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Jaipur
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{{about|the metropolitan area in Rajasthan, India|its namesake district|Jaipur district|other uses}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2015}}







factoids
List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = IndiaStates and territories of India>State| subdivision_name1 = RajasthanList of districts of India>DistrictJaipur district>Jaipur| established_title = Establishment| established_date = 1727| founder = Jai Singh II| named_for = Jai Singh II| government_type = Mayor-council| governing_body = | leader_title = MayorACCESS-DATE=23 JANUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=23 JANUARY 2019 DF=DMY-ALL, | unit_pref = MetricPUBLISHER=JAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180425032103/HTTP://JAIPURMC.ORG/PRESENTATION/ABOUTMCJAIPUR/CITYPROFILE.ASPX DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, List of cities and towns in Rajasthan>1st in Rajasthan| area_total_km2 = 467| population_total = 3,046,189| population_as_of = 2011List of most populous cities in India>10th India| population_density_km2 = auto| population_demonym = JaipuriteWEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIAPAGES=30ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151114010348/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/DCHB/0812_PART_B_DCHB_JAIPUR.PDFDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30Postal Index Number>Pincode(s)| postal_code = 3020xxTelephone numbering plan>Area code(s)| area_code = +91-141| registration_plate = RJ-14 (Jaipur South) RJ-45 (Jaipur North) RJ-52 (Shahpura) RJ-41 (Chomu) RJ-47 (Dudu) RJ-32 (Kotputli)| demographics_type1 = Language| demographics1_title1 = OfficialHindi language>Hindi52ND REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA>URL=HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDFPUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF MINORITY AFFAIRSDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=25 MAY 2017, dmy-all, | demographics1_title2 = Additional officialEnglish language>English| demographics1_title3 = RegionalRajasthani language>Rajasthani, Marwarijaipurmc.org}} embed=yes
| designation1 = WHS
| designation1_offname = Jaipur City, Rajasthan
| designation1_date = 2019 (43rd session)
| designation1_type =
| designation1_criteria = {{UNESCO WHS type|(ii), (iv), (vi){edih}(ii), (iv), (vi)
| Year = 2019
| area = 710 ha
| buffer_zone = 2,205 ha
| designation1_number = 1605
| designation1_free1name = State Party
| designation1_free1value = India
| designation1_free2name = Region
| designation1_free2value = Southern Asia
}}}}Jaipur ({{IPAc-en|audio=Jaipur MW.ogg|ˈ|dÊ’|aɪ|p|ÊŠÉ™r}})WEB,weblink Jaipur City (or Jainagar), 1909, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 399–402, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100526201958weblink">weblink 26 May 2010, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Define Jaipur, Dictionary.com, 26 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714155553weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Definition of Jaipur, The Free Dictionary, 26 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140707153340weblink">weblink 7 July 2014, no, dmy-all, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City, due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings.WEB,weblink Why Jaipur is called pink city, mapsofindia.com, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131019011352weblink">weblink 19 October 2013, no, dmy-all, It is located {{convert|268|km|mi|0|abbr=in}} from the national capital New Delhi.Jaipur was founded in 1727 by the Rajput ruler Jai Singh II,EB1911, Jaipur, 15, 128–129, the ruler of Amer, after whom the city is named. It was one of the earliest planned cities of modern India, designed by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya. During the British Colonial period, the city served as the capital of Jaipur State. After independence in 1947, Jaipur was made capital of the newly-formed state of Rajasthan.Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Delhi and Agra ({{convert|240|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=comma}}).NEWS,weblink The Complete Guide To: India's Golden Triangle, 3 February 2007, The Independent, 15 December 2017,weblink 30 December 2017, no, dmy-all, It is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Jantar Mantar and the Amer Fort. It also serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur ({{convert|348|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=comma}}), Jaisalmer ({{convert|571|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=comma}}), Udaipur ({{convert|421|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=comma}}), Kota (252 km, 156 mi) and Mount Abu({{convert|520|km|mi|0|abbr=on|disp=comma}}). Jaipur is located 616 km from Shimla.On 6 July 2019, UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Jaipur the ‘Pink City of India’ among its World Heritage Sites.WEB,weblink Seven cultural sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, UNESCO, 6 July 2019, An announcement about Jaipur’s inclusion in the UNESCO list was made on July 6 after the 43rd meet of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee at Baku, Azerbaijan where the Committee had to examine 35 nominations for inscription and inspected by ICOMOS (The International Council on Monuments and Sites) last year. The historic city met the inspection standards and was thus included in the final list as well. The city is also home to two prominent UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India - Amber Fort and Jantar Mantar. The Committee has given one year time to city representative to hold this title for the city as they need to keep developing the city in different terms.

History

File:1 Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II ca 1725 Jaipur. British museum.jpg|thumb|left|Jai Singh IIJai Singh IIThe city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1699 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, {{convert|11|km|mi|0}} to Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra. The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices, and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.WEB,weblink About Jaipur, Government of Rajasthan, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151103091000weblink">weblink 3 November 2015, no, dmy-all, Jaipur is a standout amongst the most socially rich legacy urban areas in India. Established in the year 1727, the city is named after Maharaja Jai Singh II who was the primary organizer of this city. He was a Kachhwaha Rajput and ruled the region in the vicinity of 1699 and 1744.During the rule of Sawai Ram Singh I, the city was painted pink to welcome H.R.H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (who later became King Edward VII, Emperor of India), in 1876.WEB,weblink History of Jaipur, Lonely Planet, 26 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160601043503weblink">weblink 1 June 2016, no, dmy-all, Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.WEB,weblink History in depth: Edward VII: The First Constitutional Monarch, BBC, 5 November 2009, 26 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070626201400weblink">weblink 26 June 2007, no, dmy-all, In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly and by 1900 it had a population of 160,000. The wide boulevards were paved and its chief industries were the working of metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. The city had three colleges, including a Sanskrit college (1865) and a girls' school (1867) opened during the reign of the Maharaja Ram Singh II.WEB,weblink Jaipur City or Jainagar, 1909, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 399–402, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100526201958weblink">weblink 26 May 2010, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Jaipur State, 1909, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 382–399, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151115051816weblink">weblink 15 November 2015, no, dmy-all, Large areas of the city including the airport were flooded in August 1981, resulting in the death of eight people and much damage to the city's Dravyavati River.WEB, Rejuvenation of Amanishah Nallah including Area Development,weblink Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, 25, 5 May 2016, 31 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180201020222weblink">weblink 1 February 2018, no, dmy-all, The floods were caused by three days of cloud burst that produced more rain than the annual average.BOOK, Jain, Sharad K., Agarwal, Pushpendra K., Singh, Vijay P., Hydrology and Water Resources of India, 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 9781402051807, 883,weblink en, 31 January 2018,weblink 1 February 2018, no, dmy-all,

Geography

Climate

Jaipur has a monsoon influenced hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification Bsh) with long, extremely hot summers and short, mild to warm winters. Annual precipitation is over 63 cm, falling mostly in July and August due to monsoon, causing the average temperatures in these two months to be lower compared to drier May and June. During the monsoon, there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The highest temperature ever recorded was 48.5 Â°C, in May. The city's average temperature remains below 20 Â°C between December and February. These months are mild, dry and pleasant, sometimes chilly. The lowest temperature ever recorded was -2.2 Â°C. Jaipur, like many other major cities of the world, is a significant urban heat island zone with surrounding rural temperatures occasionally falling below freezing in winters.WEB,weblink World Weather Information Service, 11 December 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091128183949weblink">weblink 28 November 2009, no, dmy-all, {{Weather box|width = auto|location = Jaipur (Jaipur Airport)|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|temperature colour = |Jan record high C = 31.7|Feb record high C = 36.7|Mar record high C = 42.8|Apr record high C = 44.9|May record high C = 48.5|Jun record high C = 47.2|Jul record high C = 46.7|Aug record high C = 41.7|Sep record high C = 41.7|Oct record high C = 40.0|Nov record high C = 36.1|Dec record high C = 31.3|year record high C = 48.5|Jan high C = 22.4|Feb high C = 25.0|Mar high C = 31.0|Apr high C = 37.1|May high C = 40.3|Jun high C = 39.3|Jul high C = 34.1|Aug high C = 32.4|Sep high C = 33.8|Oct high C = 33.6|Nov high C = 29.2|Dec high C = 24.4|Jan mean C = 15.4|Feb mean C = 17.9|Mar mean C = 23.5|Apr mean C = 29.5|May mean C = 33.1|Jun mean C = 33.4|Jul mean C = 30|Aug mean C = 28.6|Sep mean C = 28.5|Oct mean C = 26.5|Nov mean C = 21.5|Dec mean C = 16.8|Jan low C = 8.4|Feb low C = 10.8|Mar low C = 16.0|Apr low C = 21.8|May low C = 25.9|Jun low C = 27.4|Jul low C = 25.8|Aug low C = 24.7|Sep low C = 23.2|Oct low C = 19.4|Nov low C = 13.8|Dec low C = 9.2|Jan record low C = -2.2|Feb record low C = -2.2|Mar record low C = 3.3|Apr record low C = 9.4|May record low C = 15.6|Jun record low C = 19.1|Jul record low C = 20.6|Aug record low C = 18.9|Sep record low C = 15.0|Oct record low C = 11.1|Nov record low C = 3.3|Dec record low C = 0.0|year record low C = -2.2|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 7.0|Feb precipitation mm = 10.6|Mar precipitation mm = 3.1|Apr precipitation mm = 4.9|May precipitation mm = 17.9|Jun precipitation mm = 63.4|Jul precipitation mm = 223.3|Aug precipitation mm = 205.9|Sep precipitation mm = 66.3|Oct precipitation mm = 25.0|Nov precipitation mm = 3.9|Dec precipitation mm = 4.2|year precipitation mm = 635.4|Jan rain days = 0.6|Feb rain days = 1.0|Mar rain days = 0.4|Apr rain days = 0.7|May rain days = 1.4|Jun rain days = 3.9|Jul rain days = 11.2|Aug rain days = 10.0|Sep rain days = 3.8|Oct rain days = 1.3|Nov rain days = 0.4|Dec rain days = 0.4|year rain days = 35.2|source 1 = India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)WEB
,weblink
, Jaipur Climatological Table Period: 1971–2000
, India Meteorological Department
, March 25, 2015
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402115033weblink">weblink
, 2 April 2015
, dmy-all
, WEB
,weblink
, PDF
, Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010
, India Meteorological Department
, March 25, 2014
, yes
,weblink
, 21 May 2013
,
, |date=October 2011}}

Demographics

{{bar box|title=Religion in Jaipur city (2011)|align=left|titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent(%)|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|Orange|77.9}}{{bar percent|Islam|Green|18.6}}{{bar percent|Jainism|yellow|2.4}}{{bar percent|Other|grey|1.2}}}}According to provisional report of 2011 census, Jaipur city had a population of 3,073,350.WEB,weblink PDF, Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 26 March 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120507135928weblink">weblink 7 May 2012, no, dmy-all, The overall literacy rate for the city is 84.34%. 90.61% males and 77.41% females were literate. The sex ratio was 898 females per 1,000 males. The child sex ratio stood at 854. According to the 2011 census, Hindus form the majority religious group comprising 77.9% of the city's population, followed by Muslims (18.6%), Jains (2.4%) and others (1.2%).WEB, Population By Religious Community - Rajasthan, 2011,weblink XLS, Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 13 September 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150913045700weblink">weblink 13 September 2015, no, dmy-all, {{IndiaCensusPop|title= Population Growth of Jaipur City|1881= 142600|1891= 158900|1901= 160000|1911= 137100|1921= 120200|1931= 144200|1941= 175800|1951= 291000|1961= 403400|1968= 533200|1971= 636800|1981= 1004700|1991= 1518200|2001= 2322575|2011= 3073350Census of IndiaHTTP://MOSPI.GOV.IN/COMENV2000TAB7.2.11.HTM PUBLISHER=MOSPI.GOV.IN DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=13 AUGUST 2008 ACCESS-DATE=5 NOVEMBER 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=17 FEBRUARY 2013DF=DMY-ALL, }}{{clear}}

Administration and politics

(File:Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha.jpg|thumb|Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha)Jaipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for maintaining the city's civic infrastructure and carrying out associated administrative duties. The Municipal Corporation is headed by a mayor.WEB, Jaipur MC,weblink Jaipur MC, 7 March 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150316032335weblink">weblink 16 March 2015, no, dmy-all, There are 91 wards and each ward is represented by an elected member. Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) is the nodal government agency responsible for the planning and development of Jaipur.WEB,weblink Jaipur Development Authority, Government of Rajasthan, 5 November 2015, yes,weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, Jaipur consists of two parliamentary constituencies Jaipur and Jaipur Rural.WEB,weblink Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies wise Polling Stations & Electors, Chief Electoral Officer, Rajasthan website, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726003649weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, no, dmy-all, In January 2019 Vishnu Laata was elected Mayor of Jaipur.

Tourism

{{See also|List of attractions in Jaipur}}Jaipur is a major tourist destination in India forming a part of the Golden Triangle. In the 2008 Conde Nast Traveller Readers Choice Survey, Jaipur was ranked the 7th best place to visit in Asia.WEB,weblink Jaipur Seventh Best Tourist Destination in Asia â€“ Conde Nast Traveller Survey, bharatonline.com, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718130757weblink">weblink 18 July 2011, no, dmy-all, According to TripAdvisor's 2015 Traveller's Choice Awards for Destination, Jaipur ranked 1st among the Indian destinations for the year.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150401221808weblink">weblink yes, 1 April 2015, World's best destinations, 28 March 2011, dmy-all, The Presidential Suite at the Raj Palace Hotel, billed at {{US$|45,000|link=yes}} per night, was listed in second place on CNN's World's 15 most expensive hotel suites in 2012.NEWS, Arnold, Helen,weblink World's 15 most expensive hotel suites, CNN Go, 25 March 2012, 11 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121102235454weblink">weblink 2 November 2012, yes, dmy-all, Jaipur Exhibition & Convention Centre (JECC) is Rajasthan’s biggest convention and exhibition centre.WEB, Accor to manage Jaipur's new convention centre,weblink M&IT India, 2016-02-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160414045148weblink">weblink 14 April 2016, no, dmy-all, It is famous for organising events such as Vastara, Jaipur Jewellery Show, Stonemart 2015 and Resurgent Rajasthan Partnership Summit 2015.WEB, Jaipur Exhibition and Convention Centre will make Pink City a meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions hub - Times of India,weblink The Times of India, 2016-02-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150711114056weblink">weblink 11 July 2015, no, dmy-all, Visitor attractions include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Birla Mandir, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Moti Dungri Ganesh Temple, Sanghiji Jain temple and the Jaipur Zoo.WEB,weblink Temples of Jaipur, jaipur.org, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151124052739weblink">weblink 24 November 2015, no, dmy-all, The Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites.WEB,weblink The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur â€“ UNESCO World Heritage Centre, whc.unesco.org, 31 July 2010, 1 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101005070230weblink">weblink 5 October 2010, no, dmy-all, Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windowsWEB, Hawa Mahal Jaipur - History, Architecture, Visiting Hours,weblink www.jaipur.org.uk, 2016-02-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304041551weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, no, dmy-all, that rises {{convert|50|ft|m|order=flip}} from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur. Raj Mandir is a notable cinema hall in Jaipur.File:Amber Fort (आमेर का किला ).jpg|Amer FortFile:1985.04.15 31 Fort Amber India.jpg|Ganesh Pol of Amer FortFile:Rajasthan-Jaipur-Jaigarh-Fort-compound-Apr-2004-00.JPG|Jaigarh FortFile:Nahargarh 09.jpg|Nahargarh FortFile:Jalmahal Restored.jpeg|Jal MahalFile:Hawa Mahal Final 1.jpg|Hawa MahalFile:Jaipur 03-2016 19 City Palace complex.jpg|City Palace, JaipurFile:Vishnu Narayan Temple Jaipur.JPG|Birla Mandir, JaipurFile:Sangheji jain temple,sanganer,jaipur.JPG|Digamber Jain temple of SanghijiFile:Индия47.jpg|Jantar MantarFile:City Palace Jaipur 1.jpg|Albert Hall Museum

Culture

(File:Jaipur 03-2016 26 Hawa Mahal Road at the City Palace.jpg|thumb|Hawa Mahal Road, Jaipur)Jaipur has many cultural sites like Jawahar Kala Kendra formed by Architect Charles Correa and Ravindra Manch. Government Central Museum hosts several arts and antiquities. There is a government museum at Hawa Mahal and an art gallery at Viratnagar. There are statues depicting Rajasthani culture around the city.WEB,weblink Culture Of Jaipur - Cultural Heritage, Art & Architecture of Jaipur, jaipur.org, 27 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150705211357weblink">weblink 5 July 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Culture of Jaipur, 8 March 2016,weblink 9 July 2017, no, dmy-all, Jaipur has many traditional shops selling antiques and handicrafts. The prior rulers of Jaipur patronised a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature paintings, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware.WEB,weblink About Jaipur, Government of Rajasthan, 5 November 2015,weblink 14 June 2015, yes, dmy-all, With a wonderful combination of ancient royal heritage and ultra-modern life method, Jaipur displays a cool presentation of urban lifestyle.Jaipur has its own performing arts. The Jaipur Gharana for Kathak is one of the three gharanas of the major north Indian classical dance form of Kathak.WEB,weblink Jaipur Kathak Kendra: Home, jaipurkathakkendra.nic.in, 14 September 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171024151524weblink">weblink 24 October 2017, no, dmy-all, The Jaipur Gharana of Kathak is known for its rapid intricate dance forms, vivacious body movements and subtle Abhinaya. The Ghoomar is a popular folk dance style.BOOK, Manorma Sharma, Tradition of Hindustani Music,weblink 2006, APH Publishing, 978-81-7648-999-7, 49–51, 3 October 2016,weblink 18 March 2017, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Jeffrey Michael Grimes, The Geography of Hindustani Music: The Influence of Region and Regionalism on the North Indian Classical Tradition,weblink 2008, ProQuest, 978-1-109-00342-0, 142–, 3 October 2016,weblink 17 March 2017, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa, The Lost World of Hindustani Music,weblink 2006, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-306199-1, 154–, 3 October 2016,weblink 18 March 2017, no, dmy-all, Tamasha is an art form where Kathputli puppet dance is shown in play form.WEB,weblink Culture of Jaipur, jaipur.org, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150705211357weblink">weblink 5 July 2015, no, dmy-all, Major festivals celebrated in Jaipur include Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Makar Sankranti, Holi, Diwali, Vijayadashami, Teej, Eid, Mahavir Jayanti and Christmas. Jaipur is also famous for the Jaipur Literature Festival, the world's largest free literature festival in which country-wide authors, writers and literature lovers participate.WEB,weblink Jaipur literary festival, jaipur.org, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017092826weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all,

Architecture

The city was planned according to Indian Vastu shastra by Vidyadhar Bhattacharya in 1727.WEB,weblink Vidyadhar Garden in Jaipur, July 5, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513104427weblink">weblink 13 May 2011, no, dmy-all, There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called Suraj pol (sun gate), the western gate is called Chand pol (moon gate) and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.WEB,weblink Jaipur - The Pink City, July 5, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717033304weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City, Vibhuti Sachdev, Giles Henry Rupert Tillotson, Oxford University Press, 2002, 978-0-19-566353-2, 5 November 2015,weblink 8 December 2015, no, dmy-all, The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m (111 ft) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.Amer Fort - Top View.jpg|Amer Fort as seen from the Jaigarh Fort.Ghat ki Guni Tunnel National Highway 11 Jaipur Agra NH11 Rajasthan India 2013.jpg|Ghat ki Guni Tunnel National Highway 11 Jaipur.

Cuisine

Typical dishes include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Ker Sangri, Makke ki Ghat, Bajre ki Ghat, Bajre ki Roti and Laal Maans.WEB, Cuisines Of Jaipur,weblink pinkcity.com, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016224734weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Jaipur is also known for its sweets which include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Meethi thuli, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.WEB,weblink Cuisine of Jaipur, Jaipur-pinkcity.webs.com, 28 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514205332weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink What to eat in Jaipur, jaipurtravel.com, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151019022029weblink">weblink 19 October 2015, no, dmy-all,

Languages

The official language of Jaipur is Hindi and the additional official language is English. The main language of the city is Rajasthani. Marwari, Hindi and English are also spoken in the city.

Economy and infrastructure

File:World Trade Park Jaipur in 2012.jpg|thumb|300px|World Trade Park, JaipurWorld Trade Park, JaipurIn addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative centre, the economy of Jaipur is fuelled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology.WEB,weblink IT & ITeS - Resurgent Rajasthan, resurgent.rajasthan.gov.in, 2016-06-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160610071923weblink">weblink 10 June 2016, no, dmy-all, Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Jaipur. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities.NEWS,weblink Indian cities among global outsourcing cities, The Economic Times, 23 September 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090303211736weblink">weblink 3 March 2009, no, dmy-all, Jaipur Stock Exchange is one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989.WEB,weblink JSEL, 31 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151025065005weblink">weblink 25 October 2015, yes, dmy-all, Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs.WEB,weblink Development through Enterprise, NextBillion.net, 26 May 2012, 2 June 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927100159weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Churu's Marwari, Nand Kishore Chaudhary's Jaipur Rugs a matter of discourse at Harvard, Economic Times, 26 January 2012, 24 February 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120130043458weblink">weblink 30 January 2012, no, dmy-all, Jaipur leg, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.WEB,weblink Jaipur foot: History, jaipurfoot.org, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121026165357weblink">weblink 26 October 2012, no, dmy-all, WEB, Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009), Ministry of Home Affairs (India), Ministry of Home Affairs,weblink 5 November 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510095705weblink">weblink 10 May 2013,

Communication

Jaipur has offices of companies like Airtel, Vodafone, Jio, Reliance, Idea, BSNL, V-Guard and Tata which are providing mobile telephony and there are also various internet service providers in the city. Government of Rajasthan has started free WiFi at various public places like Central Park, Jantar Mantar among others.

Media

Major daily newspapers in Jaipur include Amar Ujala,WEB,weblink Jaipur News in Hindi., 7 September 2017, Amar Ujala,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170907043958weblink">weblink 7 September 2017, no, dmy-all, Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Navajyoti and The Times of India.WEB,weblink Jaipur Guide, bhaskar.com, 27 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150723230728weblink">weblink 23 July 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Dainik Navajyoti, dainiknavajyoti.com, 27 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150801073827weblink">weblink 1 August 2015, no, dmy-all, The state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM band in the city. Private FM stations include Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz), My FM (94.3 MHz), FM Tadka 95 FM (95.0 MHz), Red FM 93.5 (93.5 MHz) and Gyan Vani (105.6 MHz). The city has a community FM channel in FM Radio 7 (90.4 MHz) by India International School Institutional Network. The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel in addition to the private broadcasters.

Transport

Jaipur BRTS.jpg|Jaipur BRTSJaipur 03-2016 34 Jaipur Metro.jpg|Jaipur MetroJaipur Airport.JPG|Jaipur International Airport

Roads

Jaipur is located on National Highway No.8 connecting Delhi and Mumbai. National Highway 12 links Jaipur with Kota and National Highway 11 links Bikaner with Agra passing through Jaipur. RSRTC operates bus service to major cities in Rajasthan, New Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat. City buses are operated by Jaipur City Transport Services Limited (JCTSL)WEB,weblink JCSTL Website, Jaipurbus.com, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110226113104weblink">weblink 26 February 2011, no, dmy-all, of RSRTC.WEB, Rajasthan State Road Transportation Company info,weblink India Transit, 4 December 2014,weblink" title="archive.is/20130126075557weblink">weblink 26 January 2013, yes, dmy-all, The service operates more than 400 regular and low-floor buses. Major bus depots are located at Vaishali Nagar, Vidyadhar Nagar and Sanganer.Jaipur BRTS was approved by the government in August 2006. Jaipur BRTS is managed by JCSTL, a special purpose vehicle formed by Jaipur Development Authority and Jaipur Nagar Nigam. In Phase I, two corridors have been proposed: a "North-South Corridor" from Sikar Road to Tonk Road and an "East-West Corridor" from Ajmer Road to Delhi Road. A section of the North-South Corridor from bypass near Harmada to Pani Pech became operational in 2010.WEB,weblink BRTS â€“ JDA Website, JDA, 28 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110326031300weblink">weblink 26 March 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Traffic Diversion and Flow During Construction of BRTS, 27 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016224734weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Jaipur Ring Road is a project of Jaipur Development Authority to reduce increasing traffic of Jaipur cityNEWS,weblink 'Development of New Express Highways',, which connects NH-11 (Agra Road), NH-8 (Ajmer Road), NH-12 (Tonk Road), and NH-12 (Malpura Road) having length of 150 km.NEWS,weblink 'Jaipur Development Authority to commence land acquisition for Ring Road',, The 57 km out of 150 km long six-lane Jaipur Ring Road has been completed at a cost of Rs 1217 crore which was inaugurated by Sushma Swaraj, Arun Jaitley and Nitin Gadkari.

Rail

Jaipur is the headquarters of North Western Zone of Indian Railways.WEB,weblink NW Railway, Indian Railways, 27 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150811105152weblink">weblink 11 August 2015, no, dmy-all, Jaipur Junction railway station is well connected to all major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Indore, Lucknow and Ahmedabad. Other stations include Gandhinagar, Durgapura, Jagatpura, Ninad Benad and Sanganer.

Metro

Jaipur Metro commenced commercial operation on 3 June 2015.WEB,weblink JMRC Notification for commercial operations of metro, Jaipur Metro, yes,weblink 11 July 2015, dmy-all, Phase-1A is operational between Mansarovar and Chandpole consisting of nine stations namely Mansarovar, New Aatish Market, Vivek Vihar, Shayam Nagar, Ram Nagar, Civil Line, Railway Station, Sindhi Camp and Chandpole.WEB,weblink Metro Stations, jaipurmetrorail.in, 27 July 2015,weblink 18 May 2015, yes, dmy-all, Phase-1B is under construction. The estimated cost of the project is {{INRconvert|550|c}} and it is expected to be completed by 2020weblink

Air

Jaipur International Airport is in Sanganer, {{convert|12.2|km|mi|0|abbr=in}} from the centre. The airport handled 363,899 international and 2,540,451 domestic passengers in 2015–2016.WEB,weblink Jaipur International Airport, 19 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614003327weblink">weblink 14 June 2011, yes, dmy-all, Jaipur Airport also provides air cargo services. During winter, sometimes flights towards Indira Gandhi International Airport are diverted to Jaipur Airport due to heavy fog in Delhi.NEWS,weblink Flights diverted to Jaipur, 19 February 2011, The Hindu, Chennai, India, 18 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629124423weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, no, dmy-all, The airport operates regular domestic services to major Indian cities including Ahmedabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Raipur, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Pune, Surat, Udaipur and Varanasi. International destinations served include Dubai, Muscat, Bangkok, Sharjah and Kuala Lumpur.

Education

(File:Placement and Training Cell.jpg|thumb|Malaviya National Institute of Technology)Public and private schools in Jaipur are governed by the Central Board of Secondary Education or Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education, International Board of education and follow a "10+2" plan. This plan entails eight years of primary education and four years of secondary education. Secondary school includes two years of upper secondary education, which is more specific and diverse than the two years of lower secondary education prior to it.WEB, Clark, Nick, Education in India,weblink World Education News + Reviews, World Education Services, February 4, 2018,weblink 5 February 2018, no, dmy-all, Languages of instruction include English and Hindi.Admission to graduation colleges in Jaipur, many of which are affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, is through the RPET, now RPET has been replaced by REAP (Rajasthan Engineering Admission Process). Notable institutions include SMS Medical College, St Xavier's College, University of Rajasthan,WEB, University of Rajasthan: An Overview,weblink 30 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20140702093901weblink">weblink 2 July 2014, dmy-all, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, Malviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur,WEB,weblink PDF, The NIT Amendment Act, 2012, mnnit.ac.in, 24 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151115051810weblink">weblink 15 November 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Minglebox, 23 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150519045121weblink">weblink 19 May 2015, no, dmy-all, Jaipur National University,WEB,weblink Jaipur National University, 4icu.org, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151025032607weblink">weblink 25 October 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Association of Indian Universities, aiuweb.org, 12 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150212084903weblink">weblink 12 February 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink University Grants Commission, ugc.ac.in, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150930151044weblink">weblink 30 September 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink All India Council for Technical Education, AICTE, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151115051809weblink">weblink 15 November 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Distance Education Bureau, UGC, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151115051811weblink">weblink 15 November 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink National Accreditation and Assessment Council, NAAC, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151026212847weblink">weblink 26 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Manipal University, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, IIS University,WEB, The IIS University {{!, ICG becomes THE IIS UNIVERSITY|url =weblink|website = iisuniv.ac.in|access-date = 2016-02-08|archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160213150915weblink">weblink|archive-date = 13 February 2016|dead-url = no|df = dmy-all}}WEB, India leads in the supply of youth globally – Dr Swamy,weblink Changing Tomorrow, 2016-02-08, en-GB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160228102058weblink">weblink 28 February 2016, no, dmy-all, Global Institute of TechnologyWEB, Grading of Affiliated Institutes - Rajasthan Technical University,weblink www.rtu.ac.in, 2019-05-29, and Suresh Gyan Vihar UniversityUGC inspection report of sgvu, pg.5 claims Dr.Sudhanshu as Vice Chancellor and Founder

Sports

The main cricket stadium in the city, Sawai Mansingh Stadium, has a seating capacity of 23,185 and has hosted national and international cricket matches.WEB,weblink Sawai Mansingh Stadium, worldstadiums.com, 5 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110924095432weblink">weblink 24 September 2011, no, dmy-all, Sawai Mansingh Indoor Stadium, Chaugan Stadium and Railway Cricket Ground are the other sporting arenas in the city. The city is represented in the IPL by Rajasthan Royals (2008-2016; 2018-present)WEB, Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL,weblink ESPNcricinfo, 24 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180924082133weblink">weblink 24 September 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB, The Return Of The Royals,weblink 4 August 2019, and in Pro Kabaddi League by Jaipur Pink Panthers.NEWS, Big B, Aamir, SRK cheer for Abhishek's Pink Panthers,weblink 27 July 2014, The Hindu, Mumbai, Jul 28, 2014,

In popular culture

Paul McCartney wrote and recorded the Jaipur tribute song "Riding into Jaipur" (4:08) whose minimalist lyrics say: « riding to Jaipur, riding through the night, riding with my baby, oh what a delight, oh what a delight, it is. » The song was released on his 2001 studio album Driving Rain.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Bhatt, Kavi Shiromani; Shastry, Mathuranath (1948). Jaipur Vaibhawam (History of Jaipur written in Sanskrit). Re-published in 2002 by Kalanath Shastry, Manjunath Smriti Sansthan, Jaipur.
  • Khangarot, R.S., Nathawat, P.S. (1990) Jaigarh- The Invincible Fort of Amer. RBSA Publishers, Jaipur.
  • Sachdev, Vibhuti; Tillotson, Giles Henry Rupert (2002). Building Jaipur: The Making of an Indian City. Reaktion Books, London. {{ISBN|1-86189-137-7}}.
  • Sarkar, Jadunath (1984). A History of Jaipur. Orient Longman Limited, New Delhi. {{ISBN|81-250-0333-9}}.
  • Volwahsen, Andreas (2001). Cosmic Architecture in India: The Astronomical Monuments of Maharaja Jai Singh II, Prestel Mapin, Munich.

External links

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