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Chennai
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{{other uses|Chennai (disambiguation)}}{{Redirect|Madras}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use Indian English|date=March 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}







factoids
{{Better source>reason=urban agglomeration only, not metro area population|date=December 2017}} , Capital city of Tamil Nadu State| image_seal = Chennai_Corporation_logo.png| image_skyline = Chennai Montage.jpgChennai Central, Marina Beach, Madras High Court, TIDEL Park, Ripon Building, San Thome Basilica, Kapaleeshwarar Temple, Bharata Natyam>Classical dance Bharata Natyam and Valluvar Kottam| nicknames = Detroit of South AsiaGateway of South IndiaIndia's Health Capital, City of Flyovers, Banking Capital of India| pushpin_map = India Tamil Nadu#India| pushpin_label_position = left| pushpin_map_caption = Location of Chennai in Tamil Nadu13N16region:IN-TN|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}| subdivision_type1 = StateDistricts of Tamil Nadu>District| subdivision_type3 = Former name| subdivision_name1 = Tamil NaduChennai district>Chennai, Kanchipuram District Tiruvallur District>Tiruvallur and Vellore District {{refn>The Chennai metropolitan area also includes portions of Kanchipuram,
Tiruvallur, Vellore, Thiruvannamalai districts adjoining the Chennai District.|group=upper-alpha}}| subdivision_name3 = Madras| established_title = Established| established_date = 1639
Mayor–council government>Mayor–Council| governing_body = Greater Chennai Corporation| leader_party = All India Anna Dravida Munnetra KazhagamMayor of Chennai>Mayor| leader_name1 = UnelectedACCESSDATE=24 APRIL 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140424080715/HTTP://MHUPA.GOV.IN/RAY/CSMC_PPT/7TH_CSMC_PILOTPHASE_CHENNAI-PHASEII.PDF ACCESSDATE=30 MAY 2017WORK=OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF GREATER CHENNAI CORPORATION, | area_total_km2 = 426| area_total_sq_mi = 164.5| area_metro_km2 = 1189| area_metro_sq_mi = 459.07| area_metro_footnotes = | elevation_m = 6| elevation_ft = 20| population_total = 7088000| population_as_of = 2011| population_density_km2 = auto| population_footnotes = | population_metro = 8,653,5218,917,749 (Extended UA)WEB, India Stats: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011,weblink Press Information Bureau, Mumbai, National Informatics Centre, 20 August 2015, PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION.DE, 13 October 2015, List of most populous cities in India>6th| population_blank1_title = Metro rankList of million-plus agglomerations in India>4th| population_demonym = Chennaiite| demographics_type1 = Languages| demographics1_title1 = NativeIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30Postal Index Number>Pincode(s)| postal_code = 600xxxTelephone numbers in India>+91-44| registration_plate = TN-01 to TN-14, TN-18, TN-22, TN-85Gross metropolitan product>Metro GDP| blank_info_sec1 = $59 to $66 billion (PPP)weblink|Chennai Corporation}}group=upper-alpha}}| demographics1_title2 = Official| demographics1_title3 = Minority| demographics1_info1 = Tamil language>Tamil| demographics1_info3 = | pushpin_label = Chennai| leader_title2 = Corporation CommissionerIndian Administrative Service>IAS | leader_title3 = Police Commissioner AK ViswanathanCOMMISSIONER OF POLICEIndian Police Service>IPS}}Chennai ({{IPAc-en|audio=Ta-ind-Chennai_EshwerShiv.ogg|ˈ|tʃ|ɛ|n|aɪ}}; also known as Madras {{IPAc-en|audio=Madras MW.ogg|m|ə|ˈ|d|r|ɑː|s}} or {{IPAc-en|-|ˈ|d|r|æ|s}}{{Citation |last = Jones |first = Daniel |author-link = Daniel Jones (phonetician) |title = English Pronouncing Dictionary |editors = Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter |place = Cambridge |publisher = Cambridge University Press |orig-year = 1917 |year = 2003 |isbn=3-12-539683-2 }}, the official name until 1996) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world.WEB,weblink UN Demographic Urban Areas, UN stats, 12 October 2015, Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015.WEB, Bremner, Caroline, Top 100 City Destinations Ranking,weblink Euromonitor International, 9 August 2016, The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India.NEWS, Lakshmi, K., Chennai rated the safest city in India,weblink 19 April 2016, The Hindu, 25 February 2016, Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists.WEB
, Chennai – India's Health Capital
,
, India Health Visit
,weblink
,
, 1 September 2012, As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.WEB
, The quality of air you breathe in Chennai is worse than in Delhi
,
, The Hindu
,weblink
,
, 15 July 2015,
Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.NEWS,weblink Growing expat community favour cluster accommodation [sic], 15 January 2009, 29 December 2012, The Economic Times, NEWS,weblink India – exploring an Asian giant, The Guardian, February 2013, Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015.WEB, Chennai – Best In Travel 2015,weblink Lonely Planet, 4 July 2015, Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index,WEB, Global cities index 2015,weblink A.T. Kearney, 16 May 2015, yes,weblink 23 September 2015, and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey.NEWS,weblink India Today Best City Awards 2014: Chennai bags top honour, India Today, WEB,weblink Classification of Cities, Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities, Spotted by Locals, 4 April 2015, In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values.WEB,weblink The best places to live this year, Lindsey Galloway, BBC.com Travel, National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list.WEB,weblink Top 10 food cities, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, 12 October 2015, Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet.NEWS,weblink Chennai named 9th best cosmopolitan city in the world, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) list for its rich musical tradition.NEWS,weblink Chennai is now part of UNESCO's ‘creative cities network’, The Hindu, 11 November 2017, The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.NEWS,weblink Meet the Smart Cities: Bhubaneswar, Pune, Jaipur top the list, 28 January 2016, CNN-IBN,

Etymology

{{see also|Names of Chennai in different languages}}The name Chennai is of Telugu origin.WEB,weblink Origin And Foundation Of Madras {{!, TLPMS|website=tlpms.in|access-date=2017-01-10}}WEB,weblink {{!, TLPMS|website=tlpms.in|access-date=2017-01-10}}BOOK, S. Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India,weblink 2008, Palaniappa Brothers, 978-81-8379-468-8, It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639.WEB,weblink District Profile, Chennai, Government of Tamil Nadu, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160114174944weblink">weblink 14 January 2016, yes, dmy-all, BOOK, C S Srinivasachari, History of the City of Madrae third-largest economys, 1939, 63–69,weblink The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company, even beforeWEB,weblink District Profile â€“ Chennai, District Administration, Chennai, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104031434weblink">weblink 4 November 2012, yes, dmy-all, the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 NEWS,weblink The 'Town Temple' resurrected, Muthiah, S., 4 March 2012, The Hindu,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120307234509weblink">weblink 2012-03-07, Chennai, India, while some scholars argue for the contrary.WEB,weblink The Hindu : Face behind the name, thmmn, www.thehindu.com, 2018-03-07, The name Madras is also of native origin, and has been shown to be in use before the British presence in Indiaweblink A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram.NEWS,weblink Madras is not alien, Krishnamachari, Suganthy, 21 August 2014, The Hindu, 19 December 2015, Friday Review, According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.BOOK,weblink The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011, 978-1-61530-202-4, However, it is uncertain whether the name was in use before the arrival of Europeans.NEWS,weblink Young World: And the city grew, Kurian, Nimi, 31 August 2007, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of then rulers of nayakasWEB,weblink MUDIRAJ BUILT CITIES, mudiraja.com, 2019-03-18, BOOK,weblink Art and Culture of Marginalised Nomadic Tribes in Andhra Pradesh, Sadanandam, P., 2008, Gyan Publishing House, 9788121209588, en, BOOK,weblink Routes in the Peninsula of India: Comprising the Whole of the Madras Presidency and Portions of the Adjacent Territories of Bengal and Bombay, F. H., Scott, Pharoah and Co., Athenaeum Press, 1853, iv, There are also suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city, specifically referring to a Church of St. Mary.NEWS,weblink Origin of the Name Madras, Corporation of Madras, In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu officially changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name.NEWS, Tharoor, Shashi, In India's name game, cities are the big losers,weblink International Herald Tribune, 6 September 2002, 28 December 2012, HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2005/09/23/STORIES/2005092316520600.HTM > TITLE = WALKOUT IN STATE ASSEMBLY WORK=THE HINDUAUTHOR=SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city,Kalpana (2003) Madras: The Architectural HeritageMuthiah (2004), Madras RediscoveredAli (2005), Madras on Rainy DaysAshok & Balasubramanian (2005) Chennai latté: a Madras brewChandrasekhar, Government Museum (2006) The wild ferns of Madras city and its immediate neighbourhoodMaracayyā (2008), Madras: Tracing the Growth of the City since 1639Barlow (2009) The Story of MadrasMuthiah (2011) A Madras Miscellany: A Decade of People, Places & Potpourri

History

{{see also|History of Chennai|Timeline of Chennai history}}File:Clive House.jpg|thumb|left|Clive House at Fort St. GeorgeFort St. GeorgeFile:Surrender of The City of Madras 1746.jpg|thumb|Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach]](File:Fort St. George, Chennai.jpg|thumb|An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai)(File:Church stmt.jpg|thumb|St.Thomas Mount, Chennai)Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.NEWS, Road workers stumble upon ancient grinding stone in Pallavaram,weblink The Times of India, 19 September 2010, 28 December 2012, The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore (a neighbourhood of present Chennai).BOOK, Awakening Indians to India (Hard Bound),weblink Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, 215, 2008, 978-81-7597-433-3, From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas.BOOK, India: Food & Cooking: The Ultimate Book on Indian Cuisine,weblink Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., 21, 2007, 978-1-84537-619-2, Pat Chapman, The Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period.BOOK, A brief history of India,weblink Alain Daniélou, 173, 2003, Alain Daniélou, Kenneth Hurry, 978-1-59477-794-3, Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period.NEWS, Chennai Coins-the Vijayanagara Connection,weblink The Hindu, 31 August 2009, R., Vaidyanadhan, 28 December 2012, The Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai.WEB, Chennai History,weblinkaccessdate=28 December 2012, On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.BOOK, Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu, Oxford : Oxford University Press, Delhi, xix, 349 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm., 1998, Velcheru Narayana Rao, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 0-19-564399-2, Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful in obtaining the lease of a strip of land about six miles long and one mile inland in return for a yearly sum of five hundred lakh pagodasweblink" title="archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.55644/2015.55644.South-India-Under-The-Vijayanagar-Empire--Vol-1_djvu.txweblink">weblink Talboys Wheeler, India Under British Rule; From the Foundation of the East India Company, TheClassics.us (September 12, 2013), {{ISBN|978-1230394978}} The region was then primarily a fishing village known as "Madraspatnam". A year later, the Company built Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India,BOOK, A short history of the world,weblink Helicon publishing Ltd., 277, 1997, Roberts J. M., 978-0-19-511504-8, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.BOOK, Wagret, Paul, Nagel's encyclopedia-guide, Nagel Publishers, Geneva, 1977, "India, Nepal", 556, 978-2-8263-0023-6, 4202160, Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.NEWS, All eyes on new Assembly-Secretariat Complex,weblink The Hindu, City Bureau, 22 March 2010, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110831045804weblink">weblink 31 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and strengthened the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore.BOOK, A global chronology of conflict,weblink ABC—CLIO, 756, 2010, Spencer C. Tucker, 978-1-85109-667-1, They resisted a French siege attempt in 1759 under the leadership of Eyre Coote.NEWS, Madras Miscellany - When Pondy was wasted,weblink The Hindu, 21 November 2010, S., Muthiah, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203122435weblink">weblink 3 December 2010, In 1769 the city was threatened by Mysore and the British were defeated by Hyder Ali, after which the Treaty of Madras ended the war.BOOK, History of Modern India:1707 A.D. to 2000 A.D,weblink Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 94, 2002, Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, 978-81-269-0085-5, By the 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital.WEB,weblink Madras Presidency, Britannica, 12 October 2015, (File:Madras (Baedeker, 1914).jpg|thumb|left|Map of Madras, ca 1914)Gradually, the city grew into a major naval base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India. With the advent of railways in India in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland.BOOK, Understanding the cultural landscape,weblink The Guilford Press, 195, 2005, Bret Wallach, 978-1-59385-119-4, Sir Arthur Lawley was Governor of Madras from 1906 to 1911 and promoted modern agriculture, industry, railways, education, the arts and more democratic governance.WEB,weblink Biography of Arthur Lawley, 12 October 2015, The Governor lived in Government House, Fort St George, and had a country home at Guindy, with access to a golf course, hockey pitches, riding stables and the Guindy Horse Racing Track.Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celebration. The Benefits of Empire, Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBookNotes on the Administration of Sir Arthur Lawley, Governor of Madras, 1906–1911. Madras Government Press, 1912 In the First World War as Red Cross Commissioner in Mesopotamia, he looked after the welfare of Indian soldiers.A Message from Mesopotamia, Sir Arthur Lawley, Hodder and Stoughton, London. 1917. Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I,BOOK, Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism, 1800–1914,weblink Hodge, Carl Cavanagh, 446, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-04341-3, 2008, when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser {{SMS|Emden|1906|6}} on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping.BOOK, Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce and Industrial resources,weblink Foreign and Colonial Compiling and Publishing Company, London, 51–52, 1914, 81-206-1344-9, J W Bond, Arnold Wright, After India gained its independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.NEWS,weblink Madras Renamed Tamil Nadu, Hubert Herald, 12 October 2015, The violent agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi and in support of English in India in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and eventually it had a big impact on the whole state. Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India.NEWS, Chennai says it in Hindi,weblink The Indian Express, 14 August 2011, V. Shoba, 28 December 2012, On 17 July 1996, the city known as Madras was officially renamed Chennai, in line with what was then a nationwide trend to using less Anglicised names.WEB,weblink Madras renamed Chennai, mapsofindia.com, 12 October 2015, On 26 December 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing 206 people in Chennai and permanently altering the coastline.JOURNAL, Impact of tsunami on meiofauna of Marina beach, Chennai, India,weblink PDF, Current Science, 89, 1, Altaff, K, J Sugumaran, Maryland S Naveed, 10 July 2005, 28 December 2012, harv, NEWS, Mohanty, Ashutosh, Impact of Tsunami in India, Expressindia,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115231707weblink">weblink 15 January 2013, The 2015 Chennai Floods submerged major portions of the city, killing 269 people and resulting in damages of {{INRConvert|86.4|b|0}}.WEB, Tamil Nadu government pegs flood damage at Rs 8,481 crore, CM Jayalalithaa writes to PM Modi, DNA,weblink 23 November 2015, NEWS, Tamil Nadu's deadly rains hit industries hard,weblink 1 December 2015, Deccan Herald, 30 November 2015, WEB,weblink Chennai rains: Death toll crosses 260, Home Minister says situation ‘very alarming’, Indian Express, 2 December 2015,

Environment

Geography

Chennai is located on the south–eastern coast of India in the north–eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around {{convert|6.7|m|ft}},WEB, Geographical and physical features, Chennai District,weblink 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730180830weblink">weblink 30 July 2013, yes, dmy-all, and its highest point is {{convert|60|m|ft|abbr=on}}.JOURNAL, Pulikesi, M, P. Baskaralingam, D. Elango, V.N. Rayudu, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sivanesan, Air quality monitoring in Chennai, India, in the summer of 2005, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 3, 589–596, 25 August 2006, Chennai is fairly low–lying, its highest point being only {{convert, 300, m, ft, above sea level is a rugged barren hill opposite to the Airport called Pallavapuram Hill.|doi=10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.039|pmid=16442714|ref=harv}} Chennai is {{convert|2184|km}} south of Delhi, {{convert|1337| km}} southeast of Mumbai, and {{convert|345|km}} east of Bangalore by road. Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.WEB,weblink Welcome to University of Madras – 154 years of Excellence, Unom.ac.in, 2 February 2012, 10 June 2013, Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources, the Coumm being so heavily polluted it is regarded as the city's eyesore.NEWS,weblink Adyar River pollution, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Couvum River pollution, Times of India, 12 October 2015, A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals.BOOK, S. Theodore Baskaran, S. Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, Palaniappa Brothers, 2008, 55, Chapter 2: Wildlife, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink 28 December 2012, The Buckingham Canal, {{convert|4|km|mi|abbr=on}} inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Otteri Nullah, an east–west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater.NEWS, K, Lakshmi, It's no cola, it's the water supplied in Korattur, The Hindu, 13 July 2004,weblink 28 December 2012, (File:Chennai 80.26884E 13.04434N.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite image of Chennai)Chennai's soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone.WEB, Practices and Practitioners,weblink Centre for Science and Environment, 28 December 2012, Clay underlies most of the city, chiefly Manali, Kolathur, Maduravoyal, K. K. Nagar, Tambaram, Mudichur, Pallavaram Semmencherry, Alapakkam, Vyasarpadi and Anna Nagar. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar and Uthandi. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Areas having hard rock surface include Guindy, Nanganallur, Pallikaranai, Alandur, Jaladampet, Velachery, Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet and Perungudi.NEWS,weblink Quality of groundwater better this year, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, 29 January 2011, NEWS, Lakshmi, K., Tardy monsoon: Chennai water table rises only marginally, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 August 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The ground water table in Chennai is at 4-5m below ground in most of the areas, which was considerably improved and maintained through the mandatory rain water harvesting system.BOOK, Susheela Raghavan, Indira Narayanan, S.Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, Palaniappa Brothers, 2008, 13, Chapter 1: Geography, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink Of the 24.87 km coastline of the city, 3.08 km experiences erosion, with sand accretion along the shoreline can be noticed at the Marina beach and the area between the Ennore Port and Kosasthalaiyar river.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
,
, T.N. lost 41% shoreline to erosion: study
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 10 November 2018
,weblink
, 10 November 2018,

Geology

Chennai is classified as being in Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes.NEWS, John, Ekatha Ann, Disaster body for panel to monitor highrises in Chennai, The Times of India, Chennai, 29 September 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, Owing to the geotectonic zone the city falls in, the city is considered a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. It is expected that temperatures of around 200 to 300 C° will be available if the ground were drilled 4 to 5 km deep.WEB,weblink Seismic Zones of India map, theconstructor.org, 12 October 2015, The region has the oldest rocks in the country dating back to nearly a billion years.NEWS, Yadav, Priya, Soon, power from ancient rocks, The Times of India, Chennai, 10 January 2013,weblink 10 January 2013,

Flora and fauna

The southern stretch of Chennai's coast from Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to lay eggs every winter. A large number of cattle egrets, pond herons and other waterbirds can be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75,000 birds migrate to Chennai every year.WEB,weblink Rare grey headed Lapwings spotted at Pallikaranai marsh, acjnewsline.com, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120331131319weblink">weblink 31 March 2012, dmy-all, Marshy wetlands such as Pallikaranai also play host to a number of migratory birds during the monsoon and winter.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321122516weblink">weblink 2012-03-21, Wetlands in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu State Dept. of Environment and Related Issues, 12 October 2015, Over 300 species of birds have been recorded in the city and its neighbourhood by members of Madras Naturalists' Society since its inception in 1978.Guindy National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and research activities take place atArignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive ridley sea turtle conservation.NEWS,weblink Wildlife centre at Vandalur zoo replaces safari, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, Madras Crocodile Bank Trust is a herpetology research station, located {{Convert|40|km}} south of Chennai.WEB,weblinkwork=listofzoos.comaccessdate=29 Aug 2011, It is India's leading institution for herpeto faunal conservation and the first crocodile breeding centre in Asia.HTTP://WWW.TAMIL-NADU.NGOSINDIA.COM/MADRAS-CROCODILE-BANK-TRUST-MAMALLAPURAM.HTML>TITLE=MADRAS CROCODILE BANK TRUSTPUBLISHER=NGOS INDIADEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=30 MARCH 2012, dmy-all, The city's tree cover is estimated to be around 64.06 sq km.NEWS
,
,
,
, Tree cover in city is only around 15%
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, The Hindu
, 11 February 2018
,weblink
, 11 February 2018, The most dominant tree species is the copper pod, followed by Indian beech and Neem. A total of 121 species of trees belonging to 94 genera and 42 families are found in the city. Nearly half of the native plant species in the city's wetlands have disappeared in recent years. The city, which had 85 percent of its area covered with aquatic plants until the 1970s, now has only 25 percent of its area covered with such plants.NEWS
, K.
, Lakshmi
,
, Indigenous flora in city wetlands under threat
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 20 January 2019
,weblink
, 3 February 2019,

Environment conservation

Chennai has three rivers and many lakes spread across the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage of water bodies and wetlands.NEWS,weblink Vanishing wetlands, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, The quantity of wetlands in the city has decreased from 650 to only 27 currently.NEWS, Next time by water,weblink The Economist, 2015-12-11, 0013-0613, The Chennai River Restoration trust set up by the government is working on the restoration of Adyar river.NEWS,weblink Muck in Chennai rivers to turn into manure, Times of India, 12 October 2015, Environmentalist Foundation of India is a volunteering group working towards wildlife conservation and habitat restoration.NEWS,weblink More citizens initiative for restoring water bodies, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Water security mission to watch out for city's needs, The Hindu, 12 October 2015,

Climate

Chennai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). The city lies on the thermal equatorWEB, About Chennai,weblink 1, 28 December 2012, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil,NEWS, Ramakrishnan, T, Hot spell may continue for some more weeks in the Statedate=18 May 2005,weblink3540F}}. The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around {{convert–C13.9°FURL=HTTP://WWW.IMDPUNE.GOV.IN/TEMP_EXTREMES/HISTEXT2010.PDF PAGE=67 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=21 MAY 2013 45°F140inACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012INDIAN METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121121080418/HTTP://WWW.IMDCHENNAI.GOV.IN/RDWR.HTMDEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north–east monsoon winds, from mid–October to mid–December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is {{convert|257|cm|in|abbr=on}} in 2005.NEWS, Ramakrishnan, T, Entering 2006, city's reservoirs filled to the brim, The Hindu, 3 January 2006,weblink 28 December 2012, Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and OctoberWEB,weblink NASA climate data visualised, Classzone.com, 28 December 2012, and north-easterly during the rest of the year. Historically, Chennai has relied on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area.WEB,weblink Northeast Monsoon, India Meteorological Department Regional Meteorological Centre: Chennai, 19 March 2016, Chennai has a water table at 2 metres for 60 percent of the year.NEWS, Ayyappan, V., Metro dips under historic Cooum, The Times of India, 22 March 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, {{#section:Geography of Chennai|weatherbox}}

NE Monsoon in Chennai

The city of Chennai is located on the east coast of India, which is also known as the Coromandel Coast.Chennai is largely dependent on NE monsoon, since 65% of rains are received in this season. Cyclones and depressions are common features during the season. Cyclones in particular are really unpredictable. They can even move towards Orissa, west Bengal, Bangladesh, and also Myanmar. The season between October and December is referred as the NE monsoon periodweblink Floods are common during this period. In 2015 Chennai received record breaking rains since 1918, which caused massive floods.The entire east coast is vulnerable to cyclones during the monsoon period. For example, in 2007 a major cyclone named "Cyclone Sidr" skipped Chennai and headed towards Bangladesh. The result was a failure of NE monsoon in Chennai, that particular year. Even in the past, there has been many occasions where Cyclones had a great influence in the monsoon.

Land usage

As of 2018, the city had a green cover of 14.9 percent, against the World Health Organization recommendation of 9 square meters of green cover per capita in cities. The city had a built-up area of 71 percent. Waterbodies cover an estimated 6 percent of the total area, and at least 8 percent of the area has classified as open space.NEWS
, Lopez
, Aloysius Xavier
,
, A Rs.228-cr. project to take city’s green cover to 20%
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 4
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 31 August 2018
,weblink
, 2 September 2018, As of 2017, the total volume of water harvested was 339 mcft and groundwater recharge was 170 mcft.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
,
, The vanishing waterbodies of Chennai
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 2
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 1 April 2018
,weblink
, 21 October 2018,

Administration

File:Ripon building, Chennai 2.jpg|thumb|The Ripon Building, commissioned in 1913, houses the Chennai CorporationChennai CorporationChennai city is governed by the Greater Chennai Corporation (formerly "Corporation of Madras"), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest surviving municipal corporation in India and the second oldest surviving corporation in the world.BOOK, S.Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, 217, 2008, Association of British Scholars (India). Chennai Chapter, Palaniappa Brothers, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink NEWS, Chennai Corporation to celebrate 320 years,weblink Kannal, Achutan, 23 September 2008, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation was expanded from {{convert|174|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} to an area of {{convert|426|km2| mi2|abbr=on}},NEWS,weblink Scope of digital mapping exercise in city likely to be enlarged, The Hindu, 24 December 2011, 28 December 2012, dividing into three regions—North, South and Central, which covers 200 wards.NEWS,weblink Expanded Chennai Corporationto be divided into 3 regions, The Hindu, 25 November 2011, 28 December 2012, WEB, Wards Committee,weblink PDF, Chennai Corporation, 12 September 2011, 28 December 2012, The corporation is headed by a mayor, an office presently occupied by Saidai Sa. Duraisamy.WEB,weblink Chennai Corp. Council, Chennai Corporation, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Saidai Sa. Duraisamy is mayor, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, The Mayor and councillors of the city are elected through a popular vote by the residents.WEB, Executive Chart,weblink About COC;Corporation of Chennai, 28 December 2012, While the city limit was expanded in 2011, the revised population is yet to be officially announced.The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and development of Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is spread over an area of {{convert|1189|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}},NEWS, Srivathsan, A, Indecisiveness keeps urban projects on hold, The Hindu pages = publisher = The Hindu, 19 September 2013,weblinkChennai district and parts of Tiruvallur district>Tiruvallur and Kanchipuram district districts. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called Panchayati Raj>panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 Parliament of India and 28 Member of the Legislative Assembly (India)>assembly constituencies.ABOUT CORPORATION OF CHENNAI>URL=HTTP://WWW.CHENNAICORPORATION.GOV.IN/ABOUT-CHENNAI-CORPORATION/ABOUTCOC.HTMACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, CHENNAI METROPOLITAN AREA â€“ PROFILE>WORK=CHENNAI METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITYACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, The CMDA has drafted an additional Comprehensive planning that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumbudur>Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west.HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2007/04/12/STORIES/2007041204230100.HTM>TITLE=3 SATELLITE TOWNS PROPOSED FOR CHENNAIACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, 12 April 2007, Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.WEB,weblink Government of Tamil Nadu: Home Department: Department of Justice, Official website of the Government of Tamil Nadu, 19 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120124011527weblink">weblink 24 January 2012, Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 24 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.WEB,weblink List of TN Assembly constituencies, Assembly.tn.gov.in, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120614070155weblink">weblink 14 June 2012, dmy,

Law and order

File:Chennai High Court.jpg|thumb|Madras High CourtMadras High CourtThe Greater Chennai Police is the main law enforcement agency in the city, with a jurisdiction of over {{convert|745|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} catering to over 8.5 million people. It consists of 121 police stations and is headed by a commissioner of police. The Greater Chennai Police is a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, and the administrative control lies with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry.NEWS,weblink City police await notification on extending Commissionerate's jurisdiction, K.T. Sangameswaran, 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 24 February 2005, Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP) is responsible for the traffic management in the city. The metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police, headed by the Chennai Police Commissionerate, and the outer district areas of the CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments.WEB,weblink Chennai Metro Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, WEB,weblink Kanchipuram Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011142636weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, WEB,weblink Thiruvallur Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011143503weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, (File:Gcp patrol car.jpg|thumb|left|A police patrol car){{As of|2011}} (prior to the expansion of Chennai Corporation area), Chennai city has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel. With a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman for every 413 people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4,093 police personnel and a ratio of 1:1,222.NEWS,weblink Despite rising population, number of police, The Times of India, 7 April 2011, 28 December 2012, In 2010, the crime rate in the city was 169.2 per 100,000 people, as against an average of 341.9 in the 35 major cities of India.WEB,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, Crimes in Mega Cities, Govt. of India, National Crime Records Bureau, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130826215533weblink">weblink 26 August 2013, In 2011, North Chennai zone had 30 police stations and 3 police out posts, Central Chennai zone had 28 police stations and 3 police out posts, and South Chennai zone had 30 police stations.NEWS, Selvaraj title = Triplicane police station gets bigger with more area, men location = Chennai url =weblink 3 December 2013, In 2009, Madras Central Prison, one of the oldest prisons in India, built over {{convert|11|acres|0|abbr=on}} of land, was demolished; the prisoners were moved to Puzhal Central Prison.NEWS, 150-yr-old Central prison closed for good,weblink The Times of India, 19 January 2009, 28 December 2012,

Politics

Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages, which dominated the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil nationalism gained prominence. This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and across the state. However, the post-Independence re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the 1960s played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu Congress party in the 1967 elections and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu politics.NEWS,weblink Language issue again: the need for a clear-headed policy, S. Viswanathan, The Hindu, 7 December 2009, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100120072025weblink">weblink 20 January 2010, no, File:Fort St. George, Chennai 2.jpg|thumb|Tamil Nadu legislative assembly ]]Being the capital of the Madras Province that covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai remained the centre of politics in the southern region of India during the British colonial era. After Independence, it remained the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the birthplace of the idea of the Indian National Congress, commonly known as the Congress Party. Founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume,Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress, Bevir, Mark, University of California, Berkeley, Publication Date: 1 January 2003 s. 14–18. Original Citation: Mark Bevir, "Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress", International Journal of Hindu Studies 7 (2003), 99–115. E.g., "Theosophical Society provided the framework for action within which some of its Indian and British members worked to form the Indian National Congress.", "1884 annual convention of the Theosophical Society. At this convention, Rao argued that the Society should start formally to discuss the political situation in India as well as more strictly religious matters. Although Rao did not get his way, he did arrange a meeting of sympathetic theosophists to be held at his home. Those who attended this meeting with Rao included Aiyar, Ananda Charlu, and M. Viraraghavachariar. They formed the Madras Mahajana Sabha," "meeting to coincide with the next annual convention of the Theosophical Society. This meeting would promote their idea of an all-India body." "Hume was probably the single most important individual for the formation of the Indian National Congress." the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in the city in December 1884.Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version During the first 50 years of the Indian National Congress, the city played host to its conferences seven times in 1887, 1894, 1898, 1903, 1908, 1914 and 1927, becoming one of the strong bases for the Indian independence movement. After independence, the city hosted the Congress in 1955 in its suburb of Avadi.BOOK, Political and Social Conflict in South India; The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil Separatism, 1916–1929, Irschick, Eugene F., 1969, harv, 249254802, University of California Press,weblink 23 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304001539weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, Chennai is also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in 1916, which later came to be known as the Justice Party, which was the main opposition party to the Indian National Congress in the state.{{Harvnb|Rajaraman|1988| loc=ch. 4 (Ideology, Organisation and Programme of the Justice Party)}}{{Harvnb|Irschick|1969| pp=172–178}} In 1944, the party was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) by E. V. Ramasami (popularly known as 'Periyar'). The party was a non-political party that demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.BOOK, Taylor, Richard Warren, Religion and Society: The First Twenty-five Years, 1953–1978, Christian Literature Society (for the Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore), 1982, 9007066, 242, However, due to the differences between its two leaders Periyar and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter into politics in 1956.

Utility services

{{See also|Water management in Chennai}}The city's water supply and sewage treatment are managed by the Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board. Water is drawn from Red Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam Lake, the primary water reservoirs of the city,BOOK, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, 157–159,weblink 28 December 2012, and treated at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, ChembarambakkamWEB, Water Supply System,weblink Chennai Metro Water, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131015122930weblink">weblink 15 October 2013, dmy, and supplied to the city through 27 water distribution stations.BOOK, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, 163,weblink 28 December 2012, The city receives 530 million liters per day (mld) of water from Krishna River through Telugu Ganga project, 180 mld of water from the Veeranam lake project and 100 mld of water from the Minjur desalination plant, the country's largest sea water desalination plant.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100803150810weblink">weblink 2010-08-03, India's biggest desalination plant opens in Chennai, Hindustan Times, 1 August 2010, 28 December 2012, NEWS, IVRCL to set up desalination plant near Chennai, The Hindu, 12 August 2005,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090213183507weblink">weblink 13 February 2009, NEWS, Radhakrishnan, R.K., Preliminary work on desalination plant to be completed by December-end, The Hindu, 4 September 2007,weblink 28 December 2012, However, Chennai is predicted to face a huge deficit of 713 mld in 2026 as the demand is projected at 2,248 mld and supply estimated at only 1,535 mld.NEWS,weblink Chennai worst in saving water, Deccan Chronicle, 6 May 2011, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011034707weblink">weblink 11 October 2012, The city's sewer system was designed in 1910, with some modifications in 1958.NEWS, Ann, Ekatha, Rain opens city's filthy underbelly, The Times of India, Chennai, 22 October 2014,weblink 26 October 2014, There are 714 public toilets in the city managed by the city corporation,NEWS,weblink No response from firms to build toilets, The Times of India, 24 September 2012, 28 December 2012, and 2,000 more have been planned by the corporation.NEWS, From Feb 24, use public toilets for free, says mayor, The Times of India, Chennai, 31 October 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The corporation also owns 52 community halls across the city.NEWS, Residents to soon have free use of community halls, The Hindu, Chennai, 31 October 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The Corporation of Chennai provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company,NEWS,weblink New firm to begin conservancy work next week, 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 4 January 2012, while the Corporation looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others,NEWS,weblink New garbage collection, street cleaning mechanism, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, 27 January 2012, with a superintendent engineer managing the channels. {{As of|2011}}, 8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste.WEB,weblink Soild Waste Management, Corporation of Chennai, 28 December 2012, Garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur and another in Pallikaranai, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai marshland.NEWS,weblink Cluster-based solid waste mgmt may ease pressure on dump yards, The Times of India, 7 April 2012, Madhavan, D., In market areas, the conservancy work is done during the night.NEWS,weblink SMS fillip for garbage collection, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, Deepa H, Ramakrishnan, 25 January 2012, Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.WEB, Emergency and Utility Services Contact Details at Chennai, Govt. of Tamil Nadu,weblink 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930014904weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, yes, dmy-all, Fire services are handled by the Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Services.WEB,weblink Contact us, Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service, 28 December 2012, The city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations.WEB,weblink List of fire stations, Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service, 28 December 2012, The Chennai City Region has 568 post offices, of which nearly 460 operate from rented premises.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
, Iconic General Post Office to finally get a makeover
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, The Hindu
, 28 June 2018
,weblink
, 15 July 2018,

Architecture

{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Chennai|Heritage structures in Chennai}}File:Parrys Corner, Chennai, India.jpg|thumb|Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with alt=a multi-storeyed building, with road in the foregroundWith the history of many neighbourhoods of the city such as Mylapore, Triplicane, and Tiruvanmiyur antedating that of the city, the architecture of Chennai ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore and the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas, the Cholas, and the Vijayanagara empires. The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas.NEWS, Sujatha, R., Agraharam – time virtually stands still here, The Hindu, Chennai, 29 April 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120705142259weblink">weblink 5 July 2012, NEWS, Iyer, Aruna V., Chennai's vanishing agraharams, The Hindu, Chennai, 7 October 2011,weblink 28 December 2012, The heritage temples at Mamallapuram at the outskirts of the city are some of the examples of the Pallava architecture. Chennai ranks second to Kolkata of Indian heritage buildings.NEWS, Ravishankar, Sandhya, No fire safety norms at Chennai heritage buildings, IBN Live, Chennai, CNN IBN, 6 September 2007weblink > accessdate = 28 December 2012, With the advent of the Mugals and the British, the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu, Islamic and Gothic revival styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style.JOURNAL, Metcalfe
, Thomas R., A Tradition Created: Indo-Saracenic Architecture under the Raj, History Today, 32
, 9,weblink 28 December 2012, harv, The architecture for several early institutions such as banking and commerce, railways, press and education, chiefly through the colonial rule, followed the earlier directions of the Neo-Classical and the Indo-Saracenic. The Chepauk Palace in the city, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic building in India.WEB, Indo-saracenic Architecture, Henry Irwin, Architect in India, 1841–1922, higman.de
,weblink 28 December 2012, Since then, many of the colonial-era buildings in the city were designed in this style of architecture, which is most apparent around the Fort St. George built in 1640. Most of these were designed by English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court (built in 1892), Southern Railway headquarters, Ripon Building, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering.WEB
, Jeyaraj, George J., Indo Saracenic Architecture in Channai, CMDA,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue, at the Marina Beach is an important landmark of Chennai.BOOK, The History of Indian Art, saraswati publication, 2013,
(File:Chennai LabourStatue Closeup.jpg|thumb|Triumph of Labour)File:Southern Railway HQ.jpg|thumb|Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the city]]The construction of the National Art Gallery in Madras was completed in 1909. The new building, with a stunning façade, was built of pink sandstone brought from Sathyavedu, and formed part of the Madras Museum campus. It was opened, on 23 January 1909, by the Governor of Fort St. George, Sir Arthur Lawley, and called the Victoria Memorial Hall after the Queen-Empress Victoria."New for Old". Frontline. Volume 20 – Issue 14, 5 to 18 July 2003. India's National Magazine from publishers of the Hindu.Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celebration. The Benefits of Empire. Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBooksSir Arthur Lawley's Photo Album, Empire and Commonwealth Museum The residential architecture in the city was based on the bungalow or the continuous row house prototypes. Gothic revival style buildings include the Chennai Central and Chennai Egmore railway stations. The Santhome Church, which was originally built by the Portuguese in 1523 and is believed to house the remains of the apostle St. Thomas, was rebuilt in 1893 in neo-Gothic style.WEB, A day in Chennai, Chennai Magic,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130708171802weblink">weblink 8 July 2013, By the early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city's urban landscape. From the 1930s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including the United India building (presently housing LIC) and the Burma Shell building (presently the Chennai House), both built in the 1930s, and the Dare House, built in 1940. Other examples include the Bombay Mutual building (presently housing LIC) and the South Indian Chamber of Commerce building.NEWS
, Sitalakshmi, K. R., Art Deco buildings in Chennai, The Hindu, Chennai, 5 August 2006,weblink 28 December 2012,
After Independence, the city witnessed a rise in the Modernism style of architecture. The completion of the LIC Building in 1959, the tallest building in the country at that time,NEWS, Srivathsan, A., Reaching the sky, The Hindu, Chennai, 14 July 2007,weblink
, 28 December 2012, marked the transition from lime-and-brick construction to concrete columns in the region.NEWS, Kannan, Shanthi, GREEN buildings, The Hindu, Chennai
, 19 March 2005,weblink 28 December 2012, The presence of the weather radar at the Chennai Port, however, prohibited the construction of buildings taller than 60 m around a radius of 10 km for several decades that followed.NEWS, Koshy
, Jacob P.
, Doppler radar may put cap on building heights
, Livemint.com
, New Delhi
, 13 December 2007
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, In addition, the floor-area ratio (FAR) in the central business district is also 1.5, much less than that of smaller cities of the country. This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction of buildings up to 60 floors.

Demographics

Population

{{IndiaCensusPop|title= Population of Chennai city|state=|1639=7000|1646=19000|1670=40000|1681=200000|1685=300000|1691=400000|1715=100000|1726=100000|1733=100000|1791=300000|1871=367552|1881= 405848|1891= 452518|1901= 509346|1911=518660|1921=526911|1931=647232|1941=777481|1951=1416056|1961=1729141|1971=2469449|1981=3266034|1991=3841396|2001=4343645|2011=7088000AUTHOR=H. D. LOVEPAGE=557, * 1871–1901:IMPERIAL GAZETTER OF INDIA, VOLUME 16>YEAR=1908PUBLISHER=INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESSISBN=978-0-253-35223-1 FIRST=S. AUTHORLINK=S. MUTHIAH ISBN=81-88661-24-4PUBLISHER=ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTDISBN=978-81-261-1992-9 URL=HTTP://WWW.CHENNAI.TN.NIC.IN/SHB-PDF/SHB001%20-%20AREA%20POPULATION.PDFPUBLISHER=DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION, CHENNAIARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130830215520/HTTP://WWW.CHENNAI.TN.NIC.IN/SHB-PDF/SHB001%20-%20AREA%20POPULATION.PDF#DEAD-URL=YESPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, 12 October 2015, 2011:WEB, Chennai Corporation is re-christened Greater Chennai Corporation,weblink The Hindu, January 31, 2016, }}A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite.NEWS, Chennaite to represent India at Abilympics,weblink 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 2 March 2007, BOOK, Lakshmi, C. S., The Unhurried City: Writings on Chennai,weblink 1 January 2004, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-303026-3, 11, BOOK, Bergman, Introduction to Geography,weblink 2003, Pearson Education, 978-81-317-0210-9, 485, According to 2011 census, the city had a population of 4,646,732, within the area administered by the Municipal Corporation;WEB,weblink Smart Cities Mission, Government of India, that had 11 lakh households, with 51% of them living in rented houses.NEWS, Aloysius Xavier Lopez, Half of city lives in rented homes,weblink 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 28 March 2012, The city's limits were expanded later in 2011 and its population reached 7,088,000 with Chennai Municipal Corporation being renamed as Greater Chennai Corporation.

Languages

Tamils form the majority of Chennai's population. English is spoken largely by white-collar workers,BOOK, Siddique, Zahra, 2008, Ethnicity, Race and Gender in the Labor Market, ProQuest, 30,weblink 978-0-549-50781-9, often mixed into Tamil.BOOK, Joseph Getter, B.Balasubrahmaniyan, Mark, Slobin, Global Soundtracks: Worlds of Film Music, Wesleyan University Press,weblink 29 September 2008, 119, Tamil Film Music: Sound and Significance, 978-0-8195-6882-3, NEWS,weblink Kannadigas outnumber Malayalis 2:1 in Tamil Nadu, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, 15 April 2008, In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8% of its population) in the city, 61.5% were from other parts of the state, 33.8% were from rest of India and 3.7% were from outside the country.WEB, Demography, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, As per the 2001 census, the number of speakers mother tongue wise are as follows, Tamil is spoken by 3,424,107 (78.8%), followed by Telugu by 419,209 (9.7%), Urdu by 180,245 (4.1%), Malayalam by 113,828 (2.6%), Hindi by 104,084 (2.4%), and Kannada by 22,250 (0.5%).WEB,weblink Welcome to Census of India: Census India Library, www.censusindia.gov.in, 2016-04-27, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160315050316weblink">weblink 15 March 2016, dmy, Korean, Japanese, French, Mandarin Chinese, Russian, German and Spanish are some of the languages spoken by the 250,000 foreign expatriates residing in the city."K and the city: Why are more and more Chennaiites learning Korean - The Hindu""How Mandarin has become crucial in Chennai - The Hindu""How many tongues can you speak? - The New Indian Express""Guten Morgen! - Times of India""Konnichiwa! - Business Line"

Religion and Ethnicity

{{bar box|title=Religions in Chennai|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|80.7}}{{bar percent|Islam|green|9.5}}{{bar percent|Christianity|red|7.7}}{{bar percent|Others|grey|2.1}}}}Chennai, along with Bengaluru, Mumbai and Delhi, is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities.NEWS,weblink The magic of melting pot called Chennai, The Hindu, 19 December 2011, 29 December 2012, Minorities include Telugus, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Parsis,NEWS,weblink The Parsi Arrival, The Hindu, 10 March 2008, 29 December 2012, JOURNAL,weblink The Parsis of Madras, Madras Musings, 15 October 2008, XVIII, 12, 29 December 2012, Sindhis,NEWS,weblink Sindhis to usher in new year with fanfare, The Times of India, 24 March 2012, 29 December 2012, NEWS,weblink Catholic in outlook, The Hindu, 3 April 2003, 29 December 2012, Odias,NEWS,weblink Why Oriyas find Chennai warm and hospitable, The Times of India, 12 May 2012, 29 December 2012, Goans,NEWS,weblink Goan spirit in Chennai, The Hindu, 18 December 2000, 29 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140318134242weblink">weblink 18 March 2014, Kannadigas,NEWS,weblink Chennai's Kannadigas not complaining, The Times of India, 5 April 2008, 29 December 2012, Anglo-Indians,JOURNAL,weblink The Anglo-Indians of Chennai, Madras Musings, XX, 12, 15 October 2010, 29 December 2012, Bengalis,NEWS,weblink A slice of Bengal in Chennai, The Times of India, 22 October 2012, 29 December 2012, Punjabi,JOURNAL,weblink Madhu, B.R., The Punjabis of Chennai, Madras Musings, XX, 12, 16 September 2009, 29 December 2012, and Malayalees. As per the religious census of 2011, Chennai's population was 80.7% Hindu, 9.5% Muslim, 7.7% Christian, 1.1% Jain, 0.1% Sikh, 0.1% Buddhist,

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