose to reveal the Quran.WEB,weblink Executive Summary, Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, WEB,weblink Table: Muslim Population by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project,, 27 January 2011, 18 May 2014, Arabic has developed into at least two distinct forms. Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). It is based on the medieval dialects of Arab tribes. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content,{{sfn|Bin-Muqbil|2006|p=14}} while the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic. Colloquial Arabic, an informal spoken language, varies by dialect from region to region; various forms of the language are in use today and provide an important force for Arab cohesion.WEB, Arabs facts, information, pictures {{!, articles about Arabs|url=||accessdate=18 December 2017}}


File:Illustration of Aladdin Flying Away with Two People from the Arabian Nights.jpg|thumb|upright|Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian NightsArabian NightsArabic mythology comprises the ancient beliefs of the Arabs.BOOK, 2013, University-Press Org, [S.l.], 978-1230559964, Arabic Culture: Mosque, Arabesque, Arabian Mythology, Islamic Philosophy, Arabian Horse, Arab Culture, Coffee, Palestinian Costumes, Arabic Literature, Prior to Islam the Kaaba of Mecca was covered in symbols representing the myriad demons, djinn, demigods, or simply tribal gods and other assorted deities which represented the polytheistic culture of pre-Islamic.BOOK, Stetkevych, Jaroslav, Muhammad and the Golden Bough: Reconstructing Arabian Myth, 2000, Indiana University Press, 978-0253214133,weblink en, BOOK, Wikipedia, Source, Arabian Mythology, Noah's Ark, Hafaza, Jesus, Khidr, Dhul-Qarnayn, Isra and Mi'raj, Luqman, Devil, Throne of God, 2011, General Books, 9781233180516,weblink en, It has been inferred from this plurality an exceptionally broad context in which mythology could flourish. The most popular beasts and demons of Arabian mythology are Bahamut, Dandan, Falak, Ghoul, Hinn, Jinn, Karkadann, Marid, Nasnas, Qareen, Roc, Shadhavar, Werehyena and other assorted creatures which represented the profoundly polytheistic environment of pre-Islamic.BOOK, Leeming, David, Jealous Gods and Chosen People: The Mythology of the Middle East, 2004, Oxford University Press, 9780195348996,weblink en, The most obvious symbol of Arabian mythology is the Jinn or genie.WEB, jinni {{!, Arabian mythology|url=|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en}} Jinns are supernatural beings of varying degrees of power. They possess free will (that is, they can choose to be good or evil) and come in two flavors. There are the Marids, usually described as the most powerful type of Jinn. These are the type of genie with the ability to grant wishes to humans. However, granting these wishes is not free. The Quran says that the jinn were created from "mārijin min nar" (smokeless fire or a mixture of fire; scholars explained, this is the part of the flame, which mixed with the blackness of fire).Benjamin W. McCraw, Philosophical Approaches to Demonology Robert Arp Routledge 2017 {{ISBN|978-1-315-46675-0}}Qur'ān 55:15 They are not purely spiritual, but are also physical in nature, being able to interact in a tactile manner with people and objects and likewise be acted upon. The jinn, humans, and angels make up the known sapient creations of God.Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 {{ISBN|9780815650706}} page 19A ghoul is a monster or evil spirit in Arabic mythology, associated with graveyards and consuming human flesh,WEB,weblink The Story of Sidi-Nouman, 5 July 2012, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Ghoul Facts, information, pictures | articles about Ghoul,, 23 March 2011, demonic being believed to inhabit burial grounds and other deserted places. In ancient Arabic folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. They were capable of constantly changing form, but their presence was always recognizable by their unalterable sign—ass's hooves.WEB, ghoul {{!, Arabian mythology|url=|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en}} which describes the ghūl of Arabic folklore. The ghul is a devilish type of jinn believed to be sired by Iblis.WEB, ghoul, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink 22 January 2006,


File:Al-Jahiz.jpg|thumb|upright|A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-JahizAl-JahizAl-Jahiz (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics. A leading scholar in the Abassid Caliphate, his canon includes two hundred books on various subjects, including Arabic grammar, zoology, poetry, lexicography, and rhetoric. Of his writings, only thirty books survive. Al-Jāḥiẓ was also one of the first Arabian writers to suggest a complete overhaul of the language's grammatical system, though this would not be undertaken until his fellow linguist Ibn Maḍāʾ took up the matter two hundred years later.Shawqi Daif, Introduction to Ibn Mada's Refutation of the Grammarians, pg. 48. Cairo, 1947.There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry, but Arabic literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages, during the Golden Age of Islam.WEB, Arabic literature,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Literary Arabic is derived from Classical Arabic, based on the language of the Quran as it was analyzed by Arabic grammarians beginning in the 8th century.WEB, Literature,weblink, dead,weblink 2 January 2017, File:Badr al-Din Lu'lu'.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.BOOK, Sawa, George Dimitri, Erotica, Love and Humor in Arabia : Spicy Stories from The Book of Songs by al-Isfahani, 2016, McFarland & CompanyMcFarland & CompanyA large portion of Arabic literature before the 20th century is in the form of poetry, and even prose from this period is either filled with snippets of poetry or is in the form of saj or rhymed prose.WEB, Arabic literature,weblink, 18 December 2017, The ghazal or love poem had a long history being at times tender and chaste and at other times rather explicit.BOOK, Allen, edited by Roger, Richards, D.S., Arabic literature in the post-classical period, 2006, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 9781139053990, 1st, In the Sufi tradition the love poem would take on a wider, mystical and religious importance. Arabic epic literature was much less common than poetry, and presumably originates in oral tradition, written down from the 14th century or so. Maqama or rhymed prose is intermediate between poetry and prose, and also between fiction and non-fiction.BOOK, Irwin, edited by Robert, Night and horses and the desert : an anthology of classical Arabic literature, 2002, Anchor Books, New York, 978-0385721554, 1st Anchor Books, Maqama was an incredibly popular form of Arabic literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic in the 17th and 18th centuries.WEB, Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East,weblink, 18 December 2017, File:Khalil Gibran - Autorretrato con musa, c. 1911.jpg|thumb|upright|Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil GibranKhalil GibranArabic literature and culture declined significantly after the 13th century, to the benefit of Turkish and Persian. A modern revival took place beginning in the 19th century, alongside resistance against Ottoman rule. The literary revival is known as al-Nahda in Arabic, and was centered in Egypt and Lebanon. Two distinct trends can be found in the nahda period of revival.WEB, Arabic Literature,weblink, 18 December 2017, The first was a neo-classical movement which sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres—such as the maqama—and works like One Thousand and One Nights. In contrast, a modernist movement began by translating Western modernist works—primarily novels—into Arabic.BOOK, Gelder, Geert Jan Van, Classical Arabic Literature,weblink NYU Press, English, 1 January 2012, 9780814745113, A tradition of modern Arabic poetry was established by writers such as Francis Marrash, Ahmad Shawqi and Hafiz Ibrahim. Iraqi poet Badr Shakir al-Sayyab is considered to be the originator of free verse in Arabic poetry.WEB, Arabian literature,weblink, 17 September 2013, BOOK, Badawi, ed. by M.M., Modern Arabic literature, 1992, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge [u.a.], 978-0521331975, 1. publ., BOOK, Cachia, Pierre, Arabic literature : an overview, 2002, RoutledgeCurzon, New York, 978-0700717255, 1. publ.,


File:Petra metzes.jpg|thumb|left|A large plate of Mezes in PetraPetraArabic cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab people.BOOK, Flandrin, Jean-Louis, Montanari, Massimo, Albert, Sonnenfeld, Clarissa Botsford, Food : a culinary history from Antiquity to the present, 1999, Penguin Books, New York, 978-0-231-11154-6, English, The cuisines are often centuries old and reflect the culture of great trading in spices, herbs, and foods. The three main regions, also known as the Maghreb, the Mashriq, and the Khaleej have many similarities, but also many unique traditions. These kitchens have been influenced by the climate, cultivating possibilities, as well as trading possibilities. The kitchens of the Maghreb and Levant are relatively young kitchens which were developed over the past centuries. The kitchen from the Khaleej region is a very old kitchen. The kitchens can be divided into the urban and rural kitchens.Arab cuisine mostly follows one of three culinary traditions – from the Maghreb, the Levant or the Persian Gulf states. In the Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) traditional main meals are tajines or dishes using couscous. In the Levant (Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) main meals usually start with mezze – small dishes of dips and other items which are eaten with bread. This is typically followed by skewers of grilled lamb or chicken. Gulf cuisine, tends to be more highly spiced with more use of rice. Sometimes a lamb is roasted and served whole.WEB, Food and recipes,weblink, One will find the following items in most dishes; cinnamon, fish (in coastal areas), garlic, lamb (or veal), mild to hot sauces, mint, onion, rice, saffron, sesame, yogurt, spices due to heavy trading between the two regions. Tea, thyme (or oregano), turmeric, a variety of fruits (primarily citrus) and vegetables such as cucumbers, eggplants, lettuce, tomato, green pepper, green beans, zucchini and parsley.WEB, Arabic Cuisine,weblink, 18 December 2017,


File:Arabesques alhambra.jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.7|Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in AlhambraAlhambraArabic art takes on many forms, though it is jewelry, textiles and architecture that are the most well-known. It is generally split up by different eras, among them being early Arabic, early medieval, late medieval, late Arabic, and finally, current Arabic. One thing to remember is that many times a particular style from one era may continue into the next with few changes, while some have a drastic transformation. This may seem like a strange grouping of art mediums, but they are all closely related.BOOK,weblink Arabic Art in Color, d?Avennes, Prisse, 1 January 1978, Courier Corporation, 9780486236582, en, BOOK, Arabic art : after monuments in Cairo, 1807–1879., Prisse d'Avennes, 1 January 2007, L'Aventurine, 978-2914199605, 216662541, File:Arabischer Maler um 1335 003.jpg|right|thumb|Arabic miniature dibicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri ]]Arabic writing is done from right to left, and was generally written in dark inks, with certain things embellished with special colored inks (red, green, gold). In early Arabic and early Medieval, writing was typically done on parchment made of animal skin. The ink showed up very well on it, and occasionally the parchment was dyed a separate color and brighter ink was used (this was only for special projects). The name given to the form of writing in early times was called Kufic script.WEB, A Brief History on Arabic Art: Different Forms of Arabic Artworks Outlined,weblink Bright Hub Education, 25 April 2011, Arabic miniatures are small paintings on paper, whether book illustrations or separate works of art. Arabic miniature art dates to the late 7th century. Arabs depended on such art not only to satisfy their artistic taste, but also for scientific explanations.Arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines,BOOK, Fleming, John, Honour, Hugh, Dictionary of the Decorative Arts, 1977, Penguin, 978-0-670-82047-4,weblink often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Foliate ornament, typically using leaves, derived from stylised half-palmettes, which were combined with spiralling stems".Rawson, 236 It usually consists of a single design which can be 'tiled' or seamlessly repeated as many times as desired.BOOK, Robinson, Francis, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 978-0-521-66993-1, NEWS, Khan Academy,weblink


File:Mezquita-Catedral de Cordoba 04.JPG|thumb|The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987]]Arabic Architecture has a deep diverse history, it dates to the dawn of the history in pre-Islamic Arabia and includes various styles from the Nabataean architecture to the old yet still used architecture in various regions of the Arab world. Each of it phases largelyan extension of the earlier phase, it left also heavy impact on the architecture of other nations. Arab Architecture also encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. Some parts of its religious architectures raised by Muslim Arabs were influenced by cultures of Roman, Byzantine and cultures of other lands which the Arab conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries.Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books Ltd., 1965, p. 285.Fletcher, Banister A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method 4th Edition, London, p. 476.In Sicily, Arab-Norman architecture combined Occidental features, such as the Classical pillars and friezes, with typical Arabic decorations and calligraphy. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.Copplestone, p.149A Tour of Architecture in Islamic Cities {{webarchive|url= |date=17 March 2007 }}


File:Maler der Geschichte von Bayâd und Riyâd 002.jpg|thumb|left|Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale]]Arabic music, while independent and flourishing in the 2010s, has a long history of interaction with many other regional musical styles and genres. It is an amalgam of the music of the Arab people in the Arabian Peninsula and the music of all the peoples that make up the Arab world today.Habib Hassan Touma – Review of Das arabische Tonsystem im Mittelalter by Liberty Manik{{Full citation needed|date=December 2014}}. Pre-Islamic Arab music was similar to that of Ancient Middle Eastern music. Most historians agree that there existed distinct forms of music in the Arabian peninsula in the pre-Islamic period between the 5th and 7th century CE. Arab poets of that "Jahili poets", meaning "the poets of the period of ignorance"—used to recite poems with a high notes.Singing in the Jahili period – {{ar icon}} It was believed that Jinns revealed poems to poets and music to musicians. By the 11th century, Islamic Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments. These goods spread gradually throughout France, influencing French troubadours, and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute, rebec, and naker are derived from Arabic oud, rabab, and naqareh.BOOK, Smith, Douglas Alton, A History of the Lute from Antiquity to the Renaissance, 2002, 978-0-9714071-0-7, WEB,weblink Asian Music Tribal Music of India, 32, 1, Fall, 2000/ Winter, 2001, 20 December 2008, 18 December 2017, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2008, File:Umm Kulthum4.jpg|thumb|upright|Umm KulthumUmm KulthumA number of musical instruments used in classical music are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments: the lute was derived from the Oud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, which in turn was derived from the Persian Tar, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal,{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=137}} the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments,{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=140}} the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe),{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|pp=140–41}}the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna,{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=141}} the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya,{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=142}} geige (violin) from ghichak,{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=143}}and the theorbo from the tarab.{{Harvnb|Farmer|1988|p=144}}During the 1950s and the 1960s, Arabic music began to take on a more Western tone – artists Umm Kulthum, Abdel Halim Hafez, and Shadia along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music. By the 1970s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic pop was born. Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic instruments and lyrics. Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western. Beginning in the mid-1980s, Lydia Canaan, musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle EastO'Connor, Tom. "Lydia Canaan One Step Closer to Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame", The Daily Star, Beirut, 27 April 2016.Justin Salhani, The Daily Star, 17 November 2014David Livingstone, Campus, No. 8, p. 2, February 1997Wafik Ajouz, Cedar Wings, No. 28, p. 2, July–August 1995Youmna Aschkar, Eco News, No. 77, p. 2, 20 January 1997George Hayek, Al-Hayat, No. 12,513, 3 June 1997Mireille Khalife, Al-Hayat, Issue No. 13,732, 16 October 2000WEB,weblink Lydia Canaan Receiving Lebanese International Success Award,, 18 December 2017,


File:Al-Uzza.png|thumb|left|Al-'Uzzá was one of the three chief goddessgoddessArab polytheism was the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. Gods and goddesses, including Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-'Uzzá and Manāt, were worshipped at local shrines, such as the Kaaba in Mecca, whilst Arabs in the south, in what is today's Yemen, worshipped various gods, some of which represented the Sun or Moon. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion.BOOK, Neal Robinson, Islam: A Concise Introduction,weblink 5 November 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-81773-1, 75, BOOK, Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam,weblink 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1875-8, 110, BOOK, Daniel C. Peterson, Muhammad, Prophet of God,weblink 26 February 2007, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-0754-0, 21, Many of the physical descriptions of the pre-Islamic gods are traced to idols, especially near the Kaaba, which is said to have contained up to 360 of them.BOOK, 11, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong, 978-0-8129-6618-3, 2000, Until about the fourth century, almost all Arabs practised polytheistic religions.BOOK, Robert G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam,weblink 139, 11 September 2002, Routledge, 978-1-134-64634-0, Although significant Jewish and Christian minorities developed, polytheism remained the dominant belief system in pre-Islamic Arabia.BOOK, David Nicolle, David Nicolle, The Great Islamic Conquests AD 632–750,weblink 20 June 2012, Osprey Publishing, 978-1-78096-998-5, 19, The religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca.BOOK, Reza Aslan, No God But God: The Origins, Evolution and Future of Islam,weblink 2 December 2008, Random House, 978-1-4070-0928-5, 6, Nomadic religious belief systems and practices are believed to have included fetishism, totemism and veneration of the dead but were connected principally with immediate concerns and problems and did not consider larger philosophical questions such as the afterlife. Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz worshipped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the bedouin practised their religion on the move.BOOK, Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam,weblink 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1875-8, 105,


File:AverroesColor.jpg|thumb|Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in leftFile:Ibn Arabi.jpg|thumb|upright|rightArabic philosophy refers to philosophical thought in the Arab world. Schools of Arabic thought include Avicennism and Averroism. The first great Arab thinker is widely regarded to be al-Kindi (801–873 A.D.), a Neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician and scientist who lived in Kufa and Baghdad (modern day Iraq). After being appointed by the Abbasid Caliphs to translate Greek scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic, he wrote a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects, from metaphysics and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology.WEB, Arabic philosophy,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge.WEB, Arabic Philosophy – General – The Basics of Philosophy,weblink, 18 December 2017, Doctrines of the Arabic philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. The Arabic tradition combines Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna. The Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin, this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. The Arabic tradition was developed by Moses Maimonides and Ibn Khaldun.BOOK, Street, Tony, Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Language and Logic,weblink The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 1 January 2015, WEB, Arabic and Islamic Philosophy – Bibliography – PhilPapers,weblink,


File:Houghton Typ 620.47.452 - Selenographia, title.jpg|thumb|upright|Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen {{sic}} representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".NEWS, Al-Khalili, Jim,weblink BBC News, 4 January 2009, 11 April 2014, ]]Arabic science underwent considerable development during the 8th to 13th centuries CE, a source of knowledge that later spread throughout Europe and greatly influenced both medical practice and education. These scientific accomplishments occurred after Muhammad united the Arab tribes.JOURNAL, Falagas, Matthew E., Zarkadoulia, Effie A., Samonis, George, 1 August 2006, Arab science in the golden age (750–1258 CE) and today, The FASEB Journal, en, 20, 10, 1581–1586, 10.1096/fj.06-0803ufm, 0892-6638, 16873881, File:Albategnius.jpeg|thumb|left|upright|Albategnius's Kitāb az-ZÄ«j was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy]]Within a century after Muhammed's death (632 CE), an empire ruled by Arabs was established. It encompassed a large part of the planet, stretching from southern Europe to North Africa to Central Asia and on to India. In 711 CE, Arab Muslims invaded southern Spain; al-Andalus was a center of Arabic scientific accomplishment. Another center emerged in Baghdad from the Abbasids, who ruled part of the Islamic world during a historic period later characterized as the "Golden Age" (∼750 to 1258 CE).WEB,weblink Rediscovering Arabic Science {{!, Muslim Heritage||access-date=18 December 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=20 December 2016|url-status=dead}}File:TabulaRogeriana_upside-down.jpg|thumb|upright|The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world mapsancient world mapsThis era can be identified as the years between 692 and 945,Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam; Conscience and History in a World Civilisation Vol 1. The University of Chicago, 1974, pg. 234. and ended when the caliphate was marginalized by local Muslim rulers in Baghdad â€“ its traditional seat of power. From 945 onward until the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, the Caliph continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs.Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam; Conscience and History in a World Civilisation Vol 1. The University of Chicago, 1974, pg. 233. The pious scholars of Islam, men and women collectively known as the ulama, were the most influential element of society in the fields of Sharia law, speculative thought and theology.Marshall Hodgson, The Venture of Islam; Conscience and History in a World Civilisation Vol 1. The University of Chicago, 1974, pg. 238. Arabic scientific achievement is not as yet fully understood, but is very large.BOOK, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, Robinson, Francis, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 228–229, Francis Robinson, These achievements encompass a wide range of subject areas, especially mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics, alchemy and chemistry, cosmology, ophthalmology, geography and cartography, sociology, and psychology.WEB,weblink Arabic Sciences and Philosophy {{!, Cambridge Core|website=Cambridge Core|access-date=18 December 2016}}WEB,weblink The Origins of Islamic Science {{!, Muslim Heritage||access-date=18 December 2016}}Al-Battani (c. 858 – 929; born Harran, Bilad al-Sham) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer and mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age. His work is considered instrumental in the development of science and astronomy. One of Al-Battani's best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds which is only 2 minutes and 22 seconds off.{{MacTutor Biography|id=Al-Battani|title=Abu Abdallah Mohammad ibn Jabir Al-Battani}}Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) used experimentation to obtain the results in his Book of Optics (1021), an important development in the history of the scientific method. He combined observations, experiments and rational arguments to support his intromission theory of vision, in which rays of light are emitted from objects rather than from the eyes. He used similar arguments to show that the ancient emission theory of vision supported by Ptolemy and Euclid (in which the eyes emit the rays of light used for seeing), and the ancient intromission theory supported by Aristotle (where objects emit physical particles to the eyes), were both wrong.D. C. Lindberg, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1976), pp. 60–7.Al-Zahrawi, regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages.BOOK, Weinberg, Steven, To Explain the World: The Discovery of Modern Science, 2015, Penguin Books Limited, 9780241196656,weblink en, His surgical treatise "De chirurgia" is the first illustrated surgical guide ever written. It remained the primary source for surgical procedures and instruments in Europe for the next 500 years.BOOK, Krebs, Robert E., Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2004, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313324338,weblink en, The book helped lay the foundation to establish surgery as a scientific discipline independent from medicine, earning al-Zahrawi his name as one of the founders of this field.BOOK, Krebs, Robert E., Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 2004, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313324338,weblink en, Other notable Arab contributions include among other things: establishing the science of chemistry by Jābir ibn Hayyān,JOURNAL, Zygmunt S., Derewenda, 2007, On wine, chirality and crystallography, Acta Crystallographica Section A, 64, 246–258 [247], 10.1107/S0108767307054293, 18156689, Derewenda, ZS, Pt 1, 2008AcCrA..64..246D, John Warren (2005). "War and the Cultural Heritage of Iraq: a sadly mismanaged affair", Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5, pp. 815–830.Dr. A. Zahoor (1997), Jâbir ibn Hayyân (Geber) establishing the science of cryptology and cryptanalysis by al-Kindi,BOOK, Kahn, David, The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1996, Simon and Schuster, 9781439103555,weblink en, Cryptology was born among the Arabs. They were the first to discover and write down the methods of cryptoanalysis., BOOK, Borda, Monica, Fundamentals in Information Theory and Coding, 2011, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783642203473,weblink 122, Al Kindi, an Arab scientist from 9th century is considered the father of cryptology, his book on this subject being, at this moment, the oldest available., en, WEB, Arab Code Breakers {{!, Simon Singh |url= |}} the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham,Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven; Wallis, Faith (2014). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 237.Kalin, Ibrahim (2014). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 321. the discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al-Nafis,BOOK, Kidder, David S., Oppenheim, Noah D., The Intellectual Devotional Biographies: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Acquaint Yourself with the World's Greatest Personalities, 2010, Rodale, 9781605290881,weblink en, WEB, Ibn an-NafÄ«s {{!, Muslim physician |url= |website=Encyclopedia Britannica |language=en}} the discovery of the itch mite parasite by Ibn Zuhr,BOOK, Glick, Thomas F., Livesey, Steven, Wallis, Faith, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, 2014, Routledge, 9781135459321,weblink en, the first use of irrational numbers as an algebraic objects by AbÅ« Kāmil,BOOK, Dictionary of African Biography. 1St- Ed.; 1970, 1970, 9780195382075,weblink en, Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku, Niven, Mr. Steven J, the first use of the positional decimal fractions by al-Uqlidisi,WEB, Al-Uqlidisi biography,weblink, BOOK, Selin, Helaine, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 9789401714167,weblink en, 69, Historian J. L. Berggren, for example, concludes that while the Hindus were the first to use a "cipherized, decimal positional system", the Arabs pioneered in extending this system to "represent parts of the unit by decimal fractions"., the development of the Arabic numerals and an early algebraic symbolism in the Maghreb,BOOK, Selin, Helaine, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 9789401714167,weblink en, WEB, Al-Qalasadi biography,weblink, the Thabit number and Thābit theorem by Thābit ibn Qurra,WEB, Thabit number,weblink, the discovery of several new trigonometric identities by Ibn Yunus and al-Battani,BOOK, Tonias, Elias C., Tonias, Constantine N., Geometric Procedures for Civil Engineers, 2016, Springer, 9783319242958,weblink en, BOOK, Ben-Menahem, Ari, Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, 2009, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540688310,weblink en, the mathematical proof for Ceva's theorem by Ibn Hűd,BOOK, Geometry: Our Cultural Heritage, Audun, Holme, Springer, 2010, 978-3-642-14440-0, 210, the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir,BOOK, Morris, T. J., A Paranormal History Guide,, 9781300192459,weblink en, the invention of the torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah,JOURNAL, R. P., Lorch, The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum, Centaurus (journal), Centaurus, 20, 1, 1976, 11–34, 10.1111/j.1600-0498.1976.tb00214.x, 1976Cent...20...11L, the invention of the universal astrolabe and the equatorium by al-Zarqali,BOOK, Dubey, N. B., Office Management: Developing Skills for Smooth Functioning, 2009, Global India Publications, 9789380228167,weblink en, BOOK, May, Andrew, The Telescopic Tourist's Guide to the Moon, 2017, Springer, 9783319607412,weblink en, the first description of the crankshaft by al-Jazari,WEB, Al-JazarÄ« {{!, Arab inventor|url=|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en}}WEB, Ismaeel al-Jazari Biography (1150–1220),weblink, the anticipation of the inertia concept by Averroes,BOOK, Rooney, Anne, The Story of Physics, 2014, Arcturus Publishing, 9781784040710,weblink en, the discovery of the physical reaction by Avempace,{{citation needed|date=January 2019}} the identification of more than 200 new plants by Ibn al-BaitarWEB, Ibn al-Baitar – Dictionary definition of Ibn al-Baitar {{!, FREE online dictionary |url= | |language=en}} the Arab Agricultural Revolution, and the Tabula Rogeriana, which was the most accurate world map in pre-modern times by al-Idrisi.Bacharach, 2006, p. 140.The birth of the University institution can be traced to this development, as several universities and educational institutions of the Arab world such as the University of Al Quaraouiyine, Al Azhar University, and Al Zaytuna University are considered to be the oldest in the world. Founded by Fatima al Fihri in 859, the University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fez is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World RecordsWEB,weblink Oldest university,, 18 December 2017, WEB, Medina of Fez,weblink UNESCO World Heritage Centre, UNESCO, 7 April 2016, and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History of the University in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, {{ISBN|978-0-521-54113-8}}, pp. 35–76 (35)There are many scientific Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including (:wikt:Category:English terms derived from Arabic|English), mostly via Old French.Lebedel, p.113 This includes traditional star names such as Aldebaran, scientific terms like (:wikt:alchemy|alchemy) (whence also (:wikt:chemistry|chemistry)), (:wikt:algebra|algebra), (:wikt:algorithm|algorithm), (:wikt:alcohol|alcohol), (:wikt:alkali|alkali), (:wikt:cipher|cipher), (:wikt:zenith|zenith), etc.Under Ottoman rule, cultural life and science in the Arab world declined. In the 20th and 21st centuries, Arabs who have won important science prizes include Ahmed Zewail and Elias Corey (Nobel Prize), Michael DeBakey and Alim Benabid (Lasker Award), Omar M. Yaghi (Wolf Prize), Huda Zoghbi (Shaw Prize), Zaha Hadid (Pritzker Prize), and Michael Atiyah (both Fields Medal and Abel Prize). Rachid Yazami was one of the co-inventors of the lithium-ion battery,WEB, UT Austin's John B. Goodenough Wins Engineering's Highest Honor for Pioneering Lithium-Ion Battery,weblink UT News {{!, The University of Texas at Austin|language=en|date=6 January 2014|access-date=18 December 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=14 May 2016|url-status=dead}} and Tony Fadell was important in the development of the iPod and the iPhone.NEWS, Salter, Jessica, Tony Fadell, father of the iPod, iPhone and Nest, on why he is worth $3.2bn to Google,weblink 14 November 2014,

Wedding and marriage

File:Tatouage au Henné, Maroc.jpg|thumb|left|Henna tattoo in MoroccoMoroccoArabic weddings have changed greatly in the past 100 years. Original traditional Arabic weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern-day Bedouin weddings and rural weddings, and they are in some cases unique from one region to another, even within the same country. The practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature of Arab culture.BOOK, Understanding the Arab culture : a practical cross-cultural guide to working in the Arab world, Jehad., Al-Omari, 1 January 2008, How To Books, 978-1848036468, 408662262, In the Arab world today between 40% and 50% of all marriages are consanguineous or between close family members, though these figures may vary among Arab nations.WEB,weblink Middle East Health Magazine,, 18 December 2017, JOURNAL, Bener A, Dafeeah EE, Samson N, Does consanguinity increase the risk of schizophrenia? Study based on primary health care centre visits, Ment Health Fam Med, 9, 4, 241–8, 2012, 24294299, 3721918, In Egypt, around 40% of the population marry a cousin. A 1992 survey in Jordan found that 32% were married to a first cousin; a further 17.3% were married to more distant relatives.Consanguineous marriage: Keeping it in the family. Economist, 27 February 2016 67% of marriages in Saudi Arabia are between close relatives as are 54% of all marriages in Kuwait, whereas 18% of all Lebanese were between blood relatives.WEB,weblink Inbreeding,, 18 December 2017, Due to the actions of Muhammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed in Islam and the Qur'an itself does not discourage or forbid the practice.Surah chapter 4, verse 23 Nevertheless, opinions vary on whether the phenomenon should be seen as exclusively based on Islamic practices as a 1992 study among Arabs in Jordan did not show significant differences between Christian Arabs or Muslim Arabs when comparing the occurrence of consanguinity.


E1b1b is the most frequent paternal clade among the populations in the western part of the Arab world (Maghreb, Nile Valley, and the Horn of Africa), whereas haplogroup J is the most frequent paternal clade toward the east (Arabian peninsula and Near East). Other less common haplogroups are R1a, R1b, G, I, L and T.JOURNAL, Al-Zahery, N, 4 October 2011, In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11, 288, 10.1186/1471-2148-11-288, 3215667, 21970613, Pala, M, Battaglia, V, Grugni, V, Hamod, MA, Hooshiar Kashani, B, Olivieri, A, Torroni, A, Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS, Semino, O, JOURNAL, 2004, The Levantine versus the Horn of Africa:evidence for bi-directional corridors of human migrations, American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 3, 532–44, 10.1086/382286, 1182266, 14973781, Regueiro, etal, JOURNAL, Zhivotovsky, Lev A, Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L, Underhill, Peter A, Herrera, Rene J, 10 October 2007, Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman, European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 3, 374–386, 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934, 17928816, Cadenas at Al, WEB,weblink Family Tree DNA Arabian YDNA Project, JOURNAL, 2009, Out of Arabia—the settlement of island Soqotra as revealed by mitochondrial and Y chromosome genetic diversity,weblink American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138, 4, 439–447, 10.1002/ajpa.20960, 19012329, ÄŒerný, Viktor, 20 October 2016, etal, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2016, JOURNAL, King, Roy J, Myres, Natalie M, Henn, Brenna M, Ducourneau, Axel, Mitchell, Michael J, Boetsch, Gilles, Sheikha, Issa, Lin, Alice A, 14 October 2009, The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations, European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 3, 348–353, 10.1038/ejhg.2009.166, 2987219, 19826455, Chiaroni, Nik-Ahd, Mahnoosh, Ahmad, Jabeen, Lattanzi, Francesca, Herrera, Rene J, Ibrahim, Muntaser E, Brody, Aaron, Semino, Ornella, Kivisild, Toomas, Underhill, Peter A, etal, JOURNAL, Hammer, MF, Behar, DM, Karafet, TM, et al, November 2009, Geographical distribution of J1-P58, Human Genetics, 126, 5, 707–17, 10.1007/s00439-009-0727-5, 2771134, 19669163, JOURNAL, Hammer, Michael F., 8 August 2009, Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood, Human Genetics, 126, 5, 707–717, 10.1007/s00439-009-0727-5, 2771134, 19669163, Behar, Doron M., Karafet, Tatiana M., Mendez, Fernando L., Hallmark, Brian, Erez, Tamar, Zhivotovsky, Lev A., Rosset, Saharon, Skorecki, Karl, JOURNAL, Magri, Chiara, Benuzzi, Giorgia, Lin, Alice A., Al-Zahery, Nadia, Battaglia, Vincenza, MacCioni, Liliana, Triantaphyllidis, Costas, Shen, Peidong, 1 May 2004, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 5, 1023–1034, 10.1086/386295, 1181965, 15069642, Semino, Oefner, Peter J., Zhivotovsky, Lev A., King, Roy, Torroni, Antonio, Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca, Underhill, Peter A., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana, etal, WEB,weblink J1-P58 contain the Arabic cluster L147.1 that contain the all J1-CMH haplotypes and is YCAII=22–22, JOURNAL, Robino, C, May 2008, Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 122, 3, 251–5, 10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5, 17909833, Crobu, F, Di Gaetano, C, Bekada, A, Benhamamouch, S, Cerutti, N, Piazza, A, Inturri, S, Torre, C, JOURNAL, Capelli, C., Redhead, N., Romano, V., Cali, F., Lefranc, G., Delague, V., Megarbane, A., Felice, A. E., Pascali, V. L., 1 March 2006, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective, Annals of Human Genetics, 70, 2, 207–225, 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00224.x, 16626331, Neophytou, P. I., Poulli, Z., Novelletto, A., Malaspina, P., Terrenato, L., Berebbi, A., Fellous, M., Thomas, M. G., Goldstein, D. B., 2108/37090, JOURNAL, Hayes, JM, September 1995, Arab population data on the PCR-based loci: HLA-DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, and D1S80, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 40, 5, 888–92, 7595333, Budowle, B, Freund, M, {{multiple image| align = right| image1 = Haplogroup J (Y-DNA).svg| width1 = 170| alt1 = J-M304}}| image2 = HG J1 (ADN-Y).PNG| width2 = 190| alt2 = J-M267}}| image3 = E1b1bRoute.png| width3 = 112| alt3 = E-M215}}| footer = }}Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Arabian Peninsula, Mashriq or Levant, Maghreb and Nile Valley.JOURNAL, Bekada, A, Fregel, R, Cabrera, VM, Larruga, JM, Pestano, J, et al, 2013, Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape, PLoS ONE, 8, 2, e56775, 10.1371/journal.pone.0056775, 23431392, 3576335, 2013PLoSO...856775B, Table S6. Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies (%) in the studied populations. {{doi|10.1371/journal.pone.0056775.s006}} (XLS)JOURNAL, Kivisild, Toomas, Kalfoglu, Ersi, Atasoy, Sevil, Cavalleri, Gianpiero L., Lillie, Anita S., Roseman, Charles C., Lin, Alice A., 29 October 2003, Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia,weblink Human Genetics, 114, 2, 127–148, 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, 14586639, Cinnioglu, 1, WEB,weblink DNA Haplogroup Definitions â€“ J,, 22 April 2009, NEWS,weblink In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts, 10 September 2016, Reuters, JOURNAL, 14 October 2016, Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture, PLOS Genetics, 9, 2, e1003316, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003316, 3585000, 23468648, Marc Haber, Dominique Gauguier, Sonia Youhanna, Nick Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Laura R. Botigué, Daniel E. Platt, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, David F. Soria-Hernanz, R. Spencer Wells, Jaume Bertranpetit, Chris Tyler-Smith, David Comas, Pierre A. Zalloua, JOURNAL, 1 June 2002, Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 6, 1594–1596, 10.1086/340669, 379148, 11992266, NEBEL, etal, Yemeni Arabs J (82.3%), E1b1b (12.9%) and E1b1a1-M2 (3.2%).JOURNAL, Zhivotovsky, Lev A, Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L, Underhill, Peter A, Herrera, Rene J, 2007, Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman, European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 3, 374–86, 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934, 17928816, Cadenas, Alicia M, *{{harvnb|Alshamali|2009}}: 81% (84/104)−
  • {{harvnb|Malouf|2008}}: 70% (28/40)
  • {{harvnb|Cadenas|2008}}: 45/62=72.6% J-M267
Saudi Arabs J1 (58%), E1b1b (7.6%), E1b1a1-M2 (7.6%), R1a (5.1%), T (5.1%), G (3.2%) and L (1.9%).JOURNAL, Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions, Khaled K Abu-Amero, Ali Hellani, Ana M González, Jose M Larruga, Vicente M Cabrera, Peter A Underhill, 2009, BMC Genet, 10, 10.1186/1471-2156-10-59, 19772609, 2759955, 59, JOURNAL, Ollier, W, February 1985, HLA polymorphisms in Saudi Arabs, Tissue Antigens, 25, 2, 87–95, 3857723, 10.1111/j.1399-0039.1985.tb00420.x, Doyle, P, Alonso, A, Awad, J, Williams, E, Gill, D, Welch, S, Klouda, P, Bacchus, R, Festenstein, H, Emirati Arabs J (45.1%), E1b1b (11.6%), R1a (7.3%), E1b1a1-M2 (5.5%), T (4.9%), R1b (4.3%) and L (3%). Omani Arabs J (47.9%), E1b1b (15.7%), R1a (9.1%), T (8.3%), E1b1a (7.4%), R1b (1.7%), G (1.7%) and L (0.8%).JOURNAL, Luis, J, Rowold, D, Regueiro, M, Caeiro, B, Cinnioglu, C, Roseman, C, Underhill, P, Cavallisforza, L, Herrera, R, The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 3, 532–44, 2004, 10.1086/382286, 14973781, 1182266, {{erratum|doi=10.1086/392532|pmc=1181961|checked=yes}} Qatari Arabs J (66.7%), R1a (6.9%), E1b1b (5.6%), E1b1a (2.8%), G (2.8%) and L (2.8%).WEB, The Genetic Atlas,weblink, 11 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2015, dead, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Hunter-Zinck, H, Musharoff, S, Salit, J, Al-Ali, KA, Chouchane, L, Gohar, A, Matthews, R, Butler, MW, Fuller, J, 9 July 2010, Population genetic structure of the people of Qatar, American Journal of Human Genetics, 87, 1, 17–25, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.05.018, 20579625, Hackett, NR, Crystal, RG, Clark, AG, 2896773, Lebanese Arabs J (45.2%), E1b1b (25.8%), R1a (9.7%), R1b (6.4%), G, I and I (3.2%), (3.2%), (3.2%).JOURNAL, Semino, O., Passarino, G, Oefner, PJ, Lin, AA, Arbuzova, S, Beckman, LE, De Benedictis, G, Francalacci, P, Kouvatsi, A, Limborska, S, Marcikiae, M, Mika, A, Mika, B, Primorac, D, Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Underhill, P. A., The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective, Science, 290, 5494, 1155–9, 2000, 11073453, 10.1126/science.290.5494.1155, 8, 2000Sci...290.1155S, Syrian Arabs J (58.3%),JOURNAL, Y-Chromosome and mtDNA Genetics Reveal Significant Contrasts in Affinities of Modern Middle Eastern Populations with European and African Populations, 30 January 2013, 10.1371/journal.pone.0054616, 8, 1, PLoS ONE, e54616, 23382925, 3559847, Badro, DA, Douaihy, B, Haber, M, et al, 2013PLoSO...854616B, JOURNAL, Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 16 August 2009, 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x, 73, Pt 6, 568–581, 19686289, 3312577, El-Sibai, M, Platt, DE, Haber, M, Xue, Y, Youhanna, SC, Wells, RS, Izaabel, H, Sanyoura, MF, Harmanani, H, Bonab, MA, Behbehani, J, Hashwa, F, Tyler-Smith, C, Zalloua, PA, E1b1b (12.0%), I (5.0%), R1a (10.0%) and R1b 15.0%. Palestinian Arabs J (55.2%), E1b1b (20.3%), R1b (8.4%), I (6.3%), G (7%), R1a and T (1.4%), (1.4%).JOURNAL, Nebel, A, Filon, D, Brinkmann, B, Majumder, P, Faerman, M, Oppenheim, A, The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 5, 1095–112, 2001, 10.1086/324070, 11573163, 1274378, JOURNAL, A Mosaic of People, E. Levy- Coffman, Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 2005,weblink 12–33, "J1 is the only haplogroup that researchers consider "Semitic" in origin" Jordanian Arabs J (43.8%), E1b1b (26%), R1b (17.8%), G (4.1%), I (3.4%) and R1a (1.4%).{{Harvcoltxt|Abu Amero et al.|2009}} Iraqi Arabs J (50.6%), E1b1b (10.8%), R1b (10.8%), R1a (6.9%) and T (5.9%).JOURNAL, Magri, C, Benuzzi, G, Lin, AA, Al-Zahery, N, Battaglia, V, MacCioni, L, Triantaphyllidis, C, Shen, P, 2004, Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area, American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 5, 1023–34, 10.1086/386295, 1181965, 15069642, Semino, O, Oefner, Peter J., Zhivotovsky, Lev A., King, Roy, Torroni, Antonio, Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca, Underhill, Peter A., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana, 8, WEB,weblink N. Al-Zahery, et al, Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations, 2003, 10 December 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2010, dead, Egyptian Arabs E1b1b (36.7%) and J (32%), G (8.8%), T (8.2% R1b (4.1%), E1b1a (2.8%) and I (0.7%).JOURNAL, Wood, ET, Stover, DA, Ehret, C, Destro-Bisol, G, Spedini, G, McLeod, H, Louie, L, Bamshad, M, Strassmann, BI, Soodyall, Himla, Hammer, Michael F, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes, European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, 7, 867–76, 2005, 15856073, 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408, 8, Sudanese Arabs J (47.1%), E1b1b (16.3%), R1b (15.7%) and I (3.13%).JOURNAL, Hassan, HY, Underhill, PA, Cavalli-Sforza, LL, Ibrahim, ME, Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137, 3, 316–23, 2008, 18618658, 10.1002/ajpa.20876, JOURNAL, Hassan, HY, November 2008, Y-chromosome variation among Sudanese: restricted gene flow, concordance with language, geography, and history, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137, 3, 316–23, 10.1002/ajpa.20876, 18618658, Underhill, PA, Cavalli-Sforza, LL, Ibrahim, ME, Moroccan Arabs E1b1b (75.5%) and J1 (20.4%).Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa. Volume 74, Issue 5, May 2004, Pages 1014–1022. Fulvio Cruciani, Roberta La Fratta, Piero Santolamazza, Daniele Sellitto, Roberto Pascone, Pedro Moral, Elizabeth Watson, Valentina Guida, Eliane Beraud Colomb, Boriana Zaharo, João Lavinh, Giuseppe Vona, Rashid Aman, Francesco Calì, Nejat Akar, Martin Richards, Antonio Torroni, Andrea Novelletto, Rosaria Scozzari. Date:07-08-2016JOURNAL, Cruciani, La Fratta R, Trombetta, B, Santolamazza, P, Sellitto, D, Colomb, EB, Dugoujon, JM, Crivellaro, F, Benincasa, T, Pascone, R, Moral, P, Watson, E, Melegh, B, Barbujani, G, Fuselli, S, Vona, G, Zagradisnik, B, Assum, G, Brdicka, R, Kozlov, AI, Efremov, GD, Coppa, A, Novelletto, A, Scozzari, R, June 2007, Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12, Mol Biol Evol, 24, 6, 1300–11, 10.1093/molbev/msm049, 17351267, Tunisian Arabs E1b1b (49.3%), J1 (35.8%), R1b (6.8%) and E1b1a1-M2 (1.4%).JOURNAL, Arredi, B, Poloni, E, Paracchini, S, Silvia Paracchini, Zerjal, T, Fathallah, D, Makrelouf, M, Pascali, V, Novelletto, A, Tylersmith, C, A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 75, 2, 338–45, 2004, 10.1086/423147, 15202071, 1216069, Algerian Arabs E1b1b (54%), J1 (35%), R1b (13%). Libyan Arabs E1b1b (35.88%), J (30.53%), E1b1a (8.78%), G (4.20%), R1a/R1b (3.43%) and E (1.53%).Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013) Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa" PLoS One 2013; 8(11): e80293. See Table S2JOURNAL, Immel, U.-D., Erhuma, M., Mustafa, T., Kleiber, M., Klintschar, M., Population genetic analysis in a Libyan population using the PowerPlex 16 system, International Congress Series, 1288, 421–3, 2006, 10.1016/j.ics.2005.08.036,
The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab world.JOURNAL, Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia, 4 May 2012, 915–924, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.04.003, 90, 5, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 22560092, 3376494, Pala, M, Olivieri, A, Achilli, A, Accetturo, M, Metspalu, E, Reidla, M, Tamm, E, Karmin, M, Reisberg, T, Hooshiar Kashani, B, Perego, UA, Carossa, V, Gandini, F, Pereira, JB, Soares, P, Angerhofer, N, Rychkov, S, Al-Zahery, N, Carelli, V, Sanati, MH, Houshmand, M, Hatina, J, Macaulay, V, Pereira, L, Woodward, SR, Davies, W, Gamble, C, Baird, D, Semino, O, Villems, R, Torroni, A, Richards, MB, WEB,weblink Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe…, 31 December 2012,, 18 December 2017, The maternal clade R0 reaches its highest frequency in the Arabian peninsula,WEB, Non, Amy, ANALYSES OF GENETIC DATA WITHIN AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FRAMEWORK TO INVESTIGATE RECENT HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY AND COMPLEX DISEASE,weblink University of Florida, 21 December 2016, while K and T(specifically subclade T2) is more common in the Levant. In the Nile Valley and Horn of Africa, haplogroups N1 and M1; in the Maghreb, haplogroups H1 and U6 are more significant.WEB, Mohamed, Hisham Yousif Hassan, Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Implications to the Peopling of the Sudan,weblink University of Khartoum, 21 December 2016, There are four principal West Eurasian autosomal DNA components that characterize the populations in the Arab world: the Arabian, Levantine, Coptic and Maghrebi components.The Arabian component is the main autosomal element in the Persian Gulf region. It is most closely associated with local Arabic-speaking populations. The Arabian component is also found at significant frequencies in parts of the Levant and Northeast Africa.JOURNAL, Brenna M. Henn, Laura R. Botigué, Simon Gravel, Wei Wang, Abra Brisbin, Jake K. Byrnes, Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid, Pierre A. Zalloua, Andres Moreno-Estrada, Jaume Bertranpetit, Carlos D. Bustamante, David Comas, Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations, PLOS Genetics, 12 January 2012, 8, 1, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397, e1002397, 22253600, 3257290, The geographical distribution pattern of this component correlates with the pattern of the Islamic expansion, but its presence in Lebanese Christians, Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews, Cypriots and Armenians might suggest that its spread to the Levant could also represent an earlier event.The Levantine component is the main autosomal element in the Near East and Caucasus. It peaks among Druze populations in the Levant. The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,500–23,700 ypb.The Coptic component is the main autosomal element in Northeast Africa. It peaks among Egyptian Copts in Sudan, and is also found at high frequencies among other Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations in the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa.JOURNAL, Begoña Dobon, Hisham Y. Hassan, Hafid Laayouni, Pierre Luisi, Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Alexandra Zhernakova, Cisca Wijmenga, Hanan Tahir, David Comas, Mihai G. Netea, Jaume Bertranpetit, The genetics of East African populations: a Nilo-Saharan component in the African genetic landscape, Scientific Reports, 28 May 2015, 5, 10.1038/srep09996,weblink 14 October 2016, 9996, 26017457, 4446898, 2015NatSR...5E9996D, The Coptic component is roughly equivalent with the Ethio-Somali component.JOURNAL, Jason A. Hodgson, Connie J. Mulligan, Ali Al-Meeri, Ryan L. Raaum, Early Back-to-Africa Migration into the Horn of Africa, PLOS Genetics, 12 June 2014, 10, 6, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393, e1004393, 24921250, 4055572, ; JOURNAL, Supplementary Text S1: Affinities of the Ethio-Somali ancestry component, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393.s017, The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Maghreb. It peaks among the non-Arabized Berber populations in the region. The Maghrebi component diverged from the Coptic/Ethio-Somali, Arabian and Levantine components prior to the Holocene.A recent genetic study published in the "European Journal of Human Genetics" in Nature (2019) showed that West Asians (Arabs) are closely related to Europeans and Northern Africans as well as to Southwest Asians.JOURNAL, Kidd, Kenneth K., Kidd, Judith R., Rajeevan, Haseena, Soundararajan, Usha, Bulbul, Ozlem, Truelsen, Ditte Mikkelsen, Pereira, Vania, Almohammed, Eida Khalaf, Hadi, Sibte, 2019-07-08, Genetic relationships of European, Mediterranean, and SW Asian populations using a panel of 55 AISNPs,weblink European Journal of Human Genetics, en, 1, 10.1038/s41431-019-0466-6, 31285530, 1476-5438,

See also


  • BOOK, Ankerl, Guy, Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western, INU PRESS, Geneva, 2000, 978-2-88155-004-1,
  • BOOK, Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads,weblink Jan, Retso, Routledge, 2002, 9780700716791,
  • BOOK, The Arab Christian: A History in the Middle East,weblink Kenneth, Cragg, Westminster John Knox Press, 1991, 978-0-664-22182-9,
  • BOOK, Francis Mading, Deng, War of Visions: Conflict of Identities in the Sudan, Brookings Institution Press, 1995,
  • Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus P, 1996. {{ISBN|0-931340-88-8}}.
  • Lipinski, Edward. Semitic Languages: Outlines of a Comparative Grammar, 2nd ed., Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta: Leuven 2001
  • Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, Edinburgh University Press (1997)
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton Company, 1907, Online Edition, K. Night 2003: article Arabia
  • weblink" title="">History of Arabic language(1894), Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
  • The Arabic language, National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education web page (2006)
  • BOOK, Ankerl, Guy, Global communication without universal civilization, 2000, INU societal research, Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western, INU Press, Geneva, 978-2-88155-004-1, 2000,
  • Hooker, Richard. "Pre-Islamic Arabic Culture." WSU Web Site. 6 June 1999. Washington State University.
  • Owen, Roger. "State Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East 3rd Ed" Page 57 {{ISBN|0-415-29714-1}}
  • BOOK, Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook, Levinson, David, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998, 978-1-57356-019-1,weblink &123;&123;inconsistent citations&125;&125;,

Further reading

  • Price-Jones, David. The Closed Circle: an Interpretation of the Arabs. Pbk. ed., with a new preface by the author. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 2002. xiv, 464 p. {{ISBN|1-56663-440-7}}
  • Ankerl, Guy. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INU PRESS, Geneva, 2000. {{ISBN|2-88155-004-5}}.

External links

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