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Pune
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{{about|the city in Maharashtra, India|its namesake district|Pune district|other uses}}{{redirect|Poona|}}{{EngvarB|date=May 2018}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2015}}







factoids
DIDDEETITLE=PUNE: QUEEN OF THE DECCANISBN=978-8187693000YEAR=2000, | settlement_type = Metropolis| image_skyline = Pune montage.png| imagesize = | image_alt = | image_caption = Top to bottom, left to right: Pune Skyline, Sam Manekshaw Statue in Pune Camp, Shaniwarwada, Fergusson College, and Baji Rao I Statue outside Shaniwarwada| map_alt = Pune is in the western part of India, in the northwest of Maharashtra province.| map_caption = Pune| pushpin_map = India Maharashtra#India| pushpin_label_position = right| pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_map_caption = Location of Pune in India18137324display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = India| subdivision_type1 = StateList of districts of India>District| subdivision_name1 = MaharashtraPune district>Pune| established_title = Established17th Century HTTPS://WWW.MAHARASHTRATOURISM.NET/CITIES/PUNE/HISTORY.HTML ACCESS-DATE=25 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=25 FEBRUARY 2019 DF=DMY-ALL, | founder = | named_for = Municipal Corporations in India>Municipal CorporationPune Municipal Corporation>PMCMunicipal Commissioner (India)>Municipal CommissionerIndian Administrative Service>IASHTTPS://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/CITY/PUNE/SAURABH-RAO-TO-TAKE-OVER-AS-CIVIC-CHIEF-TODAYSAURABH-RAO-IS-NEW-CIVIC-COMMISSIONER/ARTICLESHOW/63790904.CMS>TITLE=SAURABH RAO TO TAKE OVER AS CIVIC CHIEF TODAYSAURABH RAO IS NEW CIVIC COMMISSIONER – TIMES OF INDIAACCESS-DATE=2018-04-24ARCHIVE-DATE=18 APRIL 2018DF=DMY-ALL, HTTPS://PMC.GOV.IN/EN/MUNICIPAL-COMMISSIONER-OFFICE>TITLE=MUNICIPAL COMMISSIONER OFFICE, PUNEFIRST=WEBSITE=OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE PUNE MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180425033940/HTTPS://PMC.GOV.IN/EN/MUNICIPAL-COMMISSIONER-OFFICEDEAD-URL=NODATE=2018-04-17ACCESS-DATE=2018-04-24ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180425215851/HTTP://INDIANEXPRESS.COM/ARTICLE/CITIES/PUNE/SAURABH-RAO-APPOINTED-PMC-CHIEF-NAVAL-KISHORE-RAM-IS-NEW-PUNE-DISTRICT-COLLECTOR-5140337/DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Mayor of Pune>MayorBJP)MUKTA TILAK, MBA, IS PUNE'S FIRST MAYOR NEWSPAPER=THE HINDUPUBLISHER=THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS (INDIA)ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170424195819/HTTP://WWW.FINANCIALEXPRESS.COM/INDIA-NEWS/BAL-GANGADHAR-TILAK-DESCENDANT-MUKTA-TILAK-FILES-NOMINATION-FOR-MAYOR-POST/579983/DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | unit_pref = MetricWORK=PUNE MIRRORARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180418033355/HTTPS://PUNEMIRROR.INDIATIMES.COM/PUNE/CIVIC/11-NEWLY-MERGED-VILLAGES-IN-PMC-RIFE-WITH-ILLEGAL-CONSTRUCTIONS/ARTICLESHOW/60976274.CMSDEAD-URL=NOWORK=THE TIMES OF INDIAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180625092913/HTTPS://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/CITY/PUNE/STATE-APPROVES-MERGER-OF-11-VILLAGES-PUNE-ADDS-81SQKM/ARTICLESHOW/60962856.CMSDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Pune Municipal Corporation>Pune City| area_total_km2 = 331.26Pune Metropolitan Region>MetroHTTP://WWW.PMRDA.GOV.IN/BACKGROUND.HTML>TITLE=PUNE METROPOLITAN REGION DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY – PMRDAACCESS-DATE=2018-04-25ARCHIVE-DATE=26 APRIL 2018DF=DMY-ALL, HTTPS://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/CITY/PUNE/PMRDA-EYES-BIG-BOOST-TO-AFFORDABLE-HOUSING-SECTOR/ARTICLESHOW/62546296.CMS>TITLE=PMRDA EYES BIG BOOST TO AFFORDABLE HOUSING SECTOR – TIMES OF INDIAACCESS-DATE=2018-04-25ARCHIVE-DATE=25 JUNE 2018DF=DMY-ALL, | area_blank1_km2 = 7,256.46| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 560| population_total = 3,124,458| population_as_of = 2011WEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIAACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2016ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160311054952/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/DCHB/2725_PART_B_DCHB_PUNE.PDFDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | population_density_km2 = autoList of most populous cities in India>9thPune Metropolitan Region>Metro| population_blank1 = 7,276,000| population_blank2_title = Metro RankList of metropolitan areas in India>7thTITLE=DALIT WOMEN'S EDUCATION IN MODERN INDIA: DOUBLE DISCRIMINATION ISBN=9780415493000 URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=UESABAAAQBAJ&PRINTSEC=FRONTCOVER&DQ=EDITIONS:GEJVN1Z_ICEC&HL=EN&SA=X&VED=0AHUKEWILP8TMWLBIAHWA63MBHDHVDR4Q6AEILJAB#V=ONEPAGE&Q&F=FALSE TITLE=GLIMPSES OF GURUPRASAD ISBN=9781644290231 ACCESSDATE=25 MAY 2019, Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +5:30Postal Index Number>PIN Code(s)WORK=FINDPINCODE.NETARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160408204119/HTTPS://WWW.FINDPINCODE.NET/MAHARASHTRA/PUNE-PINCODESDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Telephone numbers in India>+91-20Vehicle registration plates of India>MH-12HTTPS://TRANSPORT.MAHARASHTRA.GOV.IN/SITE/UPLOAD/PDF/KNOW%20YOUR%20RTO.PDF>TITLE=KNOW YOUR RTOFIRST=WEBSITE=MOTOR VEHICLES DEPARTMENT, MAHARASHTRAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180421232731/HTTPS://TRANSPORT.MAHARASHTRA.GOV.IN/SITE/UPLOAD/PDF/KNOW%20YOUR%20RTO.PDFDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, weblink}}| footnotes = Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha>Member of ParliamentGirish Bapat (BJP)HTTP://164.100.47.194/LOKSABHA/MEMBERS/MEMBERBIOPROFILE.ASPX?MPSNO=4746WEBSITE=164.100.47.194ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180430045626/HTTP://164.100.47.194/LOKSABHA/MEMBERS/MEMBERBIOPROFILE.ASPX?MPSNO=4746DEAD-URL=NOWORK=THE TIMES OF INDIAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180430212030/HTTPS://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/BJP-ANIL-SHIROLE-WON-PUNE-LOK-SABHA-SEAT-BY-3-15-LAKH-VOTES-DEFEATING-VISHWAJEET-KADAM-OF-CONGRESS-/ARTICLESHOW/35220344.CMSDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | blank2_name = LanguagesMarathi Language>Marathi}}Pune ({{IPA-mr|puɳe}}; {{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|p|uː|n|ə}};WEB,weblink Definition of Pune, The Free Dictionary, 9 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131213091921weblink">weblink 13 December 2013, no, dmy-all, DICTIONARY,weblink Define Pune, Dictionary.com, 9 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131212230930weblink">weblink 12 December 2013, no, dmy-all, also called Poona , the official name until 1978),NEWS,weblink Culture, colleges, cyber hubs: Fifteen things to know about Pune, 2017-06-24, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-29, en,weblink 30 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink What's in a name? A lot when it comes to Pune – Times of India, Atre, Abhijit, 2016-09-30, The Times of India, 2018-04-29,weblink 16 June 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink From Gurgaon to Gurugram: 20 cities that changed their names, Chakravorty, Abhimanyu, 2016-04-13, The Indian Express, 2018-04-29, en-IN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180430050426weblink">weblink 30 April 2018, no, dmy-all, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million.WEB,weblink Pune City Census Department, Official website of PMC,weblink 21 April 2018, no, dmy-all, Along with its extended city limits Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR).WEB,weblink Constituents of Urban Agglomerations having Population 1 lakh and above – Census of India 2011, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 34 of 61,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171025215615weblink">weblink 25 October 2017, no, dmy-all, According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated {{convert|560|m|0|abbr=off}} above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river,WEB, Nalawade, S.B.,weblink Geography of Pune Urban Area, Ranwa, 4 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071222080029weblink">weblink 22 December 2007, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent.WEB,weblink Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar, Daily News and Analysis, 29 November 2011, 19 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120126173557weblink">weblink 26 January 2012, no, dmy-all, Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index.WEB,weblink Pune is also ranked No. 1 city in country in 'ease of living' ranking, TOI, 14 August 2018, 13 October 2018,weblink 13 October 2018, no, dmy-all, The city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.Kanhere, G.K., 1993. Planning for the Pune Region. Architecture Plus Design, 10(6), p.60.Joshi, S.R., 1996. Mass media and cultural identity: Issues of ethnic co‐existence in India. Asian Journal of Communication, 6(1), pp.124–139. It is also known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions.NEWS, The ‘Oxford of the East’ goes West,weblink 24 January 2017, The Indian Express,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170424012924weblink">weblink 24 April 2017, no, dmy-all, NEWS, Truly the Oxford of the East,weblink 24 January 2017, Hindustan Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202032614weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, no, dmy-all, The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune.NEWS, Serial Blasts Rock Oxford of the East,weblink 24 January 2017, Little India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140209173549weblink">weblink 9 February 2014, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Why Pune is an international favourite, Byatnal, Amruta, 2012-07-15, The Hindu, 2018-04-29, en-IN, 0971-751X,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012143732weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, no, dmy-all, Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe.WEB,weblink Exchange And Casual Students: Department of International Centre : University of Pune, www.unipune.ac.in, 2018-04-29,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180429222303weblink">weblink 29 April 2018, no, dmy-all,

Etymology

The earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news".WEB,weblink India Maharashtra Pune History Event Of Pune Time Line Of Pune (Punediary.com), www.punediary.com, 2018-04-28,weblink 29 April 2018, no, dmy-all, By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी).WEB,weblink Pune History â€“ Origin & History of Pune â€“ History of Puna India â€“ History of Pune City, Pune.org.uk, 16 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100628003014weblink">weblink 28 June 2010, no, dmy-all,

History

Early and medieval period

File:Pataleshwar cave complex Pune.jpg|thumb|The circular Nandi mandapa at the Pataleshwar cave temple built in the alt=|leftCopper plates dated 858 and 868{{nbs}}CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.JOURNAL, JOGLEKAR, P.P., DEO, SUSHAMA G., BALAKAWADE, PANDURANG, DESHPANDE-MUKHERJEE, ARATI, RAJAGURU, S.N., KULKARNI, AMOL N., 2006, A NEW LOOK AT ANCIENT PUNE THROUGH SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY (2004–2006), Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, 66/67, 211–225, 42931448, Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.

Bhosale Jagir and the Maratha Empire

Pune was part of the Jagir (fiefdom) granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi (Ahmadnagar Sultanate).BOOK, Govind Sakharam Sardesai, New History of the Marathas: Shivaji and his line (1600–1707),weblink 1957, Phoenix Publications, 58, 26 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131103114931weblink">weblink 3 November 2013, no, dmy-all, Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune.BOOK, Offbeat tracks in Maharashtra, Gunaji, Milind, 2003, Popular Prakashan, 978-8171546695, Mumbai, 68–69, 54822004, Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705.After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He also developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order.BOOK, Government, of Bombay, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.), 321,weblink 1885, The Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal. His mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity (Gramadevata) of the city.WEB, Monuments in Pune, Pune district administration,weblink 4 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080325021426weblink">weblink 25 March 2008, From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad.WEB,weblink The history of Muhiyabad err...Pune, 31 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141031233457weblink">weblink 31 October 2014, no, dmy-all, Two years later the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, and later Pune, from the Mughals.

Peshwa rule

File:Statue of Bajirao I.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|An equestrian statue of Peshwa Baji Rao I outside Shaniwar Wada. He expanded the (Maratha Empire]] in north India {{circa|1730}}.BOOK, S. N. Sen, History Modern India,weblink 2006, New Age International, 978-81-224-1774-6, 12, WEB,weblink Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma | Hindu Janajagruti Samiti, Hindujagruti.org, 7 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140629050754weblink">weblink 29 June 2014, no, dmy-all, )In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu.WEB,weblink पुणे जिल्हा ऐतिहासिक महत्त्वाचे, Manase.org, 14 May 2014, yes,weblink 15 May 2014, dmy-all, He moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city.JOURNAL, Kosambi, Meera, 1989, Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind, Glory of Peshwa Pune, Economic and Political Weekly, 24, 5, 247–250, 4394341, JOURNAL, Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind, 1985, The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 105, 4, 719–724, 10.2307/602730, 602730, He also commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city.JOURNAL, Khare, K. C., Jadhav, M. S., 2008, Water Quality Assessment of Katraj Lake, Pune (Maharashtra, India): A Case Study,weblink Proceedings of Taal2007, The 12th World Lake Conference, 292–299, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, 28 April 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180417140656weblink">weblink 17 April 2018, no, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Deluge in Poona: Aftermath and rehabilitation, Brahme, Sulabha, Gole, Prakash, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics; Asia Publishing House, 1967, Poona, 14–47, The aqueduct was still in working order in 2004.NEWS,weblink It’s true: Peshwa-era water duct still fresh! – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-20,weblink 20 June 2018, no, dmy-all, The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati HillJOURNAL, Preston, Laurence W., April 2002, Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India, Journal of Historical Geography, 28, 2, 203–215, 10.1006/jhge.2001.0398, 0305-7488, and many Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period.WEB,weblink Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA, Dnaindia.com, 2011-11-29, 17 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130320015359weblink">weblink 20 March 2013, no, dmy-all, Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818.BOOK, M. S. Naravane, Battles of the Honourable East India Company: Making of the Raj,weblink 2006, APH Publishing, 978-81-313-0034-3, 80–86,

British rule (1818–1947)

The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelled Kirkee) on 5{{nbs}}November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army).Petkar, A.S. and Diwan, G.R., 2012, June. Urban Renewal of the Sadar Bazaar Area in Pune Cantonment. In Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering (AARCV 2012) (Vol. 21, p. 613),weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161003102349weblink |date=3 October 2016 }}. The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment.WEB,weblink India – Army Southern Command Order of Battle, Pike, John, www.globalsecurity.org, en, 2018-04-28,weblink 29 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Southern Command HQ set to archive Army's glory {{!, Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis|date=2013-11-12|work=dna|access-date=2018-05-31|language=en-US|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180705003346weblink|archive-date=5 July 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}NEWS,weblink Southern Command: Army’s shining star, OneIndia, 2018-05-31, en,weblink 4 July 2018, no, dmy-all, The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR).BOOK, Gazetteer of The Bombay Presidency: Poona (Part 2), Government Central press, 156,weblink 1885, BOOK, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts.),weblink 1885, Government Central Press, 308, Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the British Raj.{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}

Centre of social reform and nationalism

(File:KITLV 100082 - Unknown - Government House of the British authority at Gunesh Khind at Poona in India, seen from the east - Around 1875.tiff|thumb|British Government House, Ganesh Khind, Poona ({{circa|1875}})|alt=)Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a centre of agitation led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The city was also a centre for social reform led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, feminist Tarabai Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Pandita Ramabai. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, and better schools for the poor.NEWS,weblink The Other Liberal Light, The New Republic, 2018-04-28, en-US,weblink 20 June 2018, no, dmy-all, Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned at the Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace between 1942 and 1944, where both his wife Kasturba Gandhi and aide Mahadev Desai died.BOOK, John B. Severance, Gandhi, Great Soul,weblink 1997, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 978-0-395-77179-2, 113–115,

Pune since Indian independence

(File:Ncl-pune.jpg|thumb|National Chemical Laboratory)After Indian independence from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming it into a modern metropolis. The Poona Municipal Council was reorganized to form the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) in 1950.PMC {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927050207weblink|date=27 September 2007}} The education sector in the city continued its growth in the post-independence era with the establishment of the University of Poona (now, Savitribai Phule Pune University) in 1949, the National Chemical Laboratory in 1950 and the National Defence Academy in 1955.WEB,weblink History of University, Official website of the SPPU, en, 2018-05-31,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180608072655weblink">weblink 8 June 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink National Chemical Laboratory, www.ncl-india.org, 2018-05-31,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180601080332weblink">weblink 1 June 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink History of NDA, Official website of the National Defence Academy, Pune, 2018-05-31,weblink 14 July 2017, no, dmy-all, The establishment of Hindustan Antibiotics in 1954 marked the beginning of industrial development in the Hadapsar, Bhosari, and Pimpri areas.BOOK,weblink Human Resources Development, B.D. Kolekar, Northern Book Centre, 1993, 978-81-7211-044-4, 17–19, WEB,weblink Historical Events in Pune, NIC – District-Pune,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202072725weblink">weblink 2 December 2008, yes, 29 October 2009, MIDC provided the necessary infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations.NEWS,weblink Pimpri-Chinchwad industrial belt: Placing Pune at the front, Menon, Sudha, 30 March 2002, The Hindu Business Line, 29 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120414041221weblink">weblink 14 April 2012, no, dmy-all, In the 1970s, several engineering companies were set up in the city, allowing it to vie with Chennai.BOOK,weblink The city in South Asia, Heitzman, James, 2008, Routledge, 978-0415574266, London, 213, 14 November 2016, WEB,weblink Tata Motors Manufacturing Facility - Pune, www.tatamotors.com, 2018-05-31,weblink 12 June 2018, no, dmy-all, In the 1990s, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. IT parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and Wagholi. As a result, the city saw a huge influx of people to the city due to opportunities offered by the manufacturing, and lately, the software industries.The breach in the Panshet dam and the resulting flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks.BOOK,weblink Deluge in Poona., Brahme, S, GOLE, P., 1967, GOKHALE INSTITUTE OF POLITICS AND ECONOMIC Asia Publishing House., 14–47, The mishap spurred the development of new suburbs and housing complexes.BOOK,weblink Dam breach modeling technology, Singh, Vijay P., 1996, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 978-0792339250, Dordrecht, 89–91, 14 November 2016, To integrate urban planning, the Pune Metropolitan Region was defined in 1967 covering the area under PMC, the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, the three cantonments and the surrounding villages.BOOK, Joshi, Ashutosh, Town planning regeneration of cities, 2008, New India Pub. Agency, New Delhi, 9788189422820, 74,weblink 4 February 2017, In 1998 work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began; it was completed in 2001.WEB,weblink The Mumbai-Pune expressway, The Financial Express, 29 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515012445weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged development in the northwest region of the city.WEB,weblink Pune to get piped compressed natural gas before CYG, The Punekar, 29 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081004135143weblink">weblink 4 October 2008, On 13{{nbs}}February 2010 a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood in eastern Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60.NEWS,weblink Eight killed in India restaurant blast, Harmeet Singh, 13 February 2010, CNN, 14 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100216130642weblink">weblink 16 February 2010, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink 9 killed, 40 injured in Pune bomb blast, 2010-02-13, The Hindu, 2018-04-28, PTI, en-IN, 0971-751X, WEB,weblink पुण्यावर दहशतवादी हल्ला; नऊ ठार, ५७ जखमी, Marathi, Sakaal news service, 14 February 2010, sSakal.com, 14 February 2010, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Evidence suggested that the Indian Mujahadeen group carried out the attack.BOOK, Harsh V. Pant, Handbook of Indian Defence Policy: Themes, Structures and Doctrines,weblink 6 October 2015, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-38008-5,

Geography

File:Vetal tekdi.jpg|thumb|Vetal hillVetal hillPune is situated at approximately 18° 32" north latitude and 73° 51" east longitude. The city's total area is 15.642 sq. km.WEB, Geographical location,weblink About Pune—District Pune, Government of Maharashtra, Government of Maharashtra, 28 January 2019,weblink 29 January 2019, no, dmy-all, By road Pune is {{convert|1173|km|mi|abbr=on}} south of Delhi, {{convert|734|km|mi|abbr=on}} north of Bangalore, and {{convert|149|km|mi|abbr=on}} south-east of Mumbai.Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan plateau, at an altitude of {{convert|560|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level. It is on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with Vetal Hill rising to {{convert|800|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level. The Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of {{convert|1300|m|abbr=off}}. The old city of Pune is at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana, a tributary of Mula river and Indrayani river, a tributary of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest suburbs of Pune.

Cityscape

{{See also|List of neighbourhoods in Pune}}(File:Lakshmi_road5.JPG|right|thumb|A busy street in Pune, October 2012)The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods. These include the numerous peths of the old city on the eastern bank of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and Pune Camp established by the British, and numerous suburbs. The industrial growth in the Pimpri, Chinchwad and nearby areas allowed these areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad.NEWS,weblink Pimpri-Chinchwad industrial belt: Placing Pune at the front, Menon, Sudha, 30 March 2002, The Hindu Business Line, 29 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120414041221weblink">weblink 14 April 2012, no, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink The City in South Asia, Heitzman, James, Routledge, 2008, 978-1-134-28963-9, 1, BOOK, Town planning regeneration of cities, Joshi, Ashutosh, 2008, New India Pub. Agency, 9788189422820, New Delhi, 73–84, NEWS,weblink Hinjewadi: The land of opportunity, Bari, Prachi, 2007-12-07, The Economic Times, 2018-04-27,weblink 28 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjewadi facing infrastructural problems, Kulkarni, Prachee, 2012-03-30, The Economic Times, 2018-04-27,weblink 28 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Wagholi grows, but traffic crawls on narrow stretch – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-28,weblink 25 June 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Expanding Pune: Wagholi suffocating on fumes of garbage, 2018-02-24, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-28, en,weblink 29 April 2018, no, dmy-all, The Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256 km2 made up of the ten talukas of the Pune district.WEB,weblink Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority – PMRDA, www.pmrda.gov.in, 2018-04-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180426144158weblink">weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, The twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad along with the three cantonment areas of Pune, Khadki and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR, which also includes seven municipal councils and 842 villages.NEWS,weblink PMRDA gets state govt nod; notification soon, says CM, 2015-03-27, The Indian Express, 2018-04-27, en-US,weblink 25 July 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink ‘PMRDA area notified, DP to be announced in a year’, 2017-06-20, The Indian Express, 2018-04-27, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180427045249weblink">weblink 27 April 2018, no, dmy-all, Rapid industrialisation since the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase.BOOK,weblink Poverty Lines and Lives of the Poor: Underestimation of Urban Poverty – the Case of India, Bapat, Meera, 2009, International Institute for Environment and Development, 978-1-84369-724-4, London, 3, Approximately 36% of the population lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% slum households do not have in-house toilet facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community organizations (CBOs) and government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions.JOURNAL, Butsch, Carsten, Kumar, Shamita, Wagner, Paul D., Kroll, Mareike, Kantakumar, Lakshmi N., Bharucha, Erach, 2017, Growing 'Smart'? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration,weblink Sustainability, 9, 12, 2335, 17 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180118123933weblink">weblink 18 January 2018, no, dmy-all, 10.3390/su9122335, File:Baner from Baner Pashan Biodiversity Park.JPG|right|thumb|BanerBanerSince the 1990s a number of landmark integrated townships and gated communities have been developed in the city such as Magarpatta, Nanded, Amanora, Blue Ridge, Life Republic and Lavasa.NEWS,weblink What are integrated townships?, SINGH, T. LALITH, 2012, The Hindu, 28 February 2017, 27 October,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140628155802weblink">weblink 28 June 2014, no, dmy-all, They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure. According to the PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process.File:Pune Skyline 2018.jpg|thumb|HadapsarHadapsarThe Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest in India after Hyderabad at 144.WEB,weblink Mercer Quality of Living Rankings, Mercer, 28 April 2017,weblink 20 November 2018, no, dmy-all, The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies".WEB,weblink Quality of Living City Rankings, Mercer Information Solutions business, 3 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150304154225weblink">weblink 4 March 2015, no, dmy-all, The 2017 Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed of 23 major cities.NEWS,weblink Pune adjudged best governed city, SHARMA, NIDHI, 2018-03-15, The Economic Times, 2018-03-26,weblink 26 March 2018, no, dmy-all,

Peths in Pune

Peth is a general term in the Marathi language for a locality in Pune. Seventeen peths are located in Pune, which today constitute the old city of Pune. Most were established during the Maratha empire era under the Maratha and Peshwa rule of the city in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British.BOOK,weblink Poona A Socio-Economic Survey Part I, Gadgil, D. R., 1945, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India, 14, 20 September 2016,weblink 29 December 2016, no, dmy-all, Seven of them are named after the days of the week in Marathi, and the day of the week on which traders and craftsmen in these peths mainly conducted business corresponded to the day after which each is named. Other peths are named after their respective founders. Pune includes seventeen peths: Ghorpade Peth, Somwar Peth, Mangalwar Peth, Budhwar Peth, Guruwar Peth, Shukrawar Peth, Shaniwar Peth, Raviwar Peth, Kasba Peth, Bhawani Peth, Ganj Peth, Nana Peth, Ganesh Peth, Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth, Navi Peth.

Climate

Pune has a hot semi-arid climate (type BSh) bordering with tropical wet and dry (type Aw) with average temperatures ranging between {{convert|20|and|28|C|F}}.WEB,weblink National Symposium on Nematode Management: A challenge to Indian Agriculture in the changing climate, Nematological Society of India and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 8–10 January 2015, 24, 16 September 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180427160904weblink">weblink 27 April 2018, no, dmy-all, Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching {{convert|42|C|F}}. The warmest month in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high. Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature recorded was {{convert|43.3|°C|°F|abbr=on}} on 30{{nbs}}April 1897.NEWS, City sweats as mercury hits season's high,weblink The Times of India, 17 April 2003, 10 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509220558weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, no, dmy-all, The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from {{convert|22|to|28|C|F}}. Most of the {{convert|722|mm|2|abbr=on}} of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of.For most of December and January the daytime temperature hovers around {{convert|26|°C|°F|abbr=on}} while night temperatures are below {{convert|9|°C|°F|abbr=on}}, often dropping to {{convert|5|to|6|C|F}}. The lowest temperature recorded was {{convert|1.7|°C|0|abbr=on}} on 17{{nbs}}January 1935. Due to pollution the city's winter temperature has warmed up by 6 degrees.NEWS, Brrr... it's almost March, and Pune's shivering!,weblink The Times of India, 23 February 2005, 10 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130508164122weblink">weblink 8 May 2013, no, dmy-all, {{Weather box|location = Pune|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 35.3|Feb record high C = 38.9|Mar record high C = 42.8|Apr record high C = 45.2|May record high C = 43.3|Jun record high C = 41.7|Jul record high C = 36.0|Aug record high C = 35.0|Sep record high C = 36.1|Oct record high C = 37.8|Nov record high C = 36.1|Dec record high C = 35.0|Jan high C = 30.3|Feb high C = 32.8|Mar high C = 36.0|Apr high C = 38.1|May high C = 37.2|Jun high C = 32.1|Jul high C = 28.3|Aug high C = 27.5|Sep high C = 29.3|Oct high C = 31.8|Nov high C = 30.5|Dec high C = 29.6|year high C = 32.0|Jan mean C = 20.5|Feb mean C = 22.0|Mar mean C = 25.6|Apr mean C = 28.8|May mean C = 29.7|Jun mean C = 27.4|Jul mean C = 25.3|Aug mean C = 24.5|Sep mean C = 25.1|Oct mean C = 25.0|Nov mean C = 22.3|Dec mean C = 20.2|Jan low C = 11.4|Feb low C = 12.7|Mar low C = 16.5|Apr low C = 20.7|May low C = 22.5|Jun low C = 22.9|Jul low C = 22.0|Aug low C = 21.4|Sep low C = 20.7|Oct low C = 18.8|Nov low C = 14.7|Dec low C = 12.0|year low C = 18.0|Jan record low C = 1.7|Feb record low C = 3.9|Mar record low C = 7.2|Apr record low C = 10.6|May record low C = 13.8|Jun record low C = 17.0|Jul record low C = 18.9|Aug record low C = 17.2|Sep record low C = 13.2|Oct record low C = 9.4|Nov record low C = 4.6|Dec record low C = 3.3|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 0|Feb precipitation mm = 0.5|Mar precipitation mm = 5.3|Apr precipitation mm = 16.6|May precipitation mm = 40.6|Jun precipitation mm = 116.1|Jul precipitation mm = 187.2|Aug precipitation mm = 122.3|Sep precipitation mm = 120.1|Oct precipitation mm = 77.9|Nov precipitation mm = 30.2|Dec precipitation mm = 4.8|year precipitation mm = 721.7|Jan precipitation days = 0.0|Feb precipitation days = 0.1|Mar precipitation days = 0.6|Apr precipitation days = 1.1|May precipitation days = 2.8|Jun precipitation days = 7.5|Jul precipitation days = 12.8|Aug precipitation days = 10.6|Sep precipitation days = 7.4|Oct precipitation days = 4.6|Nov precipitation days = 2.0|Dec precipitation days = 0.4|Jan sun = 291.4|Feb sun = 282.8|Mar sun = 300.7|Apr sun = 303.0|May sun = 316.2|Jun sun = 186.0|Jul sun = 120.9|Aug sun = 111.6|Sep sun = 177.0|Oct sun = 248.0|Nov sun = 270.0|Dec sun = 288.3|year sun =|Jan humidity = 56|Feb humidity = 46|Mar humidity = 36|Apr humidity = 36|May humidity = 48|Jun humidity = 70|Jul humidity = 79|Aug humidity = 82|Sep humidity = 78|Oct humidity = 64|Nov humidity = 58|Dec humidity = 58|source 1 = Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951–1980)WEB
,weblink
, Pune Climatological Information 1951–1980
, India Meteorological Department
, 5 May 2014
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403130322weblink">weblink
, 3 April 2015
, no
, dmy-all
,
WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140316064314weblink">weblink
, yes
, 16 March 2014
, Extreme Temperatures in India up to 2010
, India Meteorological Department
, 21 May 2013, |source 2 = Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)WEB
,weblink
, Pune Climate Normals 1971–1990
, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
, 24 December 2012, |date=May 2014
}}

Seismology

Pune is {{convert|100|km|mi|abbr=on}} north of the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam.NEWS,weblink Pune prone to transmitive quake waves, says expert – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-19,weblink 3 August 2018, no, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Dev, S. M. S. P., Nagarajan, R., Seismic hazard assessment of Koyna region, Peninsular India: using geospatial approach, Geoenvironmental Disasters, 4, 1, 10.1186/s40677-017-0092-y, 2017, dmy-all, The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being in Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes.WEB,weblink Seismic Zones, pib.nic.in, 2018-04-19,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180420073741weblink">weblink 20 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink High-risk seismic zones in India: How prone is your city to earthquakes, 2017-09-21, The Indian Express, 2018-04-19, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180412082026weblink">weblink 12 April 2018, no, dmy-all, Pune has experienced some moderate{{snd}}and many low{{snd}}intensity earthquakes in its history.

Demographics

{{IndiaCensusPop|state=expanded|title= Pune population|1901= 153320|1951= 488419|1971= 856105|1981= 1203351|1991= 1566651|2001= 2540069|2011= 3124458|footnote= Source: Census of India}}{{bar box|title=Religion in Pune (2011)|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|79.43}}{{bar percent|Islam|green|11.03}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|lightpink|3.94}}{{bar percent|Jainism|gold|2.45}}{{bar percent|Christianity|red|2.17}}{{bar percent|Others|#808080|0.63}}{{bar percent|Not stated|#808081|0.35}}Others include Sikhs and Parsis}}The city has a population of 3,124,458; while 5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration {{As of|2011|alt=as of the 2011 census}}.WEB,weblink Demographics of Pune, Punepages.com, 16 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715132101weblink">weblink 15 July 2011, no, dmy-all, The latter was {{circa}} 4,485,000 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001.WEB,weblink Annexure I, 2001, Fire Hazards Response and Mitigation Plan, Pune Municipal Corporation, 10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120515100421weblink">weblink 15 May 2012, yes, 29 June 2012, dmy-all, Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The number of people migrating to Pune rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005.WEB,weblink Pune's GDP at Rs 46,000 is 50 pc higher than India's, 28 July 2006, The Indian Express,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080110223158weblink">weblink 10 January 2008, yes, 24 March 2007, dmy-all, The sharp increase in population during the decade 1991–2001 led to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city.WEB,weblink Revised Action Plan for Control of Air Pollution in Pune, Census of India, Government of India (2001), Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, 29 December 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090226073552weblink">weblink 26 February 2009, no, dmy-all, The top five source areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947.Khairkar, V.P., 2008. Segregation of Migrants Groups in Pune City, India. Anthropologist, 10(2), pp.155–161. Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is still home to a large number of Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts of the city.JOURNAL, 273320, The Sindhis, Mercantile Refugees in India: Problems of Their Assimilation, Phylon (1960-), 27, 1, 40–49, Barnouw, Victor, 1966, 10.2307/273320, As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile rural peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth.JOURNAL, Pordié, Laurent, Lalitha, N., 24 May 2006, Research Update: Transversal Themes of Indian Society and Medicines,weblink yes, Department of Social Sciences, The French Institute of Pondicherry,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080720072412weblink">weblink 20 July 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Indian Urban Resource Millennium Assessment by Naturalists, 18 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080911035448weblink">weblink 11 September 2008, no, dmy-all,  {{small|(183 KB)}} Marathi is the official and most spoken language, while Hindi and Kannada are spoken by a considerable part of the population. The average literacy rate of Pune was 86.15 % in 2011 compared to 80.45 % in 2001.WEB,weblink Pune to become 7th metro city in India: Assocham â€“ Economy and Politics, 30 October 2008, livemint.com, 26 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110430233050weblink">weblink 30 April 2011, no, dmy-all,

Religion

{{See also|Hindu temples in Pune}}Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Other religions with a significant presence include Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.WEB,weblink Socio – Economic Survey Of Pune City, p. 273, 6 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160802162128weblink">weblink 2 August 2016, no, dmy-all, Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the temples on Parvati Hill and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century.Preston, Laurence W. "Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India. " Journal of Historical Geography 28. 2 (2002): 203-215. These temples were commissioned by the Peshwas, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities including Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh.BOOK,weblink Western India in the Nineteenth century, Kumar, Ravinder, 2004, Routledge, 978-0415330480, Repr., London [u.a.], 39, JOURNAL, Kosambi, Meera, 1989, Glory of Peshwa Pune, Economic and Political Weekly, 248, 5, 247, JOURNAL, Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind, 1985, The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 105, 4, 719–724, 602730, 10.2307/602730, WEB,weblink Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA, Dnaindia.com, 17 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130320015359weblink">weblink 20 March 2013, no, dmy-all, The historic temples of Kasba Ganapati, the Tambadi (Red) Jogeshwari and the Dulya Maruti are considered the guardian deities of the city.JOURNAL, Kantak, M. R., 1991–92, Urbanization of Pune: How Its Ground Was Prepared, Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, 51/52, 489–495, 42930432, BOOK,weblink Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ..., Bombay (India : State), Government Central Press, 1885, 29 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317045123weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, no, dmy-all, Pune area has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra. Dagdusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple is Famous in Pune. Its Ganesh Temple. These are the towns of Alandi where the samadhi of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram lived. Every year in the Hindu month of Ashadh (June/July), the Paduka (symbolic sandals) of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the Vari, to meet Vithoba. The procession makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands of Varkaris and other devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in PMR or the district include Jejuri, and five of ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy.Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five perfect masters, has a shrine (Dargah) erected in her honour under a neem tree in Pune Camp.WEB,weblink Photo of Babajan's Samadhi tomb shrine in Pune, Trustmeher.com, 26 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717105643weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink At Babajan Dargah rests the legacy of an old saint – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-05-25,weblink 5 June 2018, no, dmy-all, The city has several churches dedicated to different Christian denominations including St. Anthony's Shrine, Dapodi Church, etc. St. Patrick's Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. Pune has Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there are more than one hundred Jain temples in PMR with the one at Katraj being the largest.BOOK,weblink Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen, Mandal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion, M. Whitney Kelting, 2 August 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-803211-3, 8, 15, 2 July 2018,weblink 25 December 2016, no, dmy-all, Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel.NEWS,weblink The wanderers who found home - Pune Mirror -, Pune Mirror, 2018-07-01,weblink 25 June 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Bene-Israel and Baghdadi Jews of India: A history of this minority community - Firstpost, www.firstpost.com, 2018-07-01,weblink 1 July 2018, no, dmy-all, The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent Zoroastrian temple. Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries. The meditation resort organizes music and meditation festival every year during monsoon, known as Osho Monsoon Festival. Number of well known artists around the world participates in the event. NEWS,weblink Monsoon Festival at Osho Ashram begins today, 12 August 2018,weblink 2018-08-12, no, The Indian Express, Pune,

Economy

File:Volkswagen India Private Limited Pune Office-plant 1338.jpg|thumb|Volkswagen India Plant and offices in Pune]]File:Infosys pune phase II - panoramio.jpg|thumb|InfosysInfosys Pune has the eighth largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.WEB,weblink Top Ten Wealthiest Towns of India, Maps of India, 1 March 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120309081911weblink">weblink 9 March 2012, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Richest Cities Of India, Haritas, Bhragu, BW Businessworld, 2018-06-26, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180629023248weblink">weblink 29 June 2018, no, dmy-all, The key sectors of the local economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT).Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred to as the educational capital of India. In 2006, it was reported that nearly 200,000 students from across India study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred educational institutes.Kaul, S., 2006. Higher education in India; seizing the opportunity.INDIAN COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070627163237weblink |date=27 June 2007 }}{{citation|title=Top universities of Largest metropolitan economy -Pune, January −31, 2015|url=https://www.pagesecret.com/a-leading-university-of-pune/|publisher=AICTE David|access-date=31 January 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150403183400weblink|archive-date=3 April 2015|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}JOURNAL, Agarwal, Sagar, Gupta, Kunal, Garg, Mayank, Scope & Comparison Of Student Housing Industry In India, International Journal of Informative & Futuristic Research, 2015, 2, 11, 4263–4271,weblink 26 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150815072010weblink">weblink 15 August 2015, no, dmy-all, The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines, India's largest diesel engine company, at Khadki.WEB,weblink K. K. Swamy appointed MD of Volkswagen India, The Indian Express, 14 December 2009, NEWS,weblink Kirloskar Oil Engines, 31 August 2004, 14 December 2009, India Business Insight,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110909200603weblink">weblink 9 September 2011, no, dmy-all, The group has several subsidiaries in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India's largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia.WEB,weblink Kirloskar Brothers restructure group, CNBC-TV18, 14 December 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091206043708weblink">weblink 6 December 2009, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pump Industry in India – Overview, Market, Manufacturers, Opportunities, Indian Pumps And Valves, en-US, 2017-11-14,weblink 13 June 2018, no, dmy-all, Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to describe Pune as India's "Motor City".NEWS,weblink The boom is over in Detroit. But now India has its own motor city, 20 April 2008, The Independent, 22 April 2008, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080421010509weblink">weblink 21 April 2008, no, dmy-all, According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses in Pune.WEB,weblink Business Standard 26th Oct 2011, 26 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111129180505weblink">weblink 29 November 2011, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink DNA 17th Nov 2010, 26 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112054814weblink">weblink 12 January 2012, no, dmy-all, Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune.WEB,weblink Serum Institute of India to invest Rs 1,000 crore to set up new facility, The Economic Times, 1 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150208120134weblink">weblink 8 February 2015, no, dmy-all, In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people.NEWS,weblink Journey from auto hub to Industry 4.0 in Pune, 2017-07-10, The Indian Express, 2018-06-13, en-US,weblink 13 June 2018, no, dmy-all, The Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹600-billion (US$ 8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC).NEWS,weblink Hinjawadi, the land of opportunity, Bari, Prachi, 7 December 2007, The Economic times, 13 November 2009, India,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090509022917weblink">weblink 9 May 2009, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Hinjawadi IT park, The MegaPolis,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090318015457weblink">weblink 18 March 2009, yes, 13 November 2009, The IT Park encompasses an area of about {{convert|2800|acre|km2}} and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes.NEWS,weblink Pune, where panic reigns an IT campus, Banerjee, Shoumojit, 2017-05-27, The Hindu, 2018-06-13, en-IN, 0971-751X,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170527171136weblink">weblink 27 May 2017, no, dmy-all, Besides Hinjawadi, IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city. As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people.Pune has also emerged as a new hub for tech startups in India.NEWS,weblink Pune Based TripHobo Raises $3 Mln Series B Funding,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160103182259weblink">weblink 3 January 2016, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Food delivery service Foodpanda acquires rival TastyKhana,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151113204604weblink">weblink 13 November 2015, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Startups find Pune a fertile ground,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150824090600weblink">weblink 24 August 2015, no, dmy-all, NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working space for city based startups under its 10,000 startups initiative at Kharadi MIDC.WEB,weblink Start-up Warehouses set up in Navi Mumbai and Pune {{!, NASSCOM|website=www.nasscom.in|access-date=2016-06-04|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151207202001weblink|archivedate=7 December 2015|df=dmy-all}} Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.WEB,weblink PuneFoodHub.com â€“ Food Cluster Pune, 15 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090904140153weblink">weblink 4 September 2009, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink PuneFoodHub.com â€“ Project Partners, 15 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090905173144weblink">weblink 5 September 2009, no, dmy-all, The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of {{convert|13,000|m²|0|abbr=on}}. It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.WEB, Pune gets green light for massive MICE centre,weblink TTGmice, 12 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605132238weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, dmy-all,

Companies headquartered in Pune

The following is a list of some companies that have their global or national headquarters in Pune or the surrounding area.{{col-begin}}{{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-end}}

Culture

Architecture

(File:Shinde Chhatri, Wanowrie, Pune, Jan 2013.jpg|thumb|Shinde Chhatri in Wanowrie, Pune.)Historical attractions include the rock-cut Pataleshwar cave temple, Aga Khan Palace, Shaniwarwada, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha sardar, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia).BOOK,weblink The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia, N. G. Rathod, Sarup & Sons, 1994, 978-81-85431-52-9, 156, The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.

Museums, parks and zoos

(File:LandscapePuLaUdyan2.JPG|thumb|Pu. La. Deshpande Garden|alt=|left|202x202px)Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum; this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train.The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi was interned during the Quit India movement, has a memorial dedicated to his wife, Kasturba Gandhi who died here during the internment. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Museum of Indian History,a private museum built by Frenchman Francois Gautier opened its first phase in 2012.(File:Apsara_Theater_.jpg|thumb|Apsara Theater|249x249px)Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden . The Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.NEWS,weblink A Japanese paradise in Pune, 4 September 2004, The Times of India, 24 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090912185250weblink">weblink 12 September 2009, no, dmy-all, The Hanuman hill, Vetal hill, and Taljai Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits.The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj.NEWS,weblink By July, bigger enclosures, battery-operated vehicles for Katraj zoo, 29 March 2007, The Indian Express, 24 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130813044713weblink">weblink 13 August 2013, yes, dmy-all, The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.

Performing arts

Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city.NEWS,weblink Theatre producers twist plot for drama bookings, Deshpande, Devidas, Times of India, 12 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170321085322weblink">weblink 21 March 2017, no, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects, Volume 67, S. Kumar, Indian Institute of Architects, 2002, BOOK,weblink Pop culture India! : media, arts, and lifestyle, Kasbekar, Asha, 2006, ABC-Clio, 9781851096367, Oxford, Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of approximately 45,000.WEB,weblink City's largest open-air theatre gets a roof, Abhijit Atre, 19 June 1998, The Indian Express, 8 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120314044445weblink">weblink 14 March 2012, no, dmy-all, The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva.NEWS,weblink Sawai Gandharva music fest to start from Dec 11 â€“ Pune â€“ City â€“ The Times of India, TNN , 25 November 2008, The Times of India, 16 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023143512weblink">weblink 23 October 2012, no, dmy-all, The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.NEWS,weblink Diwali Pahat puts Pune in the mood, Prachi Bari, 12 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060519141006weblink">weblink 19 May 2006, Indiatimes,

Sport

File:Sahara Stadium Pune Outside view.jpg|thumb|Maharashtra Cricket Association StadiumMaharashtra Cricket Association StadiumAs a matter of historic interest, early on, the game of badminton was also known as Poona or Poonah after the then British garrison town of Poona where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. (Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. "Battledore" was an older term for "racquet".) BOOK, Badminton: An Illustrated History, Guillain, Jean-Yves, Publibook, 2004, 978-2-7483-0572-2, 47, BOOK, The Olympics Factbook: A Spectator's Guide to the Winter and Summer Games, Connors, M, Dupuis, D. L., Morgan, B, Visible Ink Press, 1991, 978-0-8103-9417-9, 195, Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, paragliding, kho-kho, rowing, and chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Balewadi is the venue for wrestling and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson College.WEB,weblink Pune Basketball, Open Salon,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131025022828weblink">weblink 25 October 2013, yes, dmy-all, Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground.WEB,weblink Skateboarding enthusiasts cheer civic body for opening a park in city, 29 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150505102453weblink">weblink 5 May 2015, no, dmy-all, Other prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the Poona Cricket Club.The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has hosted international cricket – T20s, One Day Internationals, and a test match.WEB,weblink India to host England in five match Test series, 15 July 2016, 30 November 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161130185434weblink">weblink 30 November 2016, no, dmy-all, The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting.NEWS,weblink Pump up the adrenaline â€“ Pune Times, 23 January 2003, Times of India, 3 December 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105182419weblink">weblink 5 November 2012, no, dmy-all, Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on {{convert|118.5|acre|km2}} of land and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup.WEB,weblink RWITC â€“ The Pune Race Course,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100223011101weblink">weblink 23 February 2010, yes, The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.

Teams

The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League.Pune Warriors India â€“ The Team {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130317021109weblink|date=17 March 2013}} Poona District Football Association (PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams.WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160422021745weblink">weblink 22 April 2016, yes, 2016-07-17, dmy, FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (ISL), U-18 Team (I-League U-18), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women's Team.NEWS,weblink FC Pune City only ISL club to have a team in the inaugural IWL, 2017-01-25, MyKhel, 2018-05-29, en,weblink 30 May 2018, no, dmy-all, The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football franchise, called the Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium.NEWS,weblink Topic Galleries, Chicago Tribune, {{dead link|date=March 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}NEWS,weblink 'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India, Sean Gregory, 4 August 2011, Time, 6 August 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111125025255weblink">weblink 25 November 2011, no, dmy-all,

Government and public services

Civic administration

File:PMC Building.jpg|thumb|Pune Municipal CorporationPune Municipal CorporationPune Municipal Corporation (PMC) is the civic body responsible for local government. It comprises two branches, the executive branch headed by the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra, and an elected deliberative branch, the general body, headed by the Mayor of Pune.WEB,weblink PMC Administrative Structure, Official Website of Pune Municipal Corporation,weblink 5 July 2017, no, dmy-all, Municipal elections are held every five years to elect councillors, commonly known as "corporators", who form the general body. The current general body of the PMC elected in February 2017 has 162 corporators representing 41 wards (39 with 4 corporators each and 2 with 3 each).WEB,weblink PMC ELECTION 2017 WINNING CANDIDATE LIST, 13 September 2017,weblink 13 September 2017, no, dmy-all, The general body, in turn, elects the mayor and the deputy mayor. The mayor has a ceremonial role as the first citizen and ambassador of the city while the actual executive power lies with the municipal commissioner. For policy deliberations, corporators form several committees. Perhaps the most important of these is the 16-member Standing Committee, half of whose members retire every year.WEB,weblink Maharashtra Municipal Corporation Act, 1949, Official Website of the Pune Municipal Corporation,weblink 29 December 2017, no, dmy-all, The Standing Committee and the 15 ward committees are in charge of financial approvals. PMC was ranked 8th out of 21 Indian cities for best governance and administrative practices in 2014. It scored 3.5 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.WEB,weblink Annual Survey of India's City-Systems, Nair, Ajesh, Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, 7 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319003215weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, no, dmy-all, The Pune City Police Department is the law enforcement agency for the twin cities of Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad. It is a division of the Maharashtra Police and is headed by the Police Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police Department reports to the State Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate police commissionerate was announced for Pimpri-Chinchwad in April 2018 to be carved out of Pune Police Department.NEWS,weblink Police commissionerate for Pimpri Chinchwad gets state nod – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-27,weblink 25 June 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Rs 323 crore set aside for New Pimpri Chinchwad Police Commissionerate, 2018-04-04, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-27, en,weblink 28 April 2018, no, dmy-all, The new commissionerate will take charge on 15 August 2018.NEWS,weblink RK Padmanabhan takes over as Pimpri-Chinchwad police commissioner, 2018-07-31, Hindustan Times, 2018-08-04, en,weblink 3 August 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink New police chiefs for Navi Mumbai, Thane, India, Press Trust of, 2018-07-31, The Hindu, 2018-08-04, en-IN, 0971-751X, Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) was formed on 31{{nbs}}March 2015 and is responsible for the integrated development of the PMR.WEB,weblink PMRDA formed to push projects on fast track, 2015-10-07,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151007211825weblink">weblink 7 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Currently its jurisdiction extends over {{convert|7,256.46|km2|0|abbr=on}} and includes two municipal corporations, three cantonment boards, seven municipal councils, 13 census towns and 842 villages.

Utility services

The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla Reservoir. There are five other reservoirs in the area that supply water to the city and the greater metropolitan area.Tirthkar, S.N., 2009. Master plan 2025 of Pune Municipal Corporation for sewage treatment and disposal. J Inst Public Health Eng, 2, pp.13–19.weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180210180344weblink |date=10 February 2018 }}The city lacks the capacity to treat all the sewage it generates, which leads to the Mutha river containing only sewage outside the monsoon months.Wagh, G.K. and Ghate, H.V., 2003. Freshwater fish fauna of the rivers Mula and Mutha, Pune, Maharashtra. Zoos’ Print Journal, 18(1), pp.977–981. In 2009 only 65% of sewage generated was treated before being discharged into the rivers. PMC is also responsible for collecting solid waste. Around 1,600 tons of solid waste is generated in Pune each day. The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material; and 47% inorganic material, of which around half is recyclable. The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping grounds in Urali devachi.Butsch, C., Kumar, S., Wagner, P.D., Kroll, M., Kantakumar, L.N., Bharucha, E., Schneider, K. and Kraas, F., 2017. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration. Sustainability, 9(12), p.2335 weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180118123933weblink |date=18 January 2018 }}.The state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited supplies electricity to the city. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), owned by the central government, as well as private enterprises such as Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, and Virgin Mobile, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.WEB, Annual report 2010–11,weblink Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 13 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120526230024weblink">weblink 26 May 2012, dmy-all, {{rp|25–26}}{{rp|179}}

Education and research

Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU; formerly University of Pune), which is the second largest University in the country based on total number of affiliated colleges.JOURNAL, Kaul, Sanat, May 2006, Higher Education in India: Seizing the Opportunity (working paper),weblink Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India, 4 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411103929weblink">weblink 11 April 2008, no, dmy-all, Higher education institutes attract international students mainly from the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, and United Arab Emirates, and also African countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya.Dongaonkar, D., Negi, U.R., House, A.I.U. and Marg, C.I.G.K., 2009. International Students in Indian Universities. Europe, 178(206), pp.238–309. Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India.WEB,weblink Express India, Cities.expressindia.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060715071806weblink">weblink 15 July 2006, yes, 26 March 2011, dmy-all, Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française.

Basic education

The PMC runs 297 primary schools and 30 secondary and higher secondary schools.NEWS,weblink As per state government order, Pune Municipal Corporation dissolves education board, 2017-06-15, The Indian Express, 2018-06-04, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171219121957weblink">weblink 19 December 2017, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Secondary and technical education, 2018-01-31, Official website of the PMC, 2018-05-27,weblink 28 May 2018, no, dmy-all, While it is mandatory for the PMC to provide primary education under state law, secondary education is an optional duty.NEWS,weblink Govt dissolves education board; schools now under Pune Municipal Corporation's wing - Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-06-04,weblink 2 February 2019, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Maharashtra Assembly passes bill allowing private companies to open schools in state, sets guidelines, 2018-06-04, en-GB,weblink 2 February 2019, no, dmy-all, In the rural and suburban areas of the PMR, public primary schools are run by the Pune Zilla Parishad. Private schools are run by education trusts and are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the concerned authorities. Private schools are eligible for financial aid from the state government.Joshi, R., Regulatory Requirements for Starting a School in Poona. Centre for Civil Society, CCS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP PAPERS 2004 weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171003030245weblink |date=3 October 2017 }} Public schools are affiliated to the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (State Board). The language of instruction in public schools is primarily Marathi, although the PMC also runs Urdu, English and Kannada medium schools.NEWS,weblink PMC schools to run junior colleges from 2018-19 - Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-06-05, NEWS,weblink Free sanitary napkins for girls in civic schools - Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-06-05,weblink 2 February 2019, no, dmy-all, Along with these languages, private schools also offer instruction in Hindi and Gujarati.WEB,weblink Zilla Parishad Pune, www.punezp.org, en-US, 2018-05-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180529175416weblink">weblink 29 May 2018, no, dmy-all, Private schools vary in their choice of curriculum and may follow the State Board or one of the two central boards of education, the CBSE or CISCE.NEWS,weblink CBSE Class XII Results: Pune schools stand tall; Arts students shine again – Pune Mirror -, Pune Mirror, 2018-05-27,weblink 27 May 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink High 90% scores & full marks in subjects bring cheer to ICSE schools – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-05-27,weblink 20 June 2018, no, dmy-all,

University education

File:Pune university small.jpg|thumb|Savitribai Phule Pune University headquarters. During the British era, the building served as the Monsoon residence for the Governor of the Bombay PresidencyBombay PresidencyFile:Armed Forces Medical College ,Pune.JPG|thumb|Armed Forces Medical College, PuneArmed Forces Medical College, Pune Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the SPPU (Savitribai Phule Pune University). Nine other universities have also been established in the city.WEB,weblink List of Deemed Universities, University Grants Commission, 1 January 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131226112709weblink">weblink 26 December 2013, no, dmy-all, Pune also hosts the Military Intelligence Training School which offers diploma courses in counter intelligence, combat intelligence, aerial imagery and interpretation, among others.WEB,weblink Military Intelligence Training School and Depot, Bcud.unipune.ac.in, 2015-05-30,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402062246weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, no, dmy-all, The College of Engineering Pune, an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who was also responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885.WEB,weblink History, Deccan Education Society,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607095109weblink">weblink 7 June 2008, 22 July 2008, The Indian Law Society's (ILS) Law College is one of the top ten law schools in India.WEB,weblink ILS Law College Best Law Colleges 2014 India Today Survey, Indiatoday.intoday.in, 2015-05-30,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150530123444weblink">weblink 30 May 2015, no, dmy-all, The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and B. J. Medical College are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India.WEB,weblink Chap, Sainik Samachar,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090416221203weblink">weblink 16 April 2009, yes, dmy-all, The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road. The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the SPPU campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of gurukul and formal education systems.NEWS,weblink Performing arts degree slowly taking centre stage, Devayani Shahane, 17 June 2003, Times of India, 12 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105032518weblink">weblink 5 November 2012, no, dmy-all, Symbiosis International University operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, including the Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, the Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, the Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development, the Symbiosis Law School and the Symbiosis Institute of International Business. They are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country.NEWS,weblink India's best B-schools, 10 September 2007, Business Today, 1 February 2011,weblink" title="archive.today/20130218155153weblink">weblink 18 February 2013, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink India's best law schools, 21 September 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016222919weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, no, dmy-all, The Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology.WEB,weblink Symbiosis Institute of technology, {{inconsistent citations, |access-date=8 May 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120511225317weblink|archive-date=11 May 2012|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}

Research Institutes

Pune is home to a number of governmental and non-governmental research institutes focusing on a wide range of subject areas from the humanities to the sciences. The Ministry of Defence also runs a number of defence related education, training and research establishments in and around the city. Major research centers include:{{divcol}} {{divcolend}}

Media

A number of Marathi-language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades after independence. These included Kesari, Tarun Bharat, Prabhat and the politically neutral Sakal.JOURNAL, Jeffrey, Robin, 22 February 1997, Marathi: Big newspapers are elephants, Economic and Political Weekly, 32, No. 8, ..., 22–28 Feb., 1997, 384–388, 4405111, Sakal has remained the most popular Marathi daily.WEB,weblink SMT. CLAUDE-LILA PARULEKAR versus M/S. SAKAL PAPERS PVT. LTD. & ORS, www.rishabhdara.com, 12 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180113093436weblink">weblink 13 January 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Smt. Claude-Lila Parulekar vs M/S. Sakal Papers Pvt. Ltd. & Ors on 18 March, 2005, Pal, R, /indiankanoon.org, 28 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101154331weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Kesari is now only published as an online newspaper. Mumbai based Maharashtra Times, Loksatta and Lokmat have all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years. The Mumbai-based popular English newspaper the Indian Express has a Pune edition. Its rival the Times of India introduced a tabloid called Pune Mirror in 2008. Mid Day, Daily News and Analysis and Sakaal Times are other local English newspapers. The English-language newspaper The Hindu has launched{{when|date=June 2018}} a Pune edition covering local as well as national news.{{CN|date=June 2018}}The government owned All India Radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1953.BOOK,weblink This is All India Radio, U. L. BARUAH, 3 November 2017, Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, 978-81-230-2578-0, 10–, Savitribai Phule Pune University broadcasts programmes focusing on its different departments and student welfare schemes on its own FM radio channel called Vidyavani.WEB,weblink Vidyavani 107.4 FM : University of Pune's Online Radio Station, vidyavani.unipune.ac.in, 2018-05-25,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180602012408weblink">weblink 2 June 2018, no, dmy-all, A number of commercial FM channels are also received in the city.Gadekar, M., 2012. Distant participation is a reasonable strategy–A comparative study based on FM channels in Pune. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 2(7), pp.115–124.weblink The city receives almost all of the television channels in India including broadcast, cable and direct-to-home TV.

Transport

Public transport

(File:Pune railway station - Entrance.jpg|thumb|Pune Railway Station – entrance)(File:Emu at Lonavala.JPG|thumb|An EMU on the Pune-Lonavla suburban line)Public transport in Pune includes Pune Suburban Railway, bus services operated by PMPML and auto rickshaws. Online transport network companies such as Uber and Ola Cabs also provide rideshare and taxi services in the city. Construction of Pune Metro, an urban mass rapid transit system, is underway as of 2018.NEWS,weblink Pune Metro work hits top gear, 2017-12-23, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-18, en,weblink 19 April 2018, no, dmy-all,

Rail

Pune Suburban Railway (electric multiple units) (popularly called local trains) connect Pune to the industrial city of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala. Daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Nashik,Ahmedabad, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed.WEB,weblink Accolades for Pune division of Central Railway, 21 April 2009, The Indian Express, Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of Central Railways.WEB,weblink Welcome to Central Railways, Hindi, Central Railways, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20110705101114weblink">weblink 5 July 2011, dmy-all,

Bus service

(File:Pune Local Transport.JPG|thumb|right|Local buses in Pune)Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. The project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little patronage from the local citizenry.NEWS,weblink 2 years on, country's first BRTS remains incomplete, Manish Umbrajkar, 5 March 2009, Times of India, 29 June 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130524212108weblink">weblink 24 May 2013, no, dmy-all, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India.WEB,weblink Maharashtra State Road Transport, IndiaTransit.com, 5 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20120904102541weblink">weblink 4 September 2012, dmy-all,

Metro

Pune Metro, a mass rapid transit system, is under construction and is expected to be operational by 2021.NEWS,weblink Pune Metro to operate at full steam in 2021, says Maha-Metro chief, 2018-02-14, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-18, en,weblink 10 March 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Pune Metro rail to be operational by 2021, say officials, 2017-02-12, The Indian Express, 2018-04-18, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180419053214weblink">weblink 19 April 2018, no, dmy-all, The detailed project report was prepared for the initial two lines by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation which was approved by the State government in 2012 and by the central government in December 2016.NEWS,weblink Alternate form of public transport is the only option for Pune {{!, Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis|date=2013-01-17|work=dna|access-date=2018-04-18|language=en-US|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180311024346weblink|archive-date=11 March 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}NEWS,weblink Pune’s Metro ride a distant dream {{!, Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis|date=2014-06-09|work=dna|access-date=2018-04-18|language=en-US|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180311025855weblink|archive-date=11 March 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}NEWS,weblink Pune Metro plan gets green signal from Union cabinet, 2016-12-08, The Indian Express, 2018-04-18, en-US,weblink 21 June 2018, no, dmy-all, Two lines, Line 1 from Pimpri Chinchwad Muncipal Corportion Building to Swargate and Line 2 from Ramwadi to Vanaz, with a combined length of {{convert|31.25|km|mi}}, are being constructed by MahaMetro, a 50:50 joint venture of the State and central governments.NEWS,weblink Pune metro rail project gets go-ahead from Centre – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-18,weblink 25 June 2018, no, dmy-all, Line 1 will run underground between Swargate and Range Hills be and elevated until Pimpri Chinchwad. Line 2 will be completely elevated and will intersect Line 1 at the Civil Court interchange station in Shivajinagar.WEB,weblink Welcome to Pune Metro Rail Project {{!, Project Profile|website=www.punemetrorail.org|access-date=2018-04-18|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180419020850weblink|archive-date=19 April 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}Line 3 between Hinjawadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar was approved by the state and central governments in January and March 2018, respectively.NEWS,weblink Hinjewadi to Shivajinagar Metro line gets state nod – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-18,weblink 1 June 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Hinjewadi-Shivajinagar Metro gets Centre funds – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-18,weblink 10 March 2018, no, dmy-all, This 23.3-km line is being implemented by PMRDA on a public-private partnership basis.NEWS,weblink Bids invited for third Metro line in Pune, 2018-03-17, The Financial Express, 2018-04-18, en-US,weblink 19 April 2018, no, dmy-all,

Road transport

(File:Pune Highway.jpg|thumb|A highway leading into Pune){{See also|Old Mumbai–Pune Highway|Dehu Road–Katraj bypass|New Katraj Tunnel}}Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian and state highways. National Highway 4 connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. National Highway 65 to Hyderabad, Suryapet, Vijayawada and National Highway 50 to Nashik. State highways connect Pune to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad and Alandi. Pune is served by three intra-city highways: Old Mumbai–Pune Highway; Pune–Satara Highway and Dehu Road–Katraj bypass, all part of National Highway 4.The Mumbai-Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. Only four wheeled vehicles are allowed on it. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to a little over two hours. A ring road is planned.NEWS,weblink Centre allocates Rs.2,468 crore for Pune’s ring road project, 2018-02-13, Hindustan Times, 2018-05-06, en,weblink 7 May 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink PMRDA has transformed Pune in three years, says Girish Bapat, 2018-04-10, Hindustan Times, 2018-05-06, en,weblink 6 May 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink PCMC grants Rs 6 crore for ring road project, 19 June 2003, The Times of India, 29 June 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130526165850weblink">weblink 26 May 2013, no, dmy-all,

Personal transport

(File:Pune Traffic Two Wheelers.jpg|thumb|right|Two wheelers in Pune)Once known as the "cycle city of India", Pune has experienced a rapid growth in the number of motorised two wheelers replacing the bicycle.MAUNDER, D, C PALMER, A ASTROP AND M BABU (1 997). Attitudes and travel behaviour of residents in Pune, India. Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., 12–17 January 1997 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180619035721weblink |date=19 June 2018 }}. In 2005 the city was reported to have one million two wheelers. The report also stated that the increase in vehicular and industrial activity had led to a 10-fold increase in particulate pollution in some areas of the city.JOURNAL, Safai, Pramod Digambar, Surya Prakasa Rao, Pasumarti, Momin, Gafur Abulal, Kaushar Ali, Kaushar Ali, Chate, Dilip Motiram, Praveen, Puppala Siva, Sattilingam Devara, Panuganti China, 2005, Variation in the Chemistry of Aerosols in two Different Winter Seasons at Pune and Sinhagad, India,weblink Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 5, 1, 115–126, 24 April 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180425114448weblink">weblink 25 April 2018, no, dmy-all, 10.4209/aaqr.2005.06.0008, A report published in 2016 estimated the number of two wheeler users in Pune at 3.5 million.JOURNAL, Desai, M., Khandelwal, S., Singh, L. and Gite, S., Automatic Helmet Detection On Public Roads, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 2016, 35, 5, 185–188,weblink 24 April 2018,weblink 25 April 2018, no, dmy-all, 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V35P241, In 2018 the number of vehicles in the city has exceeded its population with 3.62 million total vehicles, 2.70 million being two wheelers.NEWS,weblink Pune now officially has more vehicles than people: Here’s more!, 2018-04-06, The Financial Express, 2018-04-24, en-US,weblink 25 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Pune now has more vehicles than humans, 2018-04-06, Zee News, 2018-04-24, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180413125517weblink">weblink 13 April 2018, no, dmy-all, In the fiscal year 2017–18 alone 300,000 new vehicles were registered in the city, two-thirds of them two wheelers.NEWS,weblink Pune gets nearly 3 lakh new vehicles in a year – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-24,weblink 22 September 2018, no, dmy-all, A revival of cycling in Pune with {{convert|130|km|mi}} of cycle tracks built was attempted as a part of the BRT system under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2004. However, a 2011 report revealed that only {{convert|88|km|mi}} of tracks were actually built and most were unusable at the time of the report.WEB,weblink Cycle Track Assessment – Report, parisar.org, en-gb, 2018-04-25,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180426012109weblink">weblink 26 April 2018, yes, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Can Pune get back on track?, Byatnal, Amruta, 2012-12-09, The Hindu, 2018-04-25, en-IN, 0971-751X,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121227042233weblink">weblink 27 December 2012, no, dmy-all, Under the Smart Cities Mission, app based cycle sharing schemes have been launched in the city since late 2017.NEWS,weblink Cycle renting scheme on track, with special app – Pune Mirror -, Pune Mirror, 2018-04-25,weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Bicycle-sharing scheme a hit, moves into top gear in Pune, 2018-03-05, The Indian Express, 2018-04-25, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180426075908weblink">weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Cycle sharing plan comes to JM, FC roads – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-25,weblink 20 June 2018, no, dmy-all, The PMC has devised the Pune Cycle Plan with {{convert|470|km|mi}} of cycle tracks planned.NEWS,weblink PMC gives green signal for Pune Cycle Plan, 470-km of segregated tracks, 2017-11-22, Hindustan Times, 2018-04-25, en,weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pune Cycle Plan, Official Website of the Pune Municipal Corporation,weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Pune civic body sets up bicycle department – Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-04-25,weblink 25 June 2018, no, dmy-all, Cycles are also seen as a possible way of improving last mile connectivity for the metro system.NEWS,weblink Pune Metro Rail project: Euro 845 mn funding expected to close by March 2018, 2017-11-10, The Financial Express, 2018-04-25, en-US,weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all,

Air

(File:Departure Lounge Pune Airport India.jpg|thumb|Departure lounge at Pune Airport){{See also|Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje International Airport}}Pune International Airport is an international Airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base.WEB,weblink Pune City, St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825091211weblink">weblink 25 August 2011, dmy-all, In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, the airport has international direct flights to Dubai, operated by Air India Express,NEWS,weblink Pune goes global, 13 December 2005, The Times of India, 2 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105184037weblink">weblink 5 November 2012, no, dmy-all, and SpiceJet.A new international airport has been proposed, due to the limited capacity of the existing airport. A location in the Chakan-Rajgurunagar area was chosen for the airport,NEWS,weblink Chakan airport gets state nod, 19 February 2009, Times of India, 3 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105184046weblink">weblink 5 November 2012, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Proposed Pune airport plan to get push – Indian Express, archive.indianexpress.com, en-gb, 2018-04-25, but non-availability of land delayed the project for over a decade.NEWS,weblink A decade on, it’s official: International airport to come up at Purandar, Pune, 2016-09-24, The Indian Express, 2018-04-25, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180426012322weblink">weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all, In September 2016 the location was changed to Purandar, {{circa}} {{convert|20|km|mi}} south of the city.NEWS,weblink Airports Authority Selects Purandar For International Airport Near Pune: Devendra Fadnavis, NDTV.com, 2018-04-25,weblink 1 February 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink AAI selects Purandar for greenfield intl airport near Pune: CM, India Today, en, 2018-04-25,weblink 26 April 2018, no, dmy-all,

Healthcare

File:B J Medical College, Pune.jpg|thumb|right|B. J. Medical College, Pune was established in 1878 and is associated with the Sassoon HospitalSassoon Hospital{{See also|List of hospitals in Pune}}Healthcare in the PMR is provided by private and public facilities. Primary care is provided by practitioners of western as well as traditional alternative medicine (i.e.Ayurved, Homeopathy and Unani). For minor and chronic ailments, people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine.BOOK, Warner, Koko, Bohle, Hans-Georg (Editors), Butsch, Carsten (Author), Megacities Resilience and Social Vulnerability, Section 2: Access to Healthcare in the Fragmented Setting of India's Fast Growing Agglomerations – a Case Study of Pune, 2008, UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), 978-3-939923-12-1, 70,weblink 22 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180323031018weblink">weblink 23 March 2018, no, dmy-all, The PMR is served by three government hospitals: Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of private hospitals such as Ranka Hospital, Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing Home, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Dinanath Mangeshkar Hospital.

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in India}} World Trade Center (WTC) Pune is a 1.6 million sq. ft. infrastructure to foster international trade. WTC Pune is part of the World Trade Centers Association.WEB,weblink World Trade Centers Association, www.wtca.org, 2018-06-13,weblink 13 June 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Commercial Projects in Kharadi Pune {{!, World Trade Center (WTC) Pune|website=wtcpune.com|access-date=2018-06-13|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180604095539weblink|archive-date=4 June 2018|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all}}
Twin towns and sister cities
WEB,weblink US-India Sister City Relationships, Asia matters for America, 2017-04-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150517082347weblink">weblink 17 May 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Sister City Program, San José City Hall, 2015-10-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170524232806weblink">weblink 24 May 2017, no, dmy-all,

Informal relationship
  • {{flagicon|Germany}} Bremen, GermanyNEWS,weblink Sister in progress, Times of India â€“ Pune Times, 30 August 2001, 20 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105182516weblink">weblink 5 November 2012, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Profile: Mrs. Vandana H. Chavan (Ex Mayor of Pune), Pune Diary, 2016-02-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101106022401weblink">weblink 6 November 2010, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Pune, twin cities to get pollution lab, Times of India â€“ Pune Times, 4 September 2001, 28 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131227223341weblink">weblink 27 December 2013, no, dmy-all,

See also

{{Col-begin}}{{Col-1-of-3}}
Historical:
{{col-break}}
Geographical:
{{Col-2-of-3}}
Law:
{{col-end}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

  • {{Official websiteweblink}} for Pune City and District
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Maharashtra/Localities/Pune/}}
  • Pune Encyclopædia Britannica entry
{hide}Geographic location
|Centre = Pune
|North = GujaratMadhya Pradesh
|East = TelanganaChhattisgarh
|South = KarnatakaGoa
|West = Arabian Sea
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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT