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separatism
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{{Redirect|Separatist}}{{original research|date=August 2018}}{{short description|advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group}}{{basic forms of government}}{{Politics}}A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it often refers to full political secession,Free Dictionary; Merriam Webster dictionary; The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current= English 2008. separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.BOOK, R., Harris, Jerry, Harris, The Nation in the Global Era: Conflict and Transformation, Brill, 2009,weblink 320, 978-90-04-17690-4, 9789004176904, While some critics{{Who|date=December 2016}} may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists{{Who|date=December 2016}} argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, and in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online.WEB,weblink Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Secession and Secessionism" by Alexandar Pavković - H-Nationalism - H-Net, networks.h-net.org, Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups. Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination.BOOK,weblink Identity Politics, Stanford University, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, November 2, 2007, However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.See D.L. Horowitz's "Patterns of Ethnic Separatism", originally published in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1981, vol 23, 165-95. Republished in John A. Hall, The State: Critical Concepts, Routledge, 1994.

Motivations

File:Somunanacio11(2).jpg|thumb|190px|Support for Catalan independence is based on the idea that CataloniaCataloniaGroups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:BOOK, Metta, Spencer,weblink Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration, Rowman & Littlefield, 1998, 2–4, 9780847685851,
  • Emotional resentment and hatred of rival communities.
  • Protection from genocide and ethnic cleansing.
  • Resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language, culture or religion.
  • Influence and propaganda by those inside and outside the region who hope to gain politically from intergroup conflict and hatred.
  • Economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion.
  • Economic motivations: seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group.
  • Preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition.
  • Destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others.
  • Geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires.
  • Continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up.
  • Feeling that the perceived nation was added to the larger state by illegitimate means.
  • The perception that the state can no longer support one's own group or has betrayed their interests.
  • Opposition to political decisions.

Governmental responses

File:Battle of Kenesaw Mountian.png|thumb|upright|right|In 1861, the American Civil War started after a separatist movement of southern US states seceded from the United StatesUnited StatesHow far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent action or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political, social and cultural factors, including movement leadershipLink to:Chima, Jugdep. "Effects of Political Leadership on Ethnic Separatist Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, April 12, 2007, (PDF); Chima, Jugdep. "How Does Political Leadership Affect the Trajectories of Ethnic Separatist Insurgencies?: Comparative Evidence from Movements in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, September 01, 2005 (PDF). and the government's response. Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. Some include:Metta Spencer, 5-6.
  • accede to separatist demands
  • improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, linguistic, territorial, economic or political
  • adopt "asymmetric federalism" where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations
  • Allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel strongly, through parliamentary voting, referendum, etc.
  • Settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states.
Some governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries.

{{anchor|Ethnic}}Ethnic separatism

{{Original research section|date=November 2015}}Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Ethnic separatist movements include the following:
Eurasia
File:Paisos catalans belfast.jpg|thumb|upright|right|190px|Mural for Catalan independence in BelfastBelfast File:3 Marsz Autonomii 012.jpg|thumb|upright|right|190px|Silesians demonstrating in KatowiceKatowice
missing image!
- StDavidsDay.jpg -
upWelsh demonstrating in Cardiff.
File:2015-04-24. День солидарности молодёжи в Донецке 394 .jpg|thumb|190px|Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk, eastern UkraineUkraine

Africa
File:002 Oromo Liberation Front rebels.JPG|thumb|upright|right|190px|Oromo Liberation FrontOromo Liberation Front File:The coming vote - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg|thumb|190px|South Sudanese independence referendum, 2011]]

Americas


Australasia

Racial separatism

{{Globalize|section|USA|2name=the United States|date=August 2011}}Some separatist groups seek to separate from others along racial lines. They oppose interracial marriage and integration with other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions; and often separate societies, territories, countries, and governments.(File:Aztlán in United States (US48).svg|thumb|upright|Territories considered for "Aztlán")

{{anchor|Religious}}Religious separatism

{{Original research section|date=November 2015}}{{see also|Ecclesiastical separatism}}Religious separatist groups and sects want to withdraw from some larger religious groups and/or believe they should interact primarily with coreligionists.{{Citation needed|date=May 2013}}
  • English Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church of England and form independent local churches were influential politically under Oliver Cromwell, who was himself a separatist. They were eventually called Congregationalists.WEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica on religious separatists, The Pilgrims who established the first successful colony in New England were separatists.BOOK, John Abbot, Goodwin, The Pilgrim republic: an historical review of the colony of New Plymouth, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1888,weblink 1,
  • Christian separatist groups in Indonesia,WEB,weblink Christian separatist on trial in Indonesia, British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, August 19, 2002, WEB, Chris, Brummitt,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110215084940weblink">weblink dead, February 15, 2011, Christian separatist leader threatens to raise independence flags in Maluku, Associated Press, April 5, 2002, IndiaWEB, Syed Zarir, Hussain,weblink Christian separatist group in Tripura target tribal Hindus, Indo-Asian News Service, December 31, 2002, and South Carolina (United States).NEWS,weblink Christian separatist ready for new home, Ventura County Star, June 9, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120806181815weblink">weblink August 6, 2012, mdy, WEB,weblink Colorado Rep. disavows ties to SC Christian separatist group, Associated Press, October 9, 2005, Although some would label some Mennonite groups, the Amish, the Hutterites and the Bruderhof WEB,weblink All you need to know about the Bruderhof community, inews.co.uk, en, 2019-10-26, among the separatist Christians, several academics have found this to be false. Rod Dreher, journalist and editor for the American Conservative said of the Bruderhof, "They do live separate lives, but they aren't strict separatists...they invite their neighbours outside the community to come over for a common meal".NEWS,weblink Life Among The Bruderhof, The American Conservative, 2017-12-07, en-us,
  • Zionism sought the creation of the State of Israel as a Jewish homeland, with separation from gentile Palestinians. Simon Dubnow, who had mixed feelings toward Zionism, formulated Jewish Autonomism, which was adopted in eastern Europe by Jewish political parties such as the Bund and his own Folkspartei before World War II.BOOK, Koppel S., Pinson, Simon Dubnow, 13–69, 1958, Zionism can also be seen as somewhat ethnic too, however, as its definition of who is Jewish has often included people of Jewish background who do not practice the Jewish religion. It is further complicated as some who had ancestors who converted to Judaism, such as some Ethiopian Jews, may not share ethnic history with the Jews, however, are considered to be so but not without debate.JOURNAL, Lucotte G, Smets P, Origins of Falasha Jews studied by haplotypes of the Y chromosome, Human Biology, 71, 6, 989–993, December 1999, 10592688, Smets, File:MILF militant lying prone.jpg|thumb|190px|Moro Islamic Liberation FrontMoro Islamic Liberation Front
  • The Partition of India and (later Pakistan and Bangladesh) arose as a result of separatism on the part of Muslims.
  • Sikhs in India sought an independent nation of Khalistan after an agitation in the 1970s and 1980s for implementation of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution (demanding things such as a greater share of river water and autonomy for Punjab) resulted in the storming of the Harimandir Sahib (Golden Temple) by the Government of India troops in 1984. The storming of the temple to flush out Sikh Militants who were gaining momentum in their agitation for greater autonomy for Punjab resulted in Sikhs demanding an independent state for the Sikhs situated in Punjab Khalistan movement. The conflict escalated and led to an assassination of the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi as a retaliation of an Indian military operation called 'Operation Blue Star' directed against the Sikhs' holiest shrine, the Golden Temple, in which many innocent Sikh civilians too lost their lives. The revenge murder of Gandhi evoked a Congress Party led backlash in the form of the Sikh genocide, which started in New Delhi and swept India in November 1984. That only further strengthened the Khalistan Movement, but it was largely subdued owing to the efforts of the police in Punjab. The controversial response by the Punjab State reportedly involved the use of human rights violations in the form of unexplained disappearances, faked encounters killings, rape and torture. However, many in the Sikh diaspora in the West and even Sikhs in India, still support the idea of Khalistan, but support is dying and generally the Indian Sikh population is patriotic towards India or at least not supportive of the idea of Khalistan.WEB, Blbir, Punj,weblink The Ghost of Khalistan, Sikh Times, June 16, 2006,
  • Muslim separatist groups in the Philippines (Mindanao and other regions: Moro Islamic Liberation Front, Abu Sayyaf), in Thailand (see also South Thailand insurgency), in India (see also Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir), in the People's Republic of China (Xinjiang: East Turkestan Islamic Movement), Tanzania (Zanzibarian separatist movements), in the Central African Republic (Regions that are inhabited by Muslims: Séléka), in Russia (in the Northern Caucasus, especially in Chechnya: Caucasus Emirate), in Yugoslavia (Bosnia and Herzegovina: Alija Izetbegovic espoused an Islamic inspired separatism)

Geographic and socioeconomic separatism

Gender and sexist separatism

The relationship between gender and separatism is complex and warrants more research.WEB,weblink Secessionism and Separatism Monthly Series: "Gendering Secession" by Jill Vickers - H-Nationalism - H-Net, networks.h-net.org, Separatist feminism is women's choosing to separate from ostensibly male-defined, male-dominated institutions, relationships, roles and activities.BOOK, Marilyn, Frye, Diana Tietjens, Meyers, Some Reflections on Separatism and Power, Feminist Social Thought: A Reader, Routledge, 1997, 406–414, Lesbian separatism advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Some separatist feminists and lesbian separatists have chosen to live apart in intentional community, cooperatives, and on land trusts.Joyce Cheney, Lesbian Land, Word Weavers Press, 1976. Queer nationalism (or "Gay separatism") seeks a community distinct and separate from other social groups.Mark K. Bloodsworth-Lugo, In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality, SUNY Press, 2007, {{ISBN|0-7914-7221-3}}Richard D. Mohr, Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law, Columbia University Press, 1988, {{ISBN|0-231-06735-6}}

See also

Lists

General

{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • WEB, Pascal, Boniface,weblink Ideals or Interest: 'Pandora's box', Le Monde Diplomatique, January 1999,
  • WEB, Graham K., Brown,weblink Horizontal Inequalities, Ethnic Separatism and Violent Conflict: The Case of Aceh, Indonesia, United Nations Human Development Report 2005,
  • WEB, Ryan, Griffiths,weblink Globalization, Development and Separatism: The Influence of External and Internal Economic Factors on the Strategy of Separatism, March 26, 2008, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th Annual Convention, Bridging Multiple Divides, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, California., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090524073255weblink">weblink May 24, 2009,
  • BOOK, Jean-Pierre, Cabestan, Aleksandar, Pavković, Secessionism and Separatism in Europe and Asia: To have a state of one's own, Routledge, 2013, 978-0-415-66774-6,
  • WEB, Anthony Cordesman, Anthony, Cordesman,weblink Pandora's Box: Iraqi Federalism, Separatism, "Hard" Partitioning, and US Policy, Working Draft, Center for Strategic and International Studies, October 9, 2007,
  • JOURNAL, Ivan, Krivushin, The Contemporary World between Integration and Secession: A Challenge for Russia, Strategic Analysis, 40, 6, 46(6), 524–535, 2016, 10.1080/09700161.2016.1224068,
  • WEB, James, Millard,weblink Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment, eastwestcenter.org, 2004,
  • BOOK, Michelle Ann, Miller, 2004, The Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam law: a serious response to Acehnese separatism?, Asian Ethnicity, 333–351, 5(3),
  • BOOK, Michelle Ann, Miller, 2012, Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia, Singapore, ISEAS,

External links

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