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{{about|the Islamic prophet|other people named Muhammad|Muhammad (name)|other uses|Muhammad (disambiguation)}}{{pp|small=yes|expiry=indef}}{{short description|Founder of Islam}}{{good article}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2019}}

| honorific_suffix =
| image= Dark vignette Al-Masjid AL-Nabawi Door800x600x300.jpg
| caption = "Muhammad the Apostle of God"inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
| birth_name = Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ()
| birth_date = {{circa|570|df=y}}
| birth_place = {{longitem|Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia(present-day Saudi Arabia)}}
| death_date = {{death date and age|632|6|8|570|df=y}}
| death_place = {{longitem|Medina, Hejaz, Arabia(present-day Saudi Arabia)}}
| resting_place = {{longitem|style=white-space; |Green Dome at al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina(present-day Saudi Arabia)}}
| resting_place_coordinates = {{coord|24|28|03|N|39|36|41|E|type:landmark_scale:5000_region:SA|display=title|name=Green Dome}}
| other_names = {{unbulleted list|style=line-height:1.3em; |Abu al-Qasim (nickname) |Rasūl Allāh (Messenger of God) |(see Names and titles of Muhammad)}}
| years_active = {{longitem | style = white-space:nowrap; |583–609 CE as merchant609–632 CE as religious leader}}
| notable_works = Constitution of Medina
| successor = Succession to Muhammad
| spouse = {{aligned table|style=line-height:120%;|leftright=y|row1header=y|nowrap1=y|nowrap2=y
| Muhammad's wives | Married
| Khadija bint Khuwaylid |595–619
| Sawda bint Zamʿa |619–632
| Aisha bint Abi Bakr |c.623–632
| Hafsa bint Umar |624–632
| Zaynab bint Khuzayma |625–627
| Hind bint Abi Umayya|625–632
| Zaynab bint Jahsh |627–632
| Juwayriyya bint al-Harith |628–632
| Ramla bint Abi Sufyan |628–632
| Rayhana bint Zayd |629–631
| Safiyya bint Huyayy |629–632
| Maymunah bint al-Harith |630–632
| Maria al-Qibtiyya |630–632
| children = See Children of Muhammad
| parents = Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (father)Aminah bint Wahb (mother)
| relatives = Family tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt{{nbsp|2}}("Family of the House")
| module =

embed yes| ism = Muhammad

40px) Seal of Muhammad}}MuhammadFull name: AbÅ« al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn Ê¿Abd Allāh ibn Ê¿Abd al-Muá¹­á¹­alib ibn Hāšim (, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abd al-Muttalib son of Hashim) (, {{IPA-ar|muħammad|pron}};Classical Arabic pronunciation c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (primarily non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, page 248, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Alford T. Welch, Ahmad S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newby, Muḥammad, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009,weblink The Prophet of Islam was a religious, political, and social reformer who gave rise to one of the great civilizations of the world. From a modern, historical perspective, Muḥammad was the founder of Islam. From the perspective of the Islamic faith, he was God's Messenger (rasÅ«l Allāh), called to be a "warner," first to the Arabs and then to all humankind., live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2017, According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5.BOOK, Peters, F.E., Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, 2003, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-11553-5, 9,weblink BOOK, Esposito, John, Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.), 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511234-4, 9, 12, He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-NabiyyÄ«n) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet. See:
  • BOOK,weblink Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice, Simon Ross Valentine, 134, Columbia University Press, 978-1-85065-916-7, 2008,
  • WEB,weblink Finality of Prophethood {{!, Hadhrat Muhammad (PUBH) the Last Prophet|publisher=Ahmadiyya Muslim Community|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=24 July 2011}}
There are also smaller sects which believe Muhammad to be not the last Prophet:
  • The Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet (source: African American Religious Leaders â€“ p. 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson â€“ 2008).
  • United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet. (Source: Daniel Pipes, Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics, p. 98 (2004)) Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. He is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mahamad, Muhamad and many others.
Born approximately 570{{nbsp}}CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six.WEB,weblink Early Years,, en, 18 October 2018, He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In later years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave,
  • JOURNAL, 10.1017/S0041977X00049016, Conrad, Lawrence I., 1987, Abraha and Muhammad: some observations apropos of chronology and literary topoi in the early Arabic historical tradition1,weblink Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50, 2, 225–40, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 January 2012,
  • BOOK, G. Bell, Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby, Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars: with rules and tables and explanatory notes on the Julian and Gregorian calendars, 1901,weblink 465,
  • JOURNAL, 6–12, Hamidullah, Muhammad, Muhammad Hamidullah, The Nasi', the Hijrah Calendar and the Need of Preparing a New Concordance for the Hijrah and Gregorian Eras: Why the Existing Western Concordances are Not to be Relied Upon, The Islamic Review & Arab Affairs, February 1969,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 November 2012, Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p. 452 and receiving his first revelation from God. Three years later, in 610,Howarth, Stephen. Knights Templar. 1985. {{ISBN|978-0-8264-8034-7}} p. 199 Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly,Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, pp. 26–27. UK Islamic Academy. {{ISBN|978-1-872531-65-6}}. proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to GodWEB,weblink Islam: An Overview – Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, en, 25 July 2018, is the right way of life (dÄ«n),ENCYCLOPEDIA, Anis Ahmad, DÄ«n, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009,weblink subscription, A second important aspect of the meaning of the term emerges in Meccan revelations concerning the practice of the Prophet Abraham. Here it stands for the straight path (al-dÄ«n al-ḥanÄ«f) toward which Abraham and other messengers called the people [...] The Qurʿān asserts that this was the path or practice followed by Abraham [...] In the final analysis, dÄ«n encompasses social and spiritual, as well the legal and political behaviour of the believers as a comprehensive way of life, a connotation wider than the word "religion.", live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 December 2017, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.F.E. Peters (2003), p. 9.Esposito (1998), p. 12; (1999) p. 25; (2002) pp. 4–5ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2nd, Brill, 7, 360–376, Welch, A.T., Buhl, F., Muḥammad, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 978-90-04-09419-2, 1993,
The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam."Muhammad", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim worldSee:
  • Holt (1977a), p. 57
  • Lapidus (2002), pp. 31–32
The revelations (each known as Ayah — literally, "Sign [of God]") that Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" on which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Quranic names and appellations

File:Muhammad Salat.svg|thumb|right|The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphyIslamic calligraphyThe name Muhammad ({{IPAc-en|m|ʊ|ˈ|h|æ|m|ə|d|,_|-|ˈ|h|ɑː|m|ə|d}})"Muhammad" {{webarchive|url= |date=15 December 2014 }}. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran.Jean-Louis Déclais, Names of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran The Quran also addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir),{{Quran-usc|2|119|q=}} witness (shahid),{{Quran-usc|33|45|q=}} bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), warner (nathir),{{Quran-usc|11|2|q=}} reminder (mudhakkir),{{Quran-usc|88|21|q=}} one who calls [unto God] (dā'ī),{{Quran-usc|12|108|q=}} light personified (noor),{{Quran-usc|05|15|q=}} and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir).{{Quran-usc|33|46|q=}}

Sources of biographical information


File:Folio from a Koran (8th-9th century).jpg|thumb|A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (AbbasidAbbasidThe Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Qurʾān, 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 24 September 2013,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2015, Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, p. 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.{{Quran-usc|17|106|style=nosup}} The Quran, however, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography; most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context.BOOK, Clinton Bennett, In search of Muhammad,weblink 1998, Continuum International Publishing Group, 978-0-304-70401-9, 18–19, live,weblink 30 September 2015, BOOK, Francis E. Peters, Muhammad and the origins of Islam,weblink 1994, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1876-5, 261, live,weblink 24 September 2015,

Early biographies

Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (AH â€“ 8th and 9th century CE).Watt (1953), p. xi These include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.Reeves (2003), pp. 6–7The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE (150 AH). Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari.S.A. Nigosian (2004), p. 6Donner (1998), p. 132 However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people".BOOK, Holland, Tom, In the Shadow of the Sword,weblink 2012, Doubleday, 42, 978-0-7481-1951-6, Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era).Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic, though their accuracy is unascertainable. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping".Watt (1953), p. xv


Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.Lewis (1993), pp. 33–34BOOK, A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Jonathan A.C. Brown, 2007,weblink The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim: The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon, 9, Brill Publishers, 978-90-04-15839-9, We can discern three strata of the Sunni ḥadīth canon. The perennial core has been the Ṣaḥīḥayn. Beyond these two foundational classics, some fourth-/tenth-century scholars refer to a four-book selection that adds the two Sunans of Abū Dāwūd (d. 275/889) and al-Nāsaʾī (d. 303/915). The Five Book canon, which is first noted in the sixth/twelfth century, incorporates the Jāmiʿ of al-Tirmidhī (d. 279/892). Finally, the Six Book canon, which hails from the same period, adds either the Sunan of Ibn Mājah (d. 273/887), the Sunan of al-Dāraquṭnī (d. 385/995) or the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik b. Anas (d. 179/796). Later ḥadīth compendia often included other collections as well. None of these books, however, has enjoyed the esteem of al-Bukhārīʼs and Muslimʼs works., live,weblink 18 October 2017, Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures.Madelung (1997), pp. xi, 19–20 Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes.{{citation |url= |author=Nurullah Ardic |page=99 |title=Islam and the Politics of Secularism |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-136-48984-6 |date=21 August 2012 |url-status=live |archiveurl= |archivedate=22 January 2018 }}

Pre-Islamic Arabia

(File:Tribes english.png|thumb|Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime)The Arabian Peninsula was, and still is, largely arid with volcanic soil, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. Towns and cities dotted the landscape; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes.Watt (1953), pp. 1–2 Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle. Tribal affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion.Watt (1953), pp. 16–18 Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary. Nomadic groups constantly traveled seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the sedentary settled and focused on trade and agriculture. Nomadic survival also depended on raiding caravans or oases; nomads did not view this as a crime.Loyal Rue, Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological,2005, p. 224John Esposito, Islam, Expanded edition, Oxford University Press, pp. 4–5In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities. Three goddesses were revered as God's daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-'Uzzá. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews.See:
  • Esposito, Islam, Extended Edition, Oxford University Press, pp. 5–7
  • Quran 3:95 Hanifs â€“ native pre-Islamic Arabs who "professed a rigid monotheism"BOOK, Ueberweg, Friedrich, History of Philosophy, Vol. 1: From Thales to the Present Time, Charles Scribner's Sons, 409,weblink 978-1-4400-4322-2,  â€“ are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed among scholars.Kochler (1982), p. 29cf. Uri Rubin, Hanif, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham.See:
  • Louis Jacobs (1995), p. 272
  • Turner (2005), p. 16
The second half of the sixth century was a period of political disorder in Arabia and communication routes were no longer secure.BOOK, Christian Julien Robin, Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity,weblink 2012, OUP USA, 297–299, 978-0-19-533693-1, live,weblink 16 May 2016, Religious divisions were an important cause of the crisis.BOOK, Christian Julien Robin, Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity,weblink 2012, OUP USA, 302, 978-0-19-533693-1, live,weblink 1 May 2016, Judaism became the dominant religion in Yemen while Christianity took root in the Persian Gulf area. In line with broader trends of the ancient world, the region witnessed a decline in the practice of polytheistic cults and a growing interest in a more spiritual form of religion. While many were reluctant to convert to a foreign faith, those faiths provided intellectual and spiritual reference points.During the early years of Muhammad's life, the Quraysh tribe he belonged to became a dominant force in western Arabia.BOOK, Christian Julien Robin, Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity,weblink 2012, OUP USA, 286–287, 978-0-19-533693-1, live,weblink 4 June 2016, They formed the cult association of hums, which tied members of many tribes in western Arabia to the Kaaba and reinforced the prestige of the Meccan sanctuary. To counter the effects of anarchy, Quraysh upheld the institution of sacred months during which all violence was forbidden, and it was possible to participate in pilgrimages and fairs without danger.BOOK, Christian Julien Robin, Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity,weblink 2012, OUP USA, 301, 978-0-19-533693-1, live,weblink 17 May 2016, Thus, although the association of hums was primarily religious, it also had important economic consequences for the city.{{Clear}}


{{Muhammad timeline in Mecca}}

Childhood and early life

{{see also|Mawlid|Family tree of Muhammad|Muhammad in Mecca}}Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim,Muhammad {{webarchive|url= |date=9 February 2017 }} Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 15 February 2017 was born in MeccaBOOK, Rodinson, Maxime, Maxime Rodinson, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, 2002, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 38, 9781860648274,weblink 12 May 2019, en, about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal.BOOK, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Esposito, John L. (ed.), 2003, 978-0-19-512558-0, 198,weblink 19 June 2012, He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, and was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime.See also QURAN, 43, 31, ns, cited in EoI; Muhammad Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca that year by the Abraha, Yemen's king, who supplemented his army with elephants.Marr J.S., Hubbard E., Cathey J.T. (2014): The Year of the Elephant. figshare.{{DOI|10.6084/m9.figshare.1186833}}Retrieved 21 October 2014 (GMT)The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity; edited by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson; p. 287Muhammad and the Origins of Islam; by Francis E. Peters; p. 88Alternatively some 20th century scholars have suggested different years, such as 568 or 569.Watt (1974), p. 7.File:Mohammed kaaba 1315.jpg|thumb|left|Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh, {{c.|lk=no|1315}}, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. ((Ilkhanate]] period)JOURNAL, Ali, Wijdan, August 1999, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of the Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art, 7,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 December 2004, 3, 0928-6802, )Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born.BOOK, Meri, Josef W., Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic civilization,weblink 3 January 2013, 1, 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-96690-0, 525, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2012, According to Islamic tradition, soon after birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants; some western scholars reject this tradition's historicity.Watt, "Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb {{webarchive|url= |date=3 February 2014 }}", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan.Watt, Amina, Encyclopaedia of Islam For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Muhammad was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abdul-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan until his death. He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim. According to Islamic historian William Montgomery Watt there was a general disregard by guardians in taking care of weaker members of the tribes in Mecca during the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time."Watt (1974), p. 8.In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God.Armand Abel, Bahira, Encyclopaedia of IslamLittle is known of Muhammad during his later youth, available information is fragmented, making it difficult to separate history from legend. It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea."Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2005), v. 3, p. 1025 Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful"BOOK, Khan, Majid Ali, Muhammad the final messenger, 1998, 332, 1998, Islamic Book Service, India, 978-81-85738-25-3, and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.Esposito (1998), p. 6 His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a 40-year-old widow. Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE. The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed during renovations to the Kaaba. The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. This event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him. He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center. The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Muhammad laid the stone, satisfying the honour of all.BOOK, The Sacred Trusts: Pavilion of the Sacred Relics, Topkapı Palace Museum, Istanbul, Uğurluel, Talha, Doğru, Ahmet, Dairesi, Hırka-i Saadet, Aydin, Hilmi, Tughra Books, 2004, 978-1-932099-72-0, Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p. 24. UK Islamic Academy. {{ISBN|978-1-872531-65-6}}.

Beginnings of the Quran

{{see also|Muhammad's first revelation|History of the Quran|Wahy}}File:Cave Hira.jpg|right|upright|thumb|The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-NourJabal al-NourMuhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca for several weeks every year.Emory C. Bogle (1998), p. 6John Henry Haaren, Addison B. Poland (1904), p. 83 Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran.Brown (2003), pp. 72–73 Consensus exists that the first Quranic words revealed were the beginning of Surah QURAN, 96, 1, ns, n, .ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2nd, Brill Academic Publishers, 11, 54, A.J., Wensinck, A., Rippen, Waḥy, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2002, 978-90-04-12756-2, Muhammad was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations. After returning home, Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraka ibn Nawfal.Esposito (2010), p. 8 He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed. Shi'a tradition states Muhammad was not surprised or frightened at Gabriel's appearance; rather he welcomed the angel, as if he was expected.See:
  • Emory C. Bogle (1998), p. 7
  • Rodinson (2002), p. 71 The initial revelation was followed by a three-year pause (a period known as fatra) during which Muhammad felt depressed and further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased."QURAN, 93, 3, ns, Brown (2003), pp. 73–74Uri Rubin, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of the Quran
File:Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel.jpg|thumb|left|Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, IlkhanateIlkhanateSahih Bukhari narrates Muhammad describing his revelations as "sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell". Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)".WEB,weblink Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement,, 26 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 January 2012, According to Welch these descriptions may be considered genuine, since they are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims. Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 31. According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Quran QURAN, 38, 70, ns, n, , Quran QURAN, 6, 19, ns, n, ). Occasionally the Quran did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities (Quran QURAN, 41, 13, 16, ns, n, ).Uri Rubin, Muhammad, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an Muhammad did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God.Daniel C. Peterson, Good News, Encyclopedia of the Quran Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God. The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in Hell and pleasures in Paradise, and the signs of God in all aspects of life. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chaste and not committing female infanticide.


{{see also|Persecution of Muslims by Meccans|Migration to Abyssinia}}File:Surat An-Najm.jpg|thumb|right|The last ayah from the sura An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheismmonotheismAccording to Muslim tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet.Watt (1953), p. 86 She was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid. Around 613, Muhammad began to preach to the public (Quran QURAN, 26, 214, ns, n, ).Ramadan (2007), pp. 37–39 Most Meccans ignored and mocked him, though a few became his followers. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam (1977), p. 36According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers.F.E. Peters (1994), p. 169 However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Muhammad started public preaching.Uri Rubin, Quraysh, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an As his followers increased, Muhammad became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Ka'aba, the focal point of Meccan religious life that Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. Powerful merchants attempted to convince Muhammad to abandon his preaching; he was offered admission to the inner circle of merchants, as well as an advantageous marriage. He refused both of these offers.Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Muhammad and his followers. Sumayyah bint Khayyat, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion.Jonathan E. Brockopp, Slaves and Slavery, Encyclopedia of the Qur'anW. Arafat, Bilal b. Rabah, Encyclopedia of IslamIn 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar. Ibn Sa'ad mentions two separate migrations. According to him, most of the Muslims returned to Mecca prior to Hijra, while a second group rejoined them in Medina. Ibn Hisham and Tabari, however, only talk about one migration to Ethiopia. These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muḥammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia. According to the famous letter of ʿUrwa preserved in al-Tabari, the majority of Muslims returned to their native town as Islam gained strength and high ranking Meccans, such as Umar and Hamzah converted.JOURNAL, Horovitz, Josef, Josef Horovitz, 1927, The Earliest Biographies of the Prophet and Their Authors, Islamic Culture, 1, 2, 279–284, 10.1163/157005807780220576, live, However, there is a completely different story on the reason why the Muslims returned from Ethiopia to Mecca. According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq"Muḥammad", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs et al. Brill Online, 2014—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself. Instead, a ridicule of these gods was offered.The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad (2010), p. 35The aforementioned Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm (Q.53), as revealed to him by the Archangel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20: "Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for." (Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans). cf Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume p. 166"Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism." (The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad, Jonathan E. Brockopp, p. 35) This episode, known as "The Story of the Cranes," is also known as "Satanic Verses". According to the story, this led to a general reconciliation between Muḥammad and the Meccans, and the Abyssinia Muslims began to return home. When they arrived Gabriel had informed Muḥammad the two verses were not part of the revelation, but had been inserted by Satan. Notable scholars at the time argued against the historic authenticity of these verses and the story itself on various grounds."Kuran" in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Vol. 5 (1986), p. 404"Muḥammad", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by P. J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs et al. Brill Online, 2014"Although, there could be some historical basis for the story, in its present form, it is certainly a later, exegetical fabrication. Sura LIII, 1–20 and the end of the sura are not a unity, as is claimed by the story, XXII, 52 is later than LIII, 2107 and is almost certainly Medinan; and several details of the story—the mosque, the sadjda, and others not mentioned in the short summary above do not belong to Meccan setting. Caetani and J. Burton have argued against the historicity of the story on other grounds, Caetani on the basis of week isnads, Burton concluded that the story was invented by jurists so that XXII 52 could serve as a Kuranic proof-text for their abrogation theories."("Kuran" in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Vol. 5 (1986), p. 404) Al-Waqidi was severely criticized by Islamic scholars such as Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-Nawawi and others as a liar and forger.{{citation |title=New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina |author=W.N. Arafat |publisher=Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland |year=1976 |pages=101–107}}{{citation |url= |title=Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia |page=754 |author=Rizwi Faizer |publisher=Routledge |url-status=live |archiveurl= |archivedate=27 February 2017 |isbn=978-1-135-45596-5 |date=31 October 2005 }}{{citation |url= |title=Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture |page=279 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |url-status=live |archiveurl= |archivedate=19 March 2017 |isbn=978-1-61069-178-9 |date=25 April 2014 }}{{citation |url= |page=109 |title=The Quran and Hadith |author=Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi |url-status=live |archiveurl= |archivedate=22 January 2018 |isbn=978-9976-956-87-0 }} Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the tenth century. The objections continued until rejection of these verses and the story itself eventually became the only acceptable orthodox Muslim position.Shahab Ahmed, "Satanic Verses" in the Encyclopedia of the Qur'an.In 617, the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective.F.E. Peters (2003b), p. 96Moojan Momen (1985), p. 4 During this time, Muhammad was only able to preach during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs was suspended.

Isra and Mi'raj

File:Al-Aqsa Mosque by David Shankbone.jpg|thumb|The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in JerusalemJerusalemIslamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel. At the journey's beginning, the Isra, he is said to have traveled from Mecca on a winged steed to "the farthest mosque." Later, during the Mi'raj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents the event as a spiritual experience; later historians, such as Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, present it as a physical journey.Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003), p. 482Some western scholars{{who|date=May 2014}} hold that the Isra and Mi'raj journey traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur (heavenly prototype of the Kaaba); later traditions indicate Muhammad's journey as having been from Mecca to Jerusalem.Sells, Michael. Ascension, Encyclopedia of the Quran.{{page needed|date=May 2014}}

Last years before Hijra

File:Domeoftherock1.jpg|thumb|Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.BOOK, Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair, The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture,weblink 26 December 2011, 2009, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-530991-1, 76, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, ]]Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "Year of Sorrow". With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad. Soon afterward, Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection over Muhammad. This placed Muhammad in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger. Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city.Many people visited Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina). The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there. They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrimage. Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what is known as the "Second Pledge of al-'Aqaba", or, in Orientalists' view, the "Pledge of War".Watt (1974), p. 83 Following the pledges at Aqabah, Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib. As with the migration to Abyssinia, the Quraysh attempted to stop the emigration. However, almost all Muslims managed to leave.Peterson (2006), pp. 86–89{{clear right}}


{{Muhammad timeline in Medina}}{{further|Military career of Muhammad}}The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly slipped out of Mecca and moved his followers to Medina,Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, pp. 30–31. UK Islamic Academy. {{ISBN|978-1-872531-65-6}}. {{convert|450|km|mi|abbr=off}} north of Mecca.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p. 29. UK Islamic Academy. {{ISBN|978-1-872531-65-6}}.

Migration to Medina

A delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider.Esposito (1998), p. 17 There was fighting in Yathrib: primarily the dispute involved its Arab and Jewish inhabitants, and was estimated to have lasted for around a hundred years before 620. The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 39 The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves.Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina, until nearly all his followers left Mecca. Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. With the help of Ali, Muhammad fooled the Meccans watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr.Moojan Momen (1985), p. 5 By 622, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis. Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun (emigrants).

Establishment of a new polity

Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, Ummah, had a religious outlook, also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes.The first group of converts to Islam in Medina were the clans without great leaders; these clans had been subjugated by hostile leaders from outside.Watt (1956), p. 175. This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina, with some exceptions. According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam.Watt (1956), p. 177 Medinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters). Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ali ibn Abitalib, Encyclopedia Iranica, 25 October 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2007,

Beginning of armed conflict

{{Campaignbox Campaigns of Muhammad}}Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina.Fazlur Rahman (1979), p. 21 War would later break out between the people of Mecca and the Muslims. Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans (see sura Al-Hajj, Quran QURAN, 22, 39, 40, ns, n, ).John Kelsay (1993), p. 21 According to the traditional account, on 11 February 624, while praying in the Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Medina, Muhammad received revelations from God that he should be facing Mecca rather than Jerusalem during prayer. Muhammad adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca during prayer.BOOK, William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman,weblink 29 December 2011, 7 February 1974, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-881078-0, 112–14, live, In March 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Muslims set an ambush for the caravan at Badr.Rodinson (2002), p. 164 Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. The Battle of Badr commenced.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 45 Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with fourteen Muslims dead. They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl.Glubb (2002), pp. 179–86 Seventy prisoners had been acquired, many of whom were ransomed.Lewis (2002), p. 41.Watt (1961), p. 123Rodinson (2002), pp. 168–69 Muhammad and his followers saw the victory as confirmation of their faith and Muhammad ascribed the victory as assisted from an invisible host of angels. The Quranic verses of this period, unlike the Meccan verses, dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils.Lewis(2002), p. 44The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers.Russ Rodgers, The Generalship of Muhammad: Battles and Campaigns of the Prophet of Allah (University Press of Florida; 2012) ch 1 As a result, the opposition to him became less vocal. Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam. Two pagans, Asma bint Marwan of the Aws Manat tribe and Abu 'Afak of the 'Amr b. 'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims.Watt (1956), p. 178 They were killed by people belonging to their own or related clans, and Muhammad did not disapprove of the killings. This report, however, is considered by some to be a fabrication.Maulana Muhammad Ali, Muhammad The Prophet, pp. 199–200 Most members of those tribes converted to Islam, and little pagan opposition remained.Watt (1956), p. 179Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes, but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death.BOOK, John Wiley and Sons, 978-0-7456-5488-1, Zeitlin, Irving M., The Historical Muhammad, 2007, 148, According to al-Waqidi, after Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy spoke for them, Muhammad refrained from executing them and commanded that they be exiled from Medina.BOOK, Routledge, 978-1-136-92113-1, Faizer, Rizwi, The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi's Kitab al-Maghazi, 2010, 79, Following the Battle of Badr, Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hejaz.

Conflict with Mecca

File:The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud, from the Siyer-i Nebi, 1595.jpg|thumb|"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i NebiSiyer-i NebiThe Meccans were eager to avenge their defeat. To maintain economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been reduced at Badr.Watt (1961), p. 132. In the ensuing months, the Meccans sent ambush parties to Medina while Muhammad led expeditions against tribes allied with Mecca and sent raiders onto a Meccan caravan.Watt (1961), p. 134 Abu Sufyan gathered an army of 3000 men and set out for an attack on Medina.Lewis (1960), p. 45A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, a dispute arose over how best to repel the Meccans. Muhammad and many senior figures suggested it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of the heavily fortified strongholds. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying crops, and huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad eventually conceded to the younger Muslims and readied the Muslim force for battle. Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (the location of the Meccan camp) and fought the Battle of Uhud on 23 March 625.C.F. Robinson, Uhud, Encyclopedia of IslamWatt (1964), p. 137 Although the Muslim army had the advantage in early encounters, lack of discipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat; 75 Muslims were killed including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle who became one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims, instead, they marched back to Mecca declaring victory. The announcement is probably because Muhammad was wounded and thought dead. When they discovered that Muhammad lived, the Meccans did not return due to false information about new forces coming to his aid. The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims.Watt (1974), p. 137David Cook (2007), p. 24 The Muslims buried the dead and returned to Medina that evening. Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad delivered Quranic verses QURAN, 3, 152, ns, n, indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness.See:
  • Watt (1981), p. 432
  • Watt (1964), p. 144
Abu Sufyan directed his effort towards another attack on Medina. He gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh prestige and through bribery.Watt (1956), p. 30. Muhammad's new policy was to prevent alliances against him. Whenever alliances against Medina were formed, he sent out expeditions to break them up. Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, and reacted in a severe manner.Watt (1956), p. 34 One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. Al-Ashraf went to Mecca and wrote poems that roused the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr.Watt (1956), p. 18JOURNAL, Rubin, Uri, 1990, The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf, Oriens, 32, 1, 65–71, 1580625, 10.2307/1580625, Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from MedinaWatt (1956), pp. 220–21 forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir in their strongholds. The rest of their property was claimed by Muhammad in the name of God as it was not gained with bloodshed. Muhammad surprised various Arab tribes, individually, with overwhelming force, causing his enemies to unite to annihilate him. Muhammad's attempts to prevent a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stopped many potential tribes from joining his enemies.Watt (1956), p. 35

Siege of Medina

File:Masjid al-Qiblatain.jpg|thumb|The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new QiblaQiblaWith the help of the exiled Banu Nadir, the Quraysh military leader Abu Sufyan mustered a force of 10,000 men. Muhammad prepared a force of about 3,000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian. The siege of Medina began on 31 March 627 and lasted two weeks.Watt (1956), pp. 36, 37 Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications, and after an ineffectual siege, the coalition decided to return home.See:
  • Rodinson (2002), pp. 209–11
  • Watt (1964), p. 169 The Quran discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab, in verses QURAN, 33, 9, 27, ns, n, .
During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located to the south of Medina, entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad. Although the Meccan forces were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. No agreement was reached after prolonged negotiations, partly due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts.Watt (1964) pp. 170–72 After the coalition's retreat, the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered; according to Ibn Ishaq, all the men apart from a few converts to Islam were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved.Peterson (2007), p. 126Ramadan (2007), p. 141 Walid N. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed the accuracy of Ibn Ishaq's narrative.Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, p. 754. Arafat believes that Ibn Ishaq's Jewish sources, speaking over 100 years after the event, conflated this account with memories of earlier massacres in Jewish history; he notes that Ibn Ishaq was considered an unreliable historian by his contemporary Malik ibn Anas, and a transmitter of "odd tales" by the later Ibn Hajar.JOURNAL, Arafat, New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1976, 100–07, Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe were killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved.Ahmad, pp. 85–94.Nemoy, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews", p. 325. Nemoy is sourcing Ahmad's Muhammad and the Jews. Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J. Kister has contradicted{{Clarify|date=March 2009}} the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad.Kister, "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza"In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted the available strength to destroy the Muslim community. The failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria vanished.Watt (1956), p. 39 Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad made two expeditions to the north, both ended without any fighting. While returning from one of these journeys (or some years earlier according to other early accounts), an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses (sura 24, An-Nur).

Truce of Hudaybiyyah

}}Although Muhammad had delivered Quranic verses commanding the Hajj,QURAN, 2, 196, 210, ns, the Muslims had not performed it due to Quraysh enmity. In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to prepare for a pilgrimage (umrah) to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision when he was shaving his head after completion of the Hajj.Lings (1987), p. 249 Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh dispatched 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, enabling his followers to reach al-Hudaybiyya just outside Mecca. According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam was an Arabian religion.Watt, al- Hudaybiya or al-Hudaybiyya Encyclopedia of Islam File:Kaaba_Masjid_Haraam_Makkah.jpg|thumb|The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer ((salat]]). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.BOOK, F.E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume I: The Peoples of God,weblink 29 December 2011, 25 July 2005, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-12372-1, 88, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, )Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" or the "Pledge under the Tree". News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh.Lewis (2002), p. 42 The main points of the treaty included: cessation of hostilities, the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year, and agreement to send back any Meccan who emigrated to Medina without permission from their protector.Many Muslims were not satisfied with the treaty. However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Quran QURAN, 48, 1, 29, ns, n, ) assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one.Lings (1987), p. 255 It was later that Muhammad's followers realized the benefit behind the treaty. These benefits included the requirement of the Meccans to identify Muhammad as an equal, cessation of military activity allowing Medina to gain strength, and the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the pilgrimage rituals.After signing the truce, Muhammad assembled an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar. This was possibly due to housing the Banu Nadir who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad, or to regain prestige from what appeared as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya.Vaglieri, Khaybar, Encyclopedia of Islam According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers, asking them to convert to Islam (the exact date is given variously in the sources).Lings (1987), p. 260Khan (1998), pp. 250–251 He sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Khosrau of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others. In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya, Muhammad directed his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine soil in the Battle of Mu'tah.F. Buhl, Muta, Encyclopedia of Islam

Final years

Conquest of Mecca

File:Siyer-i Nebi 298a.jpg|thumb|upright|A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.]]The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years.Khan (1998), p. 274Lings (1987), p. 291 The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Meccans. A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them. The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting. After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. These were: either the Meccans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null.Khan (1998), pp. 274–75The Meccans replied that they accepted the last condition. Soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, a request that was declined by Muhammad.Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign.Lings (1987), p. 292 In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with 10,000 Muslim converts. With minimal casualties, Muhammad seized control of Mecca.Watt (1956), p. 66. He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace".The Message by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani, chapter 48 {{webarchive|url= |date=2 May 2012 }} referencing Sirah by Ibn Hisham, vol. II, page 409. Some of these were later pardoned.Rodinson (2002), p. 261. Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad proceeded to destroy all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba.Harold Wayne Ballard, Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas (2002), p. 163F.E. Peters (2003), p. 240 According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased.BOOK, The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ishaq's "Sirat Rasul Allah", Oxford University Press, Guillaume, Alfred, Alfred Guillaume, 1955, 552, 978-0-19-636033-1, Quraysh had put pictures in the Ka'ba including two of Jesus son of Mary and Mary (on both of whom be peace!). ... The apostle ordered that the pictures should be erased except those of Jesus and Mary.,weblink 8 December 2011, The Quran discusses the conquest of Mecca.QURAN, 110, 1, 3, ns,

Conquest of Arabia

(File:Muslim Conquest.PNG|thumb|Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).)Following the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were raising an army double the size of Muhammad's. The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans. They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans.Watt (1974), p. 207 Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.In the same year, Muhammad organized an attack against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah and reports of hostility adopted against Muslims. With great difficulty he assembled 30,000 men; half of whom on the second day returned with Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, untroubled by the damning verses which Muhammad hurled at them. Although Muhammad did not engage with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region.M.A. al-Bakhit, Tabuk, Encyclopedia of IslamHe also ordered the destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia. The last city to hold out against the Muslims in Western Arabia was Taif. Muhammad refused to accept the city's surrender until they agreed to convert to Islam and allowed men to destroy the statue of their goddess Al-Lat.Ibn Ishaq (translated by Guillaume, A. 1955) The Life of Muhammad. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 916–18Haykal, M.H. (1933) The Life of Muhammad, translated by Isma'il Razi A. al-Faruqi. The Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, Cairo, Egypt and University of Chicago.Husayn, M.J. Biography of Imam 'Ali Ibn Abi-Talib, Translation of Sirat Amir Al-Mu'minin, Translated by: Sayyid Tahir Bilgrami, Ansariyan Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of IranA year after the Battle of Tabuk, the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to surrender to Muhammad and adopt Islam. Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad to safeguard against his attacks and to benefit from the spoils of war. However, the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam and wanted to maintain independence: namely their code of virtue and ancestral traditions. Muhammad required a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim religious levy."Lewis (1993), pp. 43–44

Farewell pilgrimage

{{see also|The event of Ghadir Khumm}}File:Maome.jpg|thumb|Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (IlkhanateIlkhanateIn 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage, setting precedent for the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj. On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah Muhammad delivered his Farewell Sermon, at Mount Arafat east of Mecca. In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black any superiority over a white except by piety and good action.BOOK, Sultan, Sohaib, The Koran For Dummies, John Wiley and Sons, March 2011, 978-0-7645-5581-7, He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammad asked his male followers to "be good to women, for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ..." He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness. He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year.Devin J. Stewart, Farewell Pilgrimage, Encyclopedia of the Qur'anAl-Hibri (2003), p. 17 According to Sunni tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you" (Quran QURAN, 5, 3, ns, n, ). According to Shia tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina.See:

Death and tomb

A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness. He died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha.The Last Prophet {{webarchive|url= |date=23 January 2009 }}, p. 3. Lewis Lord of U.S. News & World Report. 7 April 2008. With his head resting on Aisha's lap, he asked her to dispose of his last worldly goods (seven coins), then spoke his final words: BOOK,weblink Muhammad The Messenger of God, Fethullah Gülen, 24, The Light, Inc., 978-1-932099-83-6, 2000, BOOK,weblink 214, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Volume 5), DARUSSALAM, 978-9960-892-76-4, 2003, |Muhammad}}According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, Muhammad's death may be presumed to have been caused by Medinan fever exacerbated by physical and mental fatigue.ENCYCLOPEDIA, F. Buhl, A.T. Welch, 1993, Muhammad, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd, Brill, P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, 7, 374, Then Mumammad suddenly fell ill, presumably of the ordinary Medina fever (al-Farazdak, ix, 13); but this was dangerous to a man physically and mentally overwrought., Academics Reşit Haylamaz and Fatih Harpci say that Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la is referring to God.BOOK, Prophet Muhammad – Sultan of Hearts – Vol 2, Reşit Haylamaz, Fatih Harpci, Tughra Books, 978-1-59784-683-7, 472, 7 August 2014, He was buried where he died in Aisha's house.Leila Ahmed (1986), 665–91 (686)F.E. Peters (2003), p. 90 {{webarchive|url= |date=22 September 2015 }} During the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) was expanded to include the site of Muhammad's tomb.BOOK, Penerbit UTM, 978-983-52-0373-2, Ariffin, Syed Ahmad Iskandar Syed, Architectural Conservation in Islam: Case Study of the Prophet's Mosque, 2005, 88, The Green Dome above the tomb was built by the Mamluk sultan Al Mansur Qalawun in the 13th century, although the green color was added in the 16th century, under the reign of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.WEB,weblink Prophet's Mosque,, 2 May 2005, 26 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2012, Among tombs adjacent to that of Muhammad are those of his companions (Sahabah), the first two Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar, and an empty one that Muslims believe awaits Jesus."Isa", Encyclopedia of IslamBOOK, Shaykh Adil Al-Haqqani, Shaykh Hisham Kabbani, The Path to Spiritual Excellence,weblink 2002, ISCA, 978-1-930409-18-7, 65–66, live,weblink 24 September 2015, When bin Saud took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornaments. Adherents to Wahhabism, bin Saud's followers destroyed nearly every tomb dome in Medina in order to prevent their veneration,BOOK, Mark Weston, Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present,weblink 2008, John Wiley and Sons, 978-0-470-18257-4, 102–03, live,weblink 1 January 2016, and the one of Muhammad is said to have narrowly escaped.BOOK, Doris Behrens-Abouseif, Stephen Vernoit, Islamic art in the 19th century: tradition, innovation, and eclecticism,weblink 2006, Brill, 978-90-04-14442-2, 22, live,weblink 30 September 2015, Similar events took place in 1925 when the Saudi militias retook—and this time managed to keep—the city.BOOK, Mark Weston, Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the present,weblink 2008, John Wiley and Sons, 978-0-470-18257-4, 136, live,weblink 1 January 2016, BOOK, Vincent J. Cornell, Voices of Islam: Voices of the spirit,weblink 2007, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-98734-3, 84, live,weblink 1 January 2016, BOOK, Carl W. Ernst, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the contemporary world,weblink 2004, Univ of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-5577-5, 173–74, live,weblink 1 January 2016, In the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, burial is to take place in unmarked graves. Although frowned upon by the Saudis, many pilgrims continue to practice a ziyarat—a ritual visit—to the tomb.BOOK, Clinton Bennett, In search of Muhammad,weblink 1998, Continuum International Publishing Group, 978-0-304-70401-9, 182–83, live,weblink 22 September 2015, BOOK, Malcolm Clark, Islam For Dummies,weblink 2011, John Wiley and Sons, 978-1-118-05396-6, 165, live,weblink 24 September 2015, {{wide image|Madina_Haram_at_evening.jpg|800px|Al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's mosque") in Medina, Saudi Arabia, with the Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb in the center|left}}

After Muhammad

{{further|Succession to Muhammad|Rashidun|Muslim conquests}}(File:Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg|thumb|right|Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.{{legend|#a1584e| Muhammad, 622–632 CE.}}{{legend|#ef9070| Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.}}{{legend|#fad07d| Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.}})Muhammad united several of the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life. With Muhammad's death, disagreement broke out over who his successor would be. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator. With additional support Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. Abu Bakr immediately moved to strike against the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces because of the previous defeat, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an event that Muslim historians later referred to as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".See:
  • Holt (1977a), p. 57
  • Hourani (2003), p. 22
  • Lapidus (2002), p. 32
  • Esposito (1998), p. 36
  • Madelung (1996), p. 43
The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. The Roman–Persian Wars between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes. Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians (Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts) were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church which deemed them heretics. Within a decade Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, Byzantine Syria, Byzantine Egypt,Esposito (1998), pp. 35–36 large parts of Persia, and established the Rashidun Caliphate.

Islamic social reforms

According to William Montgomery Watt, religion for Muhammad was not a private and individual matter but "the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]... to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject."Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p. 30. Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam—Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad as a rebel in Mecca. In his view, Islam is a great change, akin to a revolution, when introduced to new societies.Lewis (1998) {{webarchive|url= |date=8 April 2010 }}Historians generally agree that Islamic social changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on the status quo of Arab society.
  • Watt (1974), p. 234
  • Robinson (2004), p. 21
  • Esposito (1998), p. 98
  • R. Walzer, Ak̲h̲lāḳ, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents".{{which|date=August 2014}} Muhammad's message transformed society and moral orders of life in the Arabian Peninsula; society focused on the changes to perceived identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.Islamic ethics, Encyclopedia of Ethics{{page needed|date=May 2014}}
Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 34 The Quran requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.Esposito (1998), p. 30Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 52


File:Hilye-i serif 5.jpg|thumb|A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Hâfiz OsmanHâfiz OsmanIn Muhammad al-Bukhari's book Sahih al-Bukhari, in Chapter 61, Hadith 57 & Hadith 60,WEB, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions,weblink, 25 March 2017, live,weblink 26 March 2017, WEB, Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions,weblink, 25 March 2017, live,weblink 26 March 2017, Muhammad is depicted by two of his companions thus:{{quotation|Allah's Messenger was neither very tall nor short, neither absolutely white nor deep brown. His hair was neither curly nor lank. Allah sent him (as an Apostle) when he was forty years old. Afterwards he resided in Mecca for ten years and in Medina for ten more years. When Allah took him unto Him, there was scarcely twenty white hairs in his head and beard.|sign=Anas|source=}}{{quotation|The Prophet was of moderate height having broad shoulders (long) hair reaching his ear-lobes. Once I saw him in a red cloak and I had never seen anyone more handsome than him.|sign=Al-Bara|source=}}The description given in Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hind ibn Abi Hala is as follows:BOOK, Ali Sultaan Asani, Kamal Abdel-Malek, Annemarie Schimmel, Celebrating Muḥammad: images of the prophet in popular Muslim poetry,weblink 5 November 2011, October 1995, University of South Carolina Press, 978-1-57003-050-5, live, BOOK, Annemarie Schimmel, And Muhammad is his messenger: the veneration of the Prophet in Islamic piety,weblink 5 November 2011, 1985, University of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-1639-4, 34, live,weblink 26 March 2017, Al-Tirmidhi, Shama'il Muhammadiyah {{webarchive|url= |date=26 March 2017 }} Book 1, Hadith 5 & Book 1, Hadith 7/8{{quotation|Muhammad was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes. When he walked, he walked as though he went down a (wikt:declivity|declivity). He had the "seal of prophecy" between his shoulder blades ... He was bulky. His face shone like the moon. He was taller than middling stature but shorter than conspicuous tallness. He had thick, curly hair. The plaits of his hair were parted. His hair reached beyond the lobe of his ear. His complexion was azhar [bright, luminous]. Muhammad had a wide forehead, and fine, long, arched eyebrows which did not meet. Between his eyebrows there was a vein which distended when he was angry. The upper part of his nose was hooked; he was thick bearded, had smooth cheeks, a strong mouth, and his teeth were set apart. He had thin hair on his chest. His neck was like the neck of an ivory statue, with the purity of silver. Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered.}}The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg. Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:BOOK, Omid Safi, Memories of Muhammad: why the Prophet matters,weblink 5 November 2011, 17 November 2009, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-123134-6, 273–274, live, BOOK, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World, Carl W. Ernst, 78, {{quotation|I saw a man, pure and clean, with a handsome face and a fine figure. He was not marred by a skinny body, nor was he overly small in the head and neck. He was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes. There was a huskiness in his voice, and his neck was long. His beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together.When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him. He was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest. He was sweet of speech and articulate, but not petty or trifling. His speech was a string of cascading pearls, measured so that none despaired of its length, and no eye challenged him because of brevity. In company he is like a branch between two other branches, but he is the most flourishing of the three in appearance, and the loveliest in power. He has friends surrounding him, who listen to his words. If he commands, they obey implicitly, with eagerness and haste, without frown or complaint.}}Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels (hilya or, in Turkish, hilye), which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the Ottoman Empire.


{{Further|Muhammad's wives|Ahl al-Bayt}}File:Mrs Aisha room.jpg|thumb|The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, MedinaMedinaMuhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca (from 570 to 622), and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632). Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives in total (although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubineSee for example Marco Schöller, Banu Qurayza, Encyclopedia of the Quran mentioning the differing accounts of the status of RayhanaBarbara Freyer Stowasser, Wives of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran). Eleven of the thirteen marriages occurred after the migration to Medina.At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old.BOOK, Subhani, Jafar, The Message,weblink Ansariyan Publications, Qom, Chapter 9, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2010, The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one.Esposito (1998), p. 18 Muhammad did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage.Bullough (1998), p. 119Reeves (2003), p. 46 After Khadijah's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Muhammad is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both.Watt, Aisha, Encyclopedia of Islam Muhammad's marriages after the death of Khadijah were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. The women were either widows of Muslims killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonged to important families or clans with whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances.Momen (1985), p. 9According to traditional sources Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad,D. A. Spellberg, Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: the Legacy of A'isha bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 40Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper San Francisco, 1992, p. 145 with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old.Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: Prophet For Our Time, HarperPress, 2006, p. 105Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, North American Trust Publications (1976), p. 139Barlas (2002), pp. 125–26BOOK, A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy, 2014, Oneworld Publications, 978-1-78074-420-9, 143–44,weblink BOOK, A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy, 2014, Oneworld Publications, 978-1-78074-420-9, 316. n° 50, Evidence that the Prophet waited for Aisha to reach physical maturity before consummation comes from al-ṬabarÄ«, who says she was too young for intercourse at the time of the marriage contract;,weblink {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|5|58|234}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|5|58|236}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|64}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|65}}, {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|7|62|88}}, {{Hadith-usc|usc=yes|muslim|8|3309}}, {{Hadith-usc|muslim|8|3310}}, {{Hadith-usc|muslim|8|3311}}, {{Hadith-usc|abudawud|41|4915}}, {{Hadith-usc|abudawud|usc=yes|41|4917}}Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7 She was therefore a virgin at marriage. Modern Muslim authors who calculate Aisha's age based on other sources of information, such as a hadith about the age difference between Aisha and her sister Asma, estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps in her late teens at the time of her marriage.BOOK, Asma, Barlas, 2012, "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an, University of Texas Press, 126, On the other hand, however, Muslims who calculate 'Ayesha's age based on details of her sister Asma's age, about whom more is known, as well as on details of the Hijra (the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madina), maintain that she was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen when she got married. Such views cohere with those Ahadith that claim that at her marriage Ayesha had "good knowledge of Ancient Arabic poetry and genealogy" and "pronounced the fundamental rules of Arabic Islamic ethics., WEB,weblink The Concept of Polygamy and the Prophet's Marriages (Chapter: The Other Wives), live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2011, BOOK, Ali, Muhammad, Muhammad Ali (writer), Muhammad the Prophet,weblink 1997, Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam, 978-0-913321-07-2, harv, 150, live,weblink 1 January 2016, WEB,weblink Ayesha married the Prophet when she was young? (In Persian and Arabic), Ayatollah Qazvini, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2010, BOOK, Jonathan A.C. Brown, A.C. Brown, Jonathan A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy, 2014, Oneworld Publications, 978-1-78074-420-9, 146–47,weblink After migration to Medina, Muhammad, who was then in his fifties, married several more women.Muhammad performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.Tariq Ramadan (2007), pp. 168–69Asma Barlas (2002), p. 125Armstrong (1992), p. 157Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad (Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah Zahra) and two sons (Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad, who both died in childhood). All but one of his daughters, Fatimah, died before him. Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter.Ordoni (1990), pp. 32, 42–44. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old.Nicholas Awde (2000), p. 10Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition, survived him by decades and was instrumental in helping assemble the scattered sayings of Muhammad that form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam.Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as sharifs, syeds or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ali, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Zayd ibn Haritha was a slave that Muhammad bought, freed, and then adopted as his son. He also had a wetnurse.Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya recorded the list of some names of Muhammad's female-slaves in Zad al-Ma'ad, Part I, p. 116 According to a BBC summary, "the Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself. But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. Muhammad treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem".WEB,weblink Slavery in Islam, BBC, 16 April 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2017,



Muslim tradition

Following the attestation to the oneness of God, the belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the Islamic faith. Every Muslim proclaims in Shahadah: "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God." The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam. Islamic belief is that ideally the Shahadah is the first words a newborn will hear; children are taught it immediately and it will be recited upon death. Muslims repeat the shahadah in the call to prayer (adhan) and the prayer itself. Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.Farah (1994), p. 135In Islamic belief, Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God.Esposito (1998), p. 12.BOOK, Clark, Malcolm, Islam for Dummies,weblink 2003, Wiley Publishing Inc., Indiana, 978-1-118-05396-6, 100, live,weblink 24 September 2015, BOOK, Nigosian, S. A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices,weblink 2004, Indiana University Press, Indiana, 978-0-253-21627-4, 17, live,weblink 24 September 2015, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam,weblink Facts on File, 2009, 978-0-8160-5454-1, 494, live,weblink 30 September 2015, Encyclopedia of Islam, WEB,weblink Muhammad, 2013, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc, 27 January 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2013, QURAN, 10, 37, ns, states that " (the Quran) is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book—wherein there is no doubt—from The Lord of the Worlds.". Similarly QURAN, 46, 12, ns, states "...And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy. And this Book confirms (it)...", while QURAN, 2, 136, ns, n, commands the believers of Islam to "Say: we believe in God and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered."File:Sahadah-Topkapi-Palace.jpg|thumb|left|The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God." (Topkapı PalaceTopkapı PalaceMuslim tradition credits Muhammad with several miracles or supernatural events.A.J. Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam For example, many Muslim commentators and some Western scholars have interpreted the Surah QURAN, 54, 1, 2, ns, n, as referring to Muhammad splitting the Moon in view of the Quraysh when they began persecuting his followers.Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'anDaniel Martin Varisco, Moon, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an Western historian of Islam Denis Gril believes the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is identified with the Quran itself.According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was attacked by the people of Ta'if and was badly injured. The tradition also describes an angel appearing to him and offering retribution against the assailants. It is said that Muhammad rejected the offer and prayed for the guidance of the people of Ta'if."A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims" chapter "Muhammad's Visit to Ta’if {{webarchive|url= |date=26 September 2013 }}" on al-islam.orgThe Sunnah represents actions and sayings of Muhammad (preserved in reports known as Hadith), and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, and burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God. The Sunnah is considered a model of emulation for pious Muslims and has to a great degree influenced the Muslim culture. The greeting that Muhammad taught Muslims to offer each other, "may peace be upon you" (Arabic: as-salamu 'alaykum) is used by Muslims throughout the world. Many details of major Islamic rituals such as daily prayers, the fasting and the annual pilgrimage are only found in the Sunnah and not the Quran.Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 9File:Mohamed peace be upon him.svg|thumb|right|Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name in writing. The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFAU+FDFAThe Sunnah contributed much to the development of Islamic law, particularly from the end of the first Islamic century.J. Schacht, Fiḳh, Encyclopedia of Islam Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human being. All Sufi orders trace their chain of spiritual descent back to Muhammad.Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, pp. 11–12Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles (particularly "Splitting of the moon") have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry. Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, Qasidat al-Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by the Egyptian Sufi al-Busiri (1211–1294) is particularly well-known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power.BOOK, Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych, The mantle odes: Arabic praise poems to the Prophet Muḥammad,weblink 27 January 2012, 24 May 2010, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-22206-0, xii, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, The Quran refers to Muhammad as "a mercy (rahmat) to the worlds" (Quran QURAN, 21, 107, ns, n, ). The association of rain with mercy in Oriental countries has led to imagining Muhammad as a rain cloud dispensing blessings and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth (see, for example, the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif). Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged.Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Encyclopædia Britannica, Muhammad, p. 13 When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad, they usually follow it with the Arabic phrase ṣallā llahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam (may God honor him and grant him peace) or the English phrase peace be upon him.Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben (2006), p. 212 In casual writing, the abbreviations SAW (for the Arabic phrase) or PBUH (for the English phrase) are sometimes used; in printed matter, a small calligraphic rendition is commonly used ().

{{anchor|Islamic depictions of Muhammad}} Depictions

File:Muhammad destroying idols - L'Histoire Merveilleuse en Vers de Mahomet BNF.jpg|thumb|left|Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.]]In line with the hadith's prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings, which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word.BOOK, John L. Esposito, What everyone needs to know about Islam,weblink 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-979413-3, 14–15, 2, live,weblink 30 September 2015, Muslims generally avoid depictions of Muhammad, and mosques are decorated with calligraphy and Quranic inscriptions or geometrical designs, not images or sculptures.BOOK, Dirk van der Plas, Kees Wagtendonk, Effigies dei: essays on the history of religions, Images in Islam,weblink 1 December 2011, 1987, Brill, 978-90-04-08655-5, 119–24, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, BOOK, F.E. Peters, Jesus and Muhammad: Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives,weblink 1 December 2011, 10 November 2010, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-974746-7, 159–61, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2013, Today, the interdiction against images of Muhammad—designed to prevent worship of Muhammad, rather than God—is much more strictly observed in Sunni Islam (85%–90% of Muslims) and Ahmadiyya Islam (1%) than among Shias (10%–15%).BOOK, Safi2010, 2 November 2010,weblink 29 December 2011, 2 November 2010, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-123135-3, 32, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2013, While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad in the past, Islamic depictions of Muhammad are rare. They have mostly been limited to the private and elite medium of the miniature, and since about 1500 most depictions show Muhammad with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame.The earliest extant depictions come from 13th century Anatolian Seljuk and Ilkhanid Persian miniatures, typically in literary genres describing the life and deeds of Muhammad.BOOK, Christiane Gruber, Between Logos (Kalima) and Light (Nur): Representations of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in Islamic Painting, Gulru Necipoglu, Muqarnas,weblink 26, 2009, Brill, 978-90-04-17589-1, 234–35, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2012, During the Ilkhanid period, when Persia's Mongol rulers converted to Islam, competing Sunni and Shi'a groups used visual imagery, including images of Muhammad, to promote their particular interpretation of Islam's key events. Influenced by the Buddhist tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books.BOOK, Johan Elverskog, Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road,weblink 2010, University of Pennsylvania Press, 978-0-8122-4237-9, 164–69, live,weblink 24 September 2015, In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the Timurid dynasty until the Safavids took power in the early 16th century. The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence.BOOK, When Nubuvvat encounters Valayat: Safavid painting of the "Prophet" Mohammad's Mi'raj, c. 1500–50, Christiane Gruber, Pedram Khosronejad, The Art and Material Culture of Iranian Shi'ism: Iconography and Religious Devotion in Shi'i Islam,weblink 2011, I. B. Tauris, 978-1-84885-168-9, 46–47, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 January 2017, Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced.BOOK, Johan Elverskog, Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road,weblink 2010, University of Pennsylvania Press, 978-0-8122-4237-9, 167, live,weblink 23 September 2015, BOOK, Elizabeth Edwards, Kaushik Bhaumik, Visual sense: a cultural reader,weblink 2008, Berg, 978-1-84520-741-0, 344, live,weblink 23 September 2015, BOOK, D. Fairchild Ruggles, D. Fairchild Ruggles, Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources,weblink 2011, John Wiley and Sons, 978-1-4051-5401-7, 56, live,weblink 24 September 2015, Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad.NEWS, Safi, Omid, Omid Safi, 5 May 2011,weblink Why Islam does (not) ban images of the Prophet, Washington Post, 27 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2012, Illustrated accounts of the night journey (mi'raj) were particularly popular from the Ilkhanid period through the Safavid era. During the 19th century, Iran saw a boom of printed and illustrated mi'raj books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of graphic novels. Reproduced through lithography, these were essentially "printed manuscripts".BOOK, Christiane J. Gruber, Frederick Stephen Colby, The Prophet's ascension: cross-cultural encounters with the Islamic mi'rāj tales, Persian illustrated lithographed books on the miʻrāj: improving children's Shi'i beliefs in the Qajar period,weblink 2010, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-35361-0, 252–54, Ali Boozari, live,weblink 16 October 2015, Today, millions of historical reproductions and modern images are available in some Muslim-majority countries, especially Turkey and Iran, on posters, postcards, and even in coffee-table books, but are unknown in most other parts of the Islamic world, and when encountered by Muslims from other countries, they can cause considerable consternation and offense.BOOK, Freek L. Bakker, The challenge of the silver screen: an analysis of the cinematic portraits of Jesus, Rama, Buddha and Muhammad,weblink 1 December 2011, 15 September 2009, Brill, 978-90-04-16861-9, 207–09, live,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013,

Medieval Christians

{{see also|Medieval Christian views on Muhammad}}The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources. They indicate that both Jews and Christians saw Muhammad as a false prophet.Walter Emil Kaegi, Jr., "Initial Byzantine Reactions to the Arab Conquest", Church History, Vol. 38, No. 2 (June 1969), pp. 139–42, quoting from Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati 86–87 Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye.Philip K. Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition (1970), p. 112.According to Hossein Nasr, the earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad unfavorably. A few learned circles of Middle Ages Europe{{spaced ndash}}primarily Latin-literate scholars{{spaced ndash}}had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad. They interpreted the biography through a Christian religious filter, one that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under religious guise. Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad as though he were worshipped by Muslims, similar to an idol or a heathen god.In later ages, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal, and Dante's Divine Comedy (Inferno, Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again."

European appreciation|thumb|upright|Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten CommandmentsTen CommandmentsAfter the Reformation, Muhammad was often portrayed in a similar way.Lewis (2002) Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad when he argued that Muhammad should be esteemed by Christians as a valid prophet.BOOK, Prometheus Books, 978-1-61592-020-4, Warraq, Ibn, Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Said's Orientalism, 2007, 147, Indeed, [Postel's] greater tolerance for other religions was much in evidence in Παvθεvωδια: compostio omnium dissidiorum, where, astonishingly for the sixteenth century, he argued that Muhammad ought to be esteemed even in Christendom as a genuine prophet., Gottfried Leibniz praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion". Henri de Boulainvilliers, in his Vie de Mahomed which was published posthumously in 1730, described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker. He presents him as a divinely inspired messenger whom God employed to confound the bickering Oriental Christians, to liberate the Orient from the despotic rule of the Romans and Persians, and to spread the knowledge of the unity of God from India to Spain.BOOK, The Cambridge Companion to Muḥammad, Brockopp, Jonathan E, Cambridge UP, 2010, 978-0-521-71372-6, New York, 240–42, Voltaire had a somewhat mixed opinion on Muhammad: in his play Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète he vilifies Muhammad as a symbol of fanaticism, and in a published essay in 1748 he calls him "a sublime and hearty charlatan", but in his historical survey Essai sur les mœurs, he presents him as legislator and a conqueror and calls him an "enthusiast." Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract (1762), "brushing aside hostile legends of Muhammad as a trickster and impostor, presents him as a sage legislator who wisely fused religious and political powers." Emmanuel Pastoret published in 1787 his Zoroaster, Confucius and Muhammad, in which he presents the lives of these three "great men", "the greatest legislators of the universe", and compares their careers as religious reformers and lawgivers. He rejects the common view that Muhammad is an impostor and argues that the Quran proffers "the most sublime truths of cult and morals"; it defines the unity of God with an "admirable concision." Pastoret writes that the common accusations of his immorality are unfounded: on the contrary, his law enjoins sobriety, generosity, and compassion on his followers: the "legislator of Arabia" was "a great man." Napoleon Bonaparte admired Muhammad and Islam,Talk Of Napoleon At St. Helena (1903), pp. 279–80 and described him as a model lawmaker and a great man.BOOK, Jonathan E., Brockopp, The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad,weblink Cambridge Companions to Religion, 2010, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-71372-6, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2013, BOOK, Younos, Farid, Islamic Culture,weblink Cambridge Companions to Religion, 2010, AuthorHouse, 15, 978-1-4918-2344-6, Thomas Carlyle in his book Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History (1840) describes Muhammad as "[a] silent great soul; [...] one of those who cannot but be in earnest".BOOK, Thomas, Carlyle, 1841, On heroes, hero worship and the heroic in history, 87, James Fraser, London, Carlyle's interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim scholars as a demonstration that Western scholarship validates Muhammad's status as a great man in history.BOOK, Kecia Ali, The Lives of Muhammad,weblink 2014, Harvard UP, 48, live,weblink 4 September 2015, 978-0-674-74448-6, Ian Almond says that German Romantic writers generally held positive views of Muhammad: "Goethe’s 'extraordinary' poet-prophet, Herder’s nation builder (...) Schlegel’s admiration for Islam as an aesthetic product, enviably authentic, radiantly holistic, played such a central role in his view of Mohammed as an exemplary world-fashioner that he even used it as a scale of judgement for the classical (the dithyramb, we are told, has to radiate pure beauty if it is to resemble 'a Koran of poetry')."Ian Almond, History of Islam in German Thought: From Leibniz to Nietzsche, Routledge (2009), p. 93 After quoting Heinrich Heine, who said in a letter to some friend that "I must admit that you, great prophet of Mecca, are the greatest poet and that your Quran... will not easily escape my memory", John Tolan goes on to show how Jews in Europe in particular held more nuanced views about Muhammad and Islam, being an ethnoreligious minority feeling discriminated, they specifically lauded Al-Andalus, and thus, "writing about Islam was for Jews a way of indulging in a fantasy world, far from the persecution and pogroms of nineteenth-century Europe, where Jews could live in harmony with their non-Jewish neighbors."Tolan, John. "The Prophet Muhammad: A Model of Monotheistic Reform for Nineteenth-Century Ashkenaz." Common Knowledge, vol. 24 no. 2, 2018, pp. 256-279

Modern historians

Recent writers such as William Montgomery Watt and Richard Bell dismiss the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith"Watt, Bell (1995) p. 18 and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity.Watt (1974), p. 232 Watt, however, says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: in contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken his subconscious for divine revelation.Watt (1974), p. 17 Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development.Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 37Lewis (1993), p. 45. Alford T. Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.

Other religions

{{see also|Judaism's views on Muhammad|Muhammad in the Bahá'í Faith}}Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God". He is thought to be the final manifestation, or seal of the Adamic cycle, but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahai faith, and the first Manifestation of the current cycle.BOOK, Smith, P., 1999, A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK, 978-1-85168-184-6, 251, WEB,weblink A Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam,, 20 June 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2016,


Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century. According to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his unwarranted appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures and attacks on the Jewish faith.BOOK, Richard, Gottheil, Mary W., Montgomery, Hubert, Grimme,weblink 1906, Muhammad, Jewish Encyclopedia, Kopelman Foundation, According to modern critics Norman Stillman (1979), Andrew G. Bostom (2008) and Ibn Warraq (pseudonym, 2007), Muhammad was also criticised for proclaiming himself as "the last prophet" without performing any miracle nor showing any personal requirement demanded in the Hebrew Bible to distinguish a true prophet chosen by the God of Israel from a false claimant; for these reasons, they gave him the derogatory nickname ha-Meshuggah (, "the Madman" or "the Possessed").BOOK, Ibn Warraq,weblink Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Said's Orientalism, 255, 2007, 9781615920204, BOOK, Andrew G., Bostom,weblink The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History, 21, 2008, 9781615920112, BOOK, Norman Stillman, Norman A. Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book,weblink 1979, Jewish Publication Society, 978-0-8276-0198-7, 236, During the Dark and Middle Ages various Western and Byzantine Christian thinkers considered Muhammad to be a perverted, deplorable man, a false prophet, and even the Antichrist, as he was frequently seen in Christendom as a heretic or possessed by the demons. Some of them, like Thomas Aquinas, criticised Muhammad's promises of carnal pleasure in the afterlife.BOOK, Goddard, Hugh, 2000, A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh], Edinburgh University Press, The First Age of Christian-Muslim Interaction (c. 830/215), 34–41, 978-1-56663-340-6, BOOK, Curtis, Michael, 2009, Orientalism and Islam: European Thinkers on Oriental Despotism in the Middle East and India, New York City, New York, Cambridge University Press, 31, 978-0-521-76725-5, BOOKJOHN OF DAMASCUS, De Haeresibus, See Migne, Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 94, 1864, cols 763–73. English translation by John W. Voorhis appeared in The Moslem World, October 1954, pp. 392–98, Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. (1993). "Muḥammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 7 (2nd ed.). Brill. pp. 360–376. {{ISBN|90-04-09419-9}}.BOOK, Quinn, Frederick, 2008, The Sum of All Heresies: The Image of Islam in Western Thought, New York City, New York, Oxford University Press, The Prophet as Antichrist and Arab Lucifer (Early Times to 1600), 17–54, 978-0-19-532563-8, Modern religiousJOURNAL, "No God in Common": American Evangelical Discourse on Islam after 9/11, Richard, Cimino, December 2005, Review of Religious Research, 47, 2, 162–174, 10.2307/3512048, 3512048, NEWS, Dobbins, Mike, 13 April 2015, The Critics of Islam Were Right: An Apology to Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Sam Harris, Bill Maher and Other So-Called Islamophobes,weblink The Christian Post, Washington, D.C., 26 September 2017, and secularNEWS, Islam's Problem With Blasphemy,weblink 13 January 2015, Mustafa, Akyol, The New York Times, 26 September 2017, NEWS, Cornwell, Rupert, 10 April 2015, Ayaan Hirsi Ali: Islam's most devastating critic,weblink The Independent, London, 26 September 2017, BOOK, Ibn Warraq, 2000, The Quest for the Historical Muhammad, Amherst, New York, Prometheus Books, 978-1-57392-787-1, The Quest for the Historical Muhammad (Ibn Warraq), BOOK, Robert Spencer (author), Robert Spencer, 2006, The Truth About Muhammad, Washington, D.C., Regnery Publishing, 978-1-59698-028-0, The Truth About Muhammad, criticism of Islam has questioned Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his morality, his ownership of slaves,BOOK, Gordon, Murray, 1989, Slavery in the Arab World, New York City, New York, Rowman & Littlefield, The Attitude of Islam Toward Slavery, 18–47, 978-0-941533-30-0,weblink BOOK, Willis, John Ralph, 2013, Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa: Islam and the Ideology of Enslavement, New York City, New York, Routledge Press, Routledge, 1, vii-xi, 3–26, 978-0-7146-3142-4, ; BOOK, Willis, John Ralph, 1985, Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa: The Servile Estate, New York City, New York, Routledge Press, Routledge, 2, vii-xi, 978-0-7146-3201-8, See also History of slavery in the Muslim world, Arab slave trade, Slavery in the Ottoman Empire, and Slavery in 21st-century Islamism. his treatment of enemies, his polygynous marriagesJohn Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, pp. 17–18 and his treatment of doctrinal matters. Muhammad has been accused of mercilessness (such as during the invasion of the tribe in MedinaJOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1478-1913.1952.tb02149.x, 1478-1913, 42, 3, 160–171, Watt, W. Montgomery, The Condemnation of the Jews of Banu Qurayzah, The Muslim World, 1 July 1952, {{citation|title=The Sealed Nectar|url=| first=Saifur|last=Rahman al-Mubarakpuri|year=2005|publisher=Darussalam Publications|pages=201–205|quote=They [the Jews killed] numbered 600 or 700—the largest estimate says they were between 800 and 900.}}) and his marriage to Aisha, whose age at marriage has been variously reported as between six and nineteen years old.Denise Spellberg (1996), Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: The Legacy of 'A'isha Bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, {{ISBN|978-0-231-07999-0}}, pp. 39–40.BOOK, Colin, Turner, Islam: The Basics, revised and illustrated, Routledge Press, 34–35,weblink 9781136809637, 2011, 15 April 2019, BOOK, Asma, Barlas, 2002, 2012 reprint, "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an, University of Texas Press, "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an, 125–126,

See also

{hide}Wikipedia books
|3=Military career of Muhammad
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  • BOOK, A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Jonathan A.C. Brown, Muhammad: A Very Short Introduction, 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-955928-2,weblink
  • BOOK, A.C. Brown, Jonathan, Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy, 2014, Oneworld Publications, 978-1-78074-420-9,weblink
  • JOURNAL, signs (journal), Signs, Ahmed, Leila, Women and the Advent of Islam, 11, Summer 1986, 665–91, 10.1086/494271, 4,
  • BOOK, Ali, Kecia, The Lives of Muhammad,weblink 2014, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-74448-6,
  • BOOK, Muhammad Mohar Ali, Ali, Muhammad Mohar, 1997, The Biography of the Prophet and the Orientalists, King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an, 978-9960-770-68-0,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, Wijdan, Ali, From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art, 23–28 August 1999, 1–24, 7,
  • BOOK, Armstrong, Karen, Karen Armstrong, 1992, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harpercollins, 978-0-06-250886-7, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet,
  • BOOK, Awde, Nicholas, Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Quran and Hadith, Routledge, 2000, 978-0-7007-1012-6,
  • BOOK, Ballard, Harold Wayne, Donald N. Penny, W. Glenn Jonas, A Journey of Faith: An Introduction to Christianity, Mercer University Press, 2002, 978-0-86554-746-9,
  • BOOK, Barlas, Asma, Asma Barlas, Believing Women in Islam, University of Texas Press, 2002, 978-0-292-70904-1,
  • BOOK, Bogle, Emory C., Emory C. Bogle, Islam: Origin and Belief, Texas University Press, 1998, 978-0-292-70862-4,
  • BOOK, Brown, Daniel, A New Introduction to Islam, Blackwell Publishing Professional, 2003, 978-0-631-21604-9,
  • BOOK, Bullough, Vern L, Vern L. Bullough, Brenda Shelton, Sarah Slavin, The Subordinated Sex: A History of Attitudes Toward Women, University of Georgia Press, 1998, 978-0-8203-2369-5,
  • BOOK, Cohen, Mark R., Mark R. Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross, Princeton University Press, Reissue, 1995, 978-0-691-01082-3,
  • BOOK, Dakake, Maria Massi, The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam, SUNY Press, 2008, 978-0-7914-7033-6,
  • BOOK, Donner, Fred, Fred M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing, Darwin Press, 1998, 978-0-87850-127-4,
  • BOOK, Ernst, Carl, Carl Ernst, 2004, Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World, University of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-5577-5,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, John Esposito, 1998, Islam: The Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511233-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 1999, The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality?, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-513076-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, 2002, What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-515713-0,
  • BOOK, Farah, Caesar, Caesar E. Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, Barron's Educational Series, 1994, 5th, 978-0-8120-1853-0, Islam: Beliefs and Observances,
  • BOOK, Glubb, John Bagot, John Bagot Glubb, The Life and Times of Muhammad, Hodder and Stoughton, 1970, 2002, 978-0-8154-1176-5,
  • BOOK, Goldman, Elizabeth, Elizabeth Goldman, Believers: spiritual leaders of the world, Oxford University Press, 1995, 978-0-19-508240-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Goldman, Ann, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben, Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children, Oxford University Press, 2006, 978-0-19-852653-7,
  • BOOK, Haaren, John Henry, Addison B. Poland, Famous Men of the Middle Ages, University Publishing Company, 1904, 978-1-882514-05-2,weblink
  • Al-Hibri, Azizah Y. (2003). "An Islamic Perspective on Domestic Violence". 27 Fordham International Law Journal 195.
  • BOOK, Holt, P. M., P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam (paperback), 1977, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-29135-4,
  • BOOK, Hourani, Albert, Albert Hourani, Ruthven, Malise, Malise Ruthven, A History of the Arab Peoples, 2003, Belknap Press; Revised edition, 978-0-674-01017-8,
  • BOOK, ibn Isa, Muhammad (Imam Tirmidhi), Imam Tirmidhi, Syama'il Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah, 2011, PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia, 978-967-366-064-3, 388, Arabic, Malay, Hardcover,
  • BOOK, Ishaq, Ibn, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume, Guillaume, Alfred, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Oxford University Press, 2002, 978-0-19-636033-1,
  • BOOK, Jacobs, Louis, Louis Jacobs, The Jewish Religion: A Companion, Oxford University Press, 1995, 978-0-19-826463-7,
  • BOOK, Kelsay, John, John Kelsay, Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics, Westminster John Knox Press, 1993, 978-0-664-25302-8,
  • BOOK, Khan, Majid Ali, Majid Ali Khan, Muhammad The Final Messenger, Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 (India), 1998, 978-81-85738-25-3,
  • BOOK, Kochler, Hans, Hans Köchler, Concept of Monotheism in Islam & Christianity, I.P.O., 1982, 978-3-7003-0339-8,
  • BOOK, Lapidus, Ira, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd, 978-0-521-77933-3,
  • BOOK, Larsson, Göran, Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus, Brill Academic Publishers, 2003, 978-90-04-12740-1,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, 1993, 2002, The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-280310-8, The Arabs in History,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, US, Reprint, 1992, 978-0-19-505326-5, Race and Slavery in the Middle East,
  • MAGAZINE, Lewis, Bernard, Islamic Revolution, 21 January 1998, The New York Review of Books,weblink
  • BOOK, Lings, Martin, Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Islamic Texts Society., 1983, 978-0-946621-33-0, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, US edn. by Inner Traditions International, Ltd.
  • BOOK, Madelung, Wilferd, Wilferd Madelung, The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 978-0-521-64696-3, The Succession to Muhammad,
  • BOOK, Momen, Moojan, Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver ShiÊ»ism, Yale University Press, 1985, 978-0-300-03531-5,
  • BOOK, Neusner, Jacob, God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions, Georgetown University Press, 2003, 978-0-87840-910-5,
  • BOOK, Nigosian, S. A., S. A. Nigosian, Islam:Its History, Teaching, and Practices, Indiana University Press, 2004, 978-0-253-21627-4,
  • BOOK, Ordoni, Abu Muhammad, Muhammad Kazim Qazwini, Fatima the Gracious, Ansariyan Publications, 1992, B000BWQ7N6, Fatima the Gracious,
  • BOOK, Peters, Francis Edward, F.E. Peters, 2003, Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-11553-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Peters, Francis Edward, 2003, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, ASIN: B0012385Z6, 978-0-691-11461-3,
  • BOOK, Peters, Francis Edward, F.E. Peters, 1994, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-1876-5,
  • JOURNAL, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Peters, F.E., The Quest of the Historical Muhammad, 23, 1991, 291–315, 10.1017/S0020743800056312, 3, The Quest of the Historical Muhammad (Peters),
  • BOOK, Peterson, Daniel, Daniel C. Peterson, 2007, Muhammad, Prophet of God, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 978-0-8028-0754-0,
  • BOOK, Rahman, Fazlur, Fazlur Rahman, 1979, Islam, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-70281-0,
  • BOOK, Ramadan, Tariq, Tariq Ramadan, 2007, In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-530880-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Reeves, Minou, Minou Reeves, Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making, 2003, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-7564-6,
  • BOOK, Robinson, David, Muslim Societies in African History, Cambridge University Press, 2004, 978-0-521-82627-3,
  • BOOK, Maxime Rodinson, Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2002, 978-1-86064-827-4,
  • BOOK, Rue, Loyal, Loyal Rue, Religion Is Not about God: How Spiritual Traditions Nurture Our Biological, Rutgers, 2005, 978-0-8135-3955-3,
  • BOOK, Serin, Muhittin, Hattat Aziz Efendi, Istanbul, 1998, 978-975-7663-03-4, 51718704,
  • BOOK, Sikand, Yoginder, Muslims in India since 1947: Islamic perspectives on inter-faith relations, RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2004, 978-0-415-31486-2,
  • BOOK, Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn, Allameh Tabatabaei, AL-MIZAN:AN EXEGESIS OF THE QUR'AN, translation by S. Saeed Rizvi, WOFIS, 978-964-6521-14-8, Tafsir al-Mizan,
  • BOOK, Teed, Peter, A Dictionary of Twentieth Century History, Oxford University Press, 1992, 978-0-19-211676-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Turner, Colin, Islam: The Basics, Routledge, 2005, 978-0-415-34106-6,
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, 1961, 978-0-19-881078-0,weblink (New edition 1974)
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, 1956, 978-0-19-577307-1, Muhammad at Medina (book),
  • BOOK, Watt, W. Montgomery, Muhammad at Mecca, Oxford University Press, 1953, ASIN: B000IUA52A, 978-0-19-577277-7, Muhammad at Mecca (book),


  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, William H. McNeill, Jerry H. Bentley, David Christian, Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, Berkshire Publishing Group, 2005, 978-0-9743091-0-1, Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Richard C. Martin, Said Amir Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, Abdulkader Tayob, Rochelle Davis, John Obert Voll, Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, MacMillan Reference Books, 2003, 978-0-02-865603-8, Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World: M-Z, Index. Volume 2,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, Wolfhart Heinrichs, W.P. Heinrichs, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Brill Academic Publishers, 1573-3912,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lindsay Jones, Encyclopedia of Religion, MacMillan Reference Books, 2nd, 2005, 978-0-02-865733-2,weblink
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Brill Academic Publishers, 2005, 978-90-04-12356-4, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopedia of World History, Oxford University Press, 1998, 978-0-19-860223-1, Encyclopedia of World History,weblink
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated, Rev, 2005, 978-1-59339-236-9,

Further reading

{{see also|List of biographies of Muhammad}}


  • BOOK, Berg, Herbert (ed), Herbert Berg (religion), Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins, E. J. Brill, 2003, 978-90-04-12602-2,
  • BOOK, Michael Cook (historian), Cook, Michael, Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 1983, 978-0-19-287605-8,
  • BOOK, Alfred Guillaume, Guillaume, Alfred,weblink dead, The Life of Muhammad: A translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, Oxford University Press, 1955, 0-19-636033-1,
  • BOOK, Muhammad Hamidullah, Hamidullah, Muhammad, The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam, Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1998, 978-969-8413-00-2,
  • BOOK, Harald Motzki, Motzki, Harald, ed., The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources – Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol. 32, Brill, 2000, 978-90-04-11513-2,
  • Musa, A.Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008
  • BOOK, Uri Rubin, Rubin, Uri, The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims (A Textual Analysis), Darwin Press, 1995, 978-0-87850-110-6,
  • BOOK, Annemarie Schimmel, Schimmel, Annemarie, And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety, The University of North Carolina Press, 1985, 978-0-8078-4128-0,weblink


  • Muḥammad, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, by Ahmad S. Moussalli, Gordon D. Newby, Ahmad Moussalli
  • Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, in Encyclopædia Britannica Online, by Nicolai Sinai and W. Montgomery Watt

External links

{{Sister project links|Muhammad|d=Q9458|c=محمد بن عبد الله|v=no|voy=no|m=no|mw=no|species=no|n=no|s=no|b=no}}{{Muhammad2|stat=expanded}}{{Prophets in the Qur'an}}{{Qur'anic people}}{{Islam topics}}{{Social and political philosophy}}{{Depictions of Muhammad}}{{Authority control}}

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