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{{other uses of|Munich" or "München|Munich (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Capital and most populous city of Bavaria, Germany}}{{EngvarB|date=December 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2017}}

|pop_ref =weblink|name = Munich|German_name = Münchenposition=center| photo1a = Stadtbild_München.jpg| photo3a = Schloss Nymphenburg Münich.jpg| photo3b = Englischer_Garten_München.jpg| photo5a = BMW Welt Night cropped.jpg| photo5b = Feldherrnhalle_-_Odeonsplatz.jpg| photo6a = Allianz_arena_golden_hour_Richard_Bartz.jpg| size = 270| spacing = 2| color = white| border = 0From top: Marienplatz with New Town Hall (Munich) and Munich Frauenkirche>Frauenkirche in the background,}}Nymphenburg Palace, Englischer Garten, BMW Welt, Feldherrnhalle and Allianz Arena}}|type = 69|image_coa = Muenchen Kleines Stadtwappen.svg120px48N34format=dms|display=inline,title}}|Höhe = 520|state = Bavaria|region = Upper Bavaria|district = urban|elevation = 519r|area = 310.43|postal_code = 80331–81929|PLZ-alt = 8000|area_code = 089|licence = M|LOCODE = DE MUC|borough = {hide}Collapsible list
|title=25 boroughs
Altstadt-Lehel{edih}Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt}}Maxvorstadt}}Schwabing-West}}Au-Haidhausen}}Sendling}}Sendling-Westpark}}Schwanthalerhöhe}}Neuhausen-Nymphenburg}}Moosach}}Milbertshofen-Am Hart}}Schwabing-Freimann}}Bogenhausen}}Berg am Laim}}Trudering-Riem}}Ramersdorf-Perlach}}Obergiesing}}Untergiesing-Harlaching}}Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln}}Hadern}}Pasing-Obermenzing}}Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied}}Allach-Untermenzing}}Feldmoching-Hasenbergl}}Laim}}}}|Adresse = Marienplatz 880331 München|website =|mayor = Dieter Reiter|party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = CSU|year_of_first_mention = 1158}}File:MariensaeuleMuenchen.jpg|thumb|Mariensäule at MarienplatzMarienplatz(File:Www.gerhard-blank.de_münchen_ansicht_von_oben.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of Munich)File:Frauenkirche_in_München.jpg|thumb|AlpsAlpsFile:Lions at the Feldherrnhalle in Munich.JPG|thumb|Lion sculptures by Wilhelm von Rümann at the FeldherrnhalleFeldherrnhalleMunich ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|m|juː|n|ɪ|k}} {{respell|MEW|nik}}; {{IPA-de|ˈmʏnçnÌ©||De-München.ogg}};(Names of European cities in different languages: M–P#M) {{IPA-bar|ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ|}}; ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million,WEB,weblink Landeshauptstadt München – Bevölkerung, Landeshauptstadt München, Redaktion, Landeshauptstadt München, 12 February 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2016, live, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the largest which does not constitute its own state, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people.WEB,weblink The Munich Metropolitan Region, Europäische Metropolregion München e.V., 17 April 2017, de,weblink 31 May 2017, live, Straddling the banks of the River Isar (a tributary of the Danube) north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany (4,500 people per km²). Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.The city is a global centre of art, science, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey,WEB, Quality of Living City Rankings,weblink 28 June 2018,weblink 4 April 2019, live, and being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018.WEB, Munich Named The Most Livable City In The World, Forbes,weblink 25 June 2018, 2 July 2018,weblink 3 July 2018, live, According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, {{As of|2015|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities (updated 2015), Spotted by Locals, 11 March 2019, 28 February 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2016, live, Munich is a major international center of engineering, science, innovation, and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, and world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.JOURNAL, 10.1038/d41586-018-07208-0, 30382228, A European heavyweight, Nature, 563, 7729, S14–S15, 2018, Boytchev, Hristio, 2018Natur.563S..14B, Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, automobiles, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology, engineering and electronics among many others.The name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich strongly resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes.BOOK, OfredsÃ¥r, Englund, Peter, Atlantis, 1993, Stockholm, {{citation needed|date=November 2014}} Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared.In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP. The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics. The 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth. The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz and MunichRE.Munich is home to many universities, museums and theatres. Its numerous architectural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism.WEB,weblink Munich Travel Tourism Munich,, 12 February 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2016, live, Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. It is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population.WEB, Ausländeranteil in der Bevölkerung: In München ist die ganze Welt zu Hause – Abendzeitung München,weblink, 31 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2015, live,


{{more citations needed|section|date=May 2019}}File:Großes_Stadtwappen_München.svg|thumb|Munich city large coat of arms ]]

Origin of medieval town

(File:Stadtansicht 1572.jpg|thumb|left|Munich in the 16th century)(File:Muenchen_merian.jpg|thumb|left|Plan of Munich in 1642)The first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg.WEB,weblink Ausstellung im Foyer,, 25 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2012, By then, the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route. But as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.In 1175 Munich received city status and fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, and Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. (Wittelsbach's heirs, the Wittelsbach dynasty, ruled Bavaria until 1918.) In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria.Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468.

Capital of reunited Bavaria

File:Marcktzumuenchen.png|thumb|left|MarienplatzMarienplatzFile:Mun flags frauenkirche.jpg|thumb|upright|Banners with the colours of Munich (left) and Bavaria (right) with the Frauenkirche in the background]]When Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court (see Orlando di Lasso and Heinrich Schütz). During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, and also of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also built the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in 1589. The Catholic League was founded in Munich in 1609.In 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, Munich became electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity, but in 1632 the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden. When the bubonic plague broke out in 1634 and 1635, about one third of the population died. Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich was an important centre of baroque life, but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in 1704 and 1742.In 1806 the city became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria, with the state's parliament (the Landtag) and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city. Twenty years later, Landshut University was moved to Munich. Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings. Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings. On the other hand, Ludwig II, known the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside. Nevertheless, his patronage of Richard Wagner secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which still generate significant tourist income for Bavaria. Later, Prince Regent Luitpold's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Munich, enhancing its status as a cultural force of global importance (see Franz von Stuck and Der Blaue Reiter).

World War I to World War II

File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-1486,_Hitler-Putsch,_München,_Marienplatz.jpg|thumb|Unrest during the Beer Hall PutschBeer Hall PutschFollowing the outbreak of World War I in 1914, life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages. During French air raids in 1916, three bombs fell on Munich.After World War I, the city was at the centre of substantial political unrest. In November 1918 on the eve of German revolution, Ludwig III and his family fled the city. After the murder of the first republican premier of Bavaria Kurt Eisner in February 1919 by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. When Communists took power, Lenin, who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May 1919 by the Freikorps. While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists soon rose to prominence.File:wardamage2.jpg|thumb|Bombing damage to the Altstadt. Note the roofless and pockmarked Altes Rathaus looking up the Tal. The roofless Heilig-Geist-Kirche is on the right of the photo. Its spire, without the copper top, is behind the church. The Talbruck gate tower is missing completely.]]In 1923, Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch, an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power. The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in 1933. The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau, {{convert|16|km|abbr=off}} north-west of the city. Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung ("Capital of the Movement"). The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten ("Führer-buildings") were built around the Königsplatz, some of which still survive.The city is known as the site of the culmination of the policy of appeasement by Britain and France leading up to World War II. It was in Munich that British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain assented to the annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region into Greater Germany in the hopes of sating the desires of Hitler's Third Reich.Munich was the base of the White Rose, a student resistance movement from June 1942 to February 1943. The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II by 71 air raids over five years.


After US occupation in 1945, Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid. In 1957, Munich's population surpassed one million. The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt ("secret capital") in the decades after World War II.Munich was the site of the 1972 Summer Olympics, during which Israeli athletes were assassinated by Palestinian fedayeen in the Munich massacre, when gunmen from the Palestinian "Black September" group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide – a 2011 survey ranked Munich as 4th.weblink Mercer Human Resource Consulting {{webarchive|url=|date=11 March 2014}} In 2007 the same company also ranked Munich as the 39th most expensive in the world and most expensive major city in Germany.2007 Cost of Living Report Munich Mercer Human Resource Consulting {{webarchive |url= |date=10 April 2014 }} Munich enjoys a thriving economy, driven by the information technology, biotechnology, and publishing sectors. Environmental pollution is low, although {{As of|2006|lc=y}} the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter (PM), especially along the city's major thoroughfares. Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.WEB,weblink Gesunde Luft für Gesunde Bürger – Stoppt Dieselruß! – Greenpeace misst Feinstaub und Dieselruß in München, Greenpeace-Munich branch, 28 June 2005, 25 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2012, Today, the crime rate is low compared with other large German cities, such as Hamburg or Berlin. For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown"WEB,weblink Toytown Germany – English language news and chat,, 24 May 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2006, live, among the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people". Due to the high standard of living in and the thriving economy of the city and the region, there was an influx of people and Munich's population surpassed 1.5 million by June 2015, an increase of more than 20% in 10 years.



(File:Stadtbild München.jpg|left|thumb|The inner city (2013))File:Englischer Garten from Monopteros.JPG|thumb|320px|View from the Englischer GartenEnglischer GartenMunich lies on the elevated plains of Upper Bavaria, about {{convert|50|km|0|abbr=on}} north of the northern edge of the Alps, at an altitude of about {{convert|520|m|0|abbr=on}} ASL. The local rivers are the Isar and the Würm.Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills. Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.


By Köppen classification templates and updated data the climate is oceanic (Cfb), independent of the isotherm but with some humid continental (Dfb) features like warm to hot summers and cold winters, but without permanent snow cover.WEB,weblink Munich, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 2019-02-05,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2019, live, BOOK,weblink The European Culture Area: A Systematic Geography, Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G., Jordan, Bella Bychkova, Murphy, Alexander B., 2008-08-28, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 9780742579064, en, The proximity to the Alps brings higher volumes of rainfall and consequently greater susceptibility to flood problems. Studies of adaptation to climate change and extreme events are carried out, one of them is the Isar Plan of the EU Adaptation Climate.WEB,weblink Munich — Climate-ADAPT, 2018-03-19,, 2019-02-05, The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. The warmest month, on average, is July. The coolest is January.Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer. The most precipitation occurs in June, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February.The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany. The Alps affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps (föhn wind), which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter.Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.At Munich's official weather station, the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are {{convert|37.5|C|F|0}}, on 27 July 1983 in Trudering-Riem, and {{convert|-31.6|C|F|1}}, on 12 February 1929 in Botanic Garden of the city.WEB,weblink Extremwertetafel (München-Riem),,weblink February 12, 2019, February 12, 2019, WEB,weblink Extremwertetafel (München-Botanischer Garten),,weblink February 12, 2019, February 12, 2019, {{Weather boxTwo meteorological stations are responsible for the climatological data so that they are interpolated.Stationsgeschichte der Messgeräte{{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot Deutscher Wetterdienst>DWD. Retrieved 12 February 2019.}}|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 18.9|Feb record high C = 21.4|Mar record high C = 24.0|Apr record high C = 32.2|May record high C = 31.8|Jun record high C = 35.2|Jul record high C = 37.5|Aug record high C = 37.0|Sep record high C = 31.8|Oct record high C = 28.2|Nov record high C = 24.2|Dec record high C = 21.7|Jan high C = 3.5|Feb high C = 5.0|Mar high C = 9.5|Apr high C = 14.2|May high C = 19.1|Jun high C = 21.9|Jul high C = 24.4|Aug high C = 23.9|Sep high C = 19.4|Oct high C = 14.3|Nov high C = 7.7|Dec high C = 4.2|year high C = 13.9|Jan mean C= 0.3|Feb mean C= 1.4|Mar mean C= 5.3|Apr mean C= 9.4|May mean C= 14.3|Jun mean C= 17.2|Jul mean C= 19.4|Aug mean C= 18.9|Sep mean C= 14.7|Oct mean C= 10.1|Nov mean C= 4.4|Dec mean C= 1.3|year mean C= 9.7|Jan low C = -2.5|Feb low C = -1.9|Mar low C = 1.6|Apr low C = 4.9|May low C = 9.4|Jun low C = 12.5|Jul low C = 14.5|Aug low C = 14.2|Sep low C = 10.5|Oct low C = 6.6|Nov low C = 1.7|Dec low C = -1.2|year low C = 5.9|Jan record low C = -22.2|Feb record low C = -25.4|Mar record low C = -16.0|Apr record low C = -6.0|May record low C = -2.3|Jun record low C = 1.0|Jul record low C = 6.5|Aug record low C = 4.8|Sep record low C = 0.6|Oct record low C = -4.5|Nov record low C = -11.0|Dec record low C = -20.7|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 48|Feb precipitation mm = 46|Mar precipitation mm = 65|Apr precipitation mm = 65|May precipitation mm = 101|Jun precipitation mm = 118|Jul precipitation mm = 122|Aug precipitation mm = 115|Sep precipitation mm = 75|Oct precipitation mm = 65|Nov precipitation mm = 61|Dec precipitation mm = 65|year precipitation mm = 944|Jan sun = 79|Feb sun = 96|Mar sun = 133|Apr sun = 170|May sun = 209|Jun sun = 210|Jul sun = 238|Aug sun = 220|Sep sun = 163|Oct sun = 125|Nov sun = 75|Dec sun = 59Deutscher Wetterdienst>DWDHTTP://WWW.DWD.DE/DE/KLIMAUMWELT/CDC/CDC_NODE.HTML;JSESSIONID=AB2FD90DB16A31B55E20AD406ED1D066.LIVE21063 >TITLE=CDC (CLIMATE DATA CENTER) DEUTSCHER WETTERDIENST>DWD ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170114025310/HTTP://WWW.DWD.DE/DE/KLIMAUMWELT/CDC/CDC_NODE.HTML;JSESSIONID=AB2FD90DB16A31B55E20AD406ED1D066.LIVE21063 URL-STATUS=LIVE, WEBSITE=SKLIMA.DE LANGUAGE=DE ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160607181253/HTTP://SKLIMA.DE/DATENBANK_AUSWERTUNG.PHP?TAB=2 URL-STATUS=LIVE, |date = May 2016}}{{Weather box|width = auto|location= Munich (Munich Airport), elevation: 447 m, 1971–2000 normals|collapsed = yes|metric first= Y|single line= Y|Jan record high C=17.2|Feb record high C=21.1|Mar record high C=23.3|Apr record high C=32.2|May record high C=31.2|Jun record high C=35.2|Jul record high C=36.2|Aug record high C=37.1|Sep record high C=31.7|Oct record high C=27.0|Nov record high C=22.9|Dec record high C=20.5|Jan high C= 2.7|Feb high C= 4.3|Mar high C= 9.0|Apr high C= 12.5|May high C= 18.0|Jun high C= 20.5|Jul high C= 23.1|Aug high C= 23.0|Sep high C= 18.8|Oct high C= 13.2|Nov high C= 6.9|Dec high C= 3.7|Jan low C= −3.7|Feb low C= −3.2|Mar low C= 0.1|Apr low C= 2.8|May low C= 7.2|Jun low C= 10.4|Jul low C= 12.6|Aug low C= 12.3|Sep low C= 8.9|Oct low C= 4.7|Nov low C= 0.2|Dec low C= −2.3|Jan record low C= −30.5|Feb record low C= −31.6|Mar record low C= −15.5|Apr record low C= −6.1|May record low C= −2.7|Jun record low C= −2.7|Jul record low C= 3.8|Aug record low C= 3.8|Sep record low C= 0.0|Oct record low C= −6.1|Nov record low C= −14.4|Dec record low C= −21.1|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm= 48|Feb precipitation mm= 45|Mar precipitation mm= 58|Apr precipitation mm= 70|May precipitation mm= 93|Jun precipitation mm= 128|Jul precipitation mm= 132|Aug precipitation mm= 111|Sep precipitation mm= 86|Oct precipitation mm= 65|Nov precipitation mm= 71|Dec precipitation mm= 61| unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days= 10.0|Feb precipitation days= 8.6|Mar precipitation days= 10.5|Apr precipitation days= 10.9|May precipitation days= 11.6|Jun precipitation days= 13.8|Jul precipitation days= 12.0|Aug precipitation days= 11.4|Sep precipitation days= 9.6|Oct precipitation days= 9.1|Nov precipitation days= 10.7|Dec precipitation days= 11.2|Jan humidity=80|Feb humidity=74|Mar humidity=62|Apr humidity=57|May humidity=55|Jun humidity=58|Jul humidity=55|Aug humidity=55|Sep humidity=61|Oct humidity=71|Nov humidity=80|Dec humidity=81|year humidity=|Jan sun= 61|Feb sun= 84|Mar sun= 128|Apr sun= 157|May sun= 199|Jun sun= 209|Jul sun= 237|Aug sun= 213|Sep sun= 173|Oct sun= 129|Nov sun= 69|Dec sun= 49World Meteorological Organisation>WMOHTTP://WORLDWEATHER.WMO.INT/016/C00058.HTM >WEBSITE=WORLD WEATHER INFORMATION SERVICE PUBLISHER=WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANISATION >DATE=JUNE 2011 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100211172557/HTTP://WORLDWEATHER.WMO.INT/016/C00058.HTM URL-STATUS=LIVE, TITLE=CLIMATE MUNICH – GERMANY ACCESS-DATE=21 APRIL 2011 ARCHIVE-DATE=23 MARCH 2012 TITLE=MUENCHEN-FLUGHAFEN, GERMANY ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110615184849/HTTP://WWW.CLIMATE-CHARTS.COM/LOCATIONS/D/DL10870.PHP URL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, }}{{Weather box| width = auto | collapsed = y | open = | metric first = y | single line = y| location = Munich (Munich Airport), elevation: 447 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes| Jan mean C =-2.2| Feb mean C =-0.4| Mar mean C =3.4| Apr mean C =7.6| May mean C =12.2| Jun mean C =15.4| Jul mean C =17.3| Aug mean C =16.6| Sep mean C =13.4| Oct mean C =8.2| Nov mean C =2.8| Dec mean C =-0.9| Jan high C =1.1| Feb high C =3.5| Mar high C =8.4| Apr high C =13.3| May high C =18.0| Jun high C =21.4| Jul high C =23.3| Aug high C =22.9| Sep high C =19.4| Oct high C =13.6| Nov high C =6.5| Dec high C =2.3| Jan record high C =14.0| Feb record high C =20.1| Mar record high C =23.7| Apr record high C =27.4| May record high C =30.0| Jun record high C =33.6| Jul record high C =36.7| Aug record high C =33.9| Sep record high C =31.0| Oct record high C =26.2| Nov record high C =20.0| Dec record high C =17.0| Jan low C =-5.0| Feb low C =-3.7| Mar low C =0.4| Apr low C =2.9| May low C =7.1| Jun low C =10.4| Jul low C =12.0| Aug low C =11.7| Sep low C =8.8| Oct low C =4.5| Nov low C =0.2| Dec low C =-3.5| Jan record low C =-28.0| Feb record low C =-29.0| Mar record low C =-21.8| Apr record low C =-5.6| May record low C =-3.2| Jun record low C =1.0| Jul record low C =4.0| Aug record low C =2.6| Sep record low C =-2.6| Oct record low C =-7.0| Nov record low C =-15.1| Dec record low C =-27.0| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm =45| Feb precipitation mm =42| Mar precipitation mm =47| Apr precipitation mm =88| May precipitation mm =109| Jun precipitation mm =100| Jul precipitation mm =98| Aug precipitation mm =68| Sep precipitation mm =49| Oct precipitation mm =55| Nov precipitation mm =55| Dec precipitation mm =49| Jan sun =47.8| Feb sun =77.0| Mar sun =128.2| Apr sun =160.7| May sun =203.2| Jun sun =209.3| Jul sun =232.4| Aug sun =210.4| Sep sun =166.9| Oct sun =119.9| Nov sun =60.1| Dec sun =44.0| unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm| Jan precipitation days =10| Feb precipitation days =9| Mar precipitation days =9| Apr precipitation days =10| May precipitation days =11| Jun precipitation days =12| Jul precipitation days =11| Aug precipitation days =11| Sep precipitation days =9| Oct precipitation days =7| Nov precipitation days =10| Dec precipitation days =10National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAAWEB,weblink Munich (10870) - WMO Weather Station, February 7, 2019National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAA, Archived February 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine}}


{{historical populations13447219433200023002334902449993259646766600072890083450082389210554571311978129894112290261210223125958413531861364920138830814024551450381| align = right}}From only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was 100,000 in 1852, 250,000 in 1883 and 500,000 in 1901. Since then, Munich has become Germany's third largest city. In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted, and in 1957 over 1 million.


{{Expand section|date=June 2017}}In July 2017, Munich had 1.42 million inhabitants; 421,832 foreign nationals resided in the city as of 31.12.2017 with 50.7% of these residents being citizens of EU member states, and 25.2% citizens in European states not in the EU (including Russia and Turkey).WEB, Die ausländische Bevölkerung nach der Staatsangehörigkeit 2017,weblink 19 June 2018,weblink 19 June 2018, live, The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (39,204), Croats (33,177), Italians (27,340), Greeks (27,117), Poles (27,945), Austrians (21,944), and Romanians (18,085).The largest foreign resident groups by 31.12.2018WEB, Die ausländische Bevölkerung nach der Staatsangehörigkeit 2017,weblink 19 June 2018,weblink 19 June 2018, live, {|Croatia}}38,137Turkey}}37,876Italy}}27,821Greece}}26,560Austria}}21,046Bosnia and Herzegovina}}19,692Poland}}19,101Romania}}17,980Serbia}}14,115Bulgaria}}12,575Iraq}}12,237Kosovo}}11,428France}}10,239India}}9,071Russia}}8,899Spain}}8,860Hungary}}8,586China}}8,400Afghanistan}}7,246Ukraine}}6,964United States}}6,647United Kingdom}}4,993Syria}}4,382


About 45% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group; this ratio represents the fastest growing segment of the population. As in the rest of Germany, the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership. As of 31 December 2017, 31.8% of the city's inhabitants were Roman Catholic, 11.4% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish,WEB,weblink Landeshauptstadt München: Bevölkerungsbestand - Aktuelle Jahreszahlen: Die Bevölkerung in den Stadtbezirken nach ausgewählten Konfessionen am 31.12.2017,, 2018-03-21,weblink 24 March 2018, live, and 3.6% were members of an Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox).WEB,weblink Bevölkerung im regionalen Vergleich nach Religion (ausführlich) in %, Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder, 2014, 2018-05-07,weblink 21 June 2013, live, About 1% adhere to other Christian denominations. There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. According to Munich Statistical Office, in 2013 about 8.6% of Munich's population was Muslim.WEB,weblink Extremisten sind eine kleine Minderheit, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 2014, 2019-08-28,weblink 28 August 2019, live,


File:Bayerische Staatskanzlei Munich 2014 02.jpg|thumb|Bavarian State Chancellery ]]Munich's current mayor is Dieter Reiter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since 1948. This is atypical because Bavaria – and particularly southern Bavaria – has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since 1946. Bavaria's second most populous city, Nuremberg, is also one of the very few Bavarian cities governed by an SPD-led coalition.File:Münchens Partnerstädte.jpg|thumb|upright|Plaque in the Neues Rathaus (New City Hall) showing Munich's twin towns and sister cities]]As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament, the Staatskanzlei (the State Chancellery) and of all state departments.Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany and the European Patent Office.Munich is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses)WEB, Partnerstädte,weblink Landeshauptstadt München, official website,, German, 17 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2014, live, : Edinburgh, Scotland (1954)WEB,weblink Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities, 21 December 2008, 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2008, WEB,weblink Twin and Partner Cities, City of Edinburgh Council, 16 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2012, , Verona, Italy (1960)WEB, Verona – Gemellaggi,weblink 3 April 2013, Council of Verona, Italy, Italian,weblink" title="">weblink 23 May 2013, live, , Bordeaux, France (1964)WEB,weblink Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial, 29 July 2013, Mairie de Bordeaux, French,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2013, WEB,weblink Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures, 29 July 2013, Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères), French,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2013, , Sapporo, Japan (1972), Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (1989), Kiev, Ukraine (1989) and Harare, Zimbabwe (1996).


Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke, which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters.(File:Stadtbezirke Lage in München.png|thumb|left|Munich's Boroughs)Allach-Untermenzing (23), Altstadt-Lehel (1), Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied (22), Au-Haidhausen (5), Berg am Laim (14), Bogenhausen (13), Feldmoching-Hasenbergl (24), Hadern (20), Laim (25), Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (2), Maxvorstadt (3), Milbertshofen-Am Hart (11), Moosach (10), Neuhausen-Nymphenburg (9), Obergiesing (17), Pasing-Obermenzing (21), Ramersdorf-Perlach (16), Schwabing-Freimann (12), Schwabing-West (4), Schwanthalerhöhe (8), Sendling (6), Sendling-Westpark (7), Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln (19), Trudering-Riem (15) and Untergiesing-Harlaching (18).{{clear}}


File:Rathaus and Marienplatz from Peterskirche - August 2006.jpg|thumb|The New Town Hall and MarienplatzMarienplatzFile:Frauenkirche Munich - View from Peterskirche Tower2.jpg|thumb|Frauenkirche ]](File:München, Viktualienmarkt met das Alte Rathaus D-1-62-000-4289 positie2 2012-08-05 15.29.jpg|Viktualienmarkt with the Altes Rathaus|thumb)The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built. A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over 100 historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th.WEB,weblink Best 110 historic places worldwide,, 14 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2008, live,

Inner city

At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz – a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre – with the Old and the New Town Hall. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive – the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city. The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus, a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) and a fountain.The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in 1158. Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt, the most popular market of Munich.The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche, the Dreifaltigkeitskirche and the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam, pioneering artists of the rococo period.The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia, the Palais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein and the Prinz-Carl-Palais. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved (and in parts excellently reconstructed) townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes. The St. Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. St. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich.

Royal avenues and squares

File:LudwigstraßeMUC.jpg|thumb|Ludwigstraße from above, Highlight TowersHighlight TowersFour grand royal avenues of the 19th century with official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs:The neoclassical Brienner Straße, starting at Odeonsplatz on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the impressive Königsplatz, designed with the "Doric" Propyläen, the "Ionic" Glyptothek and the "Corinthian" State Museum of Classical Art, behind it St. Boniface's Abbey was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below).Ludwigstraße also begins at Odeonsplatz and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis church, the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture. TheSiegestor (gate of victory) sits at the northern end of Ludwigstraße, where the latter passes over into Leopoldstraße and the district of Schwabing begins.File:The Maximilianeum Building.jpg|thumb|MaximilianeumMaximilianeumThe neo-Gothic Maximilianstraße starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus, the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology. After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum, which houses the state parliament. The western portion of Maximilianstraße is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten.Prinzregentenstraße runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais. Many museums are on the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst, the Bavarian National Museum and the Schackgalerie. The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment. The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east.

Other boroughs

(File:Leopoldstraße_153_(München-Schwabing).JPG|thumb|Building in Schwabing)In Schwabing and Maxvorstadt, many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found. Rows of elegant town houses and spectacular urban palais in many colours, often elaborately decorated with ornamental details on their façades, make up large parts of the areas west of Leopoldstraße (Schwabing's main shopping street), while in the eastern areas between Leopoldstraße and Englischer Garten similar buildings alternate with almost rural-looking houses and whimsical mini-castles, often decorated with small towers. Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. The wealthy district of Bogenhausen in the east of Munich is another little-known area (at least among tourists) rich in extravagant architecture, especially around Prinzregentenstraße. One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck, famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck.File:Image-Schloss Nymphenburg Munich CC edit3.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|Nymphenburg PalaceNymphenburg PalaceTwo large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Nymphenburg (Nymphenburg Palace), some {{convert|6|km|0|abbr=on}} north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an impressive park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. {{convert|2|km|0|abbr=on}} northwest of Nymphenburg Palace is Schloss Blutenburg (Blutenburg Castle), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Schloss Fürstenried (Fürstenried Palace), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich.File:Schloss oberschleissheim-wikipedia.jpg|thumb|325x325px|Schleissheim PalaceSchleissheim PalaceThe second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (Schleissheim Palace), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. The Bavaria statue before the neo-classicalRuhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese. The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists.File:BMW-HQ.jpg|thumb|left|upright|BMWBMWSt Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Another church of Johann Michael Fischer is St George in Bogenhausen. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco.Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus, the Arabella High-Rise Building, the Highlight Towers, Uptown Munich, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters next to the Olympic Park. Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below).In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne, a former US army base, near Stadelheim Prison.{{clear}}


File:München Hofgartentempel.jpg|thumb|Hofgarten with the dome of the state chancellery near the Residenz ]]Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten, close to the city centre and covering an area of {{convert|3.7|km²|1|abbr=on}} is larger than Central Park in New York City, is one of the world's largest urban public parks. It contains a naturist (nudist) area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. It is considered the "green lung" of Munich and one of the city's best-loved features. It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson, Count of Rumford, for both pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches (along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach), which get crowded in summer. In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: it has lots of old trees, thick undergrowth, winding streams, hidden meadows and is pervaded by numerous romantic pathways. Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark, Westpark, and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace (with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north), and Schleissheim Palace. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten, founded in 1780 for deer, which still live there.The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest waterpark in Munich.


File:Allianz Arena zu verschiedenen Zeiten.jpg|thumb|Allianz Arena, the home stadium of Bayern Munich ]](File:München - Olympische Bauten.jpg|thumb|Olympiasee in Olympiapark, Munich)


Munich is home to several professional football teams including Bayern Munich, Germany's most successful club and a multiple UEFA Champions League winner. Other notable clubs include 1860 Munich, who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3. Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching.


FC Bayern Munich Basketball is currently playing in the Beko Basket Bundesliga. The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1993, where the German national basketball team won the gold medal.

Ice hockey

The city's ice hockey club is EHC Red Bull München who play in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. The team has won three DEL Championships, in 2016, 2017 and 2018.


Munich hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the Munich Massacre took place in the Olympic village. It was one of the host cities for the 2006 Football World Cup, which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium, but in a new football specific stadium, the Allianz Arena. Munich bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, but lost to Pyeongchang.NEWS, Olympia 2018 in Südkorea, München chancenlos,weblink 6 July 2011, Die Welt, 6 July 2011, German,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2011, live, In September 2011 the DOSB President Thomas Bach confirmed that Munich would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future.WEB,weblink Munich To Bid Once Again, 27 September 2011, Games Bids, 12 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2016, live,

Road Running

File:Muenchenmarathon_2013_Marienplatz_003.JPG|thumb|Munich MarathonMunich MarathonRegular annual road running events in Munich are the Munich Marathon in October, the Stadtlauf end of June, the company run B2Run in July, the New Year's Run on 31 December, the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Crosslauf and the Bestzeitenmarathon.


Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming poolsWEB,weblink Public Indoor Swimming Pools in Munich, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, and eight outdoor swimming pools,WEB,weblink Public Outdoor Swimming Pools in Munich, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, which are operated by the Munich City Utilities (SWM) communal company.WEB, Munich: Swimming pools,weblink 5 September 2016, Munich City Utilities Company (SWM),weblink 18 September 2016, live, Popular indoor swimming pools include the Olympia Schwimmhalle of the 1972 Summer Olympics, the wave pool Cosimawellenbad, as well as the Müllersches Volksbad which was built in 1901. Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district.WEB,weblink Lakes in Munich, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016, de,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, File:Eisbach die Welle Surfer.JPG|thumb|Surfer on the Eisbach river wave]]

River surfing

Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year.WEB, River Surfing Spots: Eisbach,weblink 7 August 2016, Riverbreak: The International River Surf Magazine, Riverbreak Editorial Team,weblink" title="">weblink 6 August 2016, live, Half a kilometre down the river, there is a second, easier wave for beginners, the so-called Kleine Eisbachwelle. Two further surf spots within the city are located along the river Isar, the wave in the Floßlände channel and a wave downstream of the Wittelsbacherbrücke bridge.WEB, River surfing in Munich,weblink 7 August 2016, The Local Europe GmbH, Toytown Germany,weblink" title="">weblink 4 August 2016, live,



The Bavarian dialects are spoken in and around Munich, with its variety West Middle Bavarian or Old Bavarian (Westmittelbairisch / Altbairisch). Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL and has its own ISO-639 code.


File:Deutsches_Museum_1.JPG|thumb|Deutsches MuseumDeutsches MuseumFile:Glyptothek,_Königsplatz,_Múnich,_Alemania02.JPG|thumb|The GlyptothekGlyptothekFile:Bayerisches Nationalmuseum - Muenchen - 2013.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Bavarian National MuseumBavarian National MuseumThe Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology, geology, mineralogy,WEB,weblink Museum Reich der Kristalle München,, 5 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2009, zoology, botany and anthropology.The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors. Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait (1500), his Four Apostles, Raphael's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens large Judgment Day. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. The Lenbachhaus houses works by the group of Munich-based modernist artists known as Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider). File:BMW Welt, Múnich, Alemania, 2013-04-22, DD 03.jpg|thumbnail| BMW WeltBMW WeltAn important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). King Ludwig I managed to acquire such famous pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek. Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum.The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: the Museum Five Continents in Maximilianstraße is the second largest collection in Germany of artefacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Prinzregentenstraße rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.The former Dachau concentration camp is {{convert|16|km|0|abbr=on}} outside the city.

Arts and literature

File:Nationaltheater München 2.jpg|thumb|National Theatre ]]Munich is a major international cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, W.A. Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by composers born in the area, for example Richard Strauss's tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana.At the Nationaltheater several of Richard Wagner's operas were premiered under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria. It is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Next door, the modern Residenz Theatre was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre before World War II. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in 1781. The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater, has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy.File:Gasteig_Philharmonie_14.jpg|thumb|GasteigGasteigThe modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. Many important conductors have been attracted by the city's orchestras, including Felix Weingartner, Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Hans Knappertsbusch, Sergiu Celibidache, James Levine, Christian Thielemann, Lorin Maazel, Rafael Kubelík, Eugen Jochum, Sir Colin Davis, Mariss Jansons, Bruno Walter, Georg Solti, Zubin Mehta and Kent Nagano. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances.(File:FriedensengelMunchen.JPG|thumb|The Golden Friedensengel)Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the 1960s and 1970s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs. Furthermore, Munich was the centre of Krautrock in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II, Embryo or Popol Vuh hailing from the city. In the 1970s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there. Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder, who invented synth disco and electronic dance music, and Donna Summer, one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city. In the late 1990s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here. Other examples of notable musicians and bands from Munich are Konstantin Wecker, (:de:Willy Astor|Willy Astor), Spider Murphy Gang, Münchener Freiheit, Lou Bega, Megaherz, FSK, Colour Haze and Sportfreunde Stiller.Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz. This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day.Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal.The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.File:Vassily_Kandinsky,_1908_-_Houses_in_Munich.jpg|thumb|Vassily KandinskyVassily KandinskyAt the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there. For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art.Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit (literally "prince regent's time") under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole. Among them were luminaries such as Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Paul Heyse, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ludwig Thoma, Fanny zu Reventlow, Oskar Panizza, Gustav Meyrink, Max Halbe, Erich Mühsam and Frank Wedekind. For a short while, Vladimir Lenin lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, What Is to Be Done? Central to Schwabing's bohemian scene (although they were actually often located in the nearby Maxvorstadt quarter) were Künstlerlokale (artist's cafés) like Café Stefanie or Kabarett Simpl, whose liberal ways differed fundamentally from Munich's more traditional localities. The Simpl, which survives to this day (although with little relevance to the city's contemporary art scene), was named after Munich's famous anti-authoritarian satirical magazine Simplicissimus, founded in 1896 by Albert Langen and Thomas Theodor Heine, which quickly became an important organ of the Schwabinger Bohème. Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.File:Schrimpf_oskar_maria_graf.png|thumb|Portrait of Oskar Maria Graf by Georg SchrimpfGeorg SchrimpfThe period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: "München leuchtete" (literally "Munich shone"). Munich remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht, Peter Paul Althaus, Stefan George, Ricarda Huch, Joachim Ringelnatz, Oskar Maria Graf, Annette Kolb, Ernst Toller, Hugo Ball and Klaus Mann adding to the already established big names. Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown. Between 1910 and 1940, he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt, who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. After World War II, Munich soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen, Erich Kästner, Eugen Roth, Alfred Andersch, Elfriede Jelinek, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Michael Ende, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Gerhard Polt, John Vincent Palatine and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home.From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés. Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck, Karl Piloty and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke and Alfred Kubin. Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing.Munich was (and in some cases, still is) home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Edgar Reitz and Herbert Achternbusch. In 1971, the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them . The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the 1920s.File:Bavaria_Film-_und_Fernsehstudios_logo.svg|thumb|Logo of Bavaria FilmBavaria FilmIn 1919, the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's largest film studios. Directors like Alfred Hitchcock, Billy Wilder, Orson Welles, John Huston, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Claude Chabrol, Fritz Umgelter, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders made films there. Among the internationally well-known films produced at the studios are The Pleasure Garden (1925) by Alfred Hitchcock, The Great Escape (1963) by John Sturges, Paths of Glory (1957) by Stanley Kubrick, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) by Mel Stuart and both Das Boot (1981) and The Neverending Story (1984) by Wolfgang Petersen. Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry.


File:Hippodrom Zelt Oktoberfest.jpg|thumb|OktoberfestOktoberfest


March and April, city-wide:WEB,weblink Munich Festivals, Zimmermann, Marion Kummerow, Tobias,, 2019-05-12,weblink" title="">weblink 31 March 2019, live, Starkbierfest is held for three weeks during Lent, between Carnival and Easter,WEB,weblink Strong Beer Festival, Paulaner-Nockherberg, 2019-05-12, celebrating Munich's “strong beer”. Starkbier was created in 1651 by the local Paulaner monks who drank this 'Flüssiges Brot', or ‘liquid bread’ to survive the fasting of Lent. It became a public festival in 1751 and is now the second largest beer festival in Munich. Starkbierfest is also known as the “fifth season”, and is celebrated in beer halls and restaurants around the city.


April and May, Theresienwiese:Held for two weeks from the end of April to the beginning of May, Frühlingsfest celebrates spring and the new local spring beers, and is commonly referred to as the "little sister of Oktoberfest".WEB,weblink What's on? We round up some top events happening around the world in April, Business Traveler, April 2012, Business Traveler,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2009, May 2, 2019, dead, There are two beer tents, Hippodrom and Festhalle Bayernland, as well as one roofed beer garden, Münchner Weißbiergarten.WEB,weblink Frühlingsfest - Spring Festival, Zimmermann, Tobias, Kummerow, Marion, 2019,, 2019-05-02,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2019, live, There are also roller coasters, fun houses, slides, and a Ferris wheel. Other attractions of the festival include a flea market on the festival's first Saturday, a “Beer Queen” contest, a vintage car show on the first Sunday, fireworks every Friday night, and a "Day of Traditions" on the final day.

Auer Dult

May, August, and October, Mariahilfplatz: Auer Dult is Europe's largest jumble sale, with fairs of its kind dating back to the 14th century.WEB,weblink Auer Dult Munich, München Betriebs-GmbH & Co, 2019,, 2019-05-14,weblink 14 May 2019, live, The Auer Dult is a traditional market with 300 stalls selling handmade crafts, household goods, and local foods, and offers carnival rides for children. It has taken place over nine days each, three times a year. since 1905.


July, English Garden:Traditionally a ball for Munich's domestic servants, cooks, nannies, and other household staff, Kocherlball, or ‘cook’s ball’ was a chance for the lower classes to take the morning off and dance together before the families of their households woke up. It now runs between 6 and 10 am the third Sunday in July at the Chinese Tower in Munich's English Garden.WEB,weblink Kocherlball, Destination Munich, 2019, Destination Munich, May 2, 2019,weblink 12 May 2019, live,


File:Tollwood Winterfestival Munich 2010.jpg|thumb|Tollwood Winterfestival]]July and December, Olympia Park:JOURNAL, Business Traveller, December 2010, Munich Tollwood Winter Festival: until December 31,weblink General OneFile, 14, For three weeks in July, and then three weeks in December, Tollwood showcases fine and performing arts with live music, circus acts, and several lanes of booths selling handmade crafts, as well as organic international cuisine. According to the festival's website, Tollwood's goal is to promote culture and the environment, with the main themes of "(wikt:tolerance|tolerance), internationality, and openness".WEB,weblink Tollwood München: Veranstaltungen, Konzerte, Theater, Markt, Tollwood München: Veranstaltungen, Konzerte, Theater, Markt, de-DE, 2019-05-12,weblink 6 May 2019, live, To promote these ideals, 70% of all Tollwood events and attractions are free.


September and October, Theresienwiese: The largest beer festival in the world, Munich's Oktoberfest runs for 16–18 days from the end of September through early October.JOURNAL, Harrington, Robert J, Von Freyberg, Burkhard, October 2017, The different effects of dis-satisfier, satisfier and delighter attributes: Implications for Oktoberfest and beer festivals,weblink Tourism Management Perspectives, 24, 166–176, Science Direct, Oktoberfest is a celebration of the wedding of Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen which took place on October 12, 1810.WEB,weblink Oktoberfest Facts, Trivia and Stats for 2018, Prost All Things Oktoberfest, 2019, Prost All Things Oktoberfest, May 2, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2019, dead, In the last 200 years the festival has grown to span 85 acres and now welcomes over 6 million visitors every year. There are 14 beer tents which together can seat 119,000 attendees at a time, and serve beer from the six major breweries of Munich: Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Löwenbräu, Paulaner, Spaten and Staatliches Hofbräuhaus. Over 7 million liters of beer are consumed at each Oktoberfest. There are also over 100 rides ranging from bumper cars to full-sized roller coasters, as well as the more traditional Ferris wheels and swings. Food can be bought in each tent, as well as at various stalls throughout the fairgrounds. Oktoberfest hosts 144 caterers and employees 13,000 people.


November and December, city-wide: Munich's Christmas Markets, or Christkindlmärkte, are held throughout the city from late November until Christmas Eve, the largest spanning the Marienplatz and surrounding streets. There are hundreds of stalls selling handmade goods, Christmas ornaments and decorations, and Bavarian Christmas foods including pastries, roasted nuts, and gluwein.

Culinary specialities

File:Weisswurst.jpg|thumb|Weißwürste with sweet mustard and a pretzel]]The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. Münchner Weißwurst ('white sausage') was invented here in 1857. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.

Beers and breweries

File:BIER IM EG.jpg|thumb|left|HellesHellesFile:MUC Westend AugustinerbrauereiA.jpg|thumb|Augustiner brewery ]]Munich is known for its breweries and the Weissbier (or Weißbier / Weizenbier, wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Helles, a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old (only introduced in 1895) and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles, which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. Starkbier is the strongest Munich beer, with 6%–9% alcohol content. It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph's Day (19 March). The beer served at Oktoberfest is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles.(File:Biergarten_at_Night_2.JPG|thumb|left|Beer garden in Munich)There are countless Wirtshäuser (traditional Bavarian ale houses/restaurants) all over the city area, many of which also have small outside areas. Biergärten (beer gardens) are the most famous and popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike. It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks. There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least one thousand seats, with four of the most famous and popular in the Englischer Garten: Chinesischer Turm (Munich's second largest beer garden with 7,000 seats), Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister. Among locals, connoisseurs and well-informed tourists, Augustiner-Keller, near Hauptbahnhof (central station) at Arnulfstraße, is one of the most popular beer gardens in the city, since it is the only one in which Munich's most popular beer, Augustiner, is drawn from wooden barrels. Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller (not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus) and Löwenbräukeller are other famous beer gardens. Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8,000 seats.File:kronebau night.jpg|thumb|Kronebau at night]]There are six main breweries in Munich: Augustiner-Bräu, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräu, Löwenbräu, Paulaner and Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu (separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier).Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are especially Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse, the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich just as the Munich breweries do. Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu.WEB,weblink Giesinger Bräu München, Giesinger Bräu München, de, 2017-10-25,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2019, live, However, these breweries do not have tents at Oktoberfest.


The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe.WEB,weblink Circus Krone: Europe's largest traditional circus,, December 2005, 1 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 31 May 2013, live, It was the first and still is one of only a few in Western Europe to also occupy a building of its own.


(File:Blitz Club Munich.jpg|thumb|Blitz Club)File:Bahnwärter Thiel Nightclub Munich Subway Floor 1.jpg|thumb|Bahnwärter ThielBahnwärter ThielFile:Alte Utting 6144.jpg|thumb|The party ship Alte UttingAlte UttingNightlife in Munich is located mostly in the city centre (Altstadt-Lehel) and the boroughs Maxvorstadt, Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt, Au-Haidhausen and Schwabing. Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane (party banana), a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning {{convert|1.3|km|1|abbr=off}} along Sonnenstraße, characterised by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants. The Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to become crowded, especially at weekends. It has also been the subject of some debate among city officials because of alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses.Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture. On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people gather at Gärtnerplatz to relax, talk with friends and drink beer.Maxvorstadt has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing, once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as Big Apple, PN, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine,BOOK, Hecktor, Mirko, von Uslar, Moritz, Smith, Patti, Neumeister, Andreas, 1 November 2008, Mjunik Disco – from 1949 to now, 978-3936738476, de, as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7 or Schwabinger Podium, has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents. It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying.Since the mid-1990s, the Kunstpark Ost and its successor Kultfabrik, a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim, hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people and residents of the metropolitan area surrounding Munich.WEB, Corpus Techno: The music of the future will soon be history,weblink, 5 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2017, live, The Kultfabrik was closed at the end of the year 2015 to convert the area into a residential and office area. Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen. Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and due to gentrification and the overheated housing market many survive only a few years, while others last longer. Beyond the already mentioned venues of the 1960s and 1970s, nightclubs with international recognition in recent history included Tanzlokal Größenwahn, Atomic Cafe and the techno clubs Babalu, Ultraschall, {{nowrap|KW – Das Heizkraftwerk}}, {{nowrap|Natraj Temple}} and {{nowrap|MMA Club (Mixed Munich Arts)}}.WEB, Paulina, Thillmann,weblink Deutschlandkarte: Legendäre Clubs, Germany map: legendary clubs, Die Zeit, Zeitmagazin, 29 November 2017, 20 September 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 11 April 2018, live, From 1995 to 2001, Munich was also home to the Union Move, one of the largest technoparades in Germany.Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt district. Freddie Mercury had an apartment near the Gärtnerplatz and transsexual icon Romy Haag had a club in the city centre for many years.Munich has more than 100 night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits.WEB,weblink List of bars in Munich, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016, de,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, WEB,weblink List of nightclubs in Munich, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016, de,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are Blitz Club, Harry Klein, Rote Sonne, Bahnwärter Thiel, Bob Beaman, Pimpernel, Charlie and Palais. Popular mixed music clubs are Call me Drella, Cord, Wannda Circus, Tonhalle, Backstage, Muffathalle, Ampere, Pacha, P1, Zenith, Minna Thiel and the party ship Alte Utting. Some notable bars (pubs are located all over the city) are Charles Schumann's Cocktail Bar, Havana Club, Sehnsucht, Bar Centrale, Ksar, Holy Home, Eat the Rich, Negroni, Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto (a bavarian-style pub).


Colleges and universities

File:Geschwister-Scholl-Platz-1.jpg|thumb|Main building of the LMU ]]File:TU München GO-1.jpg|thumb|Main building of the Technical University ]]File:Hochschule Muenchen Ansicht Lothstrasse.jpg|thumb|University of Applied Sciences (HM) ]]File:Tech_Univ_Munich,_Location_Garching.jpg|thumb|TU Munich's Garching Campus]]File:München_Akademie_der_Künste_12.JPG|thumb|Academy of Fine Arts Munich ]]File:Staatliches_Museum_Ägyptischer_Kunst_und_HFF.jpg|thumb|University of Television and Film ]]Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were protected at the emperor's court. The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München (TU or TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe (now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006.

Primary and secondary schools

Grundschule in Munich: Gymnasiums in Munich: Realschule in Munich: International schools in Munich:

Scientific research institutions

File:MUC_Westend_FraunhoferHausA.jpg|thumb|upright|Fraunhofer Headquarters in Munich]]

Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society, an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area:

Fraunhofer Society

The Fraunhofer Society, the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich. The following institutes are located in the Munich area:
  • Applied and Integrated Security – AISEC
  • Embedded Systems and Communication - ESK
  • Modular Solid-State Technologies - EMFT
  • Building Physics – IBP
  • Process Engineering and Packaging – IVV

Other research institutes

File:European_Southern_Observatory’s_Headquarters_in_Garching,_near_Munich,_Germany.jpg|thumb|European Southern Observatory's headquarter in GarchingGarching


File:4_Cilindros,_Múnich,_Alemania,_2013-02-11,_DD_02.JPG|thumb|BMW HeadquartersBMW HeadquartersFile:SiemensForum.jpg|thumb|Siemens-Forum in Munich]]File:Hypo-Haus.JPG|thumb|The HypoVereinsbankHypoVereinsbankMunich has the strongest economy of any German cityWEB,weblink Study conducted by INSM (New Social Market Economy Initiative) and WirtschaftsWoche magazine,, 25 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 June 2012, and the lowest unemployment rate (3.0% in June 2014) of any German city of more than a million people (the others being Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne).WEB,weblink Statistik der BA,, 16 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 28 February 2014, live, WEB, Artikel empfehlen:,weblink Endlich amtlich: Köln ist Millionenstadt,, 27 September 2010, 15 September 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2011, live, The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in 60 German cities.Munich is a financial center and a global city and holds the headquarters of many companies. This includes more companies listed by the DAX than any other German city, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's and Microsoft. One of the best known newly established Munich companies is Flixbus.


Munich holds the headquarters of Siemens AG (electronics), BMW (car), MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), MTU Aero Engines (aircraft engine manufacturer), Linde (gases) and Rohde & Schwarz (electronics). Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, purchasing power is highest in Munich (€26,648 per inhabitant) {{As of|2007|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink In Hesse the purchasing power is highest in Germany – CyberPress,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 16 September 2011, live, In 2006, Munich blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of €18.62 (ca. $20).Landeshauptstadt München, Direktorium, Statistisches Amt: Statistisches Jahrbuch 2007, page 206 (Statistical Yearbook of the City of Munich 2007)weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=8 October 2016 }}The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities listed Munich in 8th position in 2009.WEB,weblink Global 500 2008: Cities,, 21 July 2008, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2010, live, Munich is also a centre for biotechnology, software and other service industries. Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg), lighting giant Osram, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.


Munich has significance as a financial centre (second only to Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz (insurance) and Munich Re (re-insurance).WEB,weblink Insurance - Munich Financial Centre Initiative,, en, 2018-02-27,weblink 27 February 2018, live,


Munich is the largest publishing city in EuropeWEB,weblink Munich Literature House: About Us, 17 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2003, and home to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany's biggest daily newspapers. The city is also the location of the programming headquarters of Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD, while the largest commercial network, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is headquartered in the suburb of Unterföhring. The headquarters of the German branch of Random House, the world's largest publishing house, and of Burda publishing group are also in Munich.The Bavaria Film Studios are located in the suburb of Grünwald. They are one of Europe's biggest and most famous film production studios.WEB,weblink Bavaria Film GmbH: Company Start,, 25 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2012,

Top 10 largest companies in Munich (2016)

{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: centre; font-size: 100%;" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2! colspan="2" | Employer! est. !! Munich located employeesWEB, Die 10 größten Arbeitgeber in München,weblink Jobs-mü, 18 February 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2016, live, BMW 1916 34,500Technische Universität München 1868 9,800Stadtwerke München 1998 9,700MAN SE 1758 9,200Siemens 1847 9,000Allianz 1890 8,500The Linde Group>| 8,000Munich Airport 1992 7,500Munich Re 1880 3,600Stadtsparkasse München 1824 3,000


Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. In 2015, the transport modal share in Munich was 38 percent public transport, 25 percent car, 23 percent walking, and 15 percent bicycle.WEB,weblink Munich Transport Corporation (MVG) Sustainability Report 2014/2015,, 2019-01-10,weblink 10 January 2019, live, Its public transport system delivered 566 million passenger trips that year. Munich is the hub of a well-developed regional transportation system, including the second-largest airport in Germany and the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway, which connects Munich to the German capital city with a journey time of about 4 hours. The trade fair transport logistic is held every two years at the Neue Messe München (Messe München International). Flixmobility which offers intercity coach service is headquartered in Munich.

Public transport

(File:Verkehrsnetz München.png|thumb|left|360px|Public transport network)File:Westfriedhof zentral.JPG|thumb|Westfriedhof platform of the Munich U-BahnMunich U-BahnFile:S-bahn-muenchen.jpg|thumb|Munich's S-Bahn at the Marienplatz station ]]For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich and its closest suburbs have a comprehensive network of public transport incorporating the Munich U-Bahn (underground railway), the Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains), trams and buses. The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH). The Munich tramway is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines.The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. The 700m-long Kaufinger Straße, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east-west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Similarly, Weinstraße leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability", which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid.

Munich Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting to and from work with public transit in Munich on a weekday is 56 min. 11% of public transit users, spend more than two hours travelling each day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is ten minutes, whilst 6% of passengers wait for over twenty minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.2 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.WEB,weblink Munich Public Transportation Statistics, Global Public Transit Index by Moovit, June 19, 2017,weblink 1 September 2017, live, (File:CC-BY_icon.svg|50x50px) Material was copied from this source, which is available under a (creativecommons:by/4.0/|Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License).


Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport. The growing number of bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Munich cyclists have a reputation for being quite daring or even careless, being frequently seen as a nuisance by drivers, especially when their numbers multiply in the warmer months. Cycle paths can be found alongside the majority of sidewalks and streets, although the newer and/or renovated ones are much easier to tell apart from pavements than older ones. The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow.A modern bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the Mittlerer Ring.

München Hauptbahnhof

(File:Morning Munich HB June 2014 - 2 (14181545380).jpg|thumb|Munich main railway station)München Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station located in the city centre and is one of three long distance stations in Munich, the others being München Ost (to the east) and München-Pasing (to the west). All stations are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs.München Hauptbahnhof serves about 450,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in Germany, such as Hamburg Hauptbahnhof and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. It and München Ost are two of the 21 stations in Germany classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 1 station. The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. The subterranean S-Bahn with 2 platforms and U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations.MAP,weblink Map of München Hauptbahnhof, OpenRailwayMap, 28 September 2014, OpenRailwayMap,weblink OpenStreetMap, 2014-10-19,weblink 25 January 2018, live, WEB,weblink Lageplan Hauptbahnhof München, German, Deutsche Bahn AG, 2014, PDF, orientation map, 2014-10-19, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 February 2015, dmy-all, ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich-Pasing and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. InterCity and EuroCity trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich East. Since 28 May 2006 Munich has been connected to Nuremberg via Ingolstadt by the {{convert|300|km/h|0|abbr=on}} Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway line. In 2017, the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway opened, providing a journey time of less than 4 hours between the two largest cities in Germany


File:Karte Fernstraßen München.png|thumb|Munich motorway network]]Munich is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Motorways from Stuttgart (W), Nuremberg, Frankfurt and Berlin (N), Deggendorf and Passau (E), Salzburg and Innsbruck (SE), Garmisch Partenkirchen (S) and Lindau (SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria and Italy.Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich. Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. There are few "green waves" or roundabouts, and the city's prosperity often causes an abundance of obstructive construction sites. Other contributing factors are the extraordinarily high rates of car ownership per capita (multiple times that of Berlin), the city's historically grown and largely preserved centralised urban structure, which leads to a very high concentration of traffic in specific areas, and sometimes poor planning (for example bad traffic light synchronisation and a less than ideal ring road).

Munich International Airport

File:Flughafen turm.png|thumb|Munich International Airport (MUC)]]Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM) is the second-largest airport in Germany and seventh-largest in Europe after London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Madrid and Istanbul Atatürk. It is used by about 46 million passengers a year, and lies some {{convert|30|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} north east of the city centre. It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem airport in 1992. The airport can be reached by suburban train lines S8 from the east and S1 from the west of the city. From the main railway station the journey takes 40–45 minutes. An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20–25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. A magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid), which was to have run at speeds of up to {{convert|400|km/h|mph|0|abbr=on}} from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes, had been approved,NEWS, Germany to build maglev railway,weblink BBC News, 25 September 2007, 7 April 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2008, live, but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation and after heavy protests.NEWS,weblink Germany Scraps Transrapid Rail Plans, Deutsche Welle, 27 March 2008, 27 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2008, live, Lufthansa opened its second hub at the airport when Terminal 2 was opened in 2003.

Other airports

In 2008, the Bavarian state government granted a license to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court.WEB,weblink Flughafen Oberpfaffenhofen: Rolle rückwärts – Bayern – Aktuelles – merkur-online, de,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2012, live, However, in October 2009, the permit allowing up to 9725 business flights per year to depart from or land at Oberpfaffenhofen was confirmed by a regional judge.WEB, Sü GmbH, Munich, Germany,weblink Flughafen Oberpfaffenhofen – Business-Jets willkommen – München,, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2012, live, Despite being {{convert|110|km|0|abbr=on}} from Munich, Memmingen Airport has been advertised as Airport Munich West. After 2005, passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg Airport was relocated to Munich Airport, leaving the Augsburg region of Bavaria without an air passenger airport within close reach.

Around Munich

Nearby towns

The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau, Freising, Erding, Starnberg, Landshut and Moosburg are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 6 million people.File:Dachau_Altstadt_Konrad_Adenauer_Straße.JPG|DachauFile:Erding_Schoener_Turm.jpg|ErdingFile:Freising_Dom_St._Maria_%26_Korbinian_Fassade_1.JPG|FreisingFile:Klosterkirche_Mariae_Himmelfahrt_Fuerstenfeld_Fuerstenfeldbruck-13.jpg|FürstenfeldbruckFile:Landsberg_Burgberg_2.JPG|LandsbergFile:Ensemble_Altstadt_Landshut.JPG|LandshutFile:Moosburg_Stadtplatz_mit_St._Johannes.jpg|MoosburgFile:Starnberg,_HB-08.jpg|StarnbergFile:Wasserburg am Inn Kellerbergweg.jpg|Wasserburg am Inn


South of Munich, there are numerous nearby freshwater lakes such as Lake Starnberg, Ammersee, Chiemsee, Walchensee, Kochelsee, Tegernsee, Schliersee, Simssee, Staffelsee, Wörthsee, Kirchsee and the Osterseen (Easter Lakes), which are popular among the people of Munich for recreation, swimming and watersports and can be quickly reached by car and a few also by Munich's S-Bahn.WEB,weblink Lakes in Munich's vicinity, – The official city portal, 6 September 2016, de,weblink" title="">weblink 17 September 2016, live, File:Starnberger_See,_HB-03.jpg|Lake StarnbergFile:Ammersee.JPG|AmmerseeFile:Chiemsee010.jpg|ChiemseeFile:Walchensee-Teilausschnitt.jpg|WalchenseeFile:Gmund_Kaltenbrunn_Südausblick.JPG|TegernseeFile:Osterseen_Gewitterabend_Grosser_Ostersee_02.jpg|Großer OsterseeFile:Kirchsee_in_der_Abendsonne.jpg|KirchseeFile:Simssee_Suedufer_Wendelstein_Beuerberg_Riedering-1.jpg|SimsseeFile:Wörthsee +.jpg|Wörthsee

Famous people

{{see also|List of honorary citizens of Munich}}

Born in Munich

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Notable residents{|width"100%" style"margin:auto;" |

See also





External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Munich}}{{Spoken Wikipedia|En-Munich-wikisource-12_2014.ogg|2014-12-08}}

{{Geographic location|Centre =Munich|North =Nuremberg, Regensburg,Ingolstadt|Northeast= Prague (Czech Republic),Landshut|East =Linz (Austria)|Southeast= Rosenheim,Salzburg (Austria)|South =Innsbruck (Austria),Bolzano (Italy)|Southwest= Vaduz (Liechtenstein),Zürich (Switzerland)|West =Memmingen|Northwest= Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg}}{{Boroughs of Munich}}{{Mayors of Munich}}{{Capitals of the states of the Federal Republic of Germany}}{{Germany districts bavaria}}{{Cities in Germany}}{{Visitor attractions in Munich}}{{Olympic Summer Games Host Cities}}{{Authority control}}

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