Punjab, India

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Punjab, India
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{{about|a state of India|the geographical region|Punjab|other uses of the name|Punjab (disambiguation)}}{{Short description|State in Northern India}}{{Use Indian English|date=October 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2019}}

| map_caption1 = 30.79region:IN-PB_type:adm1st|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = Chandigarh| coordinates_footnotes = List of sovereign states>CountryIndia}}| established_date1 = List of Indian districts>Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts of Punjab, India>22| seat_type = CapitalChandigarh{{ref>cap|†}}| seat1_type = Largest city| seat1 = Ludhiana| government_footnotes = List of Governors of Punjab (India)>GovernorVijayendrapal Singh>V P Singh BadnoreList of Chief Ministers of Punjab (India)>Chief MinisterCaptain Amarinder Singh (Indian National Congress>INC)Punjab Legislative Assembly>Legislature| leader_name2 = Unicameral (117 seats)Lok Sabha>Parliamentary constituency| leader_name3 = Lok Sabha (13 seats)Rajya Sabha (7 seats) High Courts of India>High CourtPunjab and Haryana High Court{{ref>cap|††}}| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 50362| area_note = List of states and territories of India by area>20th| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_max_m = 551| elevation_min_m = 150Census of India {{webarchive>url= |date=14 May 2007 }}, 2011. Census Data Online, Population.| population_total = 27,704,236| population_as_of = 2011List of states and union territories of India by population>16th| population_density_km2 = auto| population_note = Punjabis>Punjabi(2018–19)}} LAST=DATE=1 MARCH 2019MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA>ARCHIVE-URL=WEBSITE=ESOPB.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=17 FEBRUARY 2017 ARCHIVE-DATE=30 JUNE 2017, live, List of Indian states and union territories by GDP>Total 5.18|lc}} List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita>Per capita 153061}} Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30IN-PB)Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2017)}}WEBSITE=GLOBAL DATA LAB ACCESSDATE=25 SEPTEMBER 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180923120638/HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/ URL-STATUS=LIVE, · 3rd Literacy in India>Literacy {{nobold|(2011)}}| blank1_info_sec1 = 76.68%Official language}}Punjabi language>PunjabiHTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM50THREPORT.PDF>TITLE=REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES: 50TH REPORT (JULY 2012 TO JUNE 2013)ACCESSDATE=4 DECEMBER 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160708012438/HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM50THREPORT.PDF, 8 July 2016, weblink}}capcap


(Accipiter gentilis)}}}}Punjab ({{IPAc-en|audio=Punjab.ogg|p|ʌ|n|ˈ|dʒ|ɑː|b}}) is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) and Hindus (38%). The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of innumerable races, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilisation. The first traces of human habitation in India were found in the Punjab region.BOOK,weblink History and Culture of Panjab, Singh, Mohinder, 1988, Atlantic Publishers & Distri, en, The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE. The Punjab has had numerous recorded invasions, starting with the Vedic tribes. Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Achaemenid, Alexander's, Seleucid, and Maurya Empires. After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the region was splintered into multiple kingdoms and republics. Punjab was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, and then Harsha's Empire. Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. Circa 1000, the Punjab was invaded by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Durrani Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire. This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.Greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan while the east stayed in India. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas (a dialect of Hindi) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. Punjab's government has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state.The economy of Punjab is the 14th-largest state economy in India with {{INRConvert|5.18|lc}} in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of {{INRConvert|153|k}}. Punjab has the third highest ranking among Indian states in human development index. Punjab is primarily agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils.WEB, Punjab,weblink Overseas Indian Facilitation Centre, 8 September 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2011, Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.{{TOC limit}}


The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu,D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938-39, Asia Educational Services, p.{{nbsp}}2. the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the sea.A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river" {{Webarchive|url= |date=24 September 2018 }}, Current Science {{Webarchive|url= |date=10 July 2018 }}, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", and was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.WEB,weblink Yule, Henry, Sir. Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903., 7 May 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2018, live, WEB,weblink Macdonell, Arthur Anthony. A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout. London: Oxford University Press, 1929., 10 July 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2018, live, The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (waters). Thus Panjāb roughly means "the land of five rivers". The five rivers are the Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jehlum (also spelled Jhelum). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is also sometimes spelled as "Panjab".The Greeks called Punjab a pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers;WEB,weblink WHKMLA : History of West Punjab,, 3 February 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2016, the name Punjab was given to the region by the Central Asian Turkic conquerors of India, and popularised by the Turco-Mongol Mughals.BOOK, Canfield, Robert L., Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, 1991, 1 ("Origins"), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 978-0-521-52291-5, BOOK, Shimmel, Annemarie, The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture, 2004, Reaktion Books Ltd., London, UK, 978-1-86189-1853, registration,weblink


{{more citations needed section|date=January 2017}}{{See also|Punjab (region)}}

Ancient history

During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings.BOOK, Bombay (India: State), Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ...,weblink 18 January 2012, 1896, Government Central Press, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2013, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ..., Volume 1, Part 1-page-11 The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab.

Sikhs in Punjab

Sikhism originated in the Punjab Region during the 15th century. Approximately 75% of the total Sikh population of the world lives in Punjab. Sikhism began at the time of the conquest of northern India by Babur. His grandson, Akbar, supported religious freedom and after visiting the langar of Guru Amar Das had a favourable impression of Sikhism. As a result of his visit he donated land to the langar and had a positive relationship with the Sikh Gurus until his death in 1605.{{harvnb|Kalsi|2005|pages=106–107}} His successor, Jahangir, saw the Sikhs as a political threat. He arrested Guru Arjun Dev because of Sikh support for Khusrau Mirza{{harvnb|Markovits|2004|page=98}} and ordered him put to death by torture. Guru Arjan Dev's martyrdom led to the sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind, declaring Sikh sovereignty in the creation of the Akal Takht and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar.{{harvnb|Jestice|2004|pages=345–346}}Jahangir attempted to assert authority over the Sikhs by imprisoning Guru Hargobind at Gwalior. He felt compelled to release him when he began to suffer premonitions of an early and gruesome death. The Guru refused to be released unless the dozens of Hindu princes imprisoned with him were also granted freedom, to which Jahangir agreed. Sikhism did not have any further issues with the Mughal Empire until Jahangir's death in 1627. His successor, Shah Jahan, "took offense" at Guru Hargobind's sovereignty and after a series of assaults on Amritsar forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills. Guru Hargobind's successor, Guru Har Rai, maintained the guruship in the Sivalik Hills by defeating local attempts to seize Sikh land and taking a neutral role in the power struggle between Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh for control of the Timurid dynasty.The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in Sikh communities in defiance of Mughal rule. He aided Kashmiri Pandits in avoiding conversion to Islam and was arrested and confronted by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice between conversion or death, he chose to die and was executed.{{harvnb|Johar|1975|pages=192–210}}Guru Gobind Singh assumed the guruship in 1675 and to avoid battles with Sivalik Hill Rajas moved the guruship to Paunta. He built a large fort to protect the city and garrisoned an army to protect it. The Sikh community's growing power alarmed Sivalik Hill Rajas, who attempted to attack the city, but the Guru's forces routed them at the Battle of Bhangani. He moved on to Anandpur and established the Khalsa, a collective army of baptised Sikhs, on 13 April 1699. The establishment of the Khalsa united the Sikh community against various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship.{{harvnb|Jestice|2004|pages=312–13}}In 1701, a combined army composed of the Sivalik Hill Rajas and the Mughal army under Wazir Khan attacked Anandpur and, following a retreat by the Khalsa, was defeated by the Khalsa at the Battle of Muktsar. Banda Singh Bahadur was an ascetic who converted to Sikhism after meeting Guru Gobind Singh at Nanded. Shortly before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to uproot Mughal rule in Punjab and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to join him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the land to the poor Sikh and Hindu peasants who farmed the land.{{harvnb|Singh|2008|pages=25–26}}Banda Singh Bahadur started his rebellion with the defeat of Mughal armies at Samana and Sadhaura and it culminated in the defeat of Sirhind. During the rebellion, Banda Singh Bahadur made a point of destroying the cities in which Mughals had been cruel to Sikhs, and executed Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh's sons, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh, after the Sikh victory at Sirhind.{{harvnb|Nesbitt |2005 |page=61}} He ruled the territory between the Sutlej River and the Yamuna River, established a capital in the Himalayas at Lohgarh, and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.In 1762, there were persistent conflicts with the Sikhs. Sikh holocaust of 1762 took place under the Muslim provincial government based at Lahore to wipe out the Sikhs, with 30,000 Sikhs being killed, an offensive that had begun with the Mughals, with the Sikh holocaust of 1746,A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy, p.86, Routledge, W. Owen Cole, Piara Singh Sambhi, 2005 and lasted several decades under its Muslim successor states.Khushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, Volume I: 1469–1839, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1978, pp. 127–129 The rebuilt Harminder Sahib was destroyed, and the pool was filled with cow entrails, again.BOOK, The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume IV, Bhatia, Sardar Singh, Punjabi University, 1998, 396, BOOK, The History of Punjab from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time, Latif, Syad Muhammad, Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.) Ltd., 1964, 283,

Cis-Sutlej states

The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states in modern Punjab and Haryana states lying between the Sutlej River on the north, the Himalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. These states were ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire. Various Sikh sardars and other Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British.BOOK,weblink A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, live,weblink 5 May 2016, 9788131732021, Ahmed, Farooqui Salma, 2011, The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot.

Sikh Empire

File:Sikh Empire tri-lingual.jpg|thumb|right|Sikh EmpireSikh EmpireFile:Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.jpg|thumb|Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, showing people of all religions.]]The Sikh Empire (1801–1849) was forged by Maharajah Ranjit Singh on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls, creating a unified political state. The empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, and Tibet in the east. The main geographical footprint of the empire was the Punjab region. The religious demography of the Sikh Empire was Muslim (80%), Sikh (10%), Hindu (10%).BOOK,weblink Ranjit Singh: A Secular Sikh Sovereign, Exotic India Art, 1 February 2009, 9 August 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2008, After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement.EB1911, Ranjit Singh, 22, 892–893, This opportunity was used by the British Empire to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars. A series of betrayals of the Sikhs by some prominent leaders in the army led to its downfall. Maharaja Gulab Singh and Raja Dhian Singh were the top generals of the army.BOOK, The Sikhs of the Punjab, J. S. Grewal, Cambridge University Press, 1998,

Punjab Province (British India)

File:Punjab 1909.jpg|thumb|British Punjab Province, before 1947]]The Cis-Sutlej states, including Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot, were under the suzerainty of the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805, when Marathas lost this territory to the British. During the war, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to British General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War, an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought these states under formal British protection.BOOK,weblink History Of The Marathas, R.S., Chaurasia, 26 May 2012, live,weblink 6 January 2016, 9788126903948, 2004, BOOK,weblink Aspects of India's International Relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia and the..., 29 March 2013, live,weblink 28 January 2016, 9788131708347, Ray, Jayanta Kumar, 2007, Ranjit Singh's death in the summer of 1839 brought political chaos, and the subsequent battles of succession and the bloody infighting between the factions at court weakened the state. By 1845 the British had moved 32,000 troops to the Sutlej frontier to secure their northernmost possessions against the succession struggles in the Punjab. In late 1845, British and Sikh troops engaged near Firozpur,BOOK, Smith, Sir Harry George Wakelyn, Smith, George Charles Moore, The Autobiography of Lieutenant-General Sir Harry Smith Baronet of Aliwal on the Sutlej G.C.B., 1903, John Murray,weblink 23 May 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2018, live, {{page needed|date=May 2018}} beginning the First Anglo-Sikh War. In March 1940, the All-India Muslim League passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in India. This triggered bitter protests by the Sikhs in Punjab, who could not countenance living in a Muslim state.BOOK, Tan, Tai Yong, Tan Tai Yong, Kudaisya, Gyanesh, Gyanesh Kudaisya, 2005, First published in 2000, The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia,weblink Routledge, 100, 978-0-415-28908-5, In March 1930 the All-India Muslim League passed its famous Lahore Resolution, demanding the creation of a separate state from Muslim majority areas in India ... [it] sparked off an enormous furore amongst the Sikhs in the Punjab ... the professed intention of the Muslim League to impose a Muslim state on the Punjab (a Muslim majority province) was anathema to the Sikhs ... Sikhs launched a virulent campaign against the Lahore Resolution., live,weblink 28 January 2016, In 1946, massive communal tensions and violence erupted between Punjab's Muslim majority and the Hindu and Sikh minorities. The Muslim League attacked the government of Unionist Punjabi Muslims, Sikh Akalis and the Congress and led to its downfall.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} Unwilling to be cowed, Sikhs and Hindus counterattacked,{{citation needed|date=July 2016}} and the resulting bloodshed left the province in great disorder. Congress and League leaders agreed to partition Punjab along religious lines, a precursor to the wider partition of the country.WEB, Ethnic cleansing and genocidal massacres 65 years ago by Ishtiaq Ahmed,weblink 3 January 2017, dead,weblink 12 October 2016,

Independence and its aftermath

missing image!
- International border at Wagah - evening flag lowering ceremony.jpg -
Wagah Border is situated between Amritsar and Lahore, became the main border crossing after partition of Punjab is known for its elaborate ceremony
{{more citations needed section|date=February 2017}}In 1947 the Punjab Province of British India was partitioned along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. Huge numbers of people were displaced, and there was much intercommunal violence. Following independence, several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, acceded to the Union of India and were united into the PEPSU. In 1956 this was integrated with the state of East Punjab to create a new, enlarged Indian state called simply "Punjab".The undivided Punjab, of which Pakistani Punjab forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Hindus and Sikhs until 1947, apart from the Muslim majority.The Punjab in 1920s – A Case study of Muslims, Zarina Salamat, Royal Book Company, Karachi, 1997. table 45, p. 136; {{ISBN|969-407-230-1}}Immediately following independence in 1947, and due to the ensuing communal violence and fear, most Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus who found themselves in Pakistan migrated to India.Panel 33 {{webarchive|url= |date=16 July 2011 }} European Association for South Asian Studies; accessed 3 January 2017.


Punjab is in northwestern India and has a total area of {{convert|50362|km2|mi2}}. Punjab is bounded by Pakistan on the west, Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on the northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan on the south.WEB, Border Area Development Programmes in Punjab,weblink Department of Planning Punjab, 22 March 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2016, Most of the Punjab lies in a fertile, alluvial plain with many rivers and an extensive irrigation canal system.WEB,weblink State Profile – About Punjab, Punjab Government, 18 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 November 2011, A belt of undulating hills extends along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas. Its average elevation is {{convert|300|m|ft}} above sea level, with a range from {{convert|180|m|ft}} in the southwest to more than {{convert|500|m|ft}} around the northeast border. The southwest of the state is semiarid, eventually merging into the Thar Desert. The Shiwalik Hills extend along the northeastern part of the state at the foot of the Himalayas.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}The soil characteristics are influenced to a limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the regional climatic differences.WEB, Status of Environment & Related Issues,weblink ENVIS Centre : Punjab, 22 March 2017, Punjab is divided into three distinct regions on the basis of soil types: southwestern, central, and eastern. Punjab falls under seismic zones II, III, and IV. Zone II is considered a low-damage risk zone; zone III is considered a moderate-damage risk zone; and zone IV is considered a high-damage risk zone.WEB, Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd.,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 October 2007, Punjab Geography, Geography of Punjab, Punjab Location, Punjab Climate,, 18 July 2010,


(File:Punjab Monsoon.jpg|thumb|right|Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon)The geography and subtropical latitudinal location of Punjab lead to large variations in temperature from month to month. Even though only limited regions experience temperatures below {{convert|0|C|F}}, ground frost is commonly found in the majority of Punjab during the winter season. The temperature rises gradually with high humidity and overcast skies. However, the rise in temperature is steep when the sky is clear and humidity is low.WEB,weblink 27 October 2015, Weather & Climate Of Punjab, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2016, The maximum temperatures usually occur in mid-May and June. The temperature remains above {{convert|40|C|F}} in the entire region during this period. Ludhiana recorded the highest maximum temperature at {{convert|46.1|C|F}} with Patiala and Amritsar recording {{convert|45.5|C|F}}. The maximum temperature during the summer in Ludhiana remains above {{convert|41|C|F}} for a duration of one and a half months. These areas experience the lowest temperatures in January. The sun rays are oblique during these months and the cold winds control the temperature at daytime.Punjab experiences its minimum temperature from December to February. The lowest temperature was recorded at Amritsar ({{convert|0.2|C|F}}) and Ludhiana stood second with {{convert|0.5|C|F}}. The minimum temperature of the region remains below {{convert|5|C|F}} for almost two months during the winter season. The highest minimum temperature of these regions in June is more than the daytime maximum temperatures experienced in January and February. Ludhiana experiences minimum temperatures above {{convert|27|C|F}} for more than two months. The annual average temperature in the entire state is approximately {{convert|21|C|F}}. Further, the mean monthly temperature range varies between {{convert|9|C|F}} in July to approximately {{convert|18|C|F}} in November.


Punjab experiences three main seasons. They are:
  • Hot Season (mid-April to the end of June)
  • Rainy Season (early July to the end of September)
  • Cold Season (early December to the end of February).
Apart from these three, the state experiences transitional seasons like:
  • Pre-summer season (March to mid-April): This is the period of transition between winter and summer.
  • Post-monsoon season (September to end of November): This is the period of transition between monsoon and winter seasons.


Punjab starts experiencing mildly hot temperatures in February. However, the actual summer season commences in mid-April. The area experiences pressure variations during the summer months. The atmospheric pressure of the region remains around 987 millibar during February and it reaches 970 millibar in June.

Rainy season

The monsoon brings joy to the agricultural sector as farmers become very busy. Punjab's rainy season begins in first week of July as monsoon currents generated in the Bay of Bengal bring rain to the region.


Temperature variation is minimal in January. The mean night and day temperatures fall to {{convert|5|C|F}} and {{convert|12|C|F}}, respectively.

Post-Monsoon transitional season

The monsoon begins to reduce by the second week of September. This brings a gradual change in climate and temperature. The time between October and November is the transitional period between monsoon and winter seasons. Weather during this period is generally fair and dry.

Post-Winter transitional season

The effects of winter diminish by the first week of March. The hot summer season commences in mid-April. This period is marked by occasional showers with hail storms and squalls that cause extensive damage to crops. The winds remain dry and warm during the last week of March, commencing the harvest period.


  • Monsoon Rainfall
Monsoon season provides most of the rainfall for the region. Punjab receives rainfall from the monsoon current of the Bay of Bengal. This monsoon current enters the state from the southeast in the first week of July.
  • Winter Rainfall
The winter season remains very cool with temperatures falling below freezing at some places. Winter also brings in some western disturbances. Rainfall in the winter provides relief to the farmers as some of the winter crops in the region of Shivalik Hills are entirely dependent on this rainfall. As per meteorological statistics, the sub-Shivalik area receives more than {{convert|100|mm|in}} of rainfall in the winter months.

Flora and fauna

(File:Agriculture in Punjab India.jpg|thumb|Agriculture in Punjab)The fauna of the area is rich, with 396 types of birds, 214 kinds of Lepidoptera, 55 varieties of fish, 20 types of reptiles, and 19 kinds of mammals. The state of Punjab has large wetland areas, bird sanctuaries that house numerous species of birds, and many zoological parks. Wetlands include the national wetland Hari-Ke-Pattan, the wetland of Kanjli, and the wetlands of Kapurthala Sutlej. Wildlife sanctuaries include the Harike in the district of Tarn Taran Sahib, the Zoological Park in Rupnagar, Chhatbir Bansar Garden in Sangrur, Aam Khas Bagh in Sirhind, Amritsar's famous Ram Bagh, Shalimar Garden in Kapurthala, and the famous Baradari Garden in the city of Patiala.WEB,weblink 27 October 2015, Flora And Fauna Of Punjab, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2015,

Animals and birds

A few of the rivers in Punjab have crocodiles. The extraction of silk from silkworms is another industry that flourishes in the state. Production of bee honey is done in some parts of Punjab. The southern plains are desert land; hence, camels can be seen. Buffaloes graze around the banks of rivers. The northeastern part is home to animals like horses. Wildlife sanctuaries have many more species of wild animals like the otter, wild boar, wildcat, fruit bat, hog deer, flying fox, squirrel, and mongoose. Naturally formed forests can be seen in the Shivalik ranges in the districts of Ropar, Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur. Patiala is home to the Bir forest while the wetlands area in Punjab is home to the Mand forest.WEB,weblink 27 October 2015, Animals and Birds in Punjab, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2015, Botanical gardens exist throughout Punjab. There is a zoological park and a tiger safari park, as well as three parks dedicated to deer.The state bird is the baz (northern goshawk).WEB,weblink Panjab Tourism, General Information, 9 November 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 November 2010, (Melierax poliopterus), the state animal is the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), and the state tree is the shisham (Dalbergia sissoo).

Government and politics

{{more citations needed section|date=February 2017}}File:Assembly Building Chandigarh.jpg|thumb|Punjab Legislative AssemblyPunjab Legislative AssemblyPunjab is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy. Each of the states of India possesses a parliamentary system of government, with a ceremonial state Governor, appointed by the President of India on the advice of the central government. The head of government is an indirectly elected Chief Minister who is vested with most of the executive powers. The term length of the government is five years. The state legislature, the Vidhan Sabha, is the unicameral Punjab Legislative Assembly, with 117 members elected from single-seat constituencies.WEB,weblink About Vidhan Sabha,, 7 October 2019, The current government was elected in the 2017 Assembly elections as Congress won 77 out of 117 Assembly seats and Amarinder Singh is the current Chief Minister. The state of Punjab is divided into five administrative divisions and twenty-two districts.The capital of Punjab is Chandigarh, which also serves as the capital of Haryana and is thus administered separately as a Union Territory of India. The judicial branch of the state government is provided by the Punjab and Haryana High Court in Chandigarh.WEB,weblink Jurisdiction and Seats of Indian High Courts, 12 May 2008, Eastern Book Company, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2008, The main players in the politics of the state are the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Akali Dal (with alliance Bharatiya Janata Party). The present government is headed by Amarinder Singh. President's rule has been imposed in Punjab eight times so far, since 1950, for different reasons. In terms of the absolute number of days, Punjab was under the President's rule for 3,510 days, which is approximately 10 years. Much of this was in the 80s during the height of militancy in Punjab. Punjab was under the President's rule for five continuous years from 1987 to 1992.Punjab state law and order is maintained by Punjab Police. Punjab police is headed by its DGP, Suresh Arora, and has 70,000 employees. It manages state affairs through 22 district heads known as SSP.

Administrative set-up

(File:Punjab district map.png|thumb|Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters, before 2007)(File:Administrative division of Punjab.png|thumb|Administrative division of Punjab)Punjab has 22 districts which are geographically classified into Majha, Malwa, Doaba and Poadh regions. They are officially divided among 5 divisions: Patiala, Rupnagar, Jalandhar, Faridkot and Firozepur.Punjab District Map {{webarchive|url= |date=13 June 2017 }}
{{Div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}
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{{Div col|colwidth=15em}} {{Div col end}}Each district under the administrative control of a District Collector. The districts are subdivided into 79 tehsils, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records comes under the administrative control of a Tehsildar. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 143 in number. The blocks consist of revenue villages. There are total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. There are 22 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab. Majitha is newly created tehsil, which was formed in September 2016. Zirakpur is the latest sub-tehsil, in the district of Mohali.The capital city of the state is Chandigarh and largest city of the state is Ludhiana. Out of total population of Punjab, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The absolute urban population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48 percent. The major cities are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Patiala, Bathinda and SAS Nagar (Mohali).


{{See also|Measurement of land in Punjab}}File:NP India burning 48 (6315309342).jpg|thumb|Burning of rice residues after harvest to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around SangrurSangrurPunjab's GDP is ₹5.78 lakh crore (US$84 billion). Punjab is one of the most fertile regions in India. The region is ideal for wheat-growing. Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown. Indian Punjab is called the "Granary of India" or "India's bread-basket".Welcome to Official Web site of Punjab, India {{webarchive|url=|date=17 April 2007}} It produces 10.26% of India's cotton, 19.5% of India's wheat, and 11% of India's rice. The Firozpur and Fazilka Districts are the largest producers of wheat and rice in the state. In worldwide terms, Indian Punjab produces 2% of the world's cotton, 2% of its wheat and 1% of its rice.The largest cultivated crop is wheat. Other important crops are rice, cotton, sugarcane, pearl millet, maize, barley and fruit. Rice and wheat are doublecropped in Punjab with rice stalks being burned off over millions of acres prior to the planting of wheat. This widespread practice is polluting and wasteful.NEWS, Fields on fire: making farming more sustainable in India – in pictures,weblink 9 December 2012, The Guardian, 7 December 2012, London, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2014, In Punjab the consumption of fertiliser per hectare is 223.46 kg as compared to 90 kg nationally. The state has been awarded the National Productivity Award for agriculture extension services for ten years, from 1991–92 to 1998–99 and from 2001 to 2003–04. In recent years a drop in productivity has been observed, mainly due to falling fertility of the soil. This is believed to be due to excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides over the years. Another worry is the rapidly falling water table on which almost 90% of the agriculture depends; alarming drops have been witnessed in recent years. By some estimates, groundwater is falling by a meter or more per year.WEB,weblink Q&A: Upmanu Lall on India's Nexus of Energy, Food and Water, Circle of Blue, J. Carl Ganter, 4 June 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2010, 4 June 2010, WEB,weblink Punjab: A tale of prosperity and decline, Columbia Water Center, Upmanu Lall, 11 September 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2010, 28 July 2009, According to the India State Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India.NEWS,weblink India fares badly on global hunger index, The Times of India, 15 October 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011,


Public transport in Punjab is provided by buses, auto rickshaws, Indian railways and an international rail connection to Pakistan (Samjhauta Express). The state has a large network of multi-modal transportation systems.Punjab has six civil airports including two international airports: Amritsar International Airport and Chandigarh International Airport; and four domestic airports: Bathinda Airport, Pathankot Airport, Adampur Airport (Jalandhar) and Sahnewal Airport (Ludhiana).File:India Train.jpg|thumb|right|A DMU Train in LudhianaLudhianaThe Indian Railways' Northern Railway line runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities. The railway network in the state is controlled by Northern Railway zone divisional headquarter: Firozpur railway division and Ambala railway division. The Shatabdi Express, India's fastest series of train connects Amritsar to New Delhi covering total distance of 449 km. Bathinda Junction is the largest railway station in the state. Punjab's major railway stations are Ludhiana Junction (LDH), Jalandhar Cantonment (JRC), Firozpur Cantonment (FZR), Jalandhar City Junction (JUC), Pathankot Junction (PTK), Amritsar Junction (ASR) and Patiala Railway Station (PTA). The railway stations of Amritsar is included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations.WEB, List of 50 world-class railway stations,weblink Indian Railways, Indian Railways, 10 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2013, The Samjhauta Express is a joint venture between Indian Railways and Pakistan Railways and runs from Attari railway station near Amritsar in India to Lahore Railway Station in Punjab, Pakistan.All the cities and towns of Punjab are connected by four-lane national highways. The Grand Trunk Road, also known as "NH1", connects Kolkata to Peshawar, passing through Jalandhar and Amritsar. National highways passing through the state are ranked the best in the country{{By whom|date=November 2014}} with widespread road networks that serve isolated towns as well as the border region. Ludhiana and Amritsar are among several Indian cities that have the highest accident rates in India.NEWS, Dipak K Dash, Road crash severity highest in Ludhiana, 3rd in Amritsar, The Times of India, 3 September 2015,weblink 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2015, There are also a bus rapid transit system Amritsar BRTS in the holy city of Amritsar, popularly known as 'Amritsar MetroBus'NEWS, BRTS project planned for Amritsar and Ludhiana was the world’s most preferred transport system,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2016, The following national highways connect major towns, cities and villages:{{Div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}


File:Golden Temple reflecting in the Sarovar, Amritsar.jpg|thumb|left|Located in Amritsar, Harmandir SahibHarmandir SahibFile:Durgiana Temple, Amritsar.jpg|thumb|left|Durgiana Temple in Amritsar.Though a Hindu temple, its architecture is similar to the Golden Temple.WEB,weblink Durgiana Temple, National Informatics center, ]]{{IndiaCensusPop|title=Population Growth|1951=9160500|1961=11135069|1971=13551060|1981=16788915|1991=20281969|2001=24358999|2011=27743338|estimate=|estyear=|estref=Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901>1901=75447901921=71528111941=9600236}}{{Pie chart|thumb = rightWORK=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 PAGES=13–14 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181114073412/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-16_25062018_NEW.PDF URL-STATUS=LIVE, |label1 = Punjabi|value1 = 90|color1 = blue|label2 = Hindi|value2 = 9.33|color2 = Orange|label3 = Others|value3 = 0.67|color3 = Black}}Punjab is home to 2.30% of India's population; with a density of 551 persons per km2. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, Punjab has a population of 27,704,236, making it the 16th most populated state in India. Of which male and female are 14,639,465 and 13,103,873 respectively. 32% of Punjab's population consists of disenfranchised Dalits.NEWS, Dalit icon Bant Singh's shift to AAP in Punjab symbolises the Left's electoral irrelevance,weblink 26 March 2019, Scroll India, 26 January 2017,weblink 26 March 2019, live, In the state, the rate of population growth is 13.89 percent (2011), lower than national average. Out of total population, 37.48% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 10,399,146 of which 5,545,989 are males and while remaining 4,853,157 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 37.48 percent. Punjabi is the sole official language of Punjab and is spoken by the majority of the population (90%). Hindi is spoken by 9.33% of the population.WEB, Language – India, States and Union Territories,weblink Census of India 2011, Office of the Registrar General, 13–14, 19 October 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2018, live, The 2011 Census of India found Scheduled Castes to account for 31.9 percent of the state's population.WEB,weblink How India’s Scheduled Castes & Tribes Are Empowering Themselves - IndiaSpend, 2019-10-17, The Other Backward Classes have 31.3 percent population in Punjab.WEB, Quota will have little impact in Punjab, The Tribune, 2019-01-11,weblink 2019-10-17, The exact population of Forward castes is not known as their data from Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 is not made public as of 2019.WEB, Tripathi, Rahul, Despite promise, no OBC category yet in census 2021, The Economic Times, 2019-07-31,weblink 2019-10-17, There has been a constant decline in the sex ratio of the state. The sex ratio in Punjab was 895 females per 1000 males, which was below the national average of 940. The literacy rate rose to 75.84 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 80.44 percent while female literacy is at 70.73 percent. In actual numbers, total literates in Punjab stands at 18,707,137 of which males were 10,436,056 and females were 8,271,081.Punjab has the largest population of Sikhs in India and is the only state where Sikhs form a majority with approximately 57.69 of the state population practising Sikhism.WEB, Population by religion community – 2011,weblink The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, Hinduism is second most popular religion in state of Punjab with 38.49 following it. Islam is followed by 1.93%, Christianity by 1.26%, Jainism by 0.16%, Buddhism by 0.12% and others 0.36%. Sikhs form a majority in 18 districts out of the total 22 districts while Hindus form the majority in four districts namely, Pathankot, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar districts.WEB, Religion by districts - Punjab,weblink, 31 August 2019, {{Pie chart| thumb = right| caption = Religion in Punjab (2011)| label1 = Sikhism| value1 = 57.69| color1 = yellow| label2 = Hinduism| value2 = 38.49| color2 = orange| label3 = Islam| value3 = 1.93| color3 = Green| label4 = Christianity| value4 = 1.26| color4 = DodgerBlue| label5 = Jainism| value5 = 0.16| color5 = Brown| label6 = Buddhism| value6 = 0.12| color6 = khaki| label7 = Other or not religious| value7 = 0.35| color7 = Black}}The Sikh shrine, Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), is in the city of Amritsar, which houses the SGPC, the topmost Sikh religious body. The Sri Akal Takht Sahib, which is within the Golden Temple complex, is the highest temporal seat of Sikhs. Of the five Takhts (Temporal Seats of religious authority) of Sikhism, three are in Punjab. These are Sri Akal Takht Sahib, Damdama Sahib and Anandpur Sahib. At least one Sikh Gurdwara can be found in almost every village in the state, as well as in the towns and cities (in various architectural styles and sizes). Before the advent of Islam, and later birth of Sikhism, Hinduism was the main religion practised by the Punjabi people. Due to the non-exclusive nature of their religion, a segment of Punjabis who are categorised as Punjabi Hindus continue heterogeneous religious practices in spiritual kinship with Sikhism. This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice but also visits Sikh Gurdwaras in addition to Hindu temples.


{{more citations needed section|date=January 2017}}{{See also|Punjab School Education Board|Punjab State Board of Technical Education and Industrial Training|List of institutions of higher education in Punjab}}(File:Niper research block.jpg|thumb|The National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research)File:Guru Nanak Dev University3.jpg|thumb|The Ranjit Singh Block at Guru Nanak Dev UniversityGuru Nanak Dev UniversityFile:PUP GGSB.jpg|thumb|right|Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan at Punjabi UniversityPunjabi UniversityPrimary and Secondary education is mainly affiliated to Punjab School Education Board. Punjab is served by several institutions of higher education, including 23 universities that provide undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all the major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, veterinary science, and business. Punjab Agricultural University is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution in the 1960s–70s. Alumni of the Panjab University, Chandigarh include Manmohan Singh, the former Prime Minister of India, and Dr. Har Gobind Khorana, a biochemistry nobel laureate.One of the oldest institutions of medical education is the Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, which has existed since 1894.An Indian doctor's triumph {{webarchive|url= |date=13 May 2011 }} The Telegraph, 15 August 2005 There is an existing gap in education between men and women, particularly in rural areas of Punjab. Of a total of 1 million 300 thousand students enrolled in grades five to eight, only 44% are women.Ministry of Human Resource Development, G. o. (29 August 2013). Department of School Education and Literacy {{webarchive|url= |date=13 February 2014 }},; accessed 9 December 2016.Punjab has 23 universities, of which ten are private, 9 are state, one is central and three are deemed universities. Punjab has 1.04 lakh (104,000) engineering seats.NEWS, Nil admission in MCA at PTU, Tribune India, 11 August 2015,weblink 11 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 August 2015, Punjab also putting step in education of Yoga and Naturopathy. It's slowly becoming popular and student adopting these as their career . Board of Naturopathy and yoga science (B.N.Y.S.)WEB,weblink BNYS ONLINE,, 10 January 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2018, live, Regional College Dinanagar is the very first college opened in Dinanagar Town.WEB,weblink Herci,, 10 January 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2018,


Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjabi Tribune and The Tribune are the largest-selling Punjabi and English newspapers respectively. A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in Punjabi. Other main newspapers are Daily Punjab Times, Rozana Spokesman, Nawan Zamana, etc.Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Punjabi is dedicated to Punjabi. Prominent Punjabi channels include news channels like BBC PunjabiNEWS,weblink BBC launches new Indian services, 2 October 2017, 7 October 2019, en-GB, , ABP SanjhaWEB,weblink ANN's ABP Sanjha, BBC Global News India granted TV channel licences by MIB, 10 April 2019, Indian Television Dot Com, en, 7 October 2019, , Global Punjab TV,WEB, About Us, Punjabi News,weblink 30 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2015, News18 Punjab Haryana HimachalWEB,weblink Network18 to launch News18 Bharat, 14 April 2018, Indian Television Dot Com, en, 7 October 2019, , Zee Punjab Haryana Himachal, weblink" title="">Day & Night News and entertainment channels like GET Punjabi, Zee ETC Punjabi, Chardikla Time TV, PTC Punjabi, JUS Punjabi MH1 and 9x Tashan.WEB,weblink ITV Network readies Punjabi music channel, 24 May 2018, Indian Television Dot Com, en, 7 October 2019, Punjab has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar, which has become hugely popular. There are government radio channels like All India Radio, Jalandhar, All India Radio, Bathinda and FM Gold Ludhiana.NEWS, FM Gold Ludhiana,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 January 2017, Private radio channels include Radio Mirchi, BIG FM 92.7, 94.3 My FM, Radio Mantra and many more.


(File:Apr 21 ontario place punjabi virsa miss brampton.JPG|right|thumb|Women at cultural event)The culture of Punjab has many elements including music such as bhangra, an extensive religious and non-religious dance tradition, a long history of poetry in the Punjabi language, a significant Punjabi film industry that dates back to before Partition, a vast range of cuisine, which has become widely popular abroad, and a number of seasonal and harvest festivals such as Lohri,WEB,weblink Harvest Festival of Punjab, Harvest Festival Lohri, Cultural Festival of India, Harvest Festival in India,, 18 July 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2010, Basant, Vaisakhi and Teeyan,NEWS, Sikh festival celebrates women and girls,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink 14 July 2017, NEWS, Celebrate mothers again,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, NEWS, Girl power on display at Teeyan da Mela festival,weblink 9 December 2016, all of which are celebrated in addition to the religious festivals of India.(File:Punjabi kalchar.jpg|thumb|right|Women using Charkha)A kissa is a Punjabi language oral story-telling tradition that has a mixture of origins ranging from the Arabian peninsula to Iran and Afghanistan.WEB,weblink Representations of Piety and Community in Late-nineteenth-century Punjabi Qisse, Farina, Mir, Columbia University, 4 July 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2007, (File:Punjabi jutti at Dilli Haat.jpg|right|thumb|Punjabi jutti)Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Marriage ceremonies are known for their rich rituals, songs, dances, food and dresses, which have evolved over many centuries.NEWS, was-it-a-sikh-wedding,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2017, NEWS, Sikh groom thrown from horse during wedding procession in Surrey,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2016,


Bhangra (; pronounced {{IPA-pa|pɑ̀ŋɡɾɑ̀ː|}}) and Giddha are forms of dance and music that originated in the Punjab region.BOOK,weblink Bhangra refers to both a traditional dance and a form of music invented in the 1980s. Bhangra, the Punjabi folk dance that has become popular all over the world. Punjabi folk songs have been integral part of fertile provinces, Pakistan almanac, Volumes 2001–2002, Royal Book Company, 3 November 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, 2007, Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of the harvest season. The specific moves of Bhangra reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The folk dance has been popularised in the western world by Punjabis in England, Canada and the USA where competitions are held.Bhangra History {{webarchive|url= |date=17 December 2010 }}. Retrieved on 18 January 2012. It is seen in the West as an expression of South Asian culture as a whole.BOOK,weblink The whole institution of the Bhangra and its related processes are clearly an expression of Indian/Pakistan culture in a Western setting., Social control and deviance: a South Asian community in Scotland, Ashgate, 3 November 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, dmy-all, 9781840145885, 1 January 2000, Today, Bhangra dance survives in different forms and styles all over the globe – including pop music, film soundtracks, collegiate competitions and cultural shows.

Punjabi folklore

The folk heritage of the Punjab reflects its thousands of years of history. While Majhi is considered to be the standard dialect of Punjabi language, there are a number of Punjabi dialects through which the people communicate. These include Malwai, Doabi and Puadhi. The songs, ballads, epics and romances are generally written and sung in these dialects.There are a number of folk tales that are popular in Punjab. These are the folk tales of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Sassi Punnun, Jagga Jatt, Dulla Bhatti, Puran Bhagat, Jeona Maud etc.The mystic folk songs and religious songs include the Shalooks of Sikh gurus, Baba Farid and others.weblink" title="">Pakistan Punjab,; retrieved 18 January 2012.The most famous of the romantic love songs are Mayhiah, Dhola and Boliyan.WEB,weblink Talking Punjabi, Editor, T. N. S., 28 April 2019, TNS - The News on Sunday, en-US, 7 October 2019, Punjabi romantic dances include Dhamaal, Bhangra, Giddha, Dhola, and Sammi and some other local folk dances.BOOK,weblink Bhangra Moves: From Ludhiana to London and Beyond, Roy, AnjaliGera, 5 July 2017, Routledge, 9781351573993, en, (File:Punjabi culture.jpg|thumb|Punjabi culture|alt=Punjabi culture.jpg)


{{See also|Punjabi literature}}Most early Punjabi literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Punjabi literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.WEB,weblink Syllables that Bind, 4 November 2018, The Indian Express, en-IN, 7 October 2019,


{{See also|Music of Punjab|Folk music of Punjab|Bhangra (music)}}(File:Bhangra-dance.jpg|alt=|thumb|Bhangra Dance)Punjabi Folk Music is the traditional music on the traditional musical instruments of Punjab region.NEWS, Punjabi folk mingles with new-age music,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, NEWS, Revisiting Punjabi classics,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2015, NEWS, Tappa — gift to Punjab’s classical music,weblink 10 July 2015, 3 January 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, Bhangra music of Punjab is famous throughout the world.NEWS, The Globalisation of Bhangra Music,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2015, NEWS, The Bhangra Breakdown – June 2014 Edition,weblink June 2014, 3 January 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, notably the Punjab gharana and Patiala gharana.NEWS, Strange as it may sound, all art forms need political support to grow. The communal upheaval that engulfed the Punjab region in 1947 forced migration of the well-established Muslim artistes from this region. This resulted in i mpoverishment of the rich traditions of classical music,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2015, NEWS, A Classical Rendition you Cannot Miss,weblink 9 December 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2016,

Film industry

{{See also| Cinema of Punjab}}Punjab is home to the Punjabi film industry, often colloquially referred to as 'Pollywood'.NEWS, "Pollywood Directory". The directory has the contact and other details of those related to Punjabi film industry. It is an initiative to organise Punjabi Cinema.,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2014, It is known for being the fastest growing film industry in India. It is based mainly around Chandigarh city.NEWS, Punjabi film industry has come a long way and in recent times there has been a boom in the region`s film industry.,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2015, NEWS, chandigarh-woman-architect-annu-bains-produces-punjabi-movie-qissa-panjab,weblink 3 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live, The first Punjabi film was made in 1936. Since the 2000s Punjabi cinema has seen a revival with more releases every year with bigger budgets, homegrown stars, and Bollywood actors of Punjabi descent taking part.NEWS, Akshay's journey begun with the Punjabi film Bhaji In Problem,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016,


The city of Amritsar is home to the craft of brass and copper metalwork done by the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, which is enlisted on the UNESCO's List of Intangible Cultural Heritage.WEB,weblink UNESCO - Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making among the Thatheras of Jandiala Guru, Punjab, India,, en, 1 July 2019, Years of neglect had caused this craft to die out, and the listing prompted the Government of Punjab to undertake a craft revival effort under Project Virasat.WEB,weblink Ignored for years, local craft may soon find place in luxury hotels {{!, Amritsar News - Times of India|last=22 Jun|first=Yudhvir Rana {{!}} TNN {{!}} Updated:|last2=2018|website=The Times of India|language=en|access-date=1 July 2019|last3=Ist|first3=19:34}}WEB,weblink Alchemy of Art, 7 April 2019, The Indian Express, en-IN, 1 July 2019,


(File:Veg Punjabi Thaali.jpg|thumbnail|right|Vegetarian Punjabi Thaali)One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes.NEWS, Inside humble trappings, vivid expressions of Punjabi cuisine,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 September 2015, NEWS, 10 Best Punjabi Recipes,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2017, Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions.WEB,weblink 13 Best Punjabi Recipes {{!, Easy Punjabi Recipes|website=NDTV Food|access-date=7 October 2019}}There are many regional dishes that are famous in some regions only. Many dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including sarson da saag, Tandoori chicken, Shami kebab, makki di roti, etc.NEWS, Eating Out Park Plaza brings you the hearty Punjabi flavours at its ongoing food festival,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016,

Festivals and traditions

{{See also| List of Sikh festivals|Punjabi festivals|List of Hindu festivals in Punjab}}Punjabis celebrate a number of festivals, which have taken a semi-secular meaning and are regarded as cultural festivals by people of all religions. Some of the festivals are Bandi Chhor Divas (Diwali),NEWS, Bandi Chhor Divas Reflection: A Lesson In Selflessness,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, NEWS, Sikhs celebrate Diwali and Bandi Chhor Divas at Ilford gurdwara,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2015, Mela Maghi,NEWS, Maghi Mela: Four political parties erect stages to hold conferences,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2015, Hola Mohalla,NEWS, Hola Mohalla 2015: Facts, History, Rituals Surrounding The Sikh Festival,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2015, NEWS, Thousands converge in Punjab for Hola Mohalla,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2015, Raksha Bandhan (Rakhri), Vaisakhi, Lohri, Teeyan and Basant Kite Festival.


File:Kabaddi.....JPG|left|thumb|Kabbadi (Circle Style) ]]File:LightsMohali.png|right|thumb|PCA StadiumPCA StadiumKabbadi (Circle Style), a team contact sport originated in rural Punjab is recognised as the state game.NEWS, Circle Style Kabaddi in a new avatar – World-wide Kabaddi League,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, NEWS, Kabaddi player alleges Punjab Police pushed him into drugs,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2015, Field hockey is also a popular sport in the state.NEWS, Punjab women enter semifinals of National Hockey Championship,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2015, Kila Raipur Sports Festival, popularly known as the Rural Olympics, is held annually in Kila Raipur (near Ludhiana). Competition is held for major Punjabi rural sports, include cart-race, rope pulling. Punjab government organises World Kabaddi League,NEWS, World Kabaddi League announces team franchise names and logos,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2014, NEWS, the World Kabaddi League (WKL) was launched with the promoters — Punjab Deputy Chief Minister Sukhbir Singh Badal is the president of the league while former India hockey captain Pargat Singh is the league commissioner — unveiling the eight teams, their owners and marquee players.,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, Punjab Games and annual Kabaddi World Cup for Circle Style Kabbadi in which teams from countries like Argentina, Canada, Denmark, England, India, Iran, Kenya, Pakistan, Scotland, Sierra Leone, Spain and United States participated.WEB,weblink Sierra Leone, England win in Kabbadi World Cup, News18, 7 October 2019,


File:MotiBaghPalace.jpg|left|thumb|Moti Bagh Palace in PatialaPatialaFile:Harminder sahib5.jpg|right|thumb|Harmandir Sahib in AmritsarAmritsarTourism in Indian Punjab centres around the historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture of the state and the surrounding region.NEWS, World Heritage Day: 8 places to visit in Punjab,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2015, Examples include various sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, the ancient fort of Bathinda, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala, Patiala, and Chandigarh, the modern capital designed by Le Corbusier.Punjab {{webarchive|url= |date=8 April 2010 }}.; retrieved 18 January 2012.The Golden Temple in Amritsar is one of the major tourist destinations of Punjab and indeed India, attracting more visitors than the Taj Mahal. Lonely Planet Bluelist 2008 has voted the Harmandir Sahib as one of the world's best spiritual sites.weblink" title="">Lonely Planet tips Mumbai as a must-see destination in 2008., 9 November 2007 Moreover, there is a rapidly expanding array of international hotels in the holy city that can be booked for overnight stays. Devi Talab Mandir is a Hindu temple located in Jalandhar. This temple is devoted to Goddess DurgaWEB,weblink सुदर्शन चक्र ने किए थे देवी सती के 51 टुकड़े, यहां भी कटकर गिरा शरीर का भाग, 3 August 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2016, 12 October 2015, and is believed to be at least 200 years old. Another main tourist destination is religious and historic city of Sri Anandpur Sahib where large number of tourists come to see the Virasat-e-Khalsa (Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex) and also take part in Hola Mohalla festival. Kila Raipur Sports Festival is also popular tourist attraction in Kila Raipur near Ludhiana.NEWS, Pictures displayed at media centre attract visitors to 'Kila Raipur' games,weblink NEWS, Kila Raipur sports festival begins today,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 20 October 2015, NEWS, Kila Raipur sports festival concludes,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, Shahpur kandi fort, Ranjit Sagar lake and Sikh Temple in Sri Muktsar Sahib are also popular attractions in Punjab. Punjab also has the world's first museum based on the Indian Partition of 1947, in Amritsar, called the Partition Museum.WEB,weblink Amritsar-based Partition Museum to ink pact with Manchester Museum, 6 October 2019, Hindustan Times, en, 7 October 2019,

See also

{{wikipedia books|India}}{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=22em| {edih}




  • Radhika Chopra. Militant and Migrant: The Politics and Social History of Punjab (2011)
  • Harnik Deol. Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia) (2000)
  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Encyclopedia of Jalandhar, Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2005)
  • Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, SIKH HISTORY in 10 volumes, Sikh University Press, Brussels, Belgium (2010–11)
  • J. S. Grewal. The Sikhs of the Punjab (The New Cambridge History of India) (1998)
  • J. S. Grewal. Social and Cultural History of the Punjab: Prehistoric, Ancient and Early Medieval (2004)
  • Nazer Singh. Delhi and Punjab: Essays in history and historiography (1995)
  • Tai Yong Tan. The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849–1947 (Sage Series in Modern Indian History) (2005)
  • J. C. Aggarwal and S. P. Agrawal, eds. Modern History of Punjab: Relevant Select Documents (1992)
  • R. M. Chopra, The Legacy of The Punjab, 1997, Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.
  • {{citation |author1=Zuhair Kashmeri|author2=Brian McAndrew|url=|title=Soft Target: The Real Story Behind the Air India Disaster – Second Edition|date=6 September 2005|publisher=James Lorimer & Company|isbn=978-1-55-028904-6|ref={{sfnref|Zuhair Kashmeri|Brian McAndrew|2005}}}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Punjab (India)}}

General information
  • Punjab, India Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Punjab/}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|1942686}}
{{Geographic location|Centre=Punjab|North=Jammu and Kashmir|Northeast=Himachal Pradesh|East=Chandigarh, capital|Southeast=|South=Haryana|Southwest=RajasthanPunjab (Pakistan)>Punjab, {{flag|Pakistan}}|Northwest=}}{{Punjab (Indian state)}}{{States and territories of India}}{{Authority control}}

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