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Jordan
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{{About|the country}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}{{short description|Arab country in Western Asia}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of Jordan.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Jordan.svgTITLE=STATE-RELIGION RELATIONSHIPS AND HUMAN RIGHTS LAW: TOWARDS A RIGHT TO RELIGIOUSLY NEUTRAL GOVERNANCEURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=KHAG6TBSIN4C&PG=PA87PUBLISHER=BRILLPAGE=87, }}>italics=no}}Al-Lāh, Al-Waṭan, Al-MalīkThe Royal Anthem of Jordan}}As-Salām Al-Malakī Al-ʾUrdunī(File:National anthem of Jordan instrumental.ogg|center)| image_map = Jordan (orthographic projection).svg| image_map2 = Jordan - Location Map (2013) - JOR - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Amman31N56type:city}}| largest_city = capital95% Islam (official) Christianity >1% Druze, Bahá'í}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic98% Arab Circassian diaspora#Jordan>Circassian, Chechens Armenians in Jordan>Armenian }}| demonym = JordanianUnitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentaryconstitutional monarchy}}List of kings of Jordan>MonarchAbdullah II of Jordan>Abdullah IIPrime Minister of Jordan>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Omar RazzazParliament of Jordan>ParliamentSenate (Jordan)>SenateHouse of Representatives}}| sovereignty_type = Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomEmirate of Transjordan>Emirate| established_date1 = 11 April 1921League of Nations mandate>Independence| established_date2 = 25 May 1946Constitution of Jordan>Constitution| established_date3 = 11 January 1952| area_km2 = 89342| area_rank = 110th| area_sq_mi =| percent_water = 0.6WORK=JORDAN DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS,weblink | population_estimate_year = 2019| population_estimate_rank = 86thACCESSDATE=12 JUNE 2018LAST=GHAZALDATE=22 JANUARY 2016, | population_census_year = 2015| population_density_km2 = 114| population_density_sq_mi = 295| population_density_rank = 70thACCESSDATE=24 NOVEMBER 2018,weblink | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 87th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $9,406| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 86th| GDP_nominal = $41.869 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 92nd| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $4,228| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 95th| Gini = 35.4 | Gini_year = 2011| Gini_change = WORK=WORLD BANK, 12 June 2018, | Gini_rank = 79th| HDI = 0.735 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = steadyDATE=14 SEPTEMBER 2018PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}| HDI_rank = 95th| currency = Jordanian dinar| currency_code = JODEastern European Time>EET| utc_offset = +2| utc_offset_DST = +3Eastern European Summer Time>EEST| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Jordan>+962.jo{{rtl-lang>ar|.الاردن}}| area_magnitude = | official_website = jordan.gov.jo}}Jordan ( {{transl|ar|ALA|Al-ʾUrdunn}} {{IPA-ar|al.ʔur.dunː|}}), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan ( {{transl|ar|ALA|Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Hāshimīyah}}), is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine (West Bank) to the west. The Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a short {{convert|26|km|sing=on}} coastline on the Red Sea in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked.BOOK,weblink 498, Encyclopedia of World Geography, R. W., McColl, Infobase Publishing, 15 June 2016, 14 May 2014, 9780816072293, Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre.WEB,weblink Mohammad, Al-Asad, CSBE, The Domination of Amman Urban Crossroads, 8 June 2016, 22 April 2004, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160802171231weblink">weblink 2 August 2016, What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.Jordan is a relatively small, semi-arid, almost landlocked country with an area of {{Convert|89,342|km2|abbr=on}} and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.WEB,weblink Jordan: The Last Arab Safe Haven, The Daily Beast, 5 October 2013, 12 October 2015, Christopher, Dickey, From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL.NEWS,weblink Jordan: The safe haven for Christians fleeing ISIL, The National, 14 February 2015, Justin, Vela, 12 October 2015, While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.WEB,weblink 12 October 2015, 2015 UNHCR country operations profile – Jordan, UNHCR,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20141002061205weblink">weblink 2 October 2014, Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy. The Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination, also attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160312061219weblink">weblink yes, 12 March 2016, Jordan second top Arab destination to German tourists, Petra, Jordan News, 11 March 2016, 12 March 2016, Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth.

Etymology

{{See also|Jordan River#Etymology}}Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River which forms much of the country's northwestern border.WEB,weblink The World Fact book – Jordan, CIA World Factbook, 15 June 2018, While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.BOOK,weblink Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, 15 June 2018, 1990, 466–467, 928, Watson E., Mills, Roger Aubrey, Bullard, Mercer University Press, 9780865543737, Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was historically called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river. The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan". Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as Al-Urdunn, corresponding to the Semitic Yarden. Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era.BOOK,weblink Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A. D. 650 To 1500, 52, Alexander P. Watt for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, Guy, Le Strange, 1890, 15 June 2018, Later, during the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain.BOOK,weblink Crusader Warfare: Muslims, Mongols and the struggle against the Crusades, David, Nicolle, Hambledon Continuum, 1 November 2007, 15 June 2018, 118, 9781847251466,

History

Ancient period

File:20100923 amman37.JPG|thumb|left|The 'Ain Ghazal Statues'Ain Ghazal StatuesThe oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years.BOOK,weblink 16 June 2018, 8 December 2015, Princeton University Press, Raphael, Patai, Kingdom of Jordan, 23, 32, 9781400877997, Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up to 20,000 years ago) remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged.{{cite book|url=http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/4877|title=Atlas of Jordan|accessdate=16 June 2018|editor-first=Myriam|editor-last=Ababsa|chapter=The First Traces of Man. The Palaeolithic Period (

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