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Singapore
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{{pp-dispute|small=yes}}{{about|the city-state}}{{Redirect|Singapura|the cat breed|Singapura cat}}{{short description|Republic in Southeast Asia}}{{EngvarB|date=January 2019}}{{Use British English|date=August 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}













factoids
common_name Singapore| name = {hide}collapsible list

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factoids

{edih}| image_flag = Flag of Singapore.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Singapore (blazon).svg! style="background-color:CornflowerBlue" | Historical affiliations| Srivijaya 650–1377| Kingdom of Singapura 1299–1398| Malacca Sultanate 1400–1511| Johor Sultanate 1528–1819
msitalics=on(English: "Onward, Singapore")}}Majulah Singapura{{small>(English: "Onward, Singapore")}}(File:Majulah Singapura.ogg|center)| image_map2 = File:Singapore on the globe (Southeast Asia centered).svgURL=HTTPS://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/PLACE/SINGAPORE-CAPITAL, August 29, 2019, (city-state)1N50type:city}}| largest_settlement = | largest_settlement_type = item_style=white-space:nowrap;Singaporean English>English (main language)HTTP://ERESOURCES.NLB.GOV.SG/INFOPEDIA/ARTICLES/SIP_2016-09-01_093402.HTML>TITLE=BILINGUAL POLICYDATE=31 AUGUST 2016, 5 September 2019, Malay Language>MalayStandard Chinese>ChineseTamil language>Tamil}}| languages_type = Official scriptsLatin script (English and Malay) Simplified Chinese characters>Simplified Chinese Tamil script>Tamil}}| ethnic_groups = {{Collapsible list
| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
| title = List of ethnicities| 74.3% Chinese |13.3% Malay |9.1% Indian |3.3% other}}| ethnic_groups_ref =| ethnic_groups_year = 2015| religion_year = 2015| religion_ref = | religion = {{Collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title = List of religions|33.2% Buddhism |18.8% Christianity |18.5% Irreligious |14.0% Islam |10.0% Taoism andfolk religion |5.0% Hinduism |0.6% other }}| demonym = Singaporean
Unitary state>Unitary Dominant-party system Parliamentary system>parliamentary constitutional republicPresident of Singapore>President| leader_name1 = Halimah YacobPrime Minister of Singapore>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Lee Hsien LoongSpeaker of the Parliament of Singapore>Parliament Speaker| leader_name3 = Tan Chuan-JinChief Justice of Singapore>Chief Justice| leader_name4 = Sundaresh MenonParliament of Singapore>Parliament| upper_house =| lower_house =Colony of Singapore>Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomSelf-governance}}| established_date1 = 3 June 1959Malaysia Agreement}}| established_date2 = 16 September 1963| established_event3 = Proclamation of Singapore| established_date3 = 9 August 1965| established_event4 = ASEAN Declaration| established_date4 = 8 August 1967| area_km2 = 725.1WEBSITE=BASE, 4 September 2019, | area_rank = 176thWEBSITE=SINGSTATACCESSDATE=5 AUGUST 2018, {{refngroup=Note}}| population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 113th| population_density_km2 = 7,804| population_density_sq_mi = 20,212| population_density_rank = 2ndPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF), 28 May 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 36th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $103,717| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 2nd| GDP_nominal = $372.807 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 31st| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $65,627| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 7th| Gini = 45.9 | Gini_year = 2017| Gini_change = steady PUBLISHER=CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, 25 January 2019, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.932 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEACCESSDATE=15 SEPTEMBER 2018, | HDI_rank = 9th| currency = Singapore dollar (S$)| currency_code = SGD| time_zone = Singapore Standard Time| utc_offset = +8| antipodes =ddmmyyyy|year}}Right- and left-hand traffic>left| calling_code = +65| iso3166code = SG| cctld = .sg}}Singapore ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Singapore.ogg|ˈ|s|ɪ|Å‹|(|g|)|É™|p|ɔːr}}), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a city-state in Southeast Asia. The country is situated one degree ({{Convert|137|km|disp=or}}) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, the sovereign state extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% ({{Convert|130|km2|disp=or}}).Although its history stretches back millennia, modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the Company's collapse in 1858, the islands came under direct British control as a crown colony known as the Straits Settlements. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, following which Britain occupied it again. Singapore finally gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with Sabah and Sarawak, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a fully sovereign state in 1965. After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce.Modern Singapore is a global hub for education,NEWS, Coughlan, Sean, Singapore first place in school rankings,weblink BBC News, 6 December 2016, finance, healthcare,NEWS, S., Ambili, Singapore healthiest Asian country; Italy tops global list despite economic crisis,weblink International Business Times, Singapore Edition, 20 March 2017, innovation,NEWS, Singapore is fifth in 2018's Global Innovation Index,weblink The Straits Times, 11 July 2018, Singapore, Yunita, Ong, manufacturing,NEWS, Singapore among 25 countries leading the world in advanced manufacturing: World Economic Forum,weblink The Straits Times, 12 January 2018, Singapore, technology,NEWS, Sponsored: Singapore may be small, but it is quickly becoming a massive global tech hub,weblink Quartz, 8 March 2017, tourism,PRESS RELEASE, Singapore tourism sector performance breaks record for the second year running in 2017,weblink Singapore Tourism Board, 12 February 2018, 10 August 2018,weblink 16 February 2018, dead, trade, and transport.NEWS, Singapore is world's best business hub after London: PwC,weblink The Straits Times, 7 September 2016, Singapore, The city-state does well in international rankings, including: the most "technology-ready" nation (WEF), most competitive economy (IMD),NEWS, Bloomberg - Are you a robot?,weblink www.bloomberg.com, NEWS, Singapore overtakes US, Hong Kong to be world's most competitive economy,weblink CNA, en, top International-meetings city (UIA),PRESS RELEASE, Singapore retains spot as World's Top International Meeting Country and City,weblink 27 June 2014, Singapore Tourism Board, 8 August 2018,weblink 8 August 2018, dead, NEWS, Singapore is the top international meeting destination in the world again,weblink The Straits Times, 27 June 2014, Singapore, city with "best investment potential" (BERI), Smart City,NEWS, Singapore best performing 'smart city' globally: Study,weblink Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 13 March 2018, Safest country,NEWS, Singapore ranked safest country in the world, above Japan: Survey,weblink AsiaOne, Singapore, 24 May 2018, NEWS, Singaporeans feel safest in the world as country tops law and order index,weblink The Straits Times, Singapore, 24 May 2018, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, and the second-busiest container port.NEWS, Singapore is fifth in 2018's Global Innovation Index,weblink The Straits Times, 11 July 2018, Singapore, The city-state is classified as an Alpha+ global city, indicating its influence on the global economy. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, and one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" respectively for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".NEWS, SIA bags world's best airline title,weblink The Straits Times, 18 July 2018, Singapore, NEWS, Singapore takes top spot again as world's maritime capital: report,weblink Business Times, 26 April 2017, Singapore, Singapore is a highly developed country and is ranked 9th on the UN Human Development Index, the highest in Asia for a sovereign state, with the 2nd highest GDP per capita in the world. It was ranked the most expensive city to live in from 2013 to 2019 by the Economist.NEWS, Asian and European cities compete for the title of most expensive city,weblink The Economist, 15 March 2018, London, 21 April 2018, It is identified as a tax haven.WEB,weblink Singapore fifth worst tax haven in the world: Oxfam, 28 August 2019, LEE, YEN NEE, Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 90%. Singaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world.NEWS, Singaporeans have world's longest life expectancy at 84.8 years,weblink Straits Times, 20 June 2019, As of 2019, Singaporean citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 189 countries and territories, ranking the Singaporean passport 1st in the world, tied with Japan.WEB,weblink Global Ranking â€“ Visa Restriction Index 2019, The city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages of Singapore: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil; most Singaporeans are bilingual, with English serving as the nation's lingua franca, while Malay is the national language. Nonetheless,only about 10% of the population speaks Malay, with the most commonly spoken language at home being English.General Household Survey 2015{{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170120210625weblink |date=20 January 2017 }} p. 18 Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive ethnic cuisine and major festivals. Pew Research has found that Singapore has the highest religious diversity of any country. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape national policies in education, housing and politics. The city-state's historical district features dozens of landmarks such as The Esplanade, Fort Canning Hill, the National Gallery Singapore, Raffles Hotel and the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple. There are also numerous famous attractions within the city-state, notably Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay Sands, Sentosa Island, Orchard Road, Jewel Changi Airport and the Singapore Zoo, which was ranked the best zoo in Asia.WEB,weblink Singapore's zoo ranked No. 4 in the world, best in Asia on TripAdvisor, 31 August 2017, The Singapore Botanic Gardens is the only tropical garden in the world to be honoured as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB,weblink Singapore Botanic Garden | Homepage, www.nparks.gov.sg, Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. According to the Democracy Index in 2018, the country is described as a "flawed democracy".WEB,weblink Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?, The Economist Intelligence Unit, 8 January 2019, The Economist Intelligence Unit, registration, live, 13 January 2019, As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat,WEB, PECC – PECC :: The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council – International Secretariat,weblink pecc.org, as well as many international conferences and events. It is also a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations.NEWS, Singapore remains top Asian city for meetings,weblink The Straits Times, 9 September 2015, Singapore,

Etymology

The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, , which was in turn derived from SanskritWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010411060419weblink">weblink dead, 11 April 2001, Singapore, bartleby.com, 14 April 2006, ((wikt:सिंहपुर|सिंहपुर), IAST: Siṃhapura; siṃha meaning "lion", and pura meaning "town" or "city"), hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, and its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols (e.g., its coat of arms, and the Merlion emblem). However, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island—Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are, however, other suggestions for the origin of the name, and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is firmly established.BOOK,weblink A History of Modern Singapore, 1819–2005, C.M. Turnbull, 21–22, NUS Press, 2009, 978-9971-69-430-2, BOOK,weblink Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300_1800, John N. Miksic, NUS Press, 2013, 978-9971-69-574-3, 151–152, The central island has also been called Pulau Ujong, literally "island at the end" (of the Malay Peninsula) in Malay, as far back as the third century CE.WEB, Sang Nila Utama, Singapore Infopedia, National Library Board,weblink 2016, 29 May 2017, Xu Yunqiao, History of South East Asia, 1961 Singapore World Publishing Co. 许云樵 《南洋史》 星洲世界书局 1961年Singapore is also referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence,BOOK, inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 1991, Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, 978-0-85229-529-8, 832, 15th, "Singapore, known variously as the 'Lion City,' or 'Garden City,' the latter for its many parks and tree-lined streets, 1991neb..book.....G, NEWS, 50 reasons Singapore is the best city in the world, Charlotte, Glennie, Mavis, Ang, Gillian, Rhys, Vidhu, Aul, Nicholas, Walton,weblink CNN, 6 August 2015, "The Lion City. The Garden City. The Asian Tiger. The 'Fine' City. ¶ All venerable nicknames, but the longtime favorite is the 'Little Red Dot'", and the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot.NEWS, How Singapore gained its independence,weblink The Economist, 6 August 2015, "citizens of 'the little red dot'..", London, NEWS, A little red dot in a sea of green,weblink The Economist, 16 July 2015, "..with a characteristic mixture of pride and paranoia, Singapore adopted 'little red dot' as a motto", London, NEWS, Editorial: The mighty red dot,weblink The Jakarta Post, 8 September 2017, Singapore has also been referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" since 2017, due to its general neutrality on international and regional issues.WEB,weblink Singapore – The Switzerland of Asia, 18 May 2017, 21 September 2018,

History

{| class="wikitable" style= width:21em; font-size:90%; float:left; margin-right:1em"
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg}} {{flagicon imageFounding of modern Singapore>Singapore under British control 1819–1826
Flag of the British Straits Settlements (1904–1925).svg}} {{flagicon imageSingapore in the Straits Settlements>Straits Settlements 1826–1942
Flag of Japan (1870–1999).svg}} {{flagicon image|War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg}} Japanese occupation of Singapore 1942–1945
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg}} British Military Administration 1945–1946
Flag of Singapore (1946-1959).svg}} Colony of Singapore 1946–1963
Flag of Malaysia.svg}} Singapore in Malaysia 1963–1965 also known as Malaya
Flag of Singapore.svg}} Republic of Singapore 1965–present

Ancient Singapore

The Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy (90{{ndash}}168) identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century,WEB, Hack, Karl,weblink Records of Ancient Links between India and Singapore, National Institute of Education, Singapore, 4 August 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060426231828weblink">weblink 26 April 2006, and the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pú Luō Chūng ((wikt:蒲|蒲) (wikt:罗|羅) (wikt:中|中)). This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end" (of the Malay Peninsula).WEB, Singapore: History, Singapore 1994,weblink Asian Studies @ University of Texas at Austin, 7 July 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070323095958weblink">weblink 23 March 2007, dead, The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik (possibly meaning "Sea Town").BOOK,weblink Singapore Street Names: A Study of Toponymics, Victor R. Savage, Brenda Yeoh, Marshall Cavendish, 15 June 2013, 978-981-4484-74-9, 381, In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama.BOOK,weblink Malay Annals, 43, Dr John Leyden and Sir Thomas Stamford Rffles, 1821, Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the Malay Annals is the subject of academic debates,BOOK,weblink Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300_1800, John N. Miksic, 154, NUS Press, 2013, 978-9971-69-574-3, it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as Temasek, was a trading port under the influence of both the Majapahit Empire and the Siamese kingdomsBOOK,weblink Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800, John N. Miksic, NUS Press, 2013, 978-9971-69-574-3, 183–185, and was a part of the IndosphereRobert M.W. Dixon, Y. Alexandra (2004). Adjective Classes: A Cross-linguistic Typology , p. 74, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0-19-920346-6}}{{Citation|last=Matisoff|first=James|authorlink=James Matisoff| title = On Megalocomparison| journal = Language| volume = 66| issue = 1| pages = 106–120|year=1990|doi=10.2307/415281| jstor=415281}}{{Citation|last=Enfield|first=N.J.| title = Areal Linguistics and Mainland Southeast Asia| journal = Annual Review of Anthropology | volume = 34| pages = 181–206| year = 2005 |doi=10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120406|url=http://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/item/escidoc:57458/component/escidoc:57459/Enfield_2005_areal.pdf|hdl=11858/00-001M-0000-0013-167B-C}}RJ LaPolla, The Sino-Tibetan Languages, La Trobe University of Greater India.BOOK, Kenneth R. Hal, Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia,weblink 1985, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-0843-3, 63, JOURNAL,weblink As in Heaven, So on Earth: The Politics of Visnu Siva and Harihara Images in Preangkorian Khmer Civilisation, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 34, 1, 21–39, academia edu, 23 December 2015, Lavy, Paul A., 10.1017/S002246340300002X, WEB,weblink Results of the 1995–1996 Archaeological Field Investigations at Angkor Borei, Cambodia, University of Hawai'i-Manoa, 5 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923172419weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, These Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterised by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability.Pierre-Yves Manguin, "From Funan to Sriwijaya: Cultural continuities and discontinuities in the Early Historical maritime states of Southeast Asia", in 25 tahun kerjasama Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi dan Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Jakarta, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi / EFEO, 2002, p. 59-82. Historical sources also indicate that around the end of the 14th century, its ruler Parameswara was attacked by either the Majapahit or the Siamese, forcing him to move on to Melaka where he founded the Sultanate of Malacca.BOOK,weblink Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, 1300–1800, John N. Miksic, NUS Press, 2013, 978-9971-69-574-3, 155–163, Archaeological evidence suggests that the main settlement on Fort Canning was abandoned around this time, although a small trading settlement continued in Singapore for some time afterwards. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, and the island faded into obscurity for the next two centuries.BOOK, Borschberg, P., The Singapore and Melaka Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the 17th century, NUS Press, 2010, Singapore, 157–158, 978-9971-69-464-7, By then Singapore was nominally part of the Johor Sultanate.WEB,weblink Country Studies: Singapore: History, U.S. Library of Congress, 1 May 2007, The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period after the Dutch's conquest of Malacca.BOOK, Leitch Lepoer, Barbara, Singapore: A Country Study,weblink 18 February 2010, Country Studies, 1989, GPO for tus/singapore/4.htm,

British colonisation

File:Part of Singapore Island (British Library India Office Records, 1825, detail).jpg|thumb|left| 1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort CanningFort CanningThe British governor Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapore on 28 January 1819 and soon recognised the island as a natural choice for the new port.BOOK, Mun Cheong Yong, V. V. Bhanoji Rao, Singapore-India Relations: A Primer,weblink 1995, NUS Press, 978-9971-69-195-0, 3, The island was then nominally ruled by Tengku Abdul Rahman, the Sultan of Johor, who was controlled by the Dutch and the Bugis.BOOK, Carl A. Trocki, Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control,weblink 2009, Routledge, 978-1-134-50243-1, 73, However, the Sultanate was weakened by factional division: the Temenggong (Chief Minister) of Tengku Abdul Rahman, as well as his officials, were loyal to the Sultan's elder brother Tengku Long, who was living in exile in Riau. With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Tengku Long back into Singapore. Raffles offered to recognise Tengku Long as the rightful Sultan of Johor, under the title of Sultan Hussein, as well as provide him with a yearly payment of $5000 and another $3000 to the Temenggong; in return, Sultan Hussein would grant the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore.WEB, Singapore – Founding and Early Years,weblink U.S. Library of Congress, 18 July 2006, A formal treaty was signed on 6 February 1819 and modern Singapore was born.WEB, 1819 – The February Documents, Ministry of Defence (Singapore), Ministry of Defence, 7 February 1997, 18 July 2006, Jenny Ng,weblink WEB, Milestones in Singapore's Legal History, Supreme Court, Singapore, 18 July 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927183512weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, In 1824, the entire island as well as the Temenggong became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan.WEB, Founding of Modern Singapore,weblink Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, 13 April 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090508135636weblink">weblink 8 May 2009, In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, becoming the regional capital in 1836.WEB,weblink East & South-East Asia Titles: Straits Settlements Annual Reports (Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan) 1855–1941, Cambridge University Press, 31 July 2012, Prior to Raffles' arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese.WEB, The Malays,weblink National Heritage Board 2011, 28 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110223000344weblink">weblink 23 February 2011, By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, more than half being Chinese. Many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations.BOOK,weblink Wright, Arnold, Cartwright, H.A., Mrs Reginald Sanderson, 1907, Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources, 220–221, Later, in the 1890s, when the rubber industry also became established in Malaya and Singapore,WEB,weblink First Rubber Trees are Planted in Singapore – 1877, History SG, National Library Board Singapore, the island became a global centre for rubber sorting and export.File:Stamford Raffles statue.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=White statue of Sir Stamford Raffles standing|Sir Stamford RafflesStamford RafflesSingapore was not greatly affected by First World War (1914–18), as the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant event during the war was the 1915 Singapore Mutiny by Muslim sepoys from British India, who were garrisoned in Singapore.BOOK, The Indian Army in the Two World Wars,weblink 14 October 2011, [[Brill Publishers]], 978-90-04-21145-2, 17–18, After hearing rumours that they were to be sent to fight the Ottoman Empire, a Muslim state, the soldiers rebelled, killing their officers and several British civilians before the mutiny was suppressed by non-Muslim troops arriving from Johore and Burma.WEB,weblink 1915 Singapore Mutiny, National Library Board, National Library Board Singapore, After the First World War, the British built the large Singapore Naval Base as part of the defensive Singapore strategy.BOOK, Mark Stille, Malaya and Singapore 1941–42: The fall of Britain's empire in the East,weblink 2016, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-4728-1124-0, 5–6, Originally announced in 1921, the construction of the base proceeded slowly until the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Although not fully completed in 1938, and at the large cost of $60 million, it was nonetheless the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and has enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months.BOOK, Kevin Tan, Marshall of Singapore: A Biography,weblink 2008, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 978-981-230-878-8, 90–, BOOK, David Hobbs, The British Pacific Fleet: The Royal Navy's Most Powerful Strike Force,weblink 2017, Naval Institute Press, 978-1-61251-917-3, 5, . The base was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns stationed at Fort Siloso, Fort Canning and Labrador, as well as a Royal Air Force airfield at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East", and military discussions often referred to the base as simply "East of Suez". However, the British Home Fleet was stationed in Europe, and the British could not afford to build a second fleet to protect its interests in Asia. The plan was for the Home Fleet to sail quickly to Singapore in the event of an emergency. As a consequence, after World War II broke out in 1939, the fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain, leaving Singapore vulnerable to Japanese invasion.BOOK, Margaret Lamb, Nicholas Tarling, From Versailles to Pearl Harbor: The Origins of the Second World War in Europe and Asia,weblink 2001, Macmillan International Higher Education, 978-1-4039-3772-8, 39, BOOK,weblink Marshall of Singapore: A Biography, Kevin Tan, 978-981-230-878-8, 2008,

World War II

File:Surrender Singapore.jpg|thumb|British commander Arthur PercivalArthur PercivalDuring the Second World War, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded British Malaya, culminating in the Battle of Singapore. When the British force of 60,000 troops surrendered on 15 February 1942, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the defeat "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history.NEWS,weblink On This Day â€“ 15 February 1942: Singapore forced to surrender, 1 May 2007, BBC News, 15 February 1942, British losses during the fighting for Singapore were heavy, with a total of nearly 85,000 personnel captured, in addition to losses during the earlier fighting in Malaya.{{sfn|Wigmore|1957|p=382}} About 5,000 were killed or wounded,WEB,weblink Battle of Singapore, World History Group, 8 May 2015, of which Australians made up the majority.{{sfn|Legg|1965|p=248}} Japanese casualties during the fighting in Singapore amounted to 1,714 killed and 3,378 wounded.{{sfn|Wigmore|1957|p=382}}{{refn|The break down of British Empire losses included 38,496 United Kingdom, 18,490 Australian, 67,340 Indian and 14,382 local volunteer troops. Total Australian casualties included 1,789 killed and 1,306 wounded.{{sfn|Wigmore|1957|p=382}}|group=Note}} The occupation was to become a major turning point in the histories of several nations, including those of Japan, Britain, and the then-colonial state of Singapore. Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war.{{sfn|Toland|1970|p=277}} Singapore was renamed {{nihongo|Syonan-to|昭南島|Shōnan-tō}}, meaning "Light of the South".BOOK, Abshire, Jean, The History of Singapore, 2011, ABC-CLIO, 104,weblink 978-0-313-37743-3, BOOK, Blackburn, Kevin, Karl, Hack, Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress, 2004, Routledge, 978-0-203-40440-9, 132,weblink Between 5,000 and 25,000 ethnic Chinese people were killed in the subsequent Sook Ching massacre.WEB,weblink Singapore, Shonan: Light of the South, Leitch Lepoer, Barbara, 1989, Library of Congress Country Studies, United States Government Printing Office, Government Printing Office, 29 January 2011, Washington, DC, British forces had planned to liberate Singapore in 1945; however, the war ended before these operations could be carried out. It was subsequently re-occupied by British, Indian and Australian forces following the Japanese surrender in September.{{sfn|Bose|2010|pp=18–20}} Meanwhile, Tomoyuki Yamashita was tried by a US military commission for war crimes, but not for crimes committed by his troops in Malaya or Singapore. He was convicted and hanged in the Philippines on 23 February 1946.{{sfn|Smith|2006|p=556–557}}

Post-war period

File:Evacuation of British POWs, Kallang Airport, Singapore - 19450908.jpg|thumb|upright|left|British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang AirportKallang AirportAfter the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of violence and disorder; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. British troops led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia Command, returned to Singapore to receive formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Itagaki Seishiro on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi on 12 September 1945, and a British Military Administration was formed to govern the island until March 1946. Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including harbour facilities at the Port of Singapore. There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.WEB, Singapore – Aftermath of War,weblink U.S. Library of Congress, 18 June 2006, The failure of Britain to successfully defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as an infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise of anti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, epitomised by the slogan Merdeka, or "independence" in the Malay language. The British were prepared to gradually increase self-governance for Singapore and Malaya, and on 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor. In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year.WEB, Towards Self-government,weblink Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore, 18 June 2006, (File:SingaporeRiver-bumboats-196009.jpg|thumb|right|Singapore thrives as an entrepot. Bumboats used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River, c.1960)During the 1950s, Chinese communists with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools waged a guerrilla war against the government, leading to the Malayan Emergency. The 1954 National Service riots, Hock Lee bus riots, and Chinese middle schools riots in Singapore were all linked to these events.WEB,weblink Communism, Thinkquest, 29 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120207082203weblink">weblink 7 February 2012, David Marshall, pro-independence leader of the Labour Front, won Singapore's first general election in 1955. He led a delegation to London, but Britain rejected his demand for complete self-rule. He resigned and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock in 1956, whose policies convinced Britain to grant Singapore full internal self-government for all matters except defence and foreign affairs.WEB,weblink Country studies: Singapore: Road to Independence, U.S. Library of Congress, 2 July 2011, During the May 1959 elections, the People's Action Party (PAP) won a landslide victory. Singapore became an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth, with Lee Kuan Yew as its first Prime Minister.NEWS, Headliners; Retiring, Semi, 2 December 1990, The New York Times,weblink 27 December 2008, As a result, the 1959 general elections were the first after full internal self-government was granted by the British authorities. Singapore was not yet fully independent, as the British still controlled external affairs such as the military and foreign relations. However, Singapore was now a recognised state. Governor Sir William Allmond Codrington Goode served as the first Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State), and was succeeded by Yusof bin Ishak.

Merger with Malaysia

File:Lee Kuan Yew.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Lee Kuan YewLee Kuan YewDespite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya due to strong ties between the two nations. It was thought that the merger would benefit the economy by creating a common market which will support new industries, solving the ongoing unemployment woes in Singapore. However, a sizeable pro-communist wing of the PAP was strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence, and hence formed the Barisan Sosialis, splitting from the PAP.BOOK, Lee, T. H, 1996, The Open United Front: The Communist Struggle in Singapore, 1954–1966, Singapore: South Seas Society, BOOK, Bloodworth, D, 1986, The Tiger and the Trojan Horse, Singapore: Times Books International, This was because the ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. UMNO, who was initially sceptical of the idea of a merger as they distrust the PAP government and were concerned that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended, changed their minds about the merger after being afraid of being taken over by pro-communists. On 27 May 1961, Malaya's Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, made a surprise proposal of a Federation of Malaysia, comprising existing Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei and the British Borneo territories of North Borneo and Sarawak.NEWS, MCA: Wipe out extremists, 18 February 1959, Singapore Standard, The UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Borneo territories would offset Singapore's Chinese population. The British government, for its part, believed that the merger would prevent Singapore from becoming a haven for communism.NEWS, Appeal To Singapore,weblink The Straits Times, Singapore, 10, 28 March 1962, To secure the mandate of the people, the PAP called for the 1962 Merger Referendum, which provided different terms for merger with Malaysia, but no options for avoiding it. As a result, on 16 September 1963, Singapore joined with the Federation of Malaya, the Crown Colony of Sarawak and the Crown Colony of North Borneo to form the new federation of Malaysia under the terms of the Malaysia Agreement, with Singapore being granted a high level of autonomy compared to other states in Malaysia.WEB,weblink Singapore becomes part of Malaysia, HistorySG, 6 February 2017, File:A_Night_Perspective_on_the_Singapore_Merlion_(8347645113).jpg|thumb|right|A symbol of Singapore, the MerlionMerlionIndonesia, however, opposed the formation of Malaysia over its own claims of Borneo and launched konfrontasi (Confrontation in Indonesian).BOOK, James, Harold, Sheil-Small, Denis, 1971, The Undeclared War: The Story of the Indonesian Confrontation 1962–1966, Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, 978-0-87471-074-8, harv, BOOK, Mackie, J.A.C., 1974, Konfrontasi: The Indonesia-Malaysia Dispute 1963–1966, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-638247-0, harv, On 10 March 1965, a bomb planted by Indonesian saboteurs on a mezzanine floor of MacDonald House exploded, killing three people and injuring 33 others. It was the deadliest of at least 42 bomb incidents which occurred during the confrontation.NEWS, Record of the Wreckers,weblink The Straits Times, Singapore, 16 May 1965, Two members of the Indonesian Marine Corps, Osman bin Haji Mohamed Ali and Harun bin Said, were eventually convicted and executed for the crime.NEWS, Mac Donald House blast: Two for trial,weblink The Straits Times, Singapore, 6 April 1965, The explosion caused $250,000 in damages to MacDonald House.WEB, Tan Lay Yuan, MacDonald House bomb explosion,weblink Singapore Infopedia, National Library Board, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111215082844weblink">weblink 15 December 2011, NEWS, Mac Donald House suffered $250,000 bomb damage,weblink The Straits Times, Singapore, 9 October 1965, Even after the merger, the Singapore state government and the Malaysian central government disagreed on many political and economic issues. Despite an earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. The situation escalated to such an intensity that talks soon broke down and abusive speeches and writing became rife on both sides. This led to communal strife in Singapore, accumulating to the 1964 race riots in Singapore.BOOK, A moment of anguish: Singapore in Malaysia and the politics of disengagement, Lau, A, Times Academic Press, 2000, Singapore, Because of this, on 7 August 1965, the then Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia.NEWS, Road to Independence,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131013002423weblink">weblink 13 October 2013, AsiaOne, 1998, On 9 August 1965, the Malaysian Parliament voted 126 to 0 (with Singaporean delegates not present) to move a bill to amend the constitution providing for Singapore to separate from the Federation of Malaysia. This gave Singapore independence, unusually against its own will.WEB,weblink Singapore as Part of Malaysia, Leitch Lepoer, Barbara, 1989, Library of Congress Country Studies, Government Printing Office, 29 January 2011, Washington, DC, WEB,weblink A Summary of Malaysia-Singapore History, europe-solidaire, 29 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120529081759weblink">weblink 29 May 2012, WEB,weblink Singapore separates from Malaysia and becomes independent – Singapore History, Negotiations were, however, done in complete secrecy... (Tunku moved) a bill to amend the constitution that would provide for Singapore's departure from the Federation. Razak was also waiting for the fully signed separation agreement from Singapore to allay possible suggestions that Singapore was expelled from Malaysia., National Library Board, 12 May 2017,

Republic of Singapore

{{see also|Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965}}File:Singapore flags and banners in Istana Park - 20080817.jpg|thumb|right|The national flag along with banners, flown at Istana ParkIstana ParkSingapore gained independence as the Republic of Singapore (remaining within the Commonwealth of Nations) on 9 August 1965 with Lee Kuan Yew and Yusof bin Ishak as the first prime minister and president respectively. In 1967, the country co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).WIKISOURCE, Bangkok Declaration, Race riots broke out once more in 1969.BOOK, Sandhu, Kernial Singh, Wheatley, Paul, Management of Success: The Moulding of Modern Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 978-981-3035-42-3, 107,weblink en, 1989, Lee Kuan Yew's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singapore's policies for the next half-century and the country progressed to a First World country.Terry McCarthy, "Lee Kuan Yew." Time 154: 7–8 (1999). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402104451weblink">online Further economic success continued through the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technological industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was formed.WEB, History of Changi Airport, Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060629014047weblink">weblink 29 June 2006, dmy-all, The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period. Singapore emerged as an important transportation and logistics hub and a major tourist destination.WEB, LUNCH DIALOGUE ON 'SINGAPORE AS A TRANSPORT HUB',weblink Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 17 November 2018, WEB, Lam, Yin Yin, Three factors that have made Singapore a global logistics hub,weblink The World Bank Blogs, The World Bank, 17 November 2018, The PAP rule is termed authoritarian by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.NEWS, Singapore elections, BBC, 5 May 2006,weblink In response, the government of Singapore underwent several significant political changes, by introducing the Non-Constituency members of parliament in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) were introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.{{Singapore legislation|title=Parliamentary Elections Act|cap=218|titlelink=Parliamentary Elections Act (Singapore)}} Nominated members of parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.Ho Khai Leong (2003). Shared Responsibilities, Unshared Power: The Politics of Policy-Making in Singapore. Eastern Univ Pr. {{ISBN|978-981-210-218-8}} The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an Elected President who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public office.WEB, Presidential Elections, Elections Department Singapore, 18 April 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080827213801weblink">weblink 27 August 2008, In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee and became Singapore's second Prime Minister.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Singapore, 2006, Singapore, Tailsman Publishing, 978-981-05-5667-9, 82,weblink During Goh's tenure, the country went through some post-independence crises, such as the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the 2003 SARS outbreak.NEWS, Yeoh, En-Lai, 2003-04-09, Singapore Woman Linked to 100 SARS Cases, Associated Press, WEB,weblink Goh Chok Tong, National Library Board, 6 February 2017, In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third Prime Minister. Lee Hsien Loong's tenure included the 2008 global financial crisis, the resolution of a dispute over Malayan railways land, and the introduction of integrated resorts.NEWS, Country profile: Singapore, BBC News,weblink 22 April 2010, 15 July 2009, Despite the economy's exceptional growth, the People's Action Party (PAP) suffered its worst election results in 2011, winning 60% of votes, amidst hot-button issues of high influx of foreign workers and cost of living.NEWS,weblink GE2015: A look back at the last 5 general elections from 1991 to 2011, hermesauto, 28 August 2015, The Straits Times, 7 October 2018, On 23 March 2015 Lee Kuan Yew died,NEWS,weblink Lee Kuan Yew: Our chief diplomat to the world, 25 March 2015, The Straits Times, Singapore, during the 50th year of independence, declaring a one-week period of public mourning. Subsequently, the PAP maintained its dominance in Parliament in the September general election, receiving 69.9% of the popular vote, behind the 2001 tally of 75.3%NEWS, Heng, Janice, For PAP, the numbers hark back to 2001 polls showing,weblink The Straits Times, 12 September 2015, Singapore,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150912094804weblink">weblink live, 12 September 2015, and the 1968 tally of 86.7%.

Government and politics

File:Istana (Singapore).jpg|thumb|right| The IstanaThe IstanaSingapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system.WEB,weblink World Factbook – Singapore, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 12 June 2011, Executive power rests with the Cabinet of Singapore, led by the Prime Minister and, to a much lesser extent, the President.WEB,weblink The Singapore Legal System, Singapore Academy of Law, 26 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110603225639weblink">weblink 3 June 2011, The President is elected through a popular vote, and has veto powers over a specific set of executive decisions, such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a largely ceremonial post.WEB,weblink The President, Singapore Government, 26 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110611130556weblink">weblink 11 June 2011, 19 December 2010, In 2016, constitutional amendments provide for 'reserved presidential elections' for an ethnic community in Singapore if no one from that community has been President for any of the five most recent terms of office of the President. In 2017, Halimah Yacob was unanimously named the first female president of Singapore in the first reserved election for the Malay community, since all other candidates were declared ineligible for the election.NEWS,weblink Halimah Yacob named Singapore's first female president, Al Jazeera, 13 September 2017, 13 September 2017, The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of the government. Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into the Parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) basis and represent either single-member or group representation constituencies.WEB,weblink Members of Parliament, Government of Singapore, 12 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110417154628weblink">weblink 17 April 2011, The People's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since self-governance was secured in 1959.WEB,weblink Freedom in the World 2010 – Singapore, Freedom House, 12 June 2011, Multiracialism, a key reason for its separation from Malaysia, is enshrined in its constitution since independence, and continues to shape major national policies in education, housing, politics and others.NEWS, Singapore, The policies that shaped a multiracial nation,weblink TODAYonline, 4 August 2016, Singapore, Freedom House ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report, and The Economist ranks Singapore as a "flawed democracy", the second best rank of four, in its "Democracy Index".WEB,weblink Democracy index 2010, The Economist, 2010, 19 February 2011, WEB,weblink Singapore, Freedom House, 2013, 28 May 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140503011701weblink">weblink 3 May 2014, The latest elections were in September 2015, with the People's Action Party (PAP) winning 83 of 89 seats contested with 70% of the popular vote.WEB, Lee, U-Wen, PAP racks up landslide win, takes 83 out of 89 seats,weblink Business Times (Singapore), Business Times, 13 September 2015, 13 September 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150913023301weblink">weblink The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law, but with substantial local differences. Trial by jury was abolished in 1970 so that judicial decisions would rest entirely in the hands of appointed judges.WEB,weblink The Singapore Legal System, Singapore Academy of Law, 25 September 2007, 10 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110123145140weblink">weblink 23 January 2011, Singapore has penalties that include judicial corporal punishment in the form of caning, which may be imposed for such offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences.WEB,weblink Judicial caning in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei, World Corporal Punishment Research, September 2012, 12 December 2015, NEWS, Kuntz, Tom, Ideas & Trends; Beyond Singapore: Corporal Punishment, A to Z,weblink 26 June 1994, The New York Times, There is Capital punishment in Singapore for murder, as well as for certain aggravated drug-trafficking and firearms offences.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041230204937weblink">weblink dead, 30 December 2004, Singapore country specific information, U.S. Department of State, 19 March 2010, File:Speakers Corner 1.jpg|thumb|Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.]]Amnesty International has said that some legal provisions of the Singapore system conflict with the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113025257weblink">weblink dead, 13 January 2012, Singapore: The death penalty – A hidden toll of executions, Amnesty International, 2003, 1 May 2011, The government has disputed Amnesty's claims, stating that their "position on abolition of the death penalty is by no means uncontested internationally" and that the Report contains "grave errors of facts and misrepresentations".PRESS RELEASE, The Singapore Government's Response To Amnesty International's Report 'Singapore – The Death Penalty: A Hidden Toll Of Executions', Ministry of Home Affairs (Singapore), Ministry of Home Affairs,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071114130039weblink">weblink dead, 14 November 2007, 30 January 2004, 22 April 2010, Singapore's judicial system is considered one of the most reliable in Asia.NEWS, Agence France-Presse,weblink Hong Kong has best judicial system in Asia: business survey, ABS-CBN News, Quezon City, 15 September 2008, 24 November 2016, Singapore has been consistently rated among the least corrupt countries in the world by Transparency International.WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018, Transparency International, transparency.org, 27 April 2019, Singapore's unique combination of a strong almost authoritarian government with an emphasis on meritocracy and good governance is known as the "Singapore model", and is regarded as a key factor behind Singapore's political stability, economic growth, and harmonious social order.JOURNAL, Ortmann, Stephan, Thompson, Mark R, China and the 'Singapore Model', Journal of Democracy, 27, 1, 39–48, January 2016,weblink 24 November 2016, 10.1353/jod.2016.0004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161104151140weblink">weblink 4 November 2016, dead, JOURNAL, Huff, W G, What is the Singapore model of economic development?, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 19, 735–759, 1995,weblink 24 November 2016, In 2019, the World Justice Project's Rule of Law Index ranked Singapore as 13th overall among the world's 126 countries for adherence to the rule of law. Singapore ranked high on the factors of order and security (#1), absence of corruption (#3), regulatory enforcement (#3), civil justice (#5), and criminal justice (#6), but ranked significantly lower on factors of open government (#25), constraints on government powers (#27), and fundamental rights (#30).WEB,weblink World Justice Project, Rule of Law Index, 2019, 132, All public gatherings of five or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be held only at the Speakers' Corner.NEWS,weblink Singapore to toughen protest laws ahead of APEC meet, Reuters, 17 January 2009, 31 July 2012,

Foreign relations

File:Lee Kuan Yew Cohen.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Ambassador to the US Chan Heng Chee, Lee Kuan Yew, and US Secretary of Defense William Cohen in a room|Then Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew and Ambassador to the US Chan Heng Chee meeting with US Secretary of Defense William CohenWilliam CohenSingapore's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region.WEB,weblink Singapore country brief, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 15 November 2016, It has diplomatic relations with more than 180 sovereign states.WEB,weblink Singapore Missions Overseas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 27 January 2014,weblink 15 March 2018, dead, As Singapore has diplomatic relations with both United States and North Korea, and was one of the few countries that have relationships with both countries,WEB, Lee, Yen Nee,weblink White House explains why it chose Singapore to host summit with North Korea, CNBC, 8 June 2018, 12 June 2018, on 12 June 2018, Singapore hosted a historic summit between U.S. President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, the first-ever meeting between the sitting leaders of the two nations. The summit took place at the Capella Resort on the island of Sentosa.NEWS,weblink President Trump meets Kim Jong Un: Live updates, 11 June 2018, 12 June 2018, CNN, NEWS,weblink Trump and Kim make history with a handshake, 12 June 2018, BBC News, 12 June 2018, It has also hosted the Ma–Xi meeting on 7 November 2015.As one of the five founding members of ASEAN,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080109233326weblink">weblink dead, 9 January 2008, Overview, ASEAN, 2009, 18 February 2011, it is a strong supporter of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and the ASEAN Investment Area, because Singapore's economy is closely linked to that of the region as a whole. Former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong proposed the formation of an ASEAN Economic Community, a step beyond the current AFTA, bringing it closer to a common market. This was agreed to in 2007 for implementation by 2015. Other regional organisations are important to Singapore, and it is the host of the APEC Secretariat.WEB, APEC is established,weblink National Library Board, 4 July 2018, Singapore maintains membership in other regional organisations, such as Asia–Europe Meeting, the Forum for East Asia-Latin American Cooperation, the Indian Ocean Rim Association, and the East Asia Summit. It is also a member of the Non-Aligned MovementWEB,weblink NAM Member States, The Non-Aligned Movement, 23 January 2002, 18 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101209233514weblink">weblink 9 December 2010, and the Commonwealth.WEB,weblink Member States, Commonwealth Secretariat, 18 February 2011, While Singapore is not a formal member of the G20, it has been invited to participate in G20 processes in most years since 2010.WEB, G20,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 26 March 2017,weblink 17 September 2018, dead, File:Trump and Lee shaking hands.jpg|thumb|left|Prime Minister Lee met with President Donald Trump of the United States a day before the historic 2018 North Korea–United States summit2018 North Korea–United States summitIn general, bilateral relations with other ASEAN members are strong; however, disagreements have arisen,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090802111923weblink">weblink dead, 2 August 2009, Australia â€“ New Zealand Free Trade Agreement (AANZFTA), New Zealand Government, 4 December 2008, 18 February 2011, and relations with neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia have sometimes been strained.NEWS,weblink Malaysia and Singapore: A rocky relationship, BBC News, 18 September 1998, Rob, Gifford, Malaysia and Singapore have clashed over the delivery of fresh water to Singapore,WEB,weblink World Factbook â€“ Field Listing: International disputes, Central Intelligence Agency, 18 February 2011, and access by the Singapore Armed Forces to Malaysian airspace. Border issues exist with Malaysia and Indonesia, and both have banned the sale of marine sand to Singapore over disputes about Singapore's land reclamation.NEWS,weblink Singapore accused of land grab as islands disappear by boatload, Richard, Lloyd Parry, The Times, London, 17 March 2007, {{subscription required}} Some previous disputes, such as the Pedra Branca dispute, have been resolved by the International Court of Justice.WEB,weblink Court awards islet to Singapore, BBC News, 23 May 2008, 6 September 2017, Piracy in the Strait of Malacca has been a cause of concern for all three countries. Close economic ties exist with Brunei, and the two share a pegged currency value, through a Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the two countries which makes both Brunei dollar and Singapore dollar banknotes and coins legal tender in either country.WEB,weblink Currency Interchangeability Agreement – Brunei Notes and Coins, Reading Room, 14 October 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170628004840weblink">weblink 28 June 2017, dead, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090908043151weblink">weblink dead, 8 September 2009, Brunei Foreign and Trade Relations: ASEAN, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 14 January 2009, 18 February 2011, File:2017 G20 Hamburg summit leaders group photo.jpg|upright=1.25|thumb|Prime Minister Lee at the 2017 G20 meetingG20 meetingThe first diplomatic contact with China was made in the 1970s, with full diplomatic relations established in the 1990s. Since then the two countries have been major players in strengthening the ASEAN–China relationship, and has maintained a long-standing and greatly prioritised close relationship partly due to China's growing influence and essentiality in the Asia-Pacific region, specifying that "its common interest with China is far greater than any differences". Furthermore, Singapore has positioned itself as a strong supporter of China's constructive engagement and peaceful development in the region. In addition, China has been Singapore's largest trading partner since 2013, after surpassing Malaysia.NEWS, Singapore Business Federation aims for over 100 local firms to take part in first China International Import Expo,weblink The Straits Times, 22 February 2018, NEWS, Singapore, China leaders laud deep, growing ties,weblink Today, Singapore, NEWS, Singapore and China's common interest 'greater than any occasional difference of views': DPM Teo,weblink 24 May 2017, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, NEWS, Singapore a 'strong supporter' of China's peaceful development,weblink The Straits Times, 25 May 2017, Singapore, NEWS, Zhang Xuegang,weblink Opening 'window of opportunity' for China-Singapore cooperation, People's Daily, Beijing, 20 November 2007, 31 July 2012, Singapore and the United States share a long-standing close relationship, in particular in defence, the economy, health, and education. Singapore has also pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end, the country has stepped up co-operation with ASEAN members and China to strengthen regional security and fight terrorism, as well as participating in the organisation's first joint maritime exercise with the latter.NEWS, Asean to step up terror fight, hold naval drill with China,weblink The Straits Times, 7 February 2018, It has also given support to the US-led coalition to fight terrorism, with bilateral co-operation in counter-terrorism and counter-proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises.

Military

File:Boeing F-15SG Strike Eagle, Singapore - Air Force JP7096555.jpg|thumb|right|Singapore Air Force's F-15SG are Strike EagleStrike EagleThe Singaporean military is arguably the most technologically advanced in Southeast Asia.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100123194946weblink">weblink dead, 23 January 2010, Trefor, Moss, 18 January 2010, Buying an advantage, London, Jane's Defence Review, It comprises the Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Navy, and Republic of Singapore Air Force. It is seen as the guarantor of the country's independence.NEWS,weblink SAF remains final guarantor of Singapore's independence, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 1 July 2007, 19 February 2011, This principle translates into the culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence.PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071024173928weblink">weblink dead, 24 October 2007, Lunch Talk on "Defending Singapore: Strategies for a Small State" by Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean, Ministry of Defence, 21 April 2005, 19 February 2011, The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military—high by regional standards—and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence.NEWS,weblink S'pore to boost expenditure, raise defence spending, AsiaOne, Singapore, 13 October 2011, 13 October 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111061056weblink">weblink 11 January 2012, dead, After its independence, Singapore had two infantry regiments commanded by British officers. This force was considered too small to provide effective security for the new country, so the development of its military forces became a priority.WEB,weblink Amnon, Barzilai, A Deep, Dark, Secret Love Affair, University of Wisconsin (originally published by Haaretz, July 2004), 19 February 2011, Britain pulled its military out of Singapore in October 1971, leaving behind only a small British, Australian and New Zealand force as a token military presence. The last British soldier left Singapore in March 1976. New Zealand troops were the last to leave, in 1989.WEB,weblink British withdrawal from Singapore, Marsita Omar, Chan Fook Weng, National Library Board, 31 December 2007, 24 August 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120621034333weblink">weblink 21 June 2012, File:US Navy 100716-N-0995C-155 The Singapore navy guided-missile frigate RSS Steadfast (FFG 70) and the corvette RSS Vigilance (90) are underway during Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Singapore 2010.jpg|thumb|left|Republic of Singapore Navy's RSS Steadfast and RSS Vigilance sailing line-abreast during CARAT Singapore 2010.]]A great deal of initial support came from Israel, a country that is not recognised by the neighbouring Muslim-majority nations of Malaysia, Indonesia, or Brunei.NEWS,weblink Israel alarm at UN force members, BBC News, 12 October 2011, 18 August 2006, WEB,weblink Diplomatic and Foreign Relations of Israel, Rosenberg, Matt, About.com, 12 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120115055734weblink">weblink 15 January 2012, NEWS,weblink Malaysian FA apologises to Benayoun over racist abuse, BBC News, 12 October 2011, 29 July 2011, The main fear after independence was an invasion by Malaysia. Israeli Defense Force (IDF) commanders were tasked with creating the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) from scratch, and Israeli instructors were brought in to train Singaporean soldiers. Military courses were conducted according to the IDF's format, and Singapore adopted a system of conscription and reserve service based on the Israeli model. Singapore still maintains strong security ties with Israel and is one of the biggest buyers of Israeli arms and weapons systems.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jewish Virtual History Tour: Singapore,weblink Jewish Virtual Library, n.d., 13 October 2011, The MATADOR anti-tank weapon is one example of recent Singaporean–Israeli collaboration.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928203037weblink">weblink dead, 28 September 2011, 186, The Israeli Arsenal Deployed Against Gaza During Operation Cast Lead, Institute of Palestine Studies, 10 July 2012, The SAF is being developed to respond to a wide range of issues, in both conventional and unconventional warfare. The Defence Science and Technology Agency is responsible for procuring resources for the military.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Speech by Minister for Manpower and Second Minister for Defence Dr Ng Eng Hen, Ministry of Defence, 18 February 2008, 19 February 2011, dead,weblink 6 July 2017, The geographic restrictions of Singapore mean that the SAF must plan to fully repulse an attack, as they cannot fall back and re-group. The small size of the population has also affected the way the SAF has been designed, with a small active force but a large number of reserves.File:SAFTI MI OCS 01.jpg|upright=.8|thumb|The Officer Cadet School building within the SAFTI Military InstituteSAFTI Military InstituteSingapore has conscription for all able-bodied males at age 18, except those with a criminal record or who can prove that their loss would bring hardship to their families. Males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the Public Service Commission scholarship can opt to defer their draft.WEB,weblink PSC – FAQs, ifaq.gov.sg, 11 August 2018, Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the SAF has been increasing: since 1989 they have been allowed to fill military vocations formerly reserved for men. Before induction into a specific branch of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military training.WEB,weblink Singapore â€“ Recruitment and Training of Personnel, Country-data.com, December 1989, 19 February 2011, Because of the scarcity of open land on the main island, training involving activities such as live firing and amphibious warfare are often carried out on smaller islands, typically barred to civilian access. However, large-scale drills are considered too dangerous to be performed in the country, and since 1975 have been performed in Taiwan. Training is also held in about a dozen other countries. In general, military exercises are held with foreign forces once or twice per week.Due to airspace and land constraints, the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) maintains a number of overseas bases in Australia, the United States, and France. The RSAF's 130 Squadron is based in RAAF Base Pearce, Western Australia,WEB,weblink Royal Australian Air Force, RAAF Base Pearce, 12 October 2011, 2011, and its 126 Squadron is based in the Oakey Army Aviation Centre, Queensland.PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060313052830weblink">weblink dead, 13 March 2006, Opening Ceremony of the RSAF Helicopter Detachment in Oakey, Australia, 5 July 2013, 20 August 1999, Ministry of Defence, The RSAF has one squadron—the 150 Squadron—based in Cazaux Air Base in southern France.WEB,weblink Beyond Limits â€“ Jet Training in France, 12 October 2011, 2011, Ministry of Defence, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070625180014weblink">weblink 25 June 2007, WEB,weblink Equipment â€“ Republic of Singapore Air Force, GlobalSecurity, 12 October 2011, 2011, The RSAF also has a few overseas detachments in the United States, in San Diego, California, Marana, Arizona, Grand Prairie, Texas and Luke Air Force Base, among others.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114033730weblink">weblink dead, 14 November 2012, Singapore celebrates Peace Carvin V partnership with U.S. Air Force, 5 July 2013, 23 November 2009, Reif, Jasmine, U.S. Air Combat Command, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130705185326weblink">weblink dead, 5 July 2013, PM gets feel of RSAF's new jet at US base, 5 July 2013, The Straits Times, Singapore, 13 July 2010, Chua Chin Hon, (File:Flag lowering by Singapore troops, Kiwi Base, Bamyan Province, Afghanistan - 20101027.jpg|thumb|left|In 2007, Singapore troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.)The SAF has sent forces to assist in operations outside the country, in areas such as IraqNEWS,weblink Singapore to send 192 military personnel to Iraq, Singapore Window, Agence France-Presse, 7 October 2003, 19 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080906155446weblink">weblink 6 September 2008, dead, and Afghanistan,NEWS,weblink 75 SAF soldiers honoured for contributions in fight against ISIS, 9 October 2017, The Straits Times, en, NEWS,weblink SAF to provide medical aid, set up dental clinic in Afghanistan, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 16 May 2007, 19 February 2011, in both military and civilian roles. In the region, they have helped to stabilise East Timor and have provided aid to Aceh in Indonesia following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. In 2014, the RSN deployed two ships, the RSS Resolute and the Tenacious to the Gulf of Aden to aid in counter piracy efforts as part of Task Force 151. The SAF also helped in relief efforts during Hurricane Katrina and Typhoon Haiyan.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051025202249weblink">weblink dead, 25 October 2005, Katrina Relief Operations, 12 October 2011, 2011, Ministry of Defence, Singapore is part of the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a military alliance with Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. In 2019, the nation was placed 7th most peaceful country on the Global Peace Index.WEB,weblink Global Peace Index 2017, reliefweb.int,weblink 28 December 2017, live,

Human rights

In 2018, Singapore was ranked 151st out of 180 nations by Reporters Without Borders in the Worldwide Press Freedom Index.WEB,weblink Singapore : Intolerant government, self-censorship {{!, Reporters without borders|website=RSF|language=en|access-date=2019-02-06}} Historically, the government has restricted freedom of speech and freedom of the press and has limited some civil and political rights.NEWS, The government of Singapore says it welcomes criticism, but its critics still suffer,weblink 9 March 2017, The Economist, London, The right to freedom of speech and association guaranteed by Article 14(1) of the Constitution of Singapore is restricted by the subsequent subsection (2) of the same Article.A law dating back from 1938 (Penal Code, s. 377A) bans sexual relations between men. However, the law is rarely enforced and sexual relations between women are legal.WEB,weblink Government has not curbed public prosecutor's discretion for Section 377A: A-G Lucien Wong, The Straits Times, 2 October 2018, Wong, Jonathan,

Geography

{{see also|Land reclamation in Singapore}}(File:CIA World Factbook map of Singapore (English).png|thumb|alt=Map showing Singapore island and the territories belonging to Singapore and its neighbours|An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways)(File:Singapore - Location Map (2013) - SGP - UNOCHA.svg|thumb|right| alt= |Singapore before land reclamation)Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, Pulau Ujong.BOOK, Victor R., Savage, Brenda S.A., Yeoh, Toponymics: A Study of Singapore's Street Names, 2004, Eastern Universities Press, Singapore, 978-981-210-364-2, There are two-man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Woodlands 1st Link in the north and the Tuas 2nd Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at {{convert|163.63|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150409193851weblink">weblink dead, 9 April 2015, National Heritage Board, 11 January 2015, Bukit Timah Hill, Under British rule, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were part of Singapore, but were later transferred over to Australia in 1957.Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. Pgs. 133-134Department of External Affairs in Australia. (16 May 1957): Report from the Australian High Commission in Singapore to the Department of External Affairs in Australia. Singapore: National Archives of Singapore. (Microfilm: NAB 447)NEWS,weblink All set for transfer, 16 May 1958, The Straits Times, 2, Singapore, Pedra Branca, an outlying island which now belongs to Singapore after the dispute, is the nation's easternmost point.Ongoing land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from {{convert|581.5|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} in the 1960s to {{convert|721.5|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} in 2018, an increase of some 23% (130 km2).NEWS,weblink Such quantities of sand, 28 February 2015, The Economist, London, The country is projected to grow to {{convert|766|km2|sqmi|-1|abbr=on}} by 2030.WEB, MND Land Use Report,weblink dead,weblink 2013-02-04, Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional islands, as has been done with Jurong Island.WEB,weblink Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change: Singapore, Earthshots, 14 April 2015, The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide. In 2010 Singapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Singapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Singapore switched to using polders – a Netherlands solution – to reclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry.weblink Straits Times, 4 February 2018

Nature

File:Singapore Botanic Gardens Palm Valley.jpg|thumb|right| alt= |Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage SiteSingapore's urbanisation means that it has lost 95% of its historical forests,JOURNAL, Brook, Barry W., Navjot S. Sodhi, Peter K.L. Ng, 24 July 2003, Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore, Nature, 424, 420–426, 0028-0836, 10.1038/nature01795, 12879068, 6947, 2003Natur.424..420B, and now over half of the naturally occurring fauna and flora in Singapore is present in nature reserves, such as the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, which comprise only 0.25% of Singapore's land area. To combat this decline, in 1967 the government introduced the vision of making Singapore a "garden city"WEB,weblink "Garden City" vision is introduced, History SG, 16 November 2016, aiming to soften the harshness of urbanisation and improve the quality of life.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 24 March 2014, Singapore, A City in a Garden, National Parks Board, Since then, nearly 10% of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and nature reserves.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140710090137weblink">weblink dead, 10 July 2014, Speech by MOS Desmond Lee at the Asia for Animals Conference Gala Dinner, National Development Ministry, 17 January 2014, The government also has plans to preserve the remaining wildlife.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071005194408weblink">weblink dead, 5 October 2007, National Initiatives, National Biodiversity Reference Center, 26 September 2009, Singapore's well known gardens include the Singapore Botanic Gardens, a 150-year-old tropical garden and Singapore's first UNESCO World Heritage Site,NEWS,weblink Singapore Botanic Gardens declared UNESCO World Heritage Site, 4 July 2015, Channel NewsAsia, 15 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171115213851weblink">weblink 15 November 2017, dead, and Gardens by the Bay, a popular tourist attraction.

Climate

Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Since this tropical rainforest climate is more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and cyclones are very rare, it is equatorial. Temperatures usually range from {{convert|25|to|35|°C|°F}}. While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to January.WEB,weblink Singapore National Environment Agency Weather Statistics, 24 November 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161031025300weblink">weblink 31 October 2016, dead, From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia, usually from the island of Sumatra.NEWS,weblink Singapore enveloped by Sumatran smog, Bond, Sam, Edie newsroom, 2 October 2006, 2 June 2011, Although Singapore does not observe daylight saving time (DST), it follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.WEB,weblink Why is Singapore in the 'Wrong' Time Zone?, Mok Ly Yng, National University of Singapore, 22 September 2010, 2 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100728230528weblink">weblink 28 July 2010, dead, This has caused the sun to rise and set particularly late during January and February periods, where the sun rises at 7:20 am and sets around 7:25 pm. During July, the sun sets at around 7:15 pm, similar to other cities at much higher latitudes such as Taipei and Tokyo. The earliest the sun sets and rises is in October and November when the sun rises at 6:45 am and sets at 6:50 pm. Singapore remains highly vulnerable to the risk of climate change especially with regards to the rising sea level.Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS).{{Singapore weatherbox}}

Economy

Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the original Four Asian Tigers, but has surpassed its peers in terms of GDP per capita. Between 1965 and 1995, growth rates averaged around 6 per cent per annum, transforming the living standards of the population.BOOK, Baten, Jörg, A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 292, 978-1-107-50718-0, {{multiple image|total_width=300| perrow = 2/1| image1 = Singapore Central Business District viewed from UOB Plaza 2.jpg| image2 = Aerial view of Marina Bay Financial Centre, Singapore, at night - 20121010.jpg| image3 = Singapore skyline at sunset viewed from Gardens by the Bay East - 20120426.jpg}}The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest,NEWS, Li, Dickson,weblink Singapore is most open economy: Report, Asiaone, Singapore, 1 February 2010, 10 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100207003624weblink">weblink 7 February 2010, most innovative,NEWS,weblink Singapore ranked 7th in the world for innovation, The Straits Times, Singapore, 5 March 2010, 23 August 2010, most competitive,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091001054950weblink">weblink dead, 1 October 2009, The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings and 2008–2009 comparisons, World Economic Forum, 2010, 18 February 2011, most dynamicNEWS,weblink Singapore jumps to top of Global Dynamism Index, 29 October 2015, The Straits Times, Singapore, and most business-friendly.NEWS, Singapore top paradise for business: World Bank,weblink Agence France-Presse, Singapore, AsiaOne, 26 September 2007, 22 April 2010, For the second year running, Singapore tops the aggregate rankings on the ease of doing business in 2006 to 2007., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090707002844weblink">weblink 7 July 2009, The 2015 Index of Economic Freedom ranks Singapore as the second freest economy in the world and the Ease of doing business index has also ranked Singapore as the easiest place to do business for the past decade.WEB,weblink Economy rankings, Doingbusiness.org, 27 October 2015, 28 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206025936weblink">weblink 6 February 2015, According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singapore is consistently perceived as one of the least corrupt countries in the world, along with New Zealand and the Scandinavian countries.NEWS, Nur Asyiqin Mohamad Salleh, Singapore climbs to 7th on global least-corrupt index,weblink 4 July 2018, The Straits Times, 26 January 2017, In 2016, Singapore is rated the world's most expensive city for the third consecutive year by the Economist Intelligence Unit.NEWS, Ungku, Fathin, Teo, Hillary, Water price hike sparks rare public protest in Singapore,weblink 11 March 2017, Reuters, 11 March 2017, NEWS, Lee Yen Nee, Singapore ranked world's most expensive city for 3rd year running,weblink 11 March 2017, Today, Singapore, 10 March 2016, For several years, Singapore has been one of the fewNEWS,weblink The AAA-rated club: which countries still make the grade?, 15 October 2014, The Guardian, London, countries with an AAA credit rating from the "big three", and the only Asian country to achieve this rating.NEWS, Ogg, Jon C.,weblink Remaining countries with AAA credit ratings, 12 October 2011, 8 August 2011, NBC News, Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign investment as a result of its location, skilled workforce, low tax rates, advanced infrastructure and zero-tolerance against corruption.WEB,weblink CPIB Corruption Statistics 2015, 2 April 2015, World Bank, dead,weblink 22 March 2016, Singapore has the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves,WEB,weblink Official Foreign Reserves, www.mas.gov.sg, en, 2019-08-28, and one of the highest net international investment position per capita.WEB,weblink Statistics Singapore -IMF SDDS â€“ Economic and Financial, Singstat.gov.sg, 14 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131009010622weblink">weblink 9 October 2013, WEB,weblink Based on USD/SGD rate of 1.221, Xe.com, 14 October 2013, There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore. There are also approximately 1,500 companies from China and a similar number from India. Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans."44 Percent of Workforce Are Non-Citizens" (our estimate) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160221140252weblink |date=21 February 2016 }}. Your Salary in Singapore. Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions. Despite market freedom, Singapore's government operations have a significant stake in the economy, contributing 22% of the GDP.NEWS, Seung-yoon Lee,weblink Ha-Joon Chang: Economics Is A Political Argument, HuffPost, 9 April 2014, 18 July 2014, Singapore is the second-largest foreign investor in India.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120722162407weblink">weblink dead, 22 July 2012, S'pore is India's second-largest foreign investor, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 14 January 2011, Ramesh, S., It is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.WEB,weblink Singapore, Export Britain, 7 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170820040124weblink">weblink 20 August 2017, dead, Perspectives on the Security of Singapore: The First 50 Years {{ISBN|978-981-4689-33-5}} p. 128
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"
Economy Statistics (Recent Years) : Year 2014 To Year 2018Sources:GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA (S$),weblink Department of Statistics, Singapore, 18 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150807162709weblink">weblink 7 August 2015, WEB,weblink GDP per capita (current LCU) {{!, Data|website=data.worldbank.org|access-date=2019-09-01}}WEB,weblink Singapore Department Of Statistics {{!, SingStat Table Builder - Gross Domestic Product In Chained (2015) Dollars, By Industry (SSIC 2015), Annual|last=|first=|date=|website=www.tablebuilder.singstat.gov.sg|archive-url=|archive-date=|url-status=live|access-date=2019-09-01}}WEB,weblink Singapore Department Of Statistics {{!, SingStat Table Builder - Exchange Rates (Average For The Year), Annual|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=Singapore Department Of Statistics|archive-url=|archive-date=|url-status=live|accessdate=2 September 2019}}WEB, Real Gross Domestic Product (S$), Gross National Income (S$), GNI Per Capita (S$),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150701141036weblink">weblink dead, 1 July 2015, Department of Statistics Singapore, 18 September 2015, WEB,weblink Singapore Department Of Statistics {{!, SingStat Table Builder - Gross Domestic Product At Current Prices, By Industry (SSIC 2015), Annual|last=|first=|date=|website=www.tablebuilder.singstat.gov.sg|archive-url=|archive-date=|url-status=live|access-date=2019-09-02}}WEB,weblink Official Foreign Reserves, www.mas.gov.sg, en, 2019-09-01, WEB,weblink Per Capita GNI And Per Capita GDP At Current Prices, Annual, Data.gov.sg, en-GB, 2019-09-01, WEB,weblink Singapore Department Of Statistics {{!, SingStat Table Builder - Output, Saving & Investment At Current Prices, Annual|last=|first=|date=|website=www.tablebuilder.singstat.gov.sg|archive-url=|archive-date=|url-status=live|access-date=2019-09-01}}! Year! GDPNominal(Billion)! GDPNominalPer Capita! GDP Real(Billion)! GNINominal(Billion)! GNINominalPer Capita! ForeignReserves(Billion)! Avg.Exchange Rate(1US$ to S$)Singapore dollar>S$398.987 Singapore dollar72,937 >Singapore dollar>S$411.540 Singapore dollar385,070 >Singapore dollar>S$70,400 Singapore dollar340.438 >Singapore dollar>S$1.2671|2015Singapore dollar>S$423.444Singapore dollar>S$76,502Singapore dollar>S$423.444Singapore dollar>S$394.551Singapore dollar>S$71,283Singapore dollar>S$350.991Singapore dollar>S$1.3748|2016Singapore dollar>S$439.412Singapore dollar>S$78,364Singapore dollar>S$435.988Singapore dollar>S$408.820Singapore dollar>S$72,909Singapore dollar>S$356.254Singapore dollar>S$1.3815|2017Singapore dollar>S$467.306Singapore dollar>S$83,265Singapore dollar>S$452.119Singapore dollar>S$434.806Singapore dollar>S$77,474Singapore dollar>S$373.994Singapore dollar>S$1.3807|2018Singapore dollar>S$491.174Singapore dollar>S$87,108Singapore dollar>S$466.313Singapore dollar>S$457.983Singapore dollar>S$81,222Singapore dollar>S$392.096Singapore dollar>S$1.3491
The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar (SGD or S$), issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).BOOK, Low Siang Kok, The Future of Money, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris,weblink 28 December 2007, 978-92-64-19672-8, 147, Chapter 6: Singapore Electronic Legal Tender (SELT) â€“ A Proposed Concept, 2002, It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar at par value since 1967, owing to their historically close relations.PRESS RELEASE,weblink The Currency History of Singapore, 22 April 2010, 9 April 2007, Monetary Authority of Singapore, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100202075742weblink">weblink 2 February 2010, MAS manages its monetary policy by allowing the Singapore dollar exchange rate to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most central banks, which use interest rates to manage policy.NEWS,weblink This Central Bank Doesn't Set Interest Rates, 13 April 2015, Bloomberg, File:Singapore Airlines, Airbus A380-800 9V-SKI '50th anniversary of Singapore' NRT (20786371995).jpg|left|thumb|alt=Singapore Airlines celebrated the nation's Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380|Singapore Airlines celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380Airbus A380In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012).WEB, Tax havens: Brett Blundy latest to join the Singapore set,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130414232445weblink">weblink dead, 14 April 2013, Business Review Weekly, 18 April 2013, Andrew Heathcote, 15 April 2013, In 2009, Singapore was removed from the OCDE "liste grise" of tax havens,WEB, Nooten, Carrie, Pourquoi Cahuzac a-t-il placé son argent à Singapour?,weblink Slate, 13 November 2016, French, 4 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161114005811weblink">weblink 14 November 2016, but ranked fourth on the Tax Justice Network's 2015 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's off-shore financial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's off-shore capital, while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities".WEB, Financial Secrecy Index – 2015 Results: Narrative Report on Singapore, Tax Justice Network,weblink 2015, 23 November 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161001155132weblink">weblink 1 October 2016, In August 2016, The Straits Times reported that Indonesia had decided to create tax havens on two islands near Singapore to bring Indonesian capital back into the tax base.WEB, Jakarta plans tax haven on two islands near Singapore,weblink The Straits Times, 13 November 2016, 14 August 2016, In October 2016, the Monetary Authority of Singapore admonished and fined UBS and DBS and withdrew (:de:Falcon Private Bank|Falcon Private Bank)'s banking licence for their alleged role in the Malaysian Sovereign Fund scandal.NEWS, Anshuman Daga, Joshua Franklin, Singapore shuts Falcon bank unit, fines DBS and UBS over 1MDB,weblink Reuters, 13 November 2016, 11 October 2016, Reuters, WEB, UBS et Falcon sanctionnés à Singapour dans le scandale 1MBD,weblink Bilan.ch, 13 November 2016, French, 11 October 2016, Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive.NEWS, Mahtani, Shibani,weblink 1 June 2012, Singapore No. 1 For Millionaires â€“ Again, Wall Street Journal Southeast Asia blog, New York, Singapore does not have a minimum wage, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the highest income inequalities among developed countries.NEWS, Minimum wage not a solution, MyPaper, 12 January 2011, Singapore,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130120030941weblink">weblink 20 January 2013, NEWS, Countries with the Biggest Gaps Between Rich and Poor, Yahoo, 16 October 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008055647weblink">weblink 8 October 2011,

Employment

Singapore traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The unemployment rate did not exceed 4% from 2005 to 2014, hitting highs of 3.1% in 2005 and 3% during the 2009 global financial crisis; it fell to 1.8% in the first quarter of 2015.WEB,weblink Unemployment, Ministry of Manpower, 2015, 25 December 2015, The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the Ministry of Social and Family Development, so acute poverty is rare. Some of the programmes include providing between SGD400 and SGD1000 per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's school fees.WEB, Assistance, 26 October 2014,weblink Ministry of Social and Family Development, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141026061435weblink">weblink 26 October 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, The stingy nanny, 16 October 2009,weblink The Economist, London, NEWS, Welfare in Singapore: Singapore government response, 17 February 2010,weblink The Economist, London, The Singapore government also provides numerous benefits to its citizenry, including: free money to encourage residents to exercise in public gyms,NEWS,weblink ActiveSG$100 for Singaporeans to play sport, Today, Singapore, 26 April 2014, 13 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160623023323weblink">weblink 23 June 2016, up to $166,000 worth of baby bonus benefits for each baby born to a citizen,WEB,weblink Baby Bonus, Ministry of Social & Family Development, 13 July 2016, heavily subsidised healthcare, money to help the disabled, cheap laptops for poor students,WEB,weblink NEU PC Plus Programme, Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, 13 July 2016,weblink 19 January 2016, dead, rebates for numerous areas such as public transport,WEB,weblink 250,000 Public Transport Vouchers to Help Needy Families Cope with Fare Adjustment, Ministry of Transport, 21 January 2015, 13 July 2016, utility bills and more.WEB,weblink Numbers and profile of homeless persons, Ministry of Social and Family Development, 13 August 2012, 13 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160513223221weblink">weblink 13 May 2016, WEB,weblink Singapore Budget 2014 – Measures For Households, Government of Singapore, 13 July 2016, Although it has been recognised that foreign workers are crucial to the country's economy, the government is considering capping these workers,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100204204744weblink">weblink dead, 4 February 2010, Singapore may cap low-skilled foreign workers, TV New Zealand, 2 February 2010, 11 April 2011, as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry.WEB,weblink Executive summary, Building and Construction Authority, 11 April 2011, NEWS,weblink Singapore's phantom workers, Sudderuddin, Shuli, The Straits Times, Singapore, 22 February 2009, 11 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090225121552weblink">weblink 25 February 2009, The Immigrations and Checkpoints authority publishes a number of criteria for eligibility for permanent residence.WEB,weblink ICA– Immigration & Checkpoints Authority of Singapore, ica.gov.sg, {{clear}}{{wide image|Panoramic view of the Central Business District, Singapore, and ships - 20100712.jpg|1200px|A view of the cityscape and anchored ships from Singapore's Eastern Anchorage off the East Coast Park|100%|center|align-cap=center}}

Industry sectors

Globally, Singapore is a leader in several economic sectors, including being 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 3rd-leading financial centre,NEWS,weblink Singapore Edges Ahead of Hong Kong as No. 3 Financial Center, 8 April 2016, Bloomberg, New York, NEWS,weblink Hong Kong overtaken by Singapore as third leading global financial centre, 7 April 2016, South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 2nd-largest casino gambling market,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110816092048weblink">weblink dead, 16 August 2011, 10 August 2011, Bloomberg, New York, Adam, Shamim, Singapore Miracle Dimming as Income Gap Widens Squeeze by Rich, 3rd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, world's largest oil-rig producer and major hub for ship repair services,Facts and Figures – Singapore Economic Development Board. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120720070516weblink |date=20 July 2012 }}NEWS,weblink Financial Times, London, 10 April 2006, Burton, John, Singapore economy grows 9.1% in first quarter, WEB,weblink Facts and Figures, Singapore Economic Development Board, 30 January 2012, 21 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418084237weblink">weblink 18 April 2012, world's top logistics hub.NEWS, The Straits Times, 7 November 2007, Singapore, Yang Huiwen, Singapore ranked No. 1 logistics hub by World Bank, 69, (File:2014 Singapore Products Export Treemap.png|thumb|300px|Singapore Exports by Product (2014)WEB,weblink What did Singapore export in 2014? – The Atlas of Economic Complexity, atlas.cid.harvard.edu, ) The economy is diversified, with its top contributors—financial services, manufacturing, oil-refining. Its main exports are refined petroleum, integrated circuits and computersWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080624200246weblink">weblink 24 June 2008, Gross Domestic Product by Industry, 22 April 2010, 2007, Singapore Statistics, which constituted 27% of the country's GDP in 2010, and includes significant electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences sectors. In 2006, Singapore produced about 10% of the world's foundry wafer output.PRESS RELEASE, Xilinx Underscores Commitment To Asia Pacific Market at Official Opening of New Regional Headquarters Building in Singapore, Xilinx,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080329090402weblink">weblink 29 March 2008, 14 September 2007, 22 April 2010, Singapore's largest companies are in the telecoms, banking, transportation and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run enterprises, and has since been listed on the Singapore Exchange, including Singapore Telecommunications (Singtel), Singapore Technologies Engineering, Keppel Corporation, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC), Development Bank of Singapore (DBS), United Overseas Bank (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global financial crisis, OCBC, DBS and UOB were ranked as the world's 1st, 5th, 6th "strongest banks in the world" respectively by Bloomberg surveys.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016034143weblink">weblink dead, 16 October 2015, Singapore's OCBC Strongest Bank as Canadians Dominate, 10 May 2011, Bloomberg Business, New York, The nation's best known global brands include Singapore Airlines, Changi Airport and Port of Singapore, all three are amongst the most-awarded in their respective industry sectors. Singapore Airlines is ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and world's 19th most-admired in 2015, by Fortune's annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys. It is also the world's most awarded airline, including "Best international airline", by US-based Travel + Leisure reader surveys, for 20 consecutive years.NEWS,weblink SIA tops Asian list among 50 most admired global firms, 26 February 2015, The Straits Times, Singapore, dead,weblink 22 September 2015, NEWS,weblink The world's best airlines, 7 July 2015, Fortune, New York, Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 "World's Best Airport" awards {{As of|2015|lc=y}}, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world.NEWS,weblink Lee Kuan Yew, truly the father of Changi airport, 12 September 2015, The Business Times, Singapore,

Tourism

File:JewelSingaporeVortex1.jpg|thumb|right|Jewel at Changi Airport features the world's largest indoor waterfall, named the Rain Vortexthe Rain VortexTourism in Singapore is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 18.5 million international tourists in 2018, more than 3 times of Singapore's total population.WEB,weblink Visitor arrivals to Singapore rise 6.2% to hit new high in 2018: STB, Singapore Tourism Board, 27 August 2019, 13 February 2019, It is also environmentally friendly, and maintains natural and heritage conservation programs.WEB,weblink Singapore: The Eco-Friendliest Country in Asia, Blue and Green Tomorrow, 27 August 2019, 7 February 2018, Along with this, it also has one of the world's lowest crime rates. Transport in Singapore exhaustively covers most, if not all public venues in Singapore, which increases convenience for tourists. This includes the well-known Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system. Singapore is the 5th most visited city in the world, and 2nd in the Asia-Pacific.NEWS, Singapore is 2nd most visited city in Asia-Pacific, 5th in the world: Mastercard,weblink The Straits Times, 26 September 2018, en, 1 October 2018,weblink 1 October 2018, live, The Orchard Road district, which is dominated by multi-storey shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the center of tourism in Singapore.WEB,weblink Orchard Road: A shopping paradise, Singapore Tourism Board, 27 August 2019, Other popular tourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo, River Safari and Night Safari, which allows people to explore Asian, African and American habitats at night without any visible barriers between guests and the wild animals. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the 'open zoo' concept whereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals, while the River Safari, features 10 different ecosystems around the world, including the River Nile, Yangtze River, Mississippi, Amazon as well as the Tundra and has 300 species of animals, including numerous endangered species.WEB,weblink Singapore Zoo, National Library Board, 27 August 2019, 22 July 2014, File:Supertree Grove, Gardens by the Bay, Singapore - 20120630-04.jpg|thumb|right||A night view of the Supertrees at Gardens by the BayGardens by the BayJurong Bird Park is another zoological garden centred on birds, which is dedicated towards exposing the public to as much species and varieties of birds from around the world as possible, including a flock of one thousand flamingos. The tourist island of Sentosa, which attracts 19 million visitors in 2011, is located in the south of Singapore, consisting of about 20–30 landmarks, such as Fort Siloso, which was built as a fortress to defend against the Japanese during World War II.Among the latest tourists attractions built in Singapore includes the two integrated resorts which houses casinos, namely Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa; Gardens by the Bay and Jewel Changi Airport.Singapore promotes itself as a medical tourism hub, with about 200,000 foreigners seeking medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate US$3 billion in revenue.NEWS, Dogra, Sapna,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051026013526weblink">weblink 26 October 2005,weblink 16 July 2005, Mumbai, Medical tourism boom takes Singapore by storm, Express Healthcare Management, In 2015, Lonely Planet and The New York Times listed Singapore as their top and 6th best world destination to visit respectively.NEWS, 52 Places to Visit in 2015, 1 January 2015, The New York Times,weblink 11 December 2015, Singapore is also an education hub, with more than 80,000 international students in 2006.WEB,weblink Developing Asian education hubs, 12 October 2011, 2011, EU-Asia Higher Education Platform, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111023215241weblink">weblink 23 October 2011, 5,000 Malaysian students cross the Johor–Singapore Causeway daily to attend schools in Singapore.NEWS,weblink The long, long ride, 12 October 2011, 7 May 2006, New Straits Times, Kuala Lumpur, dead,weblink 15 June 2013, In 2009, 20% of all students in Singaporean universities were international students—the maximum cap allowed, a majority from ASEAN, China and India.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090409150704weblink">weblink dead, 9 April 2009, Foreign Students in Singapore, Ministry of Education, 12 October 2011, 2011,

Infrastructure

Information and communications

File:Singapore Former-Hill-Street-Police-Station-02.jpg|thumb|The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the artsthe artsInformation and communications technologies (ICT) is one of the pillars of Singapore's economic success. However, Singapore's mass communications networks, including television and phone networks, have long been operated by the government. When Singapore first came online, Singaporeans could use Teleview to communicate with one another, but not with those outside of their sovereign city-state. Publications such as The Wall Street Journal were censored. The phrase Intelligent Island arose in the 1990s in reference to the island nation's early adaptive relationship with the internet.MAGAZINE, Wired,weblink The Intelligent Island, Sandy, Sandfort, April 1993, MAGAZINE, Wired,weblink Disneyland with the Death Penalty, William, Gibson, April 1993, The World Economic Forum's 2015 Global Technology Report placed Singapore as the most "Tech-Ready Nation". It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity. Singapore has also topped Waseda University's International e-Government rankings from 2009 to 2013, and 2015.NEWS,weblink Global Information Technology Report 2015, 15 April 2015, World Economic Forum, Singapore has the world's highest smartphone penetration rates, in surveys by DeloitteNEWS,weblink Smartphone penetration in Singapore the highest globally: Survey, 11 February 2015, TODAYonline, NEWS,weblink Deloitte Mobile Consumer 2014, 25 November 2014, Deloitte Australia, and Google Consumer Barometer – at 89% and 85% of the population respectively in 2014.NEWS,weblink 6 top things that Singaporeans do when using their smartphones, 6 November 2014, Asiaone, 13 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160126050015weblink">weblink 26 January 2016, dead, Overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people.WEB,weblink Statistics Singapore – Latest Data – Social Indicators, Singapore Department of Statistics, 2014, 26 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151129094649weblink">weblink 29 November 2015, dead, dmy-all, Internet in Singapore is provided by state owned Singtel, partially state owned Starhub and M1 Limited as well as some other business internet service providers (ISPs) that offer residential service plans of speeds up to 2 Gbit/s as of spring 2015.WEB, ViewQwest 2Gbps FAQ,weblink 2 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021051852weblink">weblink 21 October 2015, Equinix (332 participants) and also its smaller brother Singapore Internet Exchange (70 participants) are Internet exchange points where Internet service providers and Content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems) in various locations in Singapore.WEB, Equinix further expands SG2 IBX data center in Singapore,weblink Networks Asia, Networks Asia, 4 July 2018,weblink 4 July 2018, dead, WEB, Singapore Internet Exchange,weblink Info-communications Media Development Authority, 4 July 2018,

Transport

File:Singapore Changi Airport, Control Tower 2, Dec 05.JPG|thumb|alt=Singapore Changi Airport, Control Tower|Changi AirportChangi AirportAs Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110220044725weblink">weblink dead, 20 February 2011, BMW Costing $260,000 Means Cars Only for Rich in Singapore as Taxes Climb, Bloomberg L.P., New York, 2 July 2011, Kristine, Aquino, 17 February 2011, As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.WEB,weblink Once you're here: Basic Road Rules and Regulations, Expat Singapore, 16 August 2009, 27 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141215023246weblink">weblink 15 December 2014, dead, Singapore has a road system covering {{convert|3356|km|mi|0}}, which includes {{convert|161|km|mi|0}} of expressways.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100401014335weblink">weblink 1 April 2010, dead, Public transport ridership, Land Transport Authority, 2 July 2011, WEB,weblink Tracing our steps, Land Transport Authority, 2 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110605104816weblink">weblink 5 June 2011, The Singapore Area Licensing Scheme, implemented in 1975, became the world's first congestion pricing scheme, and included other complementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit.BOOK, Small, Kenneth A., Verhoef, Erik T., 2007, The Economics of Urban Transportation, Routledge, London, 978-0-415-28515-5, 148, BOOK, Cervero, Robert, Robert Cervero, 1998, The Transit Metropolis, 169, Island Press, Washington DC, Chapter 6/The Master Planned Transit Metropolis: Singapore, 978-1-55963-591-2, Upgraded in 1998 and renamed Electronic Road Pricing, the system introduced electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillance technology.WEB,weblink Electronic Road Pricing, Land Transport Authority, 16 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080410143342weblink">weblink 10 April 2008, A Global Navigation Satellite System will replace the physical gantries by 2020.NEWS,weblink Satellite-based ERP to be ready by 2020, with S$556m contract awarded, 25 February 2016, Channel NewsAsia, File:ERP in Singapore.jpg|thumb|right| The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975. Fully automated by Electronic Road PricingElectronic Road PricingSingaporean residents also travel by e-scooters,WEB,weblink E-scooter owners must register devices by end June; $20 fee waived if they do so before March 31, 12 December 2018, The Straits Times, bicycles, bus, taxis and train (MRT or LRT). Two companies run the train transport system—SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. Four companies, Go-Ahead, Tower-Transit, SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation run the public buses under a 'Bus Contracting Model' where operators bid for routes. There are six taxi companies, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road.WEB,weblink Taxi info, Land Transport Authority, 2015, 24 May 2015, Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries.WEB,weblink Getting A Taxi, Land Transport Authority, 13 July 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160527192902weblink">weblink 27 May 2016, Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Changi Airport is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and a stopover on the Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London.NEWS,weblink Qantas celebrates 60 years of the 'Kangaroo Route', Kathy, Marks, The Independent, London, 30 November 2007, There are three civilian airports in Singapore, Singapore Changi Airport, Seletar AirportWEB,weblink Malaysia and Singapore resolve airspace issue, Firefly to resume flights to Seletar airport, 6 April 2019, The Star Online, WEB,weblink Malaysian carrier Firefly to resume Singapore flights with twice-daily trips, CNA, and Kallang Airport (which is not open to public). Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of over 100 airlines connecting Singapore to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide.WEB,weblink About Changi Airport, Changiairport.com, 13 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141121013212weblink">weblink 21 November 2014, dead, It has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the first time in 2006 by Skytrax.WEB, 2006 Airport of the Year result, 1 June 2006,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061231160516weblink">weblink World Airport Awards, 31 December 2006, The national airline is Singapore Airlines.NEWS,weblink Turbulence ahead for Singapore flag carrier, Jimmy, Yap, 30 January 2004, Brand Republic, Haymarket Business Media, London, The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2005 in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1.15 billion gross tons, and in terms of containerised traffic, at 23.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). It is also the world's second-busiest, behind Shanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 423 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre.NEWS, Singapore remains world's busiest port,weblink 12 January 2006, Xinhua News Agency, China View, Beijing, 22 April 2010, {{wide image|singapore port panorama.jpg|800px|The Port of Singapore, one of the top two busiest container ports in the world since the 1990s.|center |alt=The Port with a large number of shipping containers and the ocean visible in the background|align-cap=center}}

Water supply and sanitation

{{see also|NEWater}}Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Singapore relies on four main water sources, or "four national taps" - water imported from neighbouring Malaysia, urban rainwater catchments, reclaimed water (NEWater) and seawater desalination.WEB,weblink Singapore Water Story, Public Utilities Board, 2018, 17 March 2018, Singapore's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.JOURNAL, Ivy Ong Bee Luan, Singapore Water Management Policies and Practices, International Journal of Water Resources Development, 2010, 26, 1, 65–80, 10.1080/07900620903392190, Singapore has declared that it will be water self-sufficient by the time its 1961 long-term water supply agreement with Malaysia expires in 2061. However, according to official forecasts water demand in Singapore is expected to double from 380 to 760 million gallons per day between 2010 and 2060. The increase is expected to come primarily from non-domestic water use, which accounted for 55% of water demand in 2010 and is expected to account for 70% of demand in 2060. By that time water demand is expected to be met by reclaimed water at the tune of 50% and by desalination accounting for 30%, compared to only 20% supplied by internal catchments.WEB, Bloomberg interview with Chew Men Leong, chief executive of PUB, Singapore To Meet Water Target Before Deadline: Southeast Asia,weblink 9 August 2012, 30 July 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120805212635weblink">weblink 2012-08-05, live, WEB, PUB, Four National Taps Provide Water for All,weblink 10 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120730063932weblink">weblink 30 July 2012, dead, Due to the need to invest in and upgrade the water system to address concerns such as climate change and increasing costs of producing water and maintaining water infrastructure, water prices in Singapore was revised in 2017 and 2018,WEB,weblink Why increase water prices?, www.gov.sg, en, 2019-02-18, its first revision since 2000. The prices generally increased by 30% in two phases from 1 July 2017, with 75% of households facing an increase of less than $18 in their monthly water bills. To help households manage the higher water prices, the Government provided eligible HDB households with additional U-Save rebates, ranging from $40 to $120 per annum depending on the type of the HDB flat.WEB,weblink Water Price, PUB, PUB, Singapore's National Water Agency, en, live, 2019-08-29,

Demographics

{{See also|Race in Singapore}}File:KITLV - 103763 - Chinese and Malaysian women at Singapore - circa 1890.tif|upright=.7|thumb|Chinese and Malay women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote social cohesion between races, a unique Racial Harmony DayRacial Harmony DayAs of mid-2018, the estimated population of Singapore was 5,638,700 people, 3,471,900 (61.6%) of whom were citizens, while the remaining 2,166,800 (38.4%) were permanent residents (522,300) or international students/foreign workers/dependants (1,644,500). According to the country's most recent census in 2010, nearly 23% of Singaporean residents (i.e. citizens and permanent residents) were foreign born (which means about 10% of Singapore citizens were foreign-born naturalised citizens); if non-residents were counted, nearly 43% of the total population were foreign born.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120327064912weblink">weblink 27 March 2012, dead, Census of population (pages 13 to 16 of the pdf file), Singapore Department of Statistics, 2010, 2 July 2011, "Trends in international migrant stock: The 2008 revision", United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009).The same census also reports that about 74.1% of residents were of Chinese descent, 13.4% of Malay descent, 9.2% of Indian descent, and 3.3% of other (including Eurasian) descent. Prior to 2010, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his or her father, therefore mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2010 onward, people may register using a multi-racial classification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.NEWS,weblink Singaporeans of mixed race allowed to 'double barrel' race in IC, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, Hoe Yeen Nie, 12 January 2010, 18 February 2011, 90.3% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the average household size is 3.43 persons (which include dependants who are neither citizens nor permanent residents).WEB,weblink Statistics Singapore – Latest Data – Households & Housing, 2014, Statistics Singapore, 20 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151129094649weblink">weblink 29 November 2015, dead, However, due to scarcity of land, 80.4% of resident households live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments known as "HDB flats" because of the government board (Housing and Development Board) responsible for public housing in the country. Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one living room) HDB flat or in private housing.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111211145036weblink">weblink dead, 11 December 2011, HDB InfoWEB: HDB Wins the 2010 UN-HABITAT Scroll of Honour Award, Hdb.gov.sg, 14 October 2013, Live-in foreign domestic workers are quite common in Singapore, with about 224,500 foreign domestic workers there, as of December 2013.NEWS,weblink More than 1.3 million foreigners working in Singapore: Tan Chuan-Jin, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 5 August 2014, 26 October 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140914232514weblink">weblink 14 September 2014, The median age of Singaporean residents was 40.5 in 2017,WEB,weblink Statistics Singapore Latest Data – Resident Population Profile, Statistics Singapore, 15 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050303000939weblink">weblink 3 March 2005, dead, and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.WEB,weblink The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 24 October 2014, To overcome this problem, the Singapore government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singapore for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining.NEWS,weblink Singapore's birth trend outlook remains dismal, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 7 February 2007, Julia, Ng, 22 April 2010, All male citizens and permanent residents in Singapore have a statutory requirement to undergo a period of compulsory service in the uniformed services, known as National Service (or NS for short), as well as periodic reservist duties after completion of active duty.

Religion

{{bar box|title=Religion in Singapore, 2015Statistics Singapore:
  • WEB,weblink General Household Survey 2015 - Content Page, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170505143054weblink">weblink 5 May 2017,
  • WEB,weblink Religion data, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160409100146weblink">weblink 9 April 2016, |titlebar=ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars=
{{bar percent|Buddhism|gold|33.2}}{{bar percent|Christianity|purple|18.8}}{{bar percent|No religion|grey|18.5}}{{bar percent|Islam|black|14.0}}{{bar percent|Taoism and folk religion|red|10.0}}{{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|5.0}}{{bar percent|Other religions|blue|0.6}}}}Buddhism is the most widely practised religion in Singapore, with 33% of the resident population declaring themselves adherents at the most recent census. The next-most practised religion is Christianity, followed by Islam, Taoism, and Hinduism. 17% of the population did not have a religious affiliation. The proportion of Christians, Taoists, and non-religious people increased between 2000 and 2010 by about 3 percentage points each, whilst the proportion of Buddhists decreased. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Census of population 2010: Statistical Release 1 on Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion, Singapore Statistics, 12 January 2011, 16 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110124160522weblink">weblink 24 January 2011, An analysis by the Pew Research Center found Singapore to be the world's most religiously diverse nation.WEB, Global Religious Diversity,weblink Pew Research, 4 April 2014, 15 April 2014, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project: Singapore. Pew Research Center. 2010.There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition,BOOK,weblink State, society, and religious engineering: toward a reformist Buddhism in Singapore, Khun Eng Kuah, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, 1 November 2010, 978-981-230-865-8, 2009, with missionaries having come into the country from China for several decades. However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the populace (not only the Chinese) during the past decade. The religion of Soka Gakkai International, a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years.WEB,weblink Modernity in south-east Asia, Informaworld, 2 December 1995, 1 November 2010, File:The Sultan Mosque at Kampong Glam, Singapore (8125148933).jpg|Sultan Mosque, a historic mosque in Kampong GlamFile:St Andrew's Cathedral, Singapore 2012.JPG|Saint Andrew's Cathedral in the Civic District has existed since 1836.File:Grand Buddha Tooth Relic Temple Singapore.jpeg|The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum in the heart of Chinatown

Languages

Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil.{{Singapore legislation|title=Republic of Singapore Independence Act|ed=1985}}, s7. English is the common language, and is the language of business and government, and the medium of instruction in schools.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110402172957weblink">weblink dead, 2 April 2011, Education UK Partnership â€“ Country focus, October 2010, British Council, 27 February 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110519070557weblink">weblink dead, 19 May 2011, Speech by Mr S. Iswaran, Senior Minister of State, Ministry of Trade and Industry and Ministry of Education, 19 April 2010, Ministry of Education, Public bodies in Singapore, such as the Singapore Public Service, (which includes the Singapore Civil Service and other agencies), conduct their business in English, and official documents written in a non-English official language such as Malay, Chinese or Tamil typically have to be translated into English to be accepted for submission.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106063743weblink">weblink dead, 6 January 2015, Public Agencies, 6 January 2015, 21 September 2018, Although de jure Malay is the national language, English is regarded de facto as the main language in Singapore,JOURNAL,weblink Epistemic modalities and the discourse particles of Singapore, A.F., Gupta, Fischer, K., DOC, Approaches to Discourse Particles, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 244–263, 2 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110205010214weblink">weblink 5 February 2011, live, and is officially the main language of instruction in all school subjects in the Singaporean education system.Dixon, L. Quentin. (2005). The Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: Implications for Second Language Acquisition. In James Cohen, J., McAlister, K. T., Rolstad, K., and MacSwan, J (Eds.), ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. p. 625-635, Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA. It is also the common language of the administration, and is promoted as an important language for international business.WEB,weblink 31 March 2000, Moe.gov.sg, 2011-01-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120306034004weblink">weblink 6 March 2012, dead, dmy-all, Spelling in Singapore largely follows British conventions, owing to the country's status as a former crown colony.WEB,weblink What are some commonly misspelled English words?, ASK!ASK!,weblink 3 March 2012, dead, English is the country's default lingua franca despite the fact that four languages have official status.Tan, Sherman, p. 340-341. "The four recognised official languages are English, Mandarin, Tamil, and Malay, but in practice, English is Singapore's default lingua franca."{{bar boxLAST=HERMES, 10 March 2016, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Language|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|English|blue|36.9}}{{bar percent|Mandarin|yellow|34.9}}{{bar percent|Malay|red|10.7}}{{bar percent|Tamil|green|3.3}}{{bar percent|Others|grey|14.2}}}}Malay was chosen as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s to avoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours Malaysia and Indonesia.BOOK, From Third World to First, Lee Kuan Yew, 2000, Marshall Cavendish, Singapore, It has a symbolic, rather than functional purpose.BOOK,weblink Language and society in Singapore, Singapore University Press, Evangelos A., Afendras, Eddie C.Y., Kuo, 1980, 978-9971-69-016-8, 27 February 2011, BOOK,weblink Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, Ulrich, Ammon, Norbert, Dittmar, Klaus J., Mattheier, 3, 2006, 978-3-11-018418-1, 27 February 2011, It is used in the national anthem "Majulah Singapura",{{Singapore legislation|title=Singapore Arms and Flag and National Anthem Act|cap=296|ed=1985}} in citations of Singaporean orders and decorations, and in military commands. In general, Malay is spoken mainly within the Singaporean Malay community, with only 17% of all Singaporeans literate initWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091113162718weblink">weblink 13 November 2009, dead, Literacy and Language, Singapore Statistics, 27 February 2011, and only 12% using it as their native language. While Singaporean Malay is officially written in the Latin-based Rumi script, some Singaporean Malays still learn the Arabic-based Jawi script as children alongside Rumi,BOOK, Cook, Vivian, Bassetti, Benedetta, Second Language Writing Systems, 2005, Multilingual Matters, 978-1-85359-793-0, 359,weblink and Jawi is considered an ethnic script for use on Singaporean Identity Cards.WEB,weblink Update Change of Name in IC, Immigration and Checkpoints Authority, 29 January 2017, dead,weblink 2 February 2017, The Constitution of Singapore and all laws are written in English,{{Singapore legislation|title=Constitution|ed=|rep=|abbr=}} and interpreters are required if one wishes to address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English.WEB, What do I do if I can't speak English?,weblink 11 October 2011, Singapore Subordinate Courts,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100709074333weblink">weblink 9 July 2010, English is the native tongue for only one-third of all Singaporeans, with roughly a quarter of all Singaporean Malays, a third of all Singaporean Chinese, and half of all Singaporean Indians speaking it as their native tongue. Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511222935weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, Singapore Statistics, Census of Population, 2010, 19 February 2011, (File:Protected place sign, Fort Canning Park, Singapore - 20081203.jpg|thumb|A multilingual warning sign in Singapore's four official languages: English, Chinese, Tamil, Malay.)Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, with English as their common language and usually the mother-tongue as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. The official languages amongst Singaporeans are English (80% literacy), Mandarin (65% literacy), Malay (17% literacy), and Tamil (4% literacy).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110419151905weblink">weblink 19 April 2011, dead, Census of Population 2010, Singapore Statistics, 27 February 2011, Singaporean English is based on British English,WEB,weblink What are some commonly misspelled English words?, National Library Board, Singapore, 18 April 2008, 18 February 2011, dead,weblink 3 March 2012, and forms of English spoken in Singapore range from Standard Singapore English to a colloquial form known as "Singlish". Singlish is discouraged by the government.NEWS, Tan Hwee Hwee,weblink A war of words is brewing over Singlish, Time, New York, 22 July 2002, 18 February 2011, English is the language spoken by most Singaporeans at home, 36.9% of the population, just ahead of Mandarin.WEB,weblink General Household Survey 2015, 2015, 15 November 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171215063843weblink">weblink 15 December 2017, dead, NEWS, Oi, Mariko,weblink Singapore's booming appetite to study Mandarin, BBC News, 5 October 2010, 27 February 2011, Nearly half a million speak other varieties of Chinese, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language, although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin and English.WEB, Chapter 2 Education and Language,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120326052305weblink">weblink 26 March 2012, dead, 2005, General Household Survey 2005, Statistical Release 1: Socio-Demographic and Economic Characteristics, Singapore Statistics, 11 November 2010, Singapore Chinese characters are written using simplified Chinese characters.BOOK, Fagao Zhou, Papers in Chinese Linguistics and Epigraphy, 1986, Chinese University Press, 978-962-201-317-9, 56,weblink 31 January 2017, Around 100,000 Singaporeans, or 3% of the population, speak Tamil as their native language. Tamil has official status in Singapore and there have been no attempts to discourage the use of other Indian languages.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408195106weblink">weblink dead, 8 April 2008, Ministry of Education, Returning Singaporeans â€“ Mother-Tongue Language Policy, 13 October 2010,

Education

The education system in Singapore has been noted to be one of the best in the world. Singapore students excelled in most of the world education benchmarks in maths, science and reading. In 2015, both its primary and secondary students rank first in OECD's global school performance rankings across 76 countries—described as the most comprehensive map of education standards.NEWS,weblink Singapore tops OECD's global school ranking, US placed 28th, 13 May 2015, CNBC, NEWS,weblink Singapore tops biggest global education rankings published by OECD, 13 May 2015, The Straits Times, Singapore, In 2016, Singapore students topped both the Program International Student Assessment (PISA)NEWS,weblink Pisa tests: Singapore top in global education rankings, 7 December 2016, BBC News, NEWS,weblink PISA: Singapore teens top global education ranking, 6 December 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink Why Singapore's kids are so good at maths, 22 July 2016, Financial Times, London, NEWS,weblink S'pore students top in science, maths and reading in Pisa test, Today, Singapore, 6 December 2016, and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).NEWS,weblink Singapore students top in maths, science and reading in Pisa international benchmarking test, 6 December 2016, The Straits Times, Singapore, NEWS,weblink U.S. Teenagers Lose Ground in International Math Exam, Raising Competitiveness Concerns, 6 December 2016, The Wall Street Journal, New York, NEWS,weblink UK Schools climb international league table, 6 December 2016, The Guardian, London, File:Singapore Management University 17, Aug 06.JPG|thumb|right|Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state]]In the 2015 International Baccalaureate exams taken in 107 countries, Singapore students fared best with more than half of the world's 81 perfect scorers and 98% passing rate.NEWS,weblink Over half of International Baccalaureate top scorers from Singapore, 5 January 2016, The Straits Times, In the 2016 EF English Proficiency Index taken in 72 countries, Singapore place 6th and has been the only Asian country in the top ten.WEB,weblink Singaporeans among top English speakers; Hong Kong slides, Nylander, Johan, 14 November 2016, Asia Times Online, Hong Kong, 16 November 2016, NEWS,weblink Dutch Pass Danes to Become World's Best English Speakers, 15 November 2016, Yahoo News, dead,weblink 8 August 2017, NEWS,weblink The Nordics have the highest English proficiency in the world – and it's boosting their tech and innovation, 16 November 2016, Business Insider, 6 July 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170713204753weblink">weblink 13 July 2017, dead, NEWS,weblink How Well is English Spoken Worldwide?, 15 November 2016, Voice of America News, Singapore literature students have won the Angus Ross Prize by Cambridge Examinations every year since 1987 (except in 2000), awarded to the top A-level English literature student outside Britain, with about 12,000 international candidates.NEWS,weblink Secrets to Singapore's Angus Ross success, 6 July 2017, The Straits Times, Singapore, NEWS,weblink Singaporean student clinches prestigious Angus Ross Prize, 6 July 2017, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education.WEB,weblink Private Education in Singapore, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, English is the language of instruction in all public schools,WEB,weblink International Student Admissions: General Information on Studying in Singapore, Ministry of Education, 27 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110304134017weblink">weblink 4 March 2011, and all subjects are taught and examined in English except for the "mother tongue" language paper.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406231811weblink">weblink dead, 6 April 2008, ASEAN Scholarships: Frequently Asked Questions, Ministry of Education, 27 February 2011, While the term "mother tongue" in general refers to the first language internationally, in Singapore's education system, it is used to refer to the second language, as English is the first language.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Speech by Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Senior Minister of State for Trade & Industry and Education at the Seminar on "The Significance of Speaking Skills For Language Development", organised by the Tamil Language and Culture Division of Nie on 15 February 2003, Ministry of Education, 2 January 2008, 27 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515193809weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, NEWS,weblink Mandarin is important but remains a second language in S'pore MM Lee, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 26 June 2010, 27 February 2011, Students who have been abroad for a while, or who struggle with their "Mother Tongue" language, are allowed to take a simpler syllabus or drop the subject.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408195106weblink">weblink dead, 8 April 2008, Returning Singaporeans – Mother-Tongue Language Policy, Ministry of Education, 27 February 2011, PRESS RELEASE,weblink Refinements to Mother Tongue Language Policy, Ministry of Education, 27 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110224021851weblink">weblink 24 February 2011, Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, mathematics, and science.WEB,weblink Primary Education, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080407095703weblink">weblink dead, 7 April 2008, Primary School Curriculum, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, Secondary school lasts from four to five years, and is divided between Special, Express, Normal (Academic), and Normal (Technical) streams in each school, depending on a student's ability level.WEB,weblink Secondary Education, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, The basic coursework breakdown is the same as in the primary level, although classes are much more specialised.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080407202048weblink">weblink dead, 7 April 2008, Special/Express Courses Curriculum, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, Pre-university education takes place over two to three years at senior schools, mostly called Junior Colleges.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080405194544weblink">weblink dead, 5 April 2008, Pre-University Education, Ministry of Education, 2011, 2 July 2011, As alternatives to Pre-U education, however, courses are offered in other post-secondary education institutions, including 5 polytechnics and the institutes of technical education (ITEs). Singapore has six public universitiesWEB,weblink How Singapore's six public universities differ, 3 March 2015, The Straits Times, Singapore, 23 September 2016, of which the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University are among the top 20 universities in the world.WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings 2015/16, QS, 15 November 2016, 11 September 2015, National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE), which determines their placement at secondary school. At the end of the secondary stage, GCE "O"-Level or "N"-level exams are taken;WEB,weblink Secondary, Ministry of Education, 2 December 2016, at the end of the following pre-university stage, the GCE "A"-Level exams are taken.WEB,weblink Singapore's Education System: An Overview, Ministry of Education, 6 December 2016, Some schools have a degree of freedom in their curriculum and are known as autonomous schools, for secondary education level and above.

Healthcare

File:KRW Facade2 final.jpg|thumb|left|National University HospitalNational University HospitalSingapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries.WEB, 2010,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20121210052940weblink">weblink dead, 10 December 2012, The Singapore health system – achieving positive health outcomes with low expenditure, Tucci, John, Towers Watson, 16 March 2011, The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report.PRESS RELEASE,weblink World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems, 21 June 2000, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2 November 2011, In general, Singapore has had the lowest infant mortality rates in the world for the past two decades.WEB,weblink Statistics Singapore – Latest Data – Births & Deaths, Singapore Department of Statistics, 2014, 26 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151129094649weblink">weblink 29 November 2015, dead, dmy-all, Life expectancy in Singapore is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 4th in the world for life expectancy, as almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities.WEB, 2015,weblink Singapore - Improved Sanitation facilities, 28 August 2019, As of December 2011 and January 2013, 8,800 foreigners and 5,400 Singaporeans were respectively diagnosed with HIV,WEB,weblink Data of 14,200 people with HIV leaked online by American fraudster:MOH, 28 January 2019, but there are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation.WEB,weblink At a glance: Singapore, 27 August 2019, Adult obesity is below 10%.WEB,weblink Singapore: Health Profile, World Health Organization, 13 August 2010, 16 March 2011, The Economist Intelligence Unit, in its 2013 "Where-to-be-born Index", ranked Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and sixth overall in the world."The lottery of life". The Economist (London). 21 November 2012.The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safety net for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare, Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about 85% of the population, and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. Public hospitals in Singapore have a considerable autonomy in their management decisions, and notionally compete for patients, however they remain in government ownership and government appoints their boards and Chief Executive Officers and management reports and is responsible to these boards.JOURNAL, Ramesh, M., Autonomy and Control in Public Hospital Reforms in Singapore, The American Review of Public Administration, 2008, 38, 1, 18, A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income.WEB,weblink The World Health Report, World Health Organization, 66, 2000, 16 March 2011, In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. It accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.WEB,weblink Core Health Indicators Singapore, World Health Organisation, May 2008, 16 March 2011, In 2019, Singaporeans have the longest life expectancy of any country at 84.8 years. Females can expect to live an average of 87.6 years with 75.8 years in good health. The averages are lower for men. Singapore is ranked 1st on the Global Food Security Index.WEB,weblink The World's Best Countries For Food Security, worldatlas,

Culture

File:Aerial view of Kampong Glam, Singapore - 20121027.jpg|thumb|left|Kampong Glam was the 23-hectare home of Malay royalty from 1824. Conserved as a historic area, it includes the Masjid Sultan Mosque and the Malay Heritage CentreMalay Heritage CentreDespite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010210223621weblink">weblink dead, 10 February 2001, Speech by Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong on Singapore 21 Debate in Parliament, singapore21, 5 May 1999, 27 October 2011, Former Prime Ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.NEWS,weblink MM Lee says Singapore needs to do more to achieve nationhood, Channel NewsAsia, Singapore, 5 May 2009, 27 October 2011, From 1819, it served as a trading port for British ships on their way to India. Being a major trading hub and its close proximity to its neighbour Malaysia, Singapore was prone to many foreign influences, both from Britain and from other Asian countries. Chinese and Indian workers moved to Singapore to work at the harbour. The country remained a British colony until 1942.WEB, Cultire in Singapore,weblink InterNations, (File:Sri_Mariamman_Temple_Singapore_3_amk.jpg|upright=0.7|thumb|Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827)When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were transient labourers, seeking to make some money in Singapore, with no intention of staying permanently.BOOK, Singapore : the making of a nation-state 1300–1975. Secondary Two, [Textbook], Singapore. Curriculum Planning & Development Division, 978-981-4448-45-1, Singapore, 903000193, 2015, There was also a sizeable minority of middle-class, locally born people—known as Peranakans or Baba-Nyonya—descendants of 15th- and 16th-century Chinese immigrants. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture.Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Chinese as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture.JOURNAL, Siddique, Sharon, Some Aspects of Malay-Muslim Ethnicity in Peninsular Malaysia, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 1981, 3, 1, 76–87, 25797648, 10.1355/CS3-1E, WEB, Prystay, Chris, Bit of Malay Culture Is Now Vanishing Under Muslim Rules,weblink Yale GlobalOnline, Yale University, 17 November 2018, Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singaporeans as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100220195750weblink">weblink dead, 20 February 2010, PM Lee on racial and religious issues (National Day Rally 2009), Singapore United, 16 August 2009, 27 February 2011, WEB, Prystay, Chris, Bit of Malay Culture Is Now Vanishing Under Muslim Rules,weblink YaleGlobal Online, Yale Universal, 17 November 2018, The national flower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893.WEB, National Flower,weblink www.nhb.gov.sg, National Heritage Board, en, Many national symbols such as the Coat of arms of Singapore and the Lion head symbol of Singapore make use of the lion, as Singapore is known as the Lion City. Major religious festivals are public holidays.NEWS, Ministry of Manpower issues response on debate over Thaipusam public holiday,weblink 4 July 2018, The Straits Times, Singapore, 13 February 2015, Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state.NEWS,weblink Singapore slings a little caution to the wind, BBC News, 16 August 2004, 27 February 2011, Andrew, Harding, NEWS,weblink The Nanny State Places a Bet, The New York Times, 16 August 2004, 27 February 2011, Wayne, Arnold, The government also places heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Old and new citizens get equal chance, says MM Lee, Prime Minister's Office, 5 May 2010, 27 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812071843weblink">weblink 12 August 2011,

Arts

File:National Gallery 2 (31322988764).jpg|thumb|right|alt=The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Southeast Asian and Singapore art |The National Gallery SingaporeNational Gallery SingaporeSince the 1990s when the National Arts Council was created to spearhead the development of performing arts, visual and literary art forms, to hasten a vibrant cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".WEB,weblink Culture and the Arts in Renaissance Singapore, Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, 1 May 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524013952weblink">weblink 24 May 2006, The National Gallery Singapore is the nation's flagship museum with some 8,000 works of Singapore and South East Asian artists. The Singapore Art Museum focuses on contemporary art. The Red Dot Design Museum celebrates exceptional art and design of objects for everyday life, from more than 1,000 items from 50 countries. The lotus-shaped ArtScience Museum host touring exhibitions that combine art with the sciences. Other major museums include the Asian Civilisations Museum, Peranakan Museum, The Arts House.NEWS, NN, Soorya Kiran, Painting our own canvas,weblink 17 August 2018, The Straits Times, 29 November 2015, The Esplanade is Singapore's largest performing arts centre with many performances throughout the year, including 5,900 free arts and culture events in 2016.WEB,weblink Esplanade-Theatres on the bay, 7 July 2016, Faizah bte Zakaria, 16 March 2018, NEWS, Wintle, Angela, Singlish, cultural diversity and hawker food essential in forging a national identity, say celebs,weblink Channel NewsAsia, 5 February 2016, Some of the major music and dance groups include the Singapore Symphony Orchestra, Singapore Chinese Orchestra, and the Singapore Dance Theatre.Literature of Singapore, or SingLit, comprises a collection of literary works by Singaporeans written chiefly in the country's four official languages: English, Malay, Standard Mandarin and Tamil. It is increasingly regarded as having four sub-literatures instead of one. Many significant works has been translated and showcased in publications such as the literary journal Singa, published in the 1980s and 1990s with editors including Edwin Thumboo and Koh Buck Song, as well as in multilingual anthologies such as Rhythms: A Singaporean Millennial Anthology Of Poetry (2000), in which the poems were all translated three times each into the three languages. A number of Singaporean writers such as Tan Swie Hian and Kuo Pao Kun have contributed work in more than one language.WEB,weblink Singapore Writers Festival: Feature Singapore's unique language in literature, says poet, The Straits Times, 27 August 2019, 5 November 2018, WEB,weblink The dynamics of multilingualism in contemporary Singapore, Wiley-Blackwell, 27 August 2019,

Music

File:林俊傑 學不會慶功記者會.jpg|upright=0.7|right|thumb|alt= |JJ LinJJ LinSingapore has a diverse music culture that ranges from pop and rock, to folk and classical. Western classical music plays a significant role in the cultural life in Singapore, with the Singapore Symphony Orchestra (SSO) instituted in 1979. Other notable western orchestras in Singapore include Singapore National Youth Orchestra which is funded by the Ministry of EducationWEB,weblink Singapore National Youth Orchestra, Ministry of Education, 2014-10-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141009101537weblink">weblink 2014-10-09, live, and the community-based Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra.WEB,weblink Music director Adrian Tan ushers in new era for Braddell Heights Symphony Orchestra, Steven Ang, Time Out Singapore, 2014-10-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006150746weblink">weblink 2014-10-06, live, Many orchestras and ensembles are also found in secondary schools and junior colleges. Various communities have their own distinct ethnic musical traditions: Chinese, Malays, Indians, and Eurasians. With their traditional forms of music and various modern musical styles, the fusion of different forms account for the musical diversity in the country.BOOK, The Garland Handbook of Southeast Asian Music, Terry Miller, Sean Williams, Singapore, Lee Tong Soon, Routledge, 978-0-415-96075-5, 2008, The nation's lively urban musical scene has made it a centre for international performances and festivals in the region. Some of Singapore's best known pop singers includes Stefanie Sun, JJ Lin, Liang Wern Fook, Taufik Batisah and Dick Lee, who is famous for composing National Day theme songs, including Home.NEWS, An A-Z of the nation's iconic talents, 17 February 2019, The Sunday Times, NEWS, NN, Soorya Kiran, Here's why Stefanie Sun's a Singapore icon,weblink 17 August 2018, AsiaOne, 20 August 2017,

Cuisine

Dining is said to be Singaporeans' national pastime,NEWS, Wintle, Angela, Tom Kerridge's Singapore: 'Dining is the country's national pastime',weblink The Telegraph, 5 February 2016, and even an obsession for many. Singapore's diversity of cuisine is touted as a reason to visit the country, one of the best locations when it comes to a combination of convenience, variety, quality and price.BOOK,weblink Changing Chinese foodways in Asia, Wu, David Y.H., Chee Beng Tan, 161 ff, Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, 978-962-201-914-0, 2001, 27 February 2011, Hainanese chicken rice ({{zh|c=海南鸡饭|p=Hǎinán jī fàn|labels=no}}), based on the Hainanese dish Wenchang chicken, is considered Singapore's national dish.WEB, Farley, David, The Dish Worth the 15-Hour Flight,weblink BBC, WEB, Ling, Catherine, 40 Singapore foods we can't live without,weblink CNN, 13 January 2019, The city-state has a burgeoning food scene ranging from hawker centres (open-air), food courts (air-conditioned), coffee shops (open-air with up to a dozen hawker stalls), cafes, fast food, simple kitchens, casual, celebrity and high-end restaurants. Every day, two new restaurants open in Singapore.WEB, Two new restaurants open daily in Singapore: ACRA,weblink 9 November 2015, Many international celebrity chef restaurants are located within the integrated resorts.WEB, The top celebrity chef restaurants to visit in Singapore,weblink sg.asia-city.com, Singapore, 23 June 2015, Religious dietary strictures exist – Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef, and there is also a significant group of vegetarians. The Singapore Food Festival which celebrates Singapore's cuisine is held in July annually.

Hawker Centres

File:Satay stalls along Boon Tat Street next to Telok Ayer Market, Singapore - 20120629-02.jpg|left|thumb|alt=Satay stalls along Boon Tat Street next to Telok Ayer Market, better known as Lau Pa Sat|Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the midst of the financial district. SataySatayPrior to the 1980s, street food were mainly sold by immigrants from China, India and Malaysia to other immigrants seeking a familiar taste. In Singapore, street food has long migrated into hawker centres with communal seating areas. Typically, these centres have a few dozen to hundreds of food stalls, with each specialising in a single or a number of related dishes. The choices are almost overwhelming even for locals.NEWS, Fieldmar, James, Singapore's Street Food 101,weblink 21 October 2013, Fodor's, 19 December 2012, NEWS, Michaels, Rowena, Singapore's best street food ... just don't order frog porridge,weblink 21 October 2013, The Daily Telegraph, London, 20 July 2013, Although cooked food that originates from or still sold on streets can be found in many countries, the variety and reach of centralised hawker centres that serve heritage street food in Singapore is unmatched elsewhere.BOOK, Kong, Lily, Singapore Hawker Centres : People, Places, Food, 2007, SNP, Singapore, 978-981-248-149-8, In 2018, there are 114 hawker centres spread across the city centre and heartland housing estates. They are maintained by the National Environment Agency, which also grade each food stall for hygiene. The largest hawker centre is located on the second floor of Chinatown Complex with over 200 stalls. The complex is also home to the cheapest Michelin-starred meal in the world – a plate of soya-sauce chicken rice or noodles for S$2 (US$1.50). Two street food stalls in the city are the first in the world to be awarded a Michelin star each.NEWS, Han, Kirsten, Michelin star for Singapore noodle stall where lunch is half the price of a Big Mac,weblink The Guardian, 4 August 2016, London, Local food items generally belong to a particular ethnicity – Chinese, Malay and Indian; but diversity of cuisine has increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan cuisine, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine). In hawker centres, cultural diffusion can also be noted when traditionally Malay hawker stalls also sells Tamil food. Chinese stalls may introduce Malay ingredients, cooking techniques or entire dishes into their range of catering. This continues to make the cuisine of Singapore significantly rich and a cultural attraction.

Sport and recreation

File:2016 AFC Cup Group Stage.jpg|thumb|right|The National Stadium's retractable roof holds the world's 'largest dome structure' record]]The development of private sports and recreation clubs began in the 19th century colonial Singapore, such as the Cricket Club, Singapore Recreation Club, Singapore Swimming Club, Hollandse Club and others.WEB,weblink History of Singapore Sports, Sport Singapore, 6 July 2018, Water sports are some of the most popular in Singapore. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, Joseph Schooling won Singapore's first Olympic gold medal, claiming the 100-metre butterfly in a new Olympic record time of 50.39 seconds. Three swimmers including Michael Phelps, were in an unprecedented three-way tie for silver.NEWS, Michael Phelps taught a lesson for once – by Joseph Schooling {{!, Andy Bull |url=https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2016/aug/13/michael-phelps-taught-a-lesson-for-once-by-singapores-joseph-schooling |accessdate=17 August 2018 |work=The Guardian |date=13 August 2016 |ref=London }} Singapore sailors have had success on the international stage, with their Optimist team being considered among the best in the world.WEB,weblink Sailing: S'pore retain world team title, 28 August 2019, 24 July 2013, WEB,weblink Singapore sailing needs a trailblazer, 28 August 2019, 8 May 2017, Despite its size, the country has dominated swim meets in the Southeast Asia Games (SEA). Its men water polo team has won the SEA Games gold medal for the 27th time in 2017, continuing Singapore sport's longest winning streak.NEWS, Chia, Nicole, SEA Games: Singapore capture men's 27th water polo gold to keep country's longest sports winning streak alive,weblink 17 August 2018, The Straits Times, 20 August 2017, File:Joseph Schooling Kazan 2015.jpg|upright=0.7|thumb |Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.]]Singapore's table tennis women team reached their peak as silver medalists at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.NEWS, ir,weblink Olympics: First medal in 48 years for Singapore, Channel NewsAsia, 15 August 2008, WEB,weblink Table tennis: End of era for Singapore women paddlers, 28 August 2019, 5 March 2016, They were also world champions in 2010 when they beat China at the World Team Table Tennis Championships in Russia, breaking the latter's 19-year winning streak.{{citation |title=World champs!: S'pore beat favourites China in World Team Table Tennis C'ships |url=http://www.todayonline.com/Hotnews/EDC100531-0000074/World-champs! |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5q8hSeqKI |archivedate=31 May 2010 |newspaper=Today |date=31 May 2010 |page=1 |url-status=dead }} Weightlifter Tan Howe Liang was Singapore's first Olympic medalist, winning a silver at the 1960 Rome Games.WEB,weblink Tan Howe Liang, National Library Board, 28 August 2019, Singapore's football league, the Singapore Premier League, was launched in 1996 as the S.League and currently comprises nine clubs, including two foreign teams.WEB,weblink S.League.com – Overview, S.League, 2016, 5 January 2016, Football: Goodbye S-League, welcome Singapore Premier League The Straits Times, 21 March 2018 The Singapore Slingers, formerly the Hunter Pirates in the Australian National Basketball League, is one of the inaugural teams in the ASEAN Basketball League which was founded in October 2009.NEWS,weblink ASEAN Basketball League takes off, 20 January 2009, FIBA Asia, Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts several meetings per week, including international races—notably the Singapore Airlines International Cup.WEB,weblink Singapore Turf Club, National Library Board, 28 August 2019, Singapore began hosting a round of the Formula One World Championship, the Singapore Grand Prix at the Marina Bay Street Circuit in 2008. It was the inaugural F1 night race,PRESS RELEASE, Singapore confirms 2008 night race, Formula One,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070613015932weblink">weblink 11 May 2007, 13 June 2007, 18 May 2007, and the first F1 street race in Asia.PRESS RELEASE, SingTel to sponsor first Singapore Grand Prix, Formula One,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071118105330weblink">weblink dead, 18 November 2007, 10 December 2007, 16 November 2007, It is considered a signature event on the F1 calendar.NEWS, Oi, Mariko, The Big Read: To keep roaring for S'pore, F1 needs to raise its game,weblink TODAYonline, 23 April 2013, Singapore, Singapore hosted the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, in which 3,600 athletes from 204 nations competed in 26 sports.PRESS RELEASE,weblink International Olympic Committee,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090311003132weblink">weblink 11 March 2009, 21 February 2008, Singapore to host first edition of the Youth Olympic Games in 2010, 16 March 2011, The island is home to ONE Championship, the biggest Mixed Martial Arts promotion in Asia.WEB,weblink Mixed martial arts-ONE FC returning to Manila in May, chicagotribune.com,

Media

Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore.WEB,weblink Country Report 2010 Edition, Freedom House, 2010, 7 May 2011, MediaCorp operates most free-to-air television channels and free-to-air radio stations in Singapore. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101125152103weblink">weblink dead, 25 November 2010, Free-to-Air Television, 2011, MDA, 17 October 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101009125256weblink">weblink dead, 9 October 2010, TV listings, 2011, XIN MSN, 17 October 2011, Starhub Cable Vision (SCV) also offers cable television with channels from all around the world,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100714155808weblink">weblink dead, 14 July 2010, Cable Television, 2011, XIN MSN, 17 October 2011, and Singtel's Mio TV provides an IPTV service.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100714144133weblink">weblink dead, 14 July 2010, Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), 2011, XIN MSN, 17 October 2011, Singapore Press Holdings, a body with close links to the government, controls most of the newspaper industry in Singapore.NEWS,weblink Singapore country profile, BBC News, 16 November 2010, 27 February 2011, Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House. Self-censorship among journalists is said to be common. In 2014, Singapore dipped to its lowest ranking ever (153rd of 180 nations) on the Press Freedom Index published by the French Reporters Without Borders.WEB,weblink 2015 World Press Freedom Index, 2015, Reporters Without Borders, 5 January 2016, The Media Development Authority regulates Singaporean media, claiming to balance the demand for choice and protection against offensive and harmful material.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060910233826weblink">weblink 10 September 2006, Media: Overview, 16 March 2005, Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, 27 February 2011, Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned. In 2016, there were an estimated 4.7 million internet users in Singapore, representing 82.5% of the population.WEB, Internet Users by Country (July 2016 estimate),weblink Internet Live States, 23 November 2016, July 2016, Elaboration of data by International Telecommunication Union (ITU), United Nations Population Division, Internet & Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), World Bank., The Singapore government does not engage in widespread censoring of the internet,WEB,weblink Singapore, OpenNet Initiative, 7 May 2011, but it maintains a list of one hundred websites—mostly pornographic—that it blocks as a "symbolic statement of the Singaporean community's stand on harmful and undesirable content on the Internet".NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110119042223weblink">weblink 19 January 2011, Impossible for S'pore to block all undesirable sites, Wong, Tessa, The Straits Times, Singapore, Singapore Press Holdings, 11 January 2011, 17 August 2011, As the block covers only home internet access, users may still visit the blocked websites from their office computers.NEWS,weblink MDA bans two video-sharing porn sites, 23 May 2008, Chua Hian Hou, The Straits Times, Singapore,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080524215638weblink">weblink 24 May 2008,

See also

References

Notes
{{reflist|group=Note}}
References
{{Reflist}}
Bibliography
  • BOOK, Hill, Michael, Kwen Fee Lian, The Politics of Nation Building and Citizenship in Singapore, 1995, Routledge, 978-0-415-12025-8,
  • BOOK, King, Rodney, The Singapore Miracle, Myth and Reality, 2008, Insight Press, 978-0-9775567-0-0,
  • BOOK, Mauzy, Diane K., Milne, R.S., Singapore Politics: Under the People's Action Party, Routledge, 2002, 978-0-415-24653-8,
  • BOOK, Tan, Kenneth Paul, Renaissance Singapore? Economy, Culture, and Politics, NUS Press, 2007, 978-9971-69-377-0,
  • Lee Kuan Yew (2000). From Third World To First: The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. New York: HarperCollins. {{ISBN|0-06-019776-5}}.
  • BOOK, Worthington, Ross, Governance in Singapore, Routledge/Curzon, 2002, 978-0-7007-1474-2,
  • BOOK, Census of Population (2000), Department of Statistics, Singapore, Leow Bee Geok,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071127000711weblink">weblink 27 November 2007, 2002, 978-981-04-6158-4,
  • WEB, Key Facts & Figures, Ministry of Transport, Singapore,weblink 11 January 2003,
  • WEB, Nation's History, Singapore Infomap,weblink 11 January 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090421003417weblink">weblink 21 April 2009,
  • WEB, MOE-PRIME, Programme For Rebuilding and Improving Existing schools (PRIME),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070823024237weblink">weblink 23 August 2007, 15 May 2007,
  • PRESS RELEASE, Eight More Schools to Benefit from Upgrading,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070216012051weblink">weblink dead, 16 February 2007, 14 February 2007, Ministry of Education, 15 May 2007,
  • BOOK, Wigmore, Lionel, Lionel Wigmore, The Japanese Thrust, Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army, Volume 4, 1957, Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory,weblink 3134219, harv,

External links

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