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Mumbai
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{{Redirect|Bombay|оther uses}}{{other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef|reason=Persistent |small=yes}}{{short description|Megacity and state capital in Maharashtra, India}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2016}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}{{Good article}}







factoids
Bollywood,GAJRANI>FIRST1=S.DATE=2004ISBN=978-81-8205-062-4URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=SP091BSPZ04C&PG=PA224DEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=28 MARCH 2018, dmy-all, Gateway to India, City of Dreams, Skyscrapers Cityframe=yesframe-width=260zoom=10frame-long=72.88261id=Q1156|title=Mumbai}}| map_alt = Mumbai is on the west coast of India, about one third of the way down to the southern tip. It is in the west side of the Maharashtra province, which covers roughly the second quarter of the west coast (counting from the north), and heads inland roughly twice as far as its coastline.| map_caption = Interactive map outlining Greater Mumbai (Mumbai City District and Mumbai Suburban District)| mapsize = | pushpin_map = Mumbai#India Maharashtra#India#Asia| pushpin_label_position = right| pushpin_map_alt = | pushpin_map_caption = Location of Mumbai in Maharashtra, India| pushpin_mapsize = 18307233display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = IndiaStates and union territories of India>StateDivisions of Maharashtra>DivisionList of districts of Maharashtra>District| subdivision_name1 = MaharashtraKonkan division>KonkanMumbai City district>Mumbai CityMumbai Suburban| established_title = First settled| established_date = 1507| named_for = MumbadeviMunicipal Corporations in India>Municipal Corporation| governing_body = Municipal Corporation of Greater MumbaiShiv Sena}}Mayor of Mumbai>MayorVishwanath MahadeshwarHTTP://WWW.BUSINESS-STANDARD.COM/ARTICLE/POLITICS/MAHADESHWAR-ELECTED-AS-MUMBAI-S-76TH-MAYOR-WITH-BJP-S-SUPPORT-117030800920_1.HTMLFIRST=SANJAYDATE=9 MARCH 2017VIA=BUSINESS STANDARDARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170308150746/HTTP://WWW.BUSINESS-STANDARD.COM/ARTICLE/POLITICS/MAHADESHWAR-ELECTED-AS-MUMBAI-S-76TH-MAYOR-WITH-BJP-S-SUPPORT-117030800920_1.HTMLDF=DMY-ALLPUBLISHER=ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170314131409/HTTP://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/CITY/MUMBAI/SHIV-SENAS-VISHWANATH-MAHADESHWAR-ELECTED-MUMBAI-MAYOR/ARTICLESHOW/57535303.CMSDF=DMY-ALL, | unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 603| area_metro_km2 = 4355| area_metro_sq_mi = 1681.5| area_rank = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 14| population_total = 12,442,373| population_as_of = 2011PUBLISHER=ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141006153720/HTTP://WWW.CITYPOPULATION.DE/PHP/INDIA-MAHARASHTRA.PHPDF=DMY-ALL, | population_density_km2 = auto| population_metro = 1841428820,748,395 (Extended UA)WEBSITE=PRESS INFORMATION BUREAU, MUMBAIACCESSDATE=20 AUGUST 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150630112755/HTTP://PIBMUMBAI.GOV.IN/SCRIPTS/DETAIL.ASP?RELEASEID=E2011IS3DF=DMY-ALL, List of most populous cities in India>1st| population_demonym = Mumbaikar, BombayiteIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +5:30Postal Index Number>PINs| postal_code = 400 001 to 400 107Telephone numbers in India>+91-22| registration_plate = MH-01 (South), MH-02 (West), MH-03 (Central), MH-47 (North)Gross domestic product>Metro GDP/PPPPUBLISHER=BROOKINGS INSTITUTIONDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=25 MAY 2017DATE=2015-01-22, HTTPS://WWW.UKMEDIACENTRE.PWC.COM/IMAGELIBRARY/DOWNLOADMEDIA.ASHX?MEDIADETAILSID=1562>TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP RANKINGS 2008–2025PRICEWATERHOUSE COOPERS>PWCARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110504031739/HTTPS://WWW.UKMEDIACENTRE.PWC.COM/IMAGELIBRARY/DOWNLOADMEDIA.ASHX?MEDIADETAILSID=1562, 4 May 2011, Official language}}Marathi language>MarathiNational Commissioner Linguistic Minorities 50th report, page 131 {{webarchiveweblink >date= 8 July 2016 }}. Government of India. Retrieved 15 July 2015.EVOLUTION OF THE CORPORATION, HISTORICAL MILESTONES >URL=HTTP://WWW.MCGM.GOV.IN/IRJ/PORTAL/ANONYMOUS/QLHISMILESTONE?GUEST_USER=ENGLISH MUNICIPAL CORPORATION OF GREATER MUMBAI >ACCESSDATE=15 JULY 2015 DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=15 JULY 2015, dmy-all, mcgm.gov.in/}}| footnotes = Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai>Municipal commissionerwebsite=The Times of India language=en}}Police Commissioner of Mumbai>Police CommissionerSanjay BarveSANJAY BARVE APPOINTED NEW POLICE COMMISSIONER OF MUMBAI {{!, Mumbai News - Times of India website=The Times of India |language=en}}DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=MUMBAI METROPOLITAN AREA PUBLISHER=PROJECTSECOA.EU, 14 March 2013, }}Mumbai ({{IPAc-en|m|ÊŠ|m|ˈ|b|aɪ}}, also known as Bombay {{IPAc-en|b|É’|m|ˈ|b|eɪ}}, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. {{As of|2011}} it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region which includes nearby areas like Navi Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Panvel, Virar, Pen, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath, Dombivli, Karjat, Alibag, Vasai, Matheran and Khopoli is the second most populous metropolitan area in India and one of the most populous in the world, with a population of over 25 million.WEB,weblink Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority - Ambernath, Kulgaon-Badlapur and Surrounding Notified Area, Mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in, 2016-01-20, PRESS RELEASE, Press Information Bureau, Mumbai, Press Information Bureau, Government of India,weblink India stats: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011, 31 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150630112755weblink">weblink 30 June 2015, dmy-all, 16 March 2014, WEB,weblink Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2007 (thousands) 1950–2025 (India), Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN), 9 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090618091044weblink">weblink 18 June 2009, WEB,weblink UN World Cities in 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170112211410weblink">weblink 12 January 2017, dmy-all, Mumbai Megalopolis, the area covering the golden triangle of Maharashtrweblink which comprises Mumbai Metropolitan Region, Pune Metropolitan Region and Nashik Metropolitan Region has a population of around 50 million making Mumbai Megalopolis the most populated urban area in the worldweblink Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India,WEB,weblink India needs cities network for easy rural-urban shift – Economy and Politics, livemint.com, 3 August 2009, 5 May 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117110757weblink">weblink 17 January 2013, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Mumbai | ISAC, Indiastudyabroad.org, 29 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512013615weblink">weblink 12 May 2015, dmy-all, and has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India.NEWS, Bharucha, Nauzer, 9 March 2015, Thirty of India's 68 billionaires live in Mumbai,weblink Times of India, Mumbai, 10 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150310040742weblink">weblink 10 March 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, 10 March 2015, With 68 billionaires, India ranks 7th globally; Mumbai leads in India with 30,weblink Daily News and Analysis, New Delhi, 10 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150312102008weblink">weblink 12 March 2015, dmy-all, Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.BOOK, Curzon, G.N., Complete book online – British Government in India: The Story of Viceroys and Government Houses,weblink 22 March 2019, BOOK, Douglas, James, Complete book online – Bombay and western India – a series of stray papers, with photos of Ajmer, Samson Low Marston & Co, London,weblink 22 March 2019, The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were originally home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-11-23, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131202231210weblink">weblink 2 December 2013, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink The next immigrants into the islands of Bombay were the Kolis, who on all authorities continued to be their original inhabitants till Aungier founded the city of Bombay. Kathiawad and Central Gujarāt was the home of the Kolis in pre-historic times., Gujarāt and its literature, from early times to 1852, Kanaiyalal M., Munshi, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Educational Trust, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, xix, 1954, JOURNAL, Bombay – An analysis of the toponym, R. N., Mehta, The kolis who succeeded the stone-age men on the island brought with them from Gujarat their patron goddess Mummai whom their descendants still worship in Kathiawar. The name of Bombay is derived from this koli goddess., Journal of the Oriental Institute, 1983, 138–140, For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.JOURNAL, S. M., Wynne, Catherine (1638–1705), 1, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004,weblink 21 February 2015, 10.1093/ref:odnb/4894, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016010804weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all, {{ODNBsub}} During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project,{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=28}} which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea.MAGAZINE,weblink Once Upon a Time in Bombay, Foreign Policy, 24 June 2011, 22 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109020758weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, dmy-all, Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.WEB
,weblink
, Bombay: History of a City
, British Library
, 8 November 2008
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090213041900weblink">weblink
, 13 February 2009
, dmy-all
, Mumbai is the financial, commercialNEWS, New millionaires hope to serve as role models for India's lower castes,weblink Rama, Lakshmi, 14 April 2011, The Washington Post, Mumbai, 23 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623215214weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, dmy-all, and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow,NEWS,weblink Mumbai, a land of opportunities, The Times of India, 20 July 2011, 22 July 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804070300weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, generating 6.16% of India's GDPWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090226031015weblink">weblink 26 February 2009, Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), 18 July 2008, unfit, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT),WEB,weblink 10 worst oil spills that cost trillions in losses : Rediff.com Business, Business.rediff.com, 16 August 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100814232747weblink">weblink 14 August 2010, dmy-all, and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy.WEB, Development of Mumbai International Airport (NMIA),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808061543weblink">weblink yes, 8 August 2014, CIDCO, 2013, 8 July 2015, PDF, 7, NEWS, Mahajan, Poonam, Poonam Mahajan explains why Mumbai is at the very heart of India story,weblink 21 June 2015, DNA India, 26 July 2014, Mumbai, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150621131904weblink">weblink 21 June 2015, dmy-all, Mumbai's billionaires had the highest average wealth of any city in the world in 2008weblink The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living,BOOK, Corporation, Marshall Cavendish, World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia,weblink 8 July 2012, September 2007, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-7631-3, 451, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130527064226weblink">weblink 27 May 2013, dmy-all, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.

Etymology

The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Koli community—NEWS, 8 October 2010, Maharashtra Times,weblink Mukund Kule, मुंबईचं श्रद्धास्थान, Maharashtra, Mumba'īcaṁ Shrad'dhāsthān, Marathi, 16 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150617083828weblink">weblink 17 June 2015, dmy-all, and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra.BOOK, Bapat, Jyotsna, 2005, Development projects and critical theory of environment, 978-0-7619-3357-1, Sage, 6, The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, and according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad (Gujarat), where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree that Mumbai's name was derived from the goddess Mumba.File:Mumbadevi temple.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Mumba Devi TempleMumba Devi TempleThe oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used.{{Harvnb|Patel|Masselos|2003|p=4}}{{Harvnb|Mehta|2004|p=130}} In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").{{harvnb|Shirodkar|1998|pp=4–5}}{{harvnb|Yule|Burnell|1996|p=102}} This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay",{{harvnb|Shirodkar|1998|p=7}} and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.{{harvnb|Shirodkar|1998|p=2}}Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690),{{harvnb|Yule|Burnell|1996|p=103}}{{harvnb|Yule|Burnell|1996|p=104}} and Bon Bahia.BOOK, John, Keay, John Keay, 2000, India, a History, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, United States, 978-0-00-638784-8,weblink 348, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=6|Ref=bom}} Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai.{{harvnb|Shirodkar|1998|p=3}}The French traveller Louis Rousselet, who visited in 1863 and 1868, states in his book L’Inde des Rajahs, which was first published in 1877: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple".BOOK, Rousselet, Louis, L'Inde des Rajahs, 1877, Librairie Hachette et cie, Paris, 7,weblink 11 October 2017, By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi.WEB,weblink Why Did Bombay Become Mumbai? How the city got renamed, Christopher Beam, 1 December 2008, 16 June 2015, www.slate.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615105241weblink">weblink 15 June 2015, dmy-all, The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995.{{harvnb|Hansen|2001|p=1}} This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra.NEWS,weblink Nitin Chavan, Sakal, शिवसेना आमदाराची नामांतर एक्स्प्रेस, Shivsēnā Âmadārācī Nāmāntar Express, Marathi, 18 December 2009, 16 June 2015, Mumbai, Maharashtra, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924002023weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, According to Slate magazine, "they argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule."NEWS,weblink Slate, 1 December 2008, Christopher, Beam, Why did Bombay become Mumbai?, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615105241weblink">weblink 15 June 2015, dmy-all, Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region."NEWS, Slate,weblink Mumbai? What about Bombay?, Christopher, Beam, 12 May 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130420043035weblink">weblink 20 April 2013, dmy-all, While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions,NEWS, From Bombay to Mumbai: 24 ways the city has changed,weblink Ruchi, Kumar, 28 October 2013, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 31 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150602205513weblink">weblink 2 June 2015, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra, Fodor's, 24 August 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091119201349weblink">weblink 19 November 2009, mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.NEWS,weblink Mumbai vs Bombay, Indian Express, 11 October 2009, 15 September 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, WEB,weblink'Bombay'+controversy+brewing/1/65447.html, Fruit And Nut: Another 'Bombay' controversy brewing?, Indiatoday.intoday.in, 15 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121005120437weblink">weblink'Bombay'+controversy+brewing/1/65447.html, 5 October 2012, dmy-all,

People from Mumbai

A resident of Mumbai is called Mumbaikar in Marathi, in which the suffix kar means a resident of. The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use.NEWS, Vir Sanghvi, The Angry Bombay-ite,weblink 15 April 2019, Hindustan Times, 2 April 2006, WEB, 3 Mumbaikars Who Are Changing The City All By Themselves,weblink HuffPost, 15 April 2019,

History

Early history

File:Mumbai 03-2016 94 Kanheri Caves.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Kanheri Caves served as a centre of alt=A white Buddhist stupa.Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Isle of Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba).{{harvnb|Farooqui|2006|p=1}} It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age.{{Harvnb|Ghosh|1990|p=25}} Perhaps at the beginning of the Common Era, or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=5|Ref=bom}}WEB, 2. Mumbai City Profile,weblink GMDMA Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Authority, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 19 July 2015, 7, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150721202935weblink">weblink 21 July 2015, dmy-all, In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor Ashoka of Magadha.{{harvnb|David|1995|p=5}} The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE,WEB,weblink Kanheri Caves, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), 17 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090122095004weblink">weblink 22 January 2009, dmy-all, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times.{{harvnb|Kumari|1990|p=37}} The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.{{harvnb|David|1973|p=8}} The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were built between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century .NEWS,weblink Ancient caves battle neglect, Jaisinghani, Bella, 13 July 2009, Times of India, 28 October 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Threat to caves of Bombay,weblink Vinaya, Kumar, 2 April 2006, The Tribune (Chandigarh), The Tribune, Mumbai, 29 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303193451weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy-all, Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas,{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|pp=127–150|Ref=bom}} before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=79}} Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are the Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525),WEB,weblink The Slum and the Sacred Cave, 5, 12 October 2008, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Columbia University), no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081123104753weblink">weblink 23 November 2008, dmy-all, Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century),NEWS,weblink World Heritage Sites â€“ Elephanta Caves, Archaeological Survey of India, 22 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081021063323weblink">weblink 21 October 2008, dmy-all, Walkeshwar Temple (10th century),WEB,weblink The Legends of Walkeshwar, Dwivedi, Sharada, 26 September 2007, Mumbai Newsline, Express Group, 31 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116101938weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, BOOK, Maharashtra (India), Maharashtra State Gazetteers,weblink 1, 24, 1986, Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State, 596, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, and Banganga Tank (12th century).WEB,weblink What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank?, Agarwal, Lekha, 2 June 2007, Mumbai Newsline, Express Group, 31 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090113202153weblink">weblink 13 January 2009, BOOK, Parry, Eric, Context: Architecture and the Genius of Place,weblink 21 June 2015, 2015, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-94673-2, 44, 1: Pavement, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, File:Mumbai 03-2016 11 Haji Ali Dargah.jpg|thumb|The Haji Ali Dargah was built in 1431, when Mumbai was under the rule of the Gujarat SultanateGujarat SultanateKing Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim).{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=51}} The Pathare Prabhus, among the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev.{{harvnb|Maharashtra|2004|p=1703|Ref=prabhu}} The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48 and controlled it until 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.{{harvnb|David|1973|p=14}}{{harvnb|David|1995|p=12}}The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431.{{harvnb|Khalidi|2006|p=24}} From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan.{{harvnb|Misra|1982|p=193|Ref=misra}}{{harvnb|Misra|1982|p=222|Ref=misra}} In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated.{{harvnb|David|1973|p=16}}

Portuguese and British rule

File:Madh-fort3.jpg|thumb|left|The Madh Fort built by the Portuguese, was one of the most important forts in SalsetteSalsetteThe Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century.WEB,weblink Mughal Empire, Department of Social Sciences (University of California), 22 May 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090718061048weblink">weblink 18 July 2009, dmy-all, Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the Seven Islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=166|Ref=bom}}The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=169|Ref=bom}} They called the islands by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime. The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534),{{harvnb|David|1995|p=19}} St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579),NEWS,weblink Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year, 12 May 2008, Shukla, Ashutosh, 2 September 2009, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis (DNA), no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728070104weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, dmy-all, St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580),NEWS,weblink New life for old church records, 9 June 2008, D'Mello, Ashley, 2 September 2009, The Times of India, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804093347weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632).NEWS,weblink Glorious past, Express India, 28 October 2008, 17 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080205151403weblink">weblink 5 February 2008, The Portuguese also built several fortifications around the city like the Bombay Castle, Castella de Aguada (Castelo da Aguada or Bandra Fort), and Madh Fort. The English were in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over Bombay, as they recognised its strategic natural harbour and its natural isolation from land attacks. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.WEB,weblink Catherine of Bragança (1638–1705), BBC, 5 November 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150102065741weblink">weblink 2 January 2015, dmy-all, However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the English managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.{{harvnb|The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island|1978|p=54|Ref=bi}}(File:AMH-6748-NA Two views of the English fort in Bombay.jpg|thumb|Two views of the English fort in Bombay, c. 1665)In accordance with the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, England leased these islands to the English East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=20}} The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675.{{harvnb|David|1973|p=410}} The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Muslim KoliBOOK,weblink The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, Ali, Shanti Sadiq, 1996, Orient Blackswan, 978-81-250-0485-1, en, BOOK,weblink Bajirao I: an outstanding cavalry general, Palsokar, R. D., Reddy, T. Rabi, 1995, Reliance Pub. House, 978-81-85972-94-7, en, BOOK,weblink Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kolába and Janjira, Campbell, Sir James MacNabb, 1883, Government Central Press, en, BOOK,weblink A History of the Maratha People, Kincaid, Charles Augustus, PārasanÄ«sa, Dattātraya Baḷavanta, 1922, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, en, admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672,{{harvnb|Yimene|2004|p=94|Ref=yakg}} Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673,JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080726175635weblink">weblink yes, 26 July 2008, Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth, Ganley, Colin C., 2007, 13, New institutional economics, International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE), 6 November 2008, and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency.{{Harvnb|Carsten|1961|p=427}} Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the company's establishments in India.{{harvnb|David|1973|p=179}} Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90.NEWS,weblink Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces â€“ 313 years ago, Nandgaonkar, Satish, 22 March 2003, Indian Express, 20 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030412025617weblink">weblink 12 April 2003, The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.{{harvnb|History of Medieval India|p=126|Ref=maratha}}By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=32}} Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War.{{harvnb|Fortescue|2008|p=145}} The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776),{{harvnb|Naravane|2007|p=56}} and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.{{harvnb|Naravane|2007|p=63}}File:Ships in Bombay Harbour, 1731.jpg|thumb|Ships in leftFrom 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands of Bombay into a single amalgamated mass by way of a causeway called the Hornby Vellard, which was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki.{{harvnb|Naravane|2007|pp=80–82}} Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and was incorporated into the Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=233|Ref=bom}}By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation.WEB,weblink Maharashtra â€“ trivia, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation, 7 December 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016224555weblink">weblink 16 October 2007, dmy-all, On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane).{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=127}} During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton-trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=343}}The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=88}} In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=74}} About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected.JOURNAL,weblink Rat Trap, 6, Time Out Mumbai, 14 November 2008, 19 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101129020135weblink">weblink 29 November 2010, As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the city witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=345}}{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=293}}

Independent India

(File:Victoria Terminus, Bombay in 1950.jpg|thumb|Municipal Corporation Building, Bombay in 1950 – Victoria Terminus partly visible on far right.)After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State.{{Harvnb|Census of India|1961|p=23|Ref=cent}} In April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form the Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.WEB,weblink Administration, 6 November 2008, Mumbai Suburban District, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081121000427weblink">weblink 21 November 2008, dmy-all, The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state.WEB
, Guha
, Ramachandra
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050514003803weblink">weblink
, 14 May 2005
, The battle for Bombay
, 13 April 2003
, 12 November 2008
, The Hindu
, India
, yes
, dmy-all
, The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.{{Harvnb|Guha|2007|pp=197–8}}Following protests during the movement in which 105 people lost their lives in clashes with the police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960.NEWS,weblink Sons of soil: born, reborn, 6 February 2008, The Indian Express, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140514103258weblink">weblink 14 May 2014, dmy-all, Retrieved on 12 November 2008. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat.WEB
,weblink
, Gujarat
, 16 January 2008
, Government of India
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080115083238weblink">weblink
, 15 January 2008
, no
, dmy
, Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.WEB
,weblink
, Maharashtra
, 16 January 2008
, Government of India
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080105100324weblink">weblink
, 5 January 2008
, no
, dmy
, As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square) and a memorial was erected.NEWS,weblink BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs, Geeta, Desai, 16 November 2008, 13 May 2008, Mumbai Mirror, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110816124148weblink">weblink 16 August 2011, dmy-all, File:Hutatma Chowk.jpg|thumb|upright|The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement (alt=A stone statue of torch-bearers as seen at night. A fountain with a white base is in the background|leftThe following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed.{{harvnb|Dwivedi|Mehrotra|2001|p=306}} The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090307224202weblink">weblink 7 March 2009, About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), 13 November 2008, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, unfit, In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across the Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike.NEWS,weblink The Great Mumbai Textile Strike... 25 Years On, 18 January 2007, Rediff.com India Limited, 20 November 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100531192635weblink">weblink 31 May 2010, dmy-all, Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.NEWS, From mills to malls, the sky is the limit,weblink Nazer, Bharucha, 24 November 2003, Times of India, Mumbai, 6 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150709080439weblink">weblink 9 July 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Maharashtra may revisit redevelopment of textile mill land,weblink Sanjay, Jog, 11 August 2012, Economic Times, Mumbai, 6 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150706134722weblink">weblink 6 July 2015, dmy-all, The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 across the creek at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city.WEB,weblink Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva), 13 November 2008, Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080226073604weblink">weblink 26 February 2008, The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they continued to be administered by same Municipal Administration.WEB,weblink Profile, Mumbai Suburban District, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141202060333weblink">weblink 2 December 2014, dmy-all, 8 September 2014, From 1990 to 2010, there has been an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries.NEWS,weblink 1993: Bombay hit by devastating bombs, 12 November 2008, 12 March 1993, BBC News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081211202614weblink">weblink 11 December 2008, dmy-all, In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains.NEWS,weblink Special Report: Mumbai Train Attacks, 30 September 2006, BBC News, 13 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080810041902weblink">weblink 10 August 2008, dmy-all, In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Press Information Bureau (Government of India), 11 December 2008, HM announces measures to enhance security, 14 December 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221205459weblink">weblink 21 February 2011, dmy-all, The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13 July 2011 were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.WEB,weblink Three bomb blasts in Mumbai, 18 dead, over 130 injured, 14 July 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109003829weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, dmy-all, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment.JOURNAL, Shaw, Annapurna, Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth in India, Economic and Political Weekly, 34, 16/17, 969–978, 1999, 4407880, From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.{{harvnb|Brunn|Williams|Zeigler|2003|pages=353–354|Ref=bru}}

Geography

{{See also|South Mumbai|Western Suburbs (Mumbai)|Eastern Suburbs (Mumbai)|List of neighbourhoods in Mumbai}}(File:Mumbaicitydistricts.png|alt=Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east, and Vasai Creek to the north. Mumbai's suburban district occupies most of the island. Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek, and the Thane District is north of Vasai Creek.|thumb|upright|Mumbai consists of two revenue districts)Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra.WEB, Mumbai Suburban, National Informatics Centre (Mahrashtra State Centre),weblink PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120513120309weblink">weblink 13 May 2012, The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi).WEB,weblink City Profile of Greater Mumbai, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 24 April 2018, Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The remaining areas belong to various Defence establishments, the Mumbai Port Trust, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the MCGM.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.2 Area and Divisions|Ref=plan}} The Mumbai Metropolitan Region which includes portions of Thane, Palghar and Raigad districts in addition to Greater Mumbai, covers an area of 4,355 km2 (1681.5 sq mi).Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=2|Ref=bom}} Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.1 Location|Ref=plan}} Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft);{{Harvnb|Krishnamoorthy|2008|p=218}} the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft).WEB, Weatherbase,weblink Mumbai, India, 19 March 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060316121943weblink">weblink 16 March 2006, dmy-all, Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly,{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.3.2.2 Salsette Island|Ref=plan}} and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges.WEB,weblink Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashtra State, Government of Maharashtra, Srinivasu, T., Pardeshi, Satish, 26 August 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090717023146weblink">weblink 17 July 2009, The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).{{Harvnb|Bapat|2005|pp=111–112}}Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes.WEB
,weblink
, PPT
, Salient Features of Powai Lake
, Department of Environment (Government of Maharashtra)
, 1–3
, 29 April 2009
, yes
,weblink
, 15 July 2011
, dmy
, Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.7 Water Supply and Sanitation|Ref=plan}} The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on theeastern to Madh Marve on the western front.NEWS, Security web for city coastline,weblink 13 December 2008, Sen, Somit, The Times of India, 30 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140803214157weblink">weblink 3 August 2014, dmy-all, The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.{{Harvnb|Patil|1957|pp=45–49}}Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.3.1 Soil|Ref=plan}} The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.3.2 Geology and Geomorphology|Ref=plan}} Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity.JOURNAL, Kanth, S. T. G. Raghu, Iyenagar, R. N.,weblink Current Science, 91, Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City, 10 December 2006, 11, 1486, 3 September 2009, This is used to compute the probability of ground motion that can be induced by each of the twenty-three known faults that exist around the city., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090202112243weblink">weblink 2 February 2009, dmy-all, The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region,MAP, India Meteorological Department,weblink Seismic Zoning Map, 20 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915154543weblink">weblink 15 September 2008, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale may be expected.WEB,weblink The Seismic Environment of Mumbai, Department of Theoretical Physics (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research), 6 December 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071213094722weblink">weblink 13 December 2007, dmy-all,

Climate

(File:India mumbai temperature precipitation averages chart.svg|thumb|Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai|alt=The average temperature ranges between {{convert|23|°C|0|abbr=on}} in January to {{convert|30|°C|0|abbr=on}} in May. Rainfall is at or near zero from November through May, then quickly rises to a peak of about {{convert|600|mm|2|abbr=on}} in July, falling back more gradually.|left){{See also|2017 Mumbai flood}}Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July.{{harvnb|Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy|1999|p=210|Ref=proc}} The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.{{harvnb|Greater Bombay District Gazetteer|1960|p=84|Ref=bom}}Flooding during monsoon is a major problem for Mumbai.NEWS,weblink Mumbai floods: Why India’s cities are struggling with extreme rainfall, Hindustan Times, 14 May 2019, NEWS,weblink Will Mumbai flood this year too? BMC starts to find solution, Hindustan Times, 11 May 2019, Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was {{convert|3452|mm|0|abbr=on}} for 1954.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.4 Climate and Rainfall|Ref=plan}} The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was {{convert|944|mm|0|abbr=on}} on 26 July 2005.NEWS, Kishwar, Madhu Purnima,weblink Three drown as heavy rain lashes Mumbai for the 3rd day, Daily News and Analysis (DNA), Mumbai, 3 July 2006, 15 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140106115301weblink">weblink 6 January 2014, dmy-all, The average total annual rainfall is {{convert|2146.6|mm|0|abbr=on}} for the Island City, and {{convert|2457|mm|0|abbr=on}} for the suburbs.The average annual temperature is {{convert|27.2|°C|0|abbr=on}}, and the average annual precipitation is {{convert|2167|mm|0|abbr=on}}.{{harvnb|Rohli|Vega|2007|p=267}} In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is {{convert|31.2|°C|0|abbr=on}}, while the average minimum temperature is {{convert|23.7|°C|0|abbr=on}}. In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from {{convert|29.1|°C|0|abbr=on}} to {{convert|33.3|°C|0|abbr=on}}, while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from {{convert|16.3|°C|0|abbr=on}} to {{convert|26.2|°C|0|abbr=on}}. The record high is {{convert|42.2|°C|0|abbr=on}} set on 14 April 1952, and the record low is {{convert|7.4|°C|0|abbr=on}} set on 27 January 1962.NEWS,weblink Mumbai still cold at 8.6 Â°C, The Times of India, 9 February 2008, 26 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, {{Clear}}{{Mumbai weatherbox}}Air pollution is a major issue in Mumbai.Borwankari, Vinamrata. "Air pollution killed 81,000 in Delhi & Mumbai, cost Rs 70,000 crore in 2015." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170610043814weblink |date=10 June 2017 }} Times of India. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.Chatterjee, Badri. "Mumbai breathes 2017's cleanest air; 'good' AQI after 6 months." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170506153636weblink |date=6 May 2017 }} Hindustan Times. 11 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.Express News Service. "Air quality in Mumbai three times worse than Delhi." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170318200948weblink |date=18 March 2017 }} Indian Express. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017. According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database,Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170301221905weblink |date=1 March 2017 }} World Health Organization. May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2013 was 63 μg/m3, which is 6.3 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality GuidelinesWHO Air Quality Guidelines. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160104165807weblink |date=4 January 2016 }} World Health Organization. September 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. for the annual mean PM2.5. The Central Pollution Control Board for the Government of India and the Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai monitor and publicly share real-time air quality data."Central Pollution Control Board Air Quality Information." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160619153514weblink |date=19 June 2016 }} Open Government Data Platform India. Retrieved 30 June 2017."U.S. Embassy Air Quality Data." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180116102725weblink |date=16 January 2018 }} U.S. Department of State, Mission Air Quality. Retrieved 30 June 2017.

Economy

File:Bombay Stock Exchange, Mumbai.jpg|thumb|The Bombay Stock ExchangeBombay Stock ExchangeMumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP.WEB,weblink Mumbai a global financial centre? Of course!, Thomas, T., Rediff, 27 April 2007, 31 May 2009, New Delhi, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081118221806weblink">weblink 18 November 2008, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest, 5 September 2009, 29 January 2008, The Financial Express (India), The Financial Express, no,weblink 6 September 2009, dmy-all, It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and {{INRConvert|40|b}} in corporate taxes.{{harvnb|Swaminathan|Goyal|2006|p=51}} Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s.{{harvnb|Kelsey|2008|p=208}} Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India's GDP.WEB,weblink City Development Plan (Economic Profile), 25 August 2013, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), PDF, Mumbai, at present, is in reverse gear, as regards the economic growth and quality of life., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131125052153weblink">weblink 25 November 2013, dmy-all, {{As of|2016}} recent estimates of the economy of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region have ranged from $151 to $368 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.WEB, Lewis, Clara, Delhi, not Mumbai, India's economic capital – Times of India,weblink The Times of India, 24 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170214065413weblink">weblink 14 February 2017, dmy-all, Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen & Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai.NEWS, Fortune Global 500,weblink CNN, 21 July 2008, 28 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120509014825weblink">weblink 9 May 2012, dmy-all, This is facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), and financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.{{harvnb|Swaminathan|Goyal|2006|p=52}}The key sectors contributing to the city's economy are: finance, gems & jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai's major financial centres. Despite competition from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai has carved a niche for itself in the information technology industry. The Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) and the International Infotech Park (Navi Mumbai) offer excellent facilities to IT companies.WEB,weblink Role of Mumbai in Indian Economy, 25 August 2013, Jadhav, Narendra, Narendra Jadhav, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120522221937weblink">weblink 22 May 2012, State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India.WEB,weblink Indian Ports Association, Operational Details, 16 April 2009, Indian Ports Association, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090410022515weblink">weblink 10 April 2009, Dharavi, in central Mumbai, has an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.NEWS, Dan, McDougall, Waste not, want not in the £700m slum, Guardian, UK, 4 March 2007, 29 April 2009,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130831032146weblink">weblink 31 August 2013, dmy-all, Mumbai has been ranked sixth among top ten global cities on the billionaire count with 28NEWS,weblink Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count, The Times of India, 10 May 2013, 8 July 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804042725weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, and 46000 millionaires, with total wealth around $820 billionWEB,weblink Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report, 26 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170227063903weblink">weblink 27 February 2017, dmy-all, 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008,WEB,weblink Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008, MasterCard, PDF, 21, 28 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120504014257weblink">weblink 4 May 2012, dmy-all, seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine (April 2008),NEWS,weblink Forbes, In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires, 28 April 2009, Chaniga, Vorasarun, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090422212819weblink">weblink 22 April 2009, dmy-all, and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.NEWS,weblink Cities of the Billionaires, Vorasarun, Chaniga, Forbes, 30 April 2008, 28 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417171221weblink">weblink 17 April 2009, dmy-all, {{As of|2008}}, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2008, Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC), Loughborough University, 7 May 2009, no,weblink 23 February 2011, dmy-all, Mumbai is the third most expensive office market in the world, and was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.WEB,weblink Doing Business in India 2009, World Bank, 8 June 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101018092951weblink">weblink 18 October 2010, dmy-all,

Civic administration

File:Bombay Municipal Corporation.JPG|thumb|upright|Headquarters of the Municipal Corporation of Greater MumbaiMunicipal Corporation of Greater MumbaiGreater Mumbai, an area of {{convert|603|km2|mi2}},WEB, Annual Report 2004-05,weblink Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, 11 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317135825weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, 185, consisting of the Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban districts, extends from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east. Its population as per the 2011 census was 12,442,373.WEB, Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data,weblink Census 2011 India, Census Organization of India, 11 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150629002612weblink">weblink 29 June 2015, dmy-all, It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). The MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.WEB,weblink Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 18 July 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607124049weblink">weblink 7 June 2008, dmy-all, The Mayor is chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.NEWS, Shiv Sena's Snehal Ambekar elected new Mumbai mayor,weblink 9 September 2014, Economic Times, Mumbai, 5 July 2015, ... as Sena's Sunil Prabhu completed his two-and-half-years term as the city mayor today. Ambekar, who secured 121 votes in the 226 member House,..., The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.WEB,weblink Commissioner System, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100102043915weblink">weblink 2 January 2010, dmy-all, The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai was ranked 9th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.WEB, Nair, Ajesh, Annual Survey of India's City-Systems,weblink Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, 7 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319003215weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, dmy-all, File:Mumbai 03-2016 41 Bombay High Court.jpg|thumb|left|The Bombay High Court exercises jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Daman and Diu, and alt=A brown building with a central tower and sloping roofs surrounded by trees. A grassy ground and a coconut tree are in front of it.The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police is a division of the Maharashtra Police, under the state Home Ministry.{{harvnb|Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai|p=2|Ref=mp}} The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police.{{harvnb|Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai|pp=7–8|Ref=mp}} The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation, is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for infrastructure development and planning of Mumbai Metropolitan Region.WEB,weblink MMRDA – Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, Mmrdamumbai.org, 1975-01-26, 2010-08-30, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090307224202weblink">weblink 7 March 2009, dmy, Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.WEB,weblink About Bombay High Court, 27 January 2008, Bombay High Court, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080130075145weblink">weblink 30 January 2008, dmy-all, Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.{{harvnb|Fuller|Bénéï|2001|p=47}}

Politics

File:1st INC1885.jpg|thumb|First session of the alt=Men in traditional Indian dresses posing for a photographMumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party.{{harvnb|100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985|loc=p. 4, "The centenary of the Indian National Congress, which is being celebrated at its birthplace Bombay, is a unique event."|Ref=cng}} The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885.NEWS,weblink Congress foundation day celebrated, 29 December 2006, 12 November 2008, The Hindu, Chennai, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during itsfirst 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.{{harvnb|David|1995|p=215}}The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay.BOOK, Gogate, Sudha, The Emergence of Regionalism in Mumbai, 2014, Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, 978-81-7991-823-4,weblink 22 June 2015, History of the Shiv Sena, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016010804weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all, Shiv Sena switched from 'Marathi Cause' to larger 'Hindutva Cause' in 1985 and joined hands with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) in same year.WEB,weblink Bal Thackeray turned to Hindutva in 1985 to win elections: ex-Shiv Sena MP, dna, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141107052854weblink">weblink 7 November 2014, dmy-all, 2014-07-07, The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay Municipal Corporation elections.{{harvnb|Phadnis|pp=86–87}}In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, several members left the Congress to form the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) but later allied with the Congress as part of an alliance known as the Democratic Front.{{harvnb|Rana|2006|pp=315–316}} Other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.NEWS,weblink 29 April 2009, Outlook (Indian magazine), Outlook, Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra, 6 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109010731weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, dmy-all, In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South.WEB,weblink List of Parliamentary Constituencies, Election Commission of India, 7, 4 September 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101009113307weblink">weblink 9 October 2010, dmy-all, A Member of parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2014 national elections, all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the BJP and Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties winning three seats each.WEB,weblink List of Members Elected General Election of the 16th Lok Sabha, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140519101133weblink">weblink 19 May 2014, dmy-all, In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.WEB,weblink List of ACs and PCs, Chief Electoral Officer (Government of Maharashtra), 4 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090225084439weblink">weblink 25 February 2009, WEB,weblink Maharashtra Assembly Election 2009, 18 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091122084331weblink">weblink 22 November 2009, A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2014 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress.NEWS, Sena says Mumbai was and will continue to belong to them in Saamana editorial,weblink 20 March 2015, Press Trust of India, Mumbai, The Indian Express, 23 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623103555weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Understand Maharashtra Election Results – 5 Trends & 7 Charts,weblink Aashish, Chondorkar, 22 October 2014, Swarajya (magazine), Swarajya, 23 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623100525weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, dmy-all, Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the MCGM.{{harvnb|The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888|p=6|Ref=mumact}} The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial.WEB,weblink Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), Corporation, 15 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090501232803weblink">weblink 1 May 2009, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080314202555weblink">weblink 14 March 2008, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), Mayor – the First Citizen of Mumbai, 12 May 2009, As the presiding authority at the Corporation Meetings, his/her role is confined to the four corners of the Corporation Hall. The decorative role, however, extends far beyond the city and the country to other parts of world, {{harvnb|The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888|p=3|Ref=mumact}} In the 2012 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 107 seats, holding power with the support of independent candidates in the MCGM, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 64 seats.NEWS, BMC results: Saffron alliance wins BMC with 75 seats,weblink 17 February 2012, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 3 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615005738weblink">weblink 15 June 2015, dmy-all, The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.{{harvnb|The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888|p=27|Ref=mumact}}

Transport

{{Multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|image1=Bombay4.jpg|caption1=The Mumbai Suburban Railway system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger density of any urban railway system in the world.|image2=Mumbaimetro.jpg|caption2=Mumbai Metro provides connectivity with eastern and western part of city.|image3=Mumbai Monorail train at platform.jpg|caption3=The Mumbai Monorail opened in February 2014.|image4=Mumbai 03-2016 48 bus in Mahim.jpgBrihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport>BEST buses carry a total of 2.8 million passengers daily.|alt=A BEST bus on Route 56|image5=PremierPadminiTaxis gobeirne.jpg|caption5=The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai.|image6=Mumbai 03-2016 81 Dadar Beach view of the SeaLink.jpg|caption6=The Bandra-Worli Sea Link is a cable-stayed bridge that connects central Mumbai with its western suburbs|image7=Mumbai airport domestic departure terminal 1C (6).JPG|caption7=Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, India|image8=Jawaharlal Nehru Trust Port.jpg|caption8=Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in India}}

Public transport

Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927192943weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, DOC, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai, 28 August 2009, yes, dmy, Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.NEWS,weblink What's Mumbai without the black beetles?, 24 August 2005, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis (DNA), Ghose, Anindita, 29 August 2009, In Mumbai autos run only in the suburbs up to Mahim creek. This is probably the perfect arrangement because it is not economically viable for autos and taxis to solicit the same passengers. So autos monopolise the suburbs while taxis rule South Mumbai., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728070112weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, dmy-all, Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG),NEWS,weblink Taxi, auto fares may dip due to CNG usage, 22 April 2004, The Times of India, 29 August 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804041631weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.

Railway

The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system.BOOK, Outlook,weblink 8 July 2012, July 2008, Hathway Investments Pvt Ltd, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130527054807weblink">weblink 27 May 2013, dmy-all, It is operated by the Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the Indian Railways.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Press Information Bureau (Government of India), Making Rail Commuting Easier in Mumbai, Kumar, Akshey, 29 August 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110805142529weblink">weblink 5 August 2011, dmy-all, Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007.WEB,weblink Overview of existing Mumbai suburban railway, 7 July 2008, Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080620033027weblink">weblink 20 June 2008, Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours.{{harvnb|Environment and urbanization|2002|p=160|Ref=n450}} The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes (train-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the cityweblink{{dead link|date=September 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The Monorail opened in early February 2014.NEWS,weblink Mumbai monorail to be inaugurated on Saturday, 30 January 2014, 30 January 2014, Gupta, Saurabh, NDTV, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140131061547weblink">weblink 31 January 2014, dmy-all, The first line of the Mumbai Metro opened in early June 2014.NEWS,weblink Maharashtra CM Prithivraj Chavan flags off Mumbai Metro, The Times of India, 28 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160213001656weblink">weblink 13 February 2016, dmy-all, Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones of the Indian Railways: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate.{{harvnb|Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR|pp=2–14|Ref=exe}} Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.WEB,weblink Terminal Facilities in Metropolitanc Cities, Ministry of Railways (India), 14, 28 August 2009, The port city of Mumbai is served by 5 passenger terminals namely Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal (CST), Mumbai Central, Dadar, Bandra and Lokmanya Tilak Terminal., no,weblink 29 August 2009, dmy-all,

Bus

Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015.NEWS, Mumbai: BEST ridership falls further,weblink Ateeq, Shaikh, 27 September 2015, DNA, Mumbai, 6 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151003232953weblink">weblink 3 October 2015, dmy-all, Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane.WEB,weblink Organisational Setup, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST), 14 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090604204123weblink">weblink 4 June 2009, yes, dmy, The BEST operates a total of 4,608 busesWEB,weblink Times of India Publications, Lite.epaper.timesofindia.com, 16 May 2011, 22 July 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120406013750weblink">weblink 6 April 2012, dmy-all, with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural gas powered buses.WEB,weblink Composition of Bus Fleet, 12 October 2006, BEST,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060718003152weblink">weblink 18 July 2006, yes, dmy, BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998.NEWS, A timeline of BEST buses in Mumbai,weblink 29 June 2013, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 11 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402111419weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London.NEWS, BEST buses, the new killer on the prowl?,weblink 4 June 2012, Daily News and Analysis, 8 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150709175844weblink">weblink 9 July 2015, dmy-all, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC, also known as ST)NEWS, Soon, computer-aided training for MSRTC drivers,weblink Mewati, Sitaram, 29 December 2014, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 31 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150531164905weblink">weblink 31 May 2015, dmy-all, buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states.NEWS,weblink Tembhekar, Chittaranjan, MSRTC to make long distance travel easier, The Times of India, 4 August 2008, 14 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804104904weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink MSRTC adds Volvo luxury to Mumbai trip, The Times of India, 29 December 2002, 14 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150514185925weblink">weblink 14 May 2015, dmy-all, The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai and Thane to parts of Mumbai.NEWS, NNMT gains from BEST's plan to discontinue AC bus services,weblink Mewati, Sitaram, 2 February 2015, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 13 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150430053240weblink">weblink 30 April 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, TMT rakes in moolah on new AC bus routes,weblink Manoj, Badgeri, 3 November 2014, Times of India, Thane, 13 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141103160736weblink">weblink 3 November 2014, dmy-all, Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.{{harvnb|Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world|1993|p=49|Ref=UNB}}The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai.HTTP://ARCHIVE.MID-DAY.COM/NEWS/2009/MAR/310309-MUMBAI-NEWS-MUMBAI-DARSHAN-POPULAR-TOURIST-SPOTS-TRAFFIC-CONGESTION-TOURIST.HTM>TITLE=TRAFFIC CLAIMS MUMBAI DARSHAN HOT SPOTSFIRST=URVASHIMID DAY>DATE=31 MARCH 2009PUBLISHER=BEST ACCESSDATE=23 MARCH 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090126235306/HTTP://BESTUNDERTAKING.COM/TRAVELASYOULIKE-TICKET.PDF traffic congestion.HTTP://WWW.BUSINESSWORLD.IN/INDEX.PHP/7-QUESTIONS-YOU-WANTED-TO-ASK.HTML FIRST=GAURAV TITLE=7 QUESTIONS YOU WANTED TO ASK ABOUT THE MUMBAI METRO BUSINESSWORLD >QUOTE=ROAD CONGESTION HAS WORSENED, THOUGH 88 PER CENT OF JOURNEYS ARE MADE BY PUBLIC TRANSPORT. ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090625151715/HTTP://WWW.BUSINESSWORLD.IN/INDEX.PHP/7-QUESTIONS-YOU-WANTED-TO-ASK.HTML Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMRRef=exe}}

Water

Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners.WEB, Transportation from Alibaug,weblink Raigad District Authority, 3 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009122502weblink">weblink 9 October 2014, dmy-all, Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late 1990s between the Gateway of India and CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure.NEWS, Navi Mumbai mulls hovercraft services,weblink 3 November 2011, Sify, Navi Mumbai, 3 January 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924215722weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all,

Road

Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system.WEB,weblink NH wise Details of NH in respect of Stretches entrusted to NHAI, 4 July 2008, National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090225142615weblink">weblink 25 February 2009, dmy-all, The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India.NEWS, Dalal, Sucheta,weblink India's first international-class expressway is just a month away, The Indian Express, 1 April 2000, 14 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140116132018weblink">weblink 16 January 2014, dmy-all, The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway,NEWS, NHAI starts work on Rs 6,672 cr expressway,weblink Kumar, K.P. Narayana, Chandran, Rahul, 6 March 2008, Mint (newspaper), Mint, 14 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117111028weblink">weblink 17 January 2013, dmy-all, are under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs.WEB
,weblink
, MSRDC – Project – Bandra Worli Sea Link
, Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC)
, 2 July 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090415171242weblink">weblink
, 15 April 2009
, no
, dmy
, The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar.{{harvnb|Mumbai Plan|loc=1.10 Transport and Communication Network|Ref=plan}} Mumbai has approximately {{convert|1900|km|0|abbr=on}} of roads.WEB,weblink 28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets – Mumbai – DNA, Dnaindia.com, 8 July 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140415045359weblink">weblink 15 April 2014, dmy-all, 2013-05-03, There are five tolled entry points to the city by road.NEWS, Mumbai's five gateways may become toll-free,weblink Dhaval, Kulkarni, 31 May 2015, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 1 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150602000054weblink">weblink 2 June 2015, dmy-all, Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles as of March 2014,NEWS, Only 10 public transport services for every 90 private vehicles in Mumbai,weblink 12 April 2014, The Times of India, 12 April 2014, Somit Sen, Manthan K Mehta, TNN, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140412125904weblink">weblink 12 April 2014, dmy-all, 56,459 black and yellow taxis {{As of|2005|lc=y}},{{harvnb|Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR|pp=2–9|Ref=exe}} and 106,000 auto rickshaws, as of May 2013.WEB,weblink 28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets, dna, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140415045359weblink">weblink 15 April 2014, dmy-all, 2013-05-03,

Air

The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic.WEB,weblink AAI traffic figures, PDF, 14 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116110757weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015.WEB,weblink Statistics: Mumbai International Airport Limited, Association of Private Airport Operators, 29 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923172617weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all, An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annuallyWEB,weblink Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA)- Masterplan, Csia.in, 19 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111221021450weblink">weblink 21 December 2011, and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014.NEWS,weblink With maiden Air India flight, T2 opens to public, Daily News & Analysis, 13 February 2014, 28 July 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006115312weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, dmy-all, The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.NEWS,weblink Work on Navi Mumbai airport may start next year, The Hindu, 19 December 2006, 16 May 2009, no,weblink" title="archive.today/20150103114405weblink">weblink 3 January 2015, dmy-all, The Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts the Bombay Flying Club and a heliport operated by state-owned Pawan Hans.NEWS,weblink MIAL eyes Juhu airport, MiD DAY, 7 June 2007, 14 June 2009,

Sea

Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai.{{harvnb|Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR|pp=2–12|Ref=exe}} Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities.{{harvnb|Chittar|1973|loc=p. 65: "The Port is endowed with one of the best natural harbours in the world and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation to meet the normal needs of the city."}} Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Press Information Bureau (Government of India), Laudable Achievement of JNPT, 7 January 2003, 29 August 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091005230020weblink">weblink 5 October 2009, dmy-all, It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo.WEB,weblink Our Mission, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, 27 August 2009, Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.NEWS,weblink Cruise terminal plan gets MoU push, Sonawane, Rakshit, 13 May 2007, 27 August 2009, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis, While Arthur Bunder is used by small boats and Hay Bunder caters to declining traffic of barges, Ferry Wharf offers services to Mora, Mandva, Rewas and Uran ports., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116101920weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy.

Utility services

{{See also|Mumbai's water sources}}Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them. The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,NEWS,weblink BMC Inc. will now sell bottled water, The Indian Express, 21 May 1998, 13 June 2009,weblink 3 June 2015, NEWS,weblink It will be years before Mumbai surmounts its water crisis, Sawant, Sanjay, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis (DNA), 23 March 2007, 13 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091108035059weblink">weblink 8 November 2009, dmy-all, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.NEWS
,weblink
, Tansa water mains to be replaced
, The Times of India
, 1 August 2007
, 13 June 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804005809weblink">weblink
, 4 August 2014
, dmy-all
, The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.WEB, RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT-2005 INFORMATION BOOKLET,weblink Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2013, 2012, 15 June 2015, PDF, Mumbai, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304122755weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, Water contamination complaints double, Bhandup hit hard,weblink 4 July 2008, Times of India, Mumbai, 16 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150624081154weblink">weblink 24 June 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Wajihuddin, Mohammed,weblink Make way for Mulund, Mumbai's newest hotspot, Mumbai Newsline, Indian Express Group, 4 May 2003, 13 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116101949weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, India's first underground water tunnel was completed in Mumbai to supply water to the Bhandup filtration plant.NEWS, 20 February 2008,weblink Country's first water tunnel to come up in Mumbai, 21 February 2008, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis (DNA), no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109002824weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, BMC completes water tunnel project,weblink Linah, Baliga, 26 January 2014, Times of India, Mumbai, 1 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016010803weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all, About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai.NEWS, Express News Service, Now, a toll-free helpline to check water leakage, theft, Indian Express, 22 October 2009,weblink 22 October 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,NEWS
, Nevin
, John
,weblink
, Plastic ban: 1 lakh to be jobless
, Rediff
, 27 August 2005
, 13 June 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110806032332weblink">weblink
, 6 August 2011
, dmy-all
, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east.NEWS,weblink How BMC cleans up the city, MiD DAY, 26 August 2002Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of {{convert>3.413.71PUBLISHER=THE WORLD BANK GROUPDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=29 JUNE 2012, dmy-all, Electricity is distributed by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) undertaking in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd (Mahavitaran) in the suburbs.NEWS,weblink Dasgupta, Devraj, Stay in island city, do biz, The Times of India, 26 April 2007, 13 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, Power supply cables are underground, which reduces pilferage, thefts and other losses.NEWS, Reliance Energy curbs power theft,weblink Ashwin, Aghor, 10 December 2009, DNA (newspaper), DNA, Mumbai, 29 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925050410weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, To curb power theft, Maharashtra explores underground supply network across state,weblink Dhaval, Kulkarni, 11 March 2015, Daily News and Analysis, India, 29 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925005358weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, Cooking gas is supplied in the form of liquefied petroleum gas cylinders sold by state-owned oil companies,NEWS, Cooking gas cylinders to be sold at petrol pumps,weblink 24 July 2013, Daily News and Analysis, 2 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615204630weblink">weblink 15 June 2015, dmy-all, as well as through piped natural gas supplied by Mahanagar Gas Limited.NEWS, Piped gas becomes more attractive for the kitchen,weblink Promit, Mukherjee, 14 September 2014, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 2 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150615203513weblink">weblink 15 June 2015, dmy-all, The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.{{harvnb|Campbell|2008|p=143|Ref=in08}} Mobile phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.NEWS, Somayaji, Chitra, Bhatnagar, Shailendra,weblink Reliance Offers BlackBerry in India, Vies With Bharti, Bloomberg, 13 June 2009, 13 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121025044056weblink">weblink 25 October 2012, Mumbai, along with the area served by telephone exchanges in Navi Mumbai and Kalyan is classified as a Metro telecom circle.WEB, DETAILS OF SERVICE AREA,weblink Department of Telecommunications, Government of India, 12 June 2015, Word Document, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319104536weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, dmy-all, Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. {{As of|2014}}, Mumbai had the highest number of internet users in India with 16.4 million users.NEWS,weblink Internet surfers: Mumbai scores, Bangalore falls, economictimes.indiatimes.com, 7 November 2014, 7 November 2014,

Architecture

{{See also|Heritage structures in Mumbai}}The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.HTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/MAG/2004/07/25/STORIES/2004072500330200.HTM>TITLE=RAINSWEPT GLORYWORK=THE HINDULOCATION=CHENNAI, INDIA, Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features.{{harvnbWinchesterp=212}} There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India.HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/THEHINDU/HOLNUS/002200703041014.HTM>TITLE=MUMBAI'S ENTRANCE -THE 'GATEWAY' TO BE MORE TOURIST-FRIENDLYWORK=THE HINDUARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070306090243/HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/THEHINDU/HOLNUS/002200703041014.HTM LOCATION=CHENNAI, INDIA, Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive, Mumbai and west of the Oval Maidan. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction {{As of>2009|lc=y}}.The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Elephanta Caves and the Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble.WEB,weblink India: World heritage sites centre, 9 August 2007, UNESCO, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120502200152weblink">weblink 2 May 2012, dmy-all, In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era buildings and Soviet-style offices.NEWS,weblink Is the world's weirdest property market strangling the city that hosts it?, The Economist, 9 June 2012, 6 July 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120717223955weblink">weblink 17 July 2012, dmy-all, In the east are factories and some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York. File:Victoria Terminus, Mumbai.jpg|thumb|upright=2.95|The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus, is the headquarters of the Central Railway and a UNESCO alt=A brown building with clock towers, domes and pyramidal tops. Also a busiest railway station in India.WEB,weblink India's impressive railway stations, Rediff.com, 13 October 2011, 6 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518003144weblink">weblink 18 May 2012, dmy-all, A wide street in front of it|center

Demographics

{{See also|Growth of Mumbai}}{{IndiaCensusPop|state=|title= Population growth|1971= 5970575|1981= 8243405|1991= 9925891|2001= 11914398|2011= 12478447|align-fn=centerMumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority>MMRDA{{harvnbp=6|Ref=pemmr}}Data is based onGovernment of India Census.}}According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai city was 12,479,608. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5 square metres per person.NEWS, The minimum city,weblink economist.com, The Economist, 7 July 2012, 9 June 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120717223955weblink">weblink 17 July 2012, dmy-all, Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by 2011. Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001;NEWS, Jain, Bhavika, 62% of Mumbai lives in slums: Census,weblink 6 March 2013, Hindustan Times, 17 October 2010, The projections showed that about 90 lakh Mumbai residents now live in slums as against 60 lakh recorded in 2001 census – a 50 per cent increase in a decade that also saw an unprecedented real estate boom in the city., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130409205352weblink">weblink 9 April 2013, that is, 62% of all Mumbaikars live in informal slums.The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.NEWS,weblink Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city, 8 September 2004, The Times of India, 2 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804042745weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, File:Persians (Parsees) in Bombay 1873.jpg|thumb|left|"Parsis of Bombay", a wood engraving, ca. 1878. Mumbai is home to the largest population of ParsiParsiResidents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar,BOOK, Hansen, Thomas Blom, 2001, Wages of violence: naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay, 978-0-691-08840-2,weblink Princeton University Press, 16 August 2009, harv, no,weblink 27 December 2016, dmy-all, Mumbaiite,WEB,weblink Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year, HindustanTimes, Eighty potholes have already been reported in the pothole-tracking system. With work on several roads to be carried out after the rains, should Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year?, 11 June 2015, 12 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150612024817weblink">weblink 12 June 2015, dmy-all, Bombayite or Bombaiite.Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district.{{harvnb|Datta|Jones|1999|loc=Low-Income Households and the Housing Problem in Mumbai, pp. 158–159}} Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum (if Karachi's Orangi Town is counted as a single slum)WEB, Jacobson, Marc, Dharavi: Mumbai's Shadow City,weblink National Geographic Magazine, May 2007, 28 April 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090318083827weblink">weblink 18 March 2009, dmy-all, is located in central Mumbai and houses between 800,000 and one million people{{harvnb|Davis|2006|p=31}} in {{convert|2.39|km2|2|abbr=out}}, making it one of the most densely populated areas on EarthWEB,weblink Dharavi, Mumbai | Sustainable Milano, Blogs.newschool.edu, 24 May 2012, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130111004143weblink">weblink 11 January 2013, dmy-all, with a population density of at least 334,728 persons per square kilometre.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}}The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.WEB,weblink 2, Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06, 13 February 2008, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department (Government of Maharashtra),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216012618weblink">weblink 16 February 2008, yes, dmy, The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The number of households with incomes from 1–2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020.MAGAZINE,weblink Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top, Forbes, 10 February 2010, 7 July 2012, T Surendar, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117040039weblink">weblink 17 January 2013, dmy-all, According to the 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board, Mumbai is the noisiest city in India, ahead of Lucknow, Hyderabad and Delhi.WEB,weblink Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board, 26 April 2016, Times of India,

Ethnic groups and religions

{{bar box PUBLISHER = GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS DEADURL = NO ARCHIVEDATE = 13 SEPTEMBER 2015, dmy-all, On this page, select "Maharashtra" from the download menu. "Greater Mumbai (M.Corp.)" is at line 11 of the excel file, "Mumbai Suburban District" at line 1065 and "Mumbai District" at line 1072.|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|65.99}}{{bar percent|Islam|#009000|20.65}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|#FFFF00|4.85}}{{bar percent|Jainism|#FF7601|4.10}}{{bar percent|Christianity|#9955BB|3.27}}{{bar percent|Others|#808080|1.15}}Others include Sikhs & Parsis}}The religious groups represented in Mumbai as of 2011 include Hindus (65.99%), Muslims (20.65%), Buddhists (4.85%), Jains (4.10%), Christians (3.27%) and Sikhs (0.49%).WEB,weblink Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data, Census2011, 3 June 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160604104700weblink">weblink 4 June 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India, The 30-Days Prayer Network, 1 September 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100823123240weblink">weblink 23 August 2010, The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India.{{Harvnb|Mehta|2004|p=99}}Native Christians include East Indian Catholics, who were converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century,{{harvnb|Baptista|1967|p=5}} while Goan and Mangalorean Catholics also constitute a significant portion of the Christian community of the city.BOOK, Larsen, Karin, Faces of Goa: A Journey Through the History and Cultural Revolution of Goa and Other Communities Influenced by the Portuguese, Gyan Books, 1998, 310, In Bombay today, there are three Catholic communities; Goans, the Mangaloreans and the East Indians., Jews settled in Bombay during the 18th century. The Bene Israeli Jewish community of Bombay, who migrated from the Konkan villages, south of Bombay, are believed to be the descendants of the Jews of Israel who were shipwrecked off the Konkan coast, probably in the year 175 BCE, during the reign of the Greek ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes.NEWS, Shalva, Weil, Background: A rich history now stained with blood, 30 November 2008,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 1 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921060915weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, dmy-all, Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world,{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} numbering about 60,000 though with a sharply declining population.NEWS, Karkaria, Bachi, Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing?,weblink 6 December 2016, BBC, 9 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161120095149weblink">weblink 20 November 2016, dmy-all, Parsis migrated to India from Greater Iran following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century."The world's successful diasporas {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130115173048weblink |date=15 January 2013 }}". Managementtoday.co.uk. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.{{harvnb|Bates|2003|p=266}}{{clear}}

Language

Mumbai has a large polyglot population like all other metropolitan cities of India. Sixteen major languages of India are spoken in Mumbai, with the most common being Marathi and its dialect East Indian; as well as Hindi, Gujarati and English.{{harvnb|Pai|2005|p=1804}} English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian English and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.{{harvnb|O'Brien|2003|p=141}}Among minority languages of Maharashtra, Hindi is spoken by 57.78% of the population of suburban Mumbai, Urdu by 32.21% and Gujarati by 31.21%.WEB, 51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA,weblink nclm.nic.in, Ministry of Minority Affairs, 15 July 2015, 15 February 2018, 152,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180216025959weblink">weblink 16 February 2018,

Culture

File:Mumbai 03-2016 70 Asiatic Society Library.jpg|thumb|Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public librariespublic librariesMumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions, and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinemaNEWS,weblink Beginners' Bollywood, 28 September 2005, The Age, Sydney, 11 September 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080906120745weblink">weblink 6 September 2008, dmy-all, —Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century.{{harvnb|Vilanilam|2005|p=130}} Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The Mumbai International Film FestivalNEWS,weblink Matchbox journeyslast=Nagarajan, 10 September 2006, The Hindu, 11 June 2009, Chennai, India, and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.NEWS
,weblink
, Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor
, 11 January 2006
, IndiaTimes Movies
, The Times of India
, 11 September 2008
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121122053815weblink">weblink
, 22 November 2012
, dmy-all
, Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English, and other regional languages.{{Harvnb|Chaudhuri|2005|pp=4–6}}JOURNAL, Gilder, Rosamond, The New Theatre in India: An Impression, Theatre Journal, Educational Theatre Journal, 9, 3, 201–204, October 1957, 0192-2882, 10.2307/3203529, 3203529, Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city.{{harvnb|David|1995|p=232}} The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.WEB,weblink Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, 30 January 2007, Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070201210616weblink">weblink 1 February 2007, dmy-all, Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.WEB,weblink Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships, 1999, Sahitya Akademi, 8 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080520022941weblink">weblink 20 May 2008, File:Chowpatti Beach (Girgaum Chowpatty).jpg|thumb|left|Girgaum ChowpattyGirgaum ChowpattyMumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films.WEB,weblink Kala Ghoda Arts Festival, Kala Ghoda Association, 6 February 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080417023334weblink">weblink 17 April 2008, dmy-all, A week-long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.NEWS,weblink Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos, Shika, Shah, 17 September 2008, MiD DAY, 27 September 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140122000309weblink">weblink 22 January 2014, dmy-all, The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai.NEWS, MTDC will not pull out of Elephanta, Banganga fests,weblink Ahustosh, Shukla, 8 November 2008, Daily News and Analysis, Mumbai, 1 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150901064217weblink">weblink 1 September 2015, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Banganga Festival, 7 February 2008, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation, no,weblink" title="archive.today/20120805052147weblink">weblink 5 August 2012, dmy-all, The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country.WEB,weblink The Elephanta Festival, 7 February 2008, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070220194302weblink">weblink 20 February 2007, dmy-all, Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960,NEWS
,weblink
, Mumbai celebrates Maharashtra Day
, 1 May 2009
, The Times of India
, 6 July 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161228044157weblink">weblink
, 28 December 2016
, dmy-all
, NEWS
,weblink
, Krishnan
, Ananth
, 'Vote at Eight' campaign
, 24 March 2009
, The Hindu
, 6 July 2009
, Chennai, India
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714002936weblink">weblink
, 14 July 2011
, dmy-all
, and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people.Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach.NEWS, BMC to transfer beach cleaning works, 24 August 2013,weblink The Asian Age, 27 August 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921053256weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, Most of the beaches are unfit for swimming, except Girgaum Chowpatty and Juhu Beach.NEWS, Bhavika, Jain, 8 out of city's 10 beaches unsafe, 10 May 2011,weblink Hindustan Times, 27 August 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921055224weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach,WEB,weblink About Essel World, Essel World, 29 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080130164441weblink">weblink 30 January 2008, dmy-all, and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.{{harvnb|O'Brien|2003|p=143}} Adlabs Imagica opened in April 2013 is located near the city of Khopoli off the Mumbai-Pune Expressway.NEWS, Sharma, Samidha, Adlabs founder bets big on theme parks,weblink The Times of India, 27 November 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016010803weblink">weblink 16 October 2015, dmy-all,

Media

{{See also|List of Mumbai radio stations}}File:Times of India Building.jpg|thumb|The Times of India's first office is opposite the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus where it was founded.WEB Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal.WEB,weblink IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai, Afaqs.com, 1 September 2010, 15 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110815164813weblink">weblink 15 August 2011, dmy-all, Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha.WEB,weblink IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light, Exchange4media.com, 15 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117050215weblink">weblink 17 January 2013, Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA India, and The Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.WEB, Shuchi, Bansal, Mathai, Palakunnathu G.,weblinkmoney/2005/apr/06spec1.htm, Mumbai's media Mahabharat, 6 April 2005, 14 May 2009, Rediff, yes, https:web.archive.org/web/20110806032345weblink 6 August 2011, Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822.NEWS, Rao, Subha J.,weblink Learn with newspapers, 16 October 2004, 14 May 2009, The Hindu, Chennai, India, Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.WEB, Public life and voluntary social service organisations,weblink Maharashtra State Gazetteers, 1 June 2015, no,weblink 28 December 2016, dmy-all, Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.NEWS,weblink IN-fighting among cable operators, 26 July 1999, 10 June 2009, The Indian Express, {{dead link|date=April 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.WEB
,weblink
, What is CAS? What is DTH?
, 5 September 2006
, 10 June 2009
, Rediff News
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090616115954weblink">weblink
, 16 June 2009
, dmy-all
, Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.WEB,weblink Tata Sky on Insat 4A, 10 August 2008, LyngSat, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080809014755weblink">weblink 9 August 2008, There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.WEB,weblink Radio stations in Maharashtra, India, 18 January 2008, Asiawaves, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070227054433weblink">weblink 27 February 2007, dmy-all, Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as Sirius. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.NEWS,weblink Few takers for CAS in Mumbai, 22 January 2008, 20 December 2006, The Times of India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904001826weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year.{{Harvnb|Ganti|2004|p=3}} The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood.NEWS
,weblink
, Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking
, 26 May 2009
, 26 November 2008
, Lundgren
, Kari
, Bloomberg
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121025044110weblink">weblink
, 25 October 2012
,
, The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation.NEWS,weblink Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films, 17 July 2008, 10 June 2009, The Times of India, Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets.NEWS
, Deshpande
, Haima
,weblink
, Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema
, 5 March 2001
, 14 May 2009
, The Indian Express
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140116132018weblink">weblink
, 16 January 2014
, dmy-all
, The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies. Mumbai is a hub of Indian film making. Several other Indian language films such as Bengali, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu are also occasionally shot in Mumbai. Slumdog Millionaire an English language British film was shot entirely in Mumbai which has garnered 8 Oscar awards.

Education

{{See also|List of educational institutions in Mumbai#Schools|List of colleges in Mumbai}}File:Mumbai 03-2016 39 University.jpg|thumb|upright|Rajabai Clock Tower at the University of MumbaiUniversity of Mumbai

Schools

Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the MCGM) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government.NEWS,weblink 24 September 2006, City has 43 one-teacher schools, MiD DAY, 9 June 2009, The schools are affiliated with either of the following boards: The primary education system of the MCGM is the largest urban primary education system in Asia. The MCGM operates 1,188 primary schools imparting primary education to 485,531 students in eight languages (Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada). The MCGM also imparts secondary education to 55,576 students through its 49 secondary schools.WEB,weblink City Development (Education), 25 August 2013, Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), PDF, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121005074234weblink">weblink 5 October 2012, dmy-all,

Higher education

File:University Mumbai convoc hall.jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.9|University of MumbaiUniversity of MumbaiUnder the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enrol for two years in junior college, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science.NEWS,weblink 19 June 2008, Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?, Rediff News, 9 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090614091337weblink">weblink 14 June 2009, dmy-all, This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.NEWS, Sharma, Archana,weblink 4 June 2004, When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet, The Times of India, 9 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804034139weblink">weblink 4 August 2014, dmy-all, Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.WEB,weblink History, University of Mumbai, 9 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090425232831weblink">weblink 25 April 2009, The University of Mumbai is one of the premierIndia Today Best Universities 2013: University of Mumbai – | Photo1 | India Today |. Indiatoday.intoday.in (15 March 1978). Retrieved on 2013-07-16. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150426000809weblink |date=26 April 2015 }} universities in India. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.WEB, The World's Best Engineering Schools,weblink Business Insider, 5 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130605050037weblink">weblink 5 June 2013, dmy-all, Moreover, the University of Mumbai was ranked 5th in the list of best Universities in India by India Today in 2013weblink {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150710021738weblink |date=10 July 2015 }} and ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013, a ranking of leading universities in the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).WEB,weblink QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013, Top Universities, 28 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131217061019weblink">weblink 17 December 2013, dmy-all, 2013-12-12, Its strongest scores in the QS University Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation (20th) and citations per paper (28th).WEB,weblink Top Universities in India, Top Universities, 28 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150704075931weblink">weblink 4 July 2015, dmy-all, 2013-12-16, It was ranked 10th among the top Universities of India by QS in 2013. With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking.File:IITBMainBuildingCROP.jpg|thumb|Indian Institute of Technology BombayIndian Institute of Technology BombayThe Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Bombay),NEWS,weblink 22 December 2006, IIT flights return home, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis, 9 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109005035weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, dmy-all, Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT / UICT),NEWS,weblink Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today, 11 June 2008, 9 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111219174721weblink">weblink 19 December 2011, yes, Indian Express Group, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),WEB,weblink About the Institute, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, 9 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090518121006weblink">weblink 18 May 2009, which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, along with SNDT Women's University are the autonomous universities located in Mumbai.WEB,weblink About University, SNDT Women's University, 9 June 2009, Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the federal University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology.WEB,weblink ..:: Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai ::., 28 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150901014638weblink">weblink 1 September 2015, dmy-all, Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and several other management schools.NEWS, Bansal, Rashmi,weblink 8 November 2004, Is the 'IIM' brand invincible?, Rediff News, 9 June 2009, no,weblink" title="archive.today/20120718194025weblink">weblink 18 July 2012, dmy-all, Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.WEB,weblink Sydenham College: Our Profile, Sydenham College, 26 April 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090625015836weblink">weblink 25 June 2009, WEB,weblink About The Government Law College, Government Law College, Mumbai, Government Law College, 26 April 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090622081119weblink">weblink 22 June 2009, The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.NEWS,weblink JJ School seeks help from new friends, 6 October 2002, Nina, Martyris, The Times of India, 13 May 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150522012912weblink">weblink 22 May 2015, dmy-all, Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).NEWS,weblink 24 November 2006, University ties up with renowned institutes, DNA (newspaper), Daily News and Analysis (DNA), 9 June 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140106112417weblink">weblink 6 January 2014, dmy-all, The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.WEB,weblink CIRUS reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), 12 May 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070709060317weblink">weblink 9 July 2007,

Sports

{{multiple image| align = right| direction = vertical| image1 = Brabourne.jpg| width1 = 220| alt1 = A grassy ground with skyscrapers behind itBrabourne Stadium, one of the oldest List of Test cricket grounds>cricket stadiums in the country| image2 = Bombay18.jpg| width2 = 220| alt2 = | caption2 = Built in 1883, Mahalaxmi Racecourse was created out of a marshy land known as Mahalakshmi Flats.}}Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI)WEB, About BCCI, Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI),weblink 16 May 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101004002106weblink">weblink 4 October 2010, and Indian Premier League (IPL).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20121208175436weblink">weblink yes, 8 December 2012, I-T Raids at IPL Headquarter at BCCI in Mumbai, reports NDTV | InvestmentKit.com Articles, Investmentkit.com, 15 April 2010, 5 May 2010, The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team.NEWS, Makarand, Waingankar, Attacking pattern of play has delivered, 18 January 2009, The Hindu,weblink 8 June 2009, Chennai, India, The Indian Premier League team Mumbai Indians is also based in the city. Mumbai has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at the Bombay Gymkhana.NEWS, Seth, Ramesh, Brabourne â€“ the stadium with a difference, 1 December 2006, The Hindu,weblink 8 June 20092011 Cricket World Cup Final>final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy Final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006 ICC Champions Trophy>2006.NEWS
,weblink
, Aussies claim elusive trophy
, The Sydney Morning Herald
, 18 June 2009
, 6 November 2006
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110315085415weblink">weblink
, 15 March 2011
, dmy-all
, Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely.NEWS
, Bubna
, Shriya
, Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite
, 7 July 2006
, Rediff News
,weblink
, 9 June 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110806032327weblink">weblink
, 6 August 2011
, dmy-all
, In the Indian Super League, Mumbai City FC represents the city;while in the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FCNEWS
, Mumbai Football Club launched
, 28 June 2007
, Rediff News
,weblink
, 9 June 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100702234130weblink">weblink
, 2 July 2010
, dmy-all
, and Air-India.NEWS, I-League: Mahindra United to face Mumbai FC, 10 October 2008, The Hindu,weblink 9 June 2009, Chennai, India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714003007weblink">weblink 14 July 2011, When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season.Mumbai's first professional American football franchise,NEWS,weblink 'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India – TIME NewsFeed, Newsfeed.time.com, 4 August 2011, 15 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111125025255weblink">weblink 25 November 2011, dmy-all, the Mumbai Gladiators, played its first season, in Pune, in late 2012.NEWS, Gridiron league launched in India,weblink 17 July 2012, The Times of India, 5 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140803195529weblink">weblink 3 August 2014, dmy-all, In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively. Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.NEWS, Mumbai Marines down Chennai Cheetahs,weblink 31 March 2012, Press Trust of India, Mumbai, 31 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150603014947weblink">weblink 3 June 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, HIL: Police assure tight security for matches in Mumbai,weblink 15 January 2013, Press Trust of India, Mumbai, 31 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150602205544weblink">weblink 2 June 2015, dmy-all, The Indian Badminton League (IBL), now known as the Premier Badminton League is also visiting Mumbai since its inaugural edition in 2013 when the final was held in Mumbai's National Sports Club of India.Indian Badminton League Schedule {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140505015857weblink |date=5 May 2014 }} In the second season, the final of the 2016 Premier Badminton League was held between home-squad Mumbai Rockets and the Delhi Dashers (formerly Delhi Acers), the visitors eventually claiming the title. The opening ceremony was also held in Mumbai while the finals in Delhi.WEB, Badminton Association of India announces the 2nd Edition of the Indian Badminton League,weblink sportskeeda.com, 29 October 2015, 2015-10-29, In the 2017 Premier Badminton League (also known as Vodafone PBL 2017 for sponsorship reasons) the Mumbai RocketsWEB,weblink Premier Badminton League- Overview-, beat the Hyderabad Hunters 3–1 to proceed to the final. In the final they lost 3–4 to the Chennai Smashers.U Mumba is the team representing Mumbai in the country's professional Kabaddi league, Pro Kabaddi. The Mumbai Leg of Pro Kabaddi is held at the NSCI, Worli.Rugby is another growing sport in Mumbai with league matches being held at the Bombay Gymkhana from June to November.NEWS, Mumbai to host Asian men's rugby,weblink 10 October 2012, Daily News and Analysis, 29 September 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151005082118weblink">weblink 5 October 2015, dmy-all, Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai.NEWS
, Pal
, Abir
, Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby
, 17 January 2007
, The Times of India
,weblink
, 8 June 2009
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121024032334weblink">weblink
, 24 October 2012
, dmy-all
, In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship,NEWS, Mumbai to host F-1 powerboat race,weblink 22 June 2015, NDTV, 17 December 2003, Mumbai, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623002055weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, dmy-all, and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008.NEWS,weblink Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai, 25 January 2008, 27 January 2008, Reuters UK, Alan, Baldwin, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624051820weblink">weblink 24 June 2011, dmy-all, The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over an area of some {{convert|400|to|500|acres|abbr=on|order=flip|sigfig=2}}.NEWS, Formula track soon,weblink Ashley D'Mello, 24 January 2011, The Times of India, 24 January 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150607013753weblink">weblink 7 June 2015, dmy-all, In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as a part of "The Greatest Race on Earth". Mumbai had also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.NEWS, CBS Sports, Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit,weblink 20 May 2008, 28 May 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131002120515weblink">weblink 2 October 2013, Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai{| class="wikitable"!Team/Club!Tournament/League!Sport!Venue!Established|Mumbai cricket team|Ranji TrophyVijay Hazare TrophySyed Musthaq Ali Trophy|Cricket|Wankhede StadiumBrabourne Stadium|1930|Maharashtra football team|Santosh TrophyAssociation football>Football| –|1941Mumbai F.C.>Mumbai FC|I-LeagueAssociation football>Football|Cooperage Ground|2007| Mumbai Indians|Indian Premier League|Cricket|Wankhede StadiumBrabourne Stadium|2008| Mumbai Marines|World Series Hockey|Field hockey|Mahindra Hockey Stadium|2011|Mumbai Gladiators|Elite Football League of India|American football| –|2012| Mumbai Magicians|Hockey India League|Field hockey|Mahindra Hockey Stadium|2012|Mumbai Rockets|Premier Badminton League|Badminton|National Sports Club of India|2013|Mumbai City FC|Indian Super LeagueAssociation football>Football|Mumbai Football Arena|2014| U Mumba|Pro Kabaddi League|Kabaddi|Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Indoor Stadium|2014|Mumbai Tennis Masters|Champions Tennis League|Tennis|Kalina Stadium|2014|Mumbai Challengers|UBA Pro Basketball League|Basketball| –|2015Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai{| class="wikitable"!Team/Club!Tournament/League!Sport!Venue!Established!Ceased|Mumbai Champs|Indian Cricket League|Cricket|N/A|2007|2009|Mumbai Masters|Premier Badminton League|Badminton|National Sports Club of India|2013|2016{{clear}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Mumbai}}

Notes

{{Reflist}}

References

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  • BOOK, Bates, Crispin, 2003, Community, Empire and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora, 978-81-250-2482-8, Orient Blackswan, harv,
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  • BOOK, Lok Sabha debates, 1998, Lok Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi, lsd,
  • BOOK, Machado, José Pedro, Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa, Portuguese, Bombaim, Editorial Confluência, I, 1984, harv,
  • BOOK, Mehta, Suketu, Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found, 2004, Alfred A Knopf, 978-0-375-40372-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world: spatial decentralization policy in Bombay and Cairo, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, 1993, 978-92-1-131233-1, UNB,
  • BOOK, The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat: A History of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442, Misra, Satish Chandra, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1982, misra,
  • BOOK, Morris, Jan, Winchester, Simon, Stones of empire: the buildings of the Raj, Oxford University Press, 2005, 1983, reissue, illustrated, 978-0-19-280596-6, harv,
  • WEB,weblink Mumbai Plan, Department of Relief and Rehabilitation (Government of Maharashtra), plan, 29 April 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090310212824weblink">weblink 10 March 2009,
  • BOOK, Naravane, M. S., 2007, Battles of the honourable East India Company: making of the Raj, 978-81-313-0034-3, APH Publishing, harv,
  • BOOK, O'Brien, Derek, The Mumbai Factfile, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-302947-2, 2003, harv,
  • WEB,weblink PDF, 1.18 Megabyte, MB, Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, Mumbai Police, 15 June 2009, mp, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090711160718weblink">weblink 11 July 2009,
  • BOOK, Patel, Sujata, Masselos, Jim, Bombay and Mumbai. The City in Transition, Bombay and Mumbai: Identities, Politics and Populism, 2003, The Oxford University Press, Delhi, 978-0-19-567711-9, harv,
  • BOOK, 2005,weblink Pai, Pushpa, Cohen, James, McAlister, Kara T., Rolstad, Kellie, MacSwan, Jeff, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Multiculturalism and Education: Case Study of Mumbai City, Cascadilla Press, 1794–1806, harv,
  • BOOK, The mangroves in Salsette Island near Bombay, Patil, R.P., Proceedings of the Symposium on Mangrove Forest, 1957, Calcutta, harv,
  • BOOK, Aditi Phadnis, Business Standard Political Profiles: Of Cabals and Kings, Business Standard, harv,
  • WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090711113422weblink">weblink 11 July 2009, PDF, Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), 4 June 2010, pemmr, yes, dmy,
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  • BOOK, Rana, Mahendra Singh, 2006, India votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha elections 2001–2005, 978-81-7625-647-6, Sarup & Sons, harv,
  • BOOK, Rohli, Robert V., Vega, Anthony J., Climatology, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2007, illustrated, 978-0-7637-3828-0, harv,
  • BOOK, History of Medieval India, Saini, A.K., Chand, Hukam, Anmol Publications, 978-81-261-2313-1, maratha,
  • BOOK, Maharashtra, Singh, K.S., B.V. Bhanu, B.R. Bhatnagar, Anthropological Survey of India, D. K. Bose, V.S. Kulkarni, J. Sreenath, Popular Prakashan, XXX, 978-81-7991-102-0, 2004, prabhu,
  • BOOK, Researches in Indo-Portuguese history, 2, Publication Scheme, 1998, Shirodkar, Prakashchandra P., 978-81-86782-15-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Mumbai vision 2015: agenda for urban renewal, Swaminathan, R., Jaya, Goyal, Macmillan India in association with Observer Research Foundation, 2006, harv,
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  • WEB,weblink PDF, The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, State Election Commissioner (Government of Maharashtra), 3 May 2009, mumact, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705222724weblink">weblink 5 July 2007,
  • BOOK, Mathew, Kurian, Patricia, McCarney, Peri-urban water and sanitation services policy, planning and method, 2010, Springer, {{sfnref, Peri-urban water and sanitation services policy, planning and method, 2010, |location=Dordrecht|isbn=978-90-481-9425-4}}
  • BOOK, Vilanilam, John V., illustrated, 2005, Mass communication in India: a sociological perspective, 978-0-7619-3372-4, SAGE, harv,
  • BOOK, Wasko, Janet, How Hollywood works, 2003, SAGE, 978-0-7619-6814-6, harv,
  • BOOK, WMO bulletin, World Meteorological Organization, 2000, 49, wmo,
  • BOOK, An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change, Yimene, Ababu Minda, Cuvillier Verlag, 2004, 978-3-86537-206-2, yakg,
  • BOOK, Yule, Henry, Burnell, A. C., 1996, 1939, A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases: Hobson-Jobson, 978-0-7007-0321-0, Routledge, 2, harv,
  • BOOK, Zakakria, Rafiq, Indian National Congress, 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, Reception Committee, Congress Centenary Session, 1985, cng, Indian National Congress,

External links

{hide}Geographic location
|Centre = Mumbai
|North = GujaratMadhya Pradesh
|East = TelanganaChhattisgarh
|South = KarnatakaGoa
|West = Arabian Sea
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