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Chennai
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{{other uses|Chennai (disambiguation)}}{{Redirect|Madras}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use Indian English|date=March 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}







factoids
| subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}| subdivision_type1 = StateDistricts of Tamil Nadu>District| subdivision_type3 = Former name| subdivision_name1 = Tamil NaduChennai district {{refn>The Chennai metropolitan area also includes portions of Kanchipuram District, Tiruvallur District>Tiruvallur, Vellore District, Thiruvannamalai District>Thiruvannamalai districts adjoining the Chennai District.|group=upper-alpha}}| subdivision_name3 = Madras| established_title = Established| established_date = 1639Mayor–council government>Mayor–Council| governing_body = Greater Chennai Corporation| leader_party = All India Anna Dravida Munnetra KazhagamMayor of Chennai>Mayor| leader_name1 = UnelectedACCESSDATE=24 APRIL 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140424080715/HTTP://MHUPA.GOV.IN/RAY/CSMC_PPT/7TH_CSMC_PILOTPHASE_CHENNAI-PHASEII.PDF ACCESSDATE=30 MAY 2017WORK=OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF GREATER CHENNAI CORPORATION, | area_total_km2 = 426| area_total_sq_mi = 164.5 Chennai city| area_total_name| area_metro_km2 = 1189 | area_metro_sq_mi = 459.07The Chennai metropolitan area also includes portions of Kanchipuram District, Tiruvallur District>Tiruvallur, Vellore District, Thiruvannamalai District>Thiruvannamalai districts adjoining the Chennai District.|group=upper-alpha}}Chennai metropolitan area| elevation_m = 6| elevation_ft = 20| population_total = 4646732| population_as_of = 2011| population_density_km2 = autoWEBSITE=2011 CENSUS OF INDIA, dmy-all, | population_metro = 8,653,5218,917,749 (Extended UA)WEB, India Stats: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011,weblink Press Information Bureau, Mumbai, National Informatics Centre, 20 August 2015, PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION.DE, 13 October 2015, List of most populous cities in India>6th| population_blank1_title = Metro rankList of million-plus agglomerations in India>4th| population_demonym = Chennaiite| demographics_type1 = Languages| demographics1_title1 = NativeIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30Postal Index Number>Pincode(s)| postal_code = 600xxxTelephone numbers in India>+91-44| registration_plate = TN-01 to TN-14, TN-18, TN-22, TN-85Gross metropolitan product>Metro GDP| blank_info_sec1 = $59 to $66 billion (PPP)weblink|Chennai Corporation}}group=upper-alpha}}| demographics1_title2 = Official| demographics1_title3 = Minority| demographics1_info1 = Tamil language>Tamil| demographics1_info3 = | pushpin_label = Chennai| leader_title2 = Corporation CommissionerIndian Administrative Service>IAS| leader_title3 = Police CommissionerAK ViswanathanCOMMISSIONER OF POLICEIndian Police Service>IPS| image_map = India Tamil Nadu districts Chennai.svg}}Chennai ({{IPAc-en|audio=Ta-ind-Chennai_EshwerShiv.ogg|ˈ|tʃ|ɛ|n|n|aɪ}}; also known as Madras {{IPAc-en|audio=Madras MW.ogg|m|ə|ˈ|d|r|ɑː|s}} or {{IPAc-en|-|ˈ|d|r|æ|s}},{{Citation |last = Jones |first = Daniel |author-link = Daniel Jones (phonetician) |title = English Pronouncing Dictionary |editor= Peter Roach |editor2=James Hartmann |editor3=Jane Setter |place = Cambridge |publisher = Cambridge University Press |orig-year = 1917 |year = 2003 |isbn=3-12-539683-2 }} the official name until 1996) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world.WEB,weblink UN Demographic Urban Areas, UN stats, 12 October 2015, Chennai is among the most-visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked the 43rd-most visited city in the world for the year 2015.WEB, Bremner, Caroline, Top 100 City Destinations Ranking,weblink Euromonitor International, 9 August 2016, The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India.NEWS, Lakshmi, K., Chennai rated the safest city in India,weblink 19 April 2016, The Hindu, 25 February 2016, Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists.WEB
, Chennai – India's Health Capital
,
, India Health Visit
,weblink
,
, 1 September 2012, As such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.NEWS
, The quality of air you breathe in Chennai is worse than in Delhi
, The Hindu
,weblink
, 15 July 2015,
Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India, at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.NEWS,weblink Growing expat community favour cluster accommodation [sic], 15 January 2009, 29 December 2012, The Economic Times, NEWS,weblink India – exploring an Asian giant, The Guardian, February 2013, Tourism-guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015.WEB, Chennai – Best In Travel 2015,weblink Lonely Planet, 4 July 2015, Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index,WEB, Global cities index 2015,weblink A.T. Kearney, 16 May 2015, yes,weblink 23 September 2015, and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey.MAGAZINE,weblink India Today Best City Awards 2014: Chennai bags top honour, India Today, WEB,weblink Classification of Cities, Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities, Spotted by Locals, 4 April 2015, In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city (worth visiting, and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values.WEB,weblink The best places to live this year, Lindsey Galloway, BBC.com Travel, National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list.WEB,weblink Top 10 food cities, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, 12 October 2015, Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet.NEWS,weblink Chennai named 9th best cosmopolitan city in the world, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) list for its rich musical tradition.NEWS,weblink Chennai is now part of UNESCO's ‘creative cities network’, The Hindu, 11 November 2017, The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. Chennai is one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.NEWS,weblink Meet the Smart Cities: Bhubaneswar, Pune, Jaipur top the list, 28 January 2016, CNN-IBN,

Etymology

{{see also|Names of Chennai in different languages}}The name Chennai is of Telugu origin.WEB,weblink Origin And Foundation Of Madras {{!, TLPMS|website=tlpms.in|access-date=2017-01-10}}WEB,weblink {{!, TLPMS|website=tlpms.in|access-date=2017-01-10}}BOOK, S. Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India,weblink 2008, Palaniappa Brothers, 978-81-8379-468-8, It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Mudirasa Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639.WEB,weblink District Profile, Chennai, Government of Tamil Nadu, 27 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160114174944weblink">weblink 14 January 2016, yes, dmy-all, BOOK, C S Srinivasachari, History of the City of Madrae third-largest economys, 1939, 63–69,weblink The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company, even beforeWEB,weblink District Profile â€“ Chennai, District Administration, Chennai, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104031434weblink">weblink 4 November 2012, yes, dmy-all, the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 NEWS,weblink The 'Town Temple' resurrected, Muthiah, S., 4 March 2012, The Hindu,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120307234509weblink">weblink 2012-03-07, Chennai, India, while some scholars argue for the contrary.WEB,weblink The Hindu : Face behind the name, thmmn, www.thehindu.com, 2018-03-07, The name Madras is also of native origin, and has been shown to be in use before the British presence in Indiaweblink A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram.NEWS,weblink Madras is not alien, Krishnamachari, Suganthy, 21 August 2014, The Hindu, 19 December 2015, Friday Review, According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George.BOOK,weblink The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2011, 978-1-61530-202-4, However, it is uncertain whether the name was in use before the arrival of Europeans.NEWS,weblink Young World: And the city grew, Kurian, Nimi, 31 August 2007, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj or Mundiraj, which was the name of a Telugu community Mudiraj, who were the native inhabitants of then Madras.WEB,weblink MUDIRAJ BUILT CITIES, mudiraja.com, 2019-03-18, BOOK,weblink Art and Culture of Marginalised Nomadic Tribes in Andhra Pradesh, Sadanandam, P., 2008, Gyan Publishing House, 9788121209588, en, BOOK,weblink Routes in the Peninsula of India: Comprising the Whole of the Madras Presidency and Portions of the Adjacent Territories of Bengal and Bombay, F. H., Scott, Pharoah and Co., Athenaeum Press, 1853, iv, There are also suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city, specifically referring to a Church of St. Mary.NEWS,weblink Origin of the Name Madras, Corporation of Madras, In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu officially changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name.NEWS, Tharoor, Shashi, In India's name game, cities are the big losers,weblink International Herald Tribune, 6 September 2002, 28 December 2012, HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2005/09/23/STORIES/2005092316520600.HTM > TITLE = WALKOUT IN STATE ASSEMBLY WORK=THE HINDUAUTHOR=SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT, However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city,Kalpana (2003) Madras: The Architectural HeritageMuthiah (2004), Madras RediscoveredAli (2005), Madras on Rainy DaysAshok & Balasubramanian (2005) Chennai latté: a Madras brewChandrasekhar, Government Museum (2006) The wild ferns of Madras city and its immediate neighbourhoodMaracayyā (2008), Madras: Tracing the Growth of the City since 1639Barlow (2009) The Story of MadrasMuthiah (2011) A Madras Miscellany: A Decade of People, Places & Potpourri

History

{{see also|History of Chennai|Timeline of Chennai history}}File:Clive House.jpg|thumb|left|Clive House at Fort St. GeorgeFort St. GeorgeFile:Surrender of The City of Madras 1746.jpg|thumb|Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach]](File:Fort St. George, Chennai.jpg|thumb|An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai)(File:Church stmt.jpg|thumb|St.Thomas Mount, Chennai)Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.NEWS, Road workers stumble upon ancient grinding stone in Pallavaram,weblink The Times of India, 19 September 2010, 28 December 2012, The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries. During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore (a neighbourhood of present Chennai).BOOK, Awakening Indians to India (Hard Bound),weblink Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, 215, 2008, 978-81-7597-433-3, From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas.BOOK, India: Food & Cooking: The Ultimate Book on Indian Cuisine,weblink Replika Press Pvt. Ltd., 21, 2007, 978-1-84537-619-2, Pat Chapman, The Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period.BOOK, A brief history of India,weblink Alain Daniélou, 173, 2003, Alain Daniélou, Kenneth Hurry, 978-1-59477-794-3, Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period.NEWS, Chennai Coins-the Vijayanagara Connection,weblink The Hindu, 31 August 2009, R., Vaidyanadhan, 28 December 2012, The Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai.WEB, Chennai History,weblinkaccessdate=28 December 2012, On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.BOOK, Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu, Oxford : Oxford University Press, Delhi, xix, 349 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm., 1998, Velcheru Narayana Rao, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 0-19-564399-2, Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful in obtaining the lease of a strip of land about six miles long and one mile inland in return for a yearly sum of five hundred lakh pagodasweblink" title="archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.55644/2015.55644.South-India-Under-The-Vijayanagar-Empire--Vol-1_djvu.txweblink">weblink Talboys Wheeler, India Under British Rule; From the Foundation of the East India Company, TheClassics.us (September 12, 2013), {{ISBN|978-1230394978}} The region was then primarily a fishing village known as "Madraspatnam". A year later, the Company built Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India,BOOK, A short history of the world,weblink Helicon publishing Ltd., 277, 1997, Roberts J. M., 978-0-19-511504-8, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort.BOOK, Wagret, Paul, Nagel's encyclopedia-guide, Nagel Publishers, Geneva, 1977, "India, Nepal", 556, 978-2-8263-0023-6, 4202160, Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.NEWS, All eyes on new Assembly-Secretariat Complex,weblink The Hindu, City Bureau, 22 March 2010, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110831045804weblink">weblink 31 August 2011, yes, dmy-all, In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius, who plundered the town and its outlying villages. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and strengthened the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore.BOOK, A global chronology of conflict,weblink ABC—CLIO, 756, 2010, Spencer C. Tucker, 978-1-85109-667-1, They resisted a French siege attempt in 1759 under the leadership of Eyre Coote.NEWS, Madras Miscellany - When Pondy was wasted,weblink The Hindu, 21 November 2010, S., Muthiah, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203122435weblink">weblink 3 December 2010, In 1769 the city was threatened by Mysore and the British were defeated by Hyder Ali, after which the Treaty of Madras ended the war.BOOK, History of Modern India:1707 A.D. to 2000 A.D,weblink Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 94, 2002, Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, 978-81-269-0085-5, By the 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital.WEB,weblink Madras Presidency, Britannica, 12 October 2015, (File:Madras (Baedeker, 1914).jpg|thumb|left|Map of Madras, ca 1914)Gradually, the city grew into a major naval base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India. With the advent of railways in India in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland.BOOK, Understanding the cultural landscape,weblink The Guilford Press, 195, 2005, Bret Wallach, 978-1-59385-119-4, Sir Arthur Lawley was Governor of Madras from 1906 to 1911 and promoted modern agriculture, industry, railways, education, the arts and more democratic governance.WEB,weblink Biography of Arthur Lawley, 12 October 2015, The Governor lived in Government House, Fort St George, and had a country home at Guindy, with access to a golf course, hockey pitches, riding stables and the Guindy Horse Racing Track.Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celebration. The Benefits of Empire, Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBookNotes on the Administration of Sir Arthur Lawley, Governor of Madras, 1906–1911. Madras Government Press, 1912 In the First World War as Red Cross Commissioner in Mesopotamia, he looked after the welfare of Indian soldiers.A Message from Mesopotamia, Sir Arthur Lawley, Hodder and Stoughton, London. 1917. Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by the Central Powers during World War I,BOOK, Encyclopedia of the age of imperialism, 1800–1914,weblink Hodge, Carl Cavanagh, 446, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-04341-3, 2008, when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser {{SMS|Emden|1906|6}} on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping.BOOK, Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce and Industrial resources,weblink Foreign and Colonial Compiling and Publishing Company, London, 51–52, 1914, 81-206-1344-9, J W Bond, Arnold Wright, After India gained its independence in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.NEWS,weblink Madras Renamed Tamil Nadu, Hubert Herald, 12 October 2015, The violent agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi and in support of English in India in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and eventually it had a big impact on the whole state. Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India.NEWS, Chennai says it in Hindi,weblink The Indian Express, 14 August 2011, V. Shoba, 28 December 2012, On 17 July 1996, the city known as Madras was officially renamed Chennai, in line with what was then a nationwide trend to using less Anglicised names.WEB,weblink Madras renamed Chennai, mapsofindia.com, 12 October 2015, On 26 December 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing 206 people in Chennai and permanently altering the coastline.JOURNAL, Impact of tsunami on meiofauna of Marina beach, Chennai, India,weblink PDF, Current Science, 89, 1, Altaff, K, J Sugumaran, Maryland S Naveed, 10 July 2005, 28 December 2012, harv, NEWS, Mohanty, Ashutosh, Impact of Tsunami in India, Expressindia,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115231707weblink">weblink 15 January 2013, The 2015 Chennai Floods submerged major portions of the city, killing 269 people and resulting in damages of {{INRConvert|86.4|b|0}}.WEB, Tamil Nadu government pegs flood damage at Rs 8,481 crore, CM Jayalalithaa writes to PM Modi, DNA,weblink 23 November 2015, NEWS, Tamil Nadu's deadly rains hit industries hard,weblink 1 December 2015, Deccan Herald, 30 November 2015, NEWS,weblink Chennai rains: Death toll crosses 260, Home Minister says situation ‘very alarming’, Indian Express, 2 December 2015,

Environment

Geography

Chennai is located on the south–eastern coast of India in the north–eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around {{convert|6.7|m|ft}},WEB, Geographical and physical features, Chennai District,weblink 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730180830weblink">weblink 30 July 2013, yes, dmy-all, and its highest point is {{convert|60|m|ft|abbr=on}}.JOURNAL, Pulikesi, M, P. Baskaralingam, D. Elango, V.N. Rayudu, V. Ramamurthi, S. Sivanesan, Air quality monitoring in Chennai, India, in the summer of 2005, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136, 3, 589–596, 25 August 2006, Chennai is fairly low–lying, its highest point being only {{convert, 300, m, ft, above sea level is a rugged barren hill opposite to the Airport called Pallavapuram Hill.|doi=10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.12.039|pmid=16442714|ref=harv}} Chennai is {{convert|2184|km}} south of Delhi, {{convert|1337| km}} southeast of Mumbai, and {{convert|345|km}} east of Bangalore by road. Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River to the south. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.WEB,weblink Welcome to University of Madras – 154 years of Excellence, Unom.ac.in, 2 February 2012, 10 June 2013, Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and commercial sources, the Coumm being so heavily polluted it is regarded as the city's eyesore.NEWS,weblink Adyar River pollution, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Couvum River pollution, Times of India, 12 October 2015, A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals.BOOK, S. Theodore Baskaran, S. Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, Palaniappa Brothers, 2008, 55, Chapter 2: Wildlife, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink 28 December 2012, The Buckingham Canal, {{convert|4|km|mi|abbr=on}} inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Otteri Nullah, an east–west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater.NEWS, K, Lakshmi, It's no cola, it's the water supplied in Korattur, The Hindu, 13 July 2004,weblink 28 December 2012, (File:Chennai 80.26884E 13.04434N.jpg|thumb|left|Satellite image of Chennai)Chennai's soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone.WEB, Practices and Practitioners,weblink Centre for Science and Environment, 28 December 2012, Clay underlies most of the city, chiefly Manali, Kolathur, Maduravoyal, K. K. Nagar, Tambaram, Mudichur, Pallavaram Semmencherry, Alapakkam, Vyasarpadi and Anna Nagar. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar and Uthandi. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Areas having hard rock surface include Guindy, Nanganallur, Pallikaranai, Alandur, Jaladampet, Velachery, Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet and Perungudi.NEWS,weblink Quality of groundwater better this year, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, 29 January 2011, NEWS, Lakshmi, K., Tardy monsoon: Chennai water table rises only marginally, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 August 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The ground water table in Chennai is at 4-5m below ground in most of the areas, which was considerably improved and maintained through the mandatory rain water harvesting system.BOOK, Susheela Raghavan, Indira Narayanan, S.Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, Palaniappa Brothers, 2008, 13, Chapter 1: Geography, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink Of the 24.87 km coastline of the city, 3.08 km experiences erosion, with sand accretion along the shoreline can be noticed at the Marina beach and the area between the Ennore Port and Kosasthalaiyar river.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
, T.N. lost 41% shoreline to erosion: study
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 10 November 2018
,weblink
, 10 November 2018,

Geology

Chennai is classified as being in Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes.NEWS, John, Ekatha Ann, Disaster body for panel to monitor highrises in Chennai, The Times of India, Chennai, 29 September 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, Owing to the geotectonic zone the city falls in, the city is considered a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. It is expected that temperatures of around 200 to 300 C° will be available if the ground were drilled 4 to 5 km deep.WEB,weblink Seismic Zones of India map, theconstructor.org, 12 October 2015, The region has the oldest rocks in the country dating back to nearly a billion years.NEWS, Yadav, Priya, Soon, power from ancient rocks, The Times of India, Chennai, 10 January 2013,weblink 10 January 2013,

Flora and fauna

The southern stretch of Chennai's coast from Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to lay eggs every winter. A large number of cattle egrets, pond herons and other waterbirds can be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75,000 birds migrate to Chennai every year.WEB,weblink Rare grey headed Lapwings spotted at Pallikaranai marsh, acjnewsline.com, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120331131319weblink">weblink 31 March 2012, dmy-all, Marshy wetlands such as Pallikaranai also play host to a number of migratory birds during the monsoon and winter.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321122516weblink">weblink 2012-03-21, Wetlands in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu State Dept. of Environment and Related Issues, 12 October 2015, Over 300 species of birds have been recorded in the city and its neighbourhood by members of Madras Naturalists' Society since its inception in 1978.Guindy National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and research activities take place atArignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive ridley sea turtle conservation.NEWS,weblink Wildlife centre at Vandalur zoo replaces safari, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, Madras Crocodile Bank Trust is a herpetology research station, located {{Convert|40|km}} south of Chennai.WEB,weblinkwork=listofzoos.comaccessdate=29 Aug 2011, It is India's leading institution for herpeto faunal conservation and the first crocodile breeding centre in Asia.HTTP://WWW.TAMIL-NADU.NGOSINDIA.COM/MADRAS-CROCODILE-BANK-TRUST-MAMALLAPURAM.HTML>TITLE=MADRAS CROCODILE BANK TRUSTPUBLISHER=NGOS INDIADEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=30 MARCH 2012, dmy-all, The city's tree cover is estimated to be around 64.06 sq km.NEWS
,
,
,
, Tree cover in city is only around 15%
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, The Hindu
, 11 February 2018
,weblink
, 11 February 2018, The most dominant tree species is the copper pod, followed by Indian beech and Neem. A total of 121 species of trees belonging to 94 genera and 42 families are found in the city. Nearly half of the native plant species in the city's wetlands have disappeared in recent years. The city, which had 85 percent of its area covered with aquatic plants until the 1970s, now has only 25 percent of its area covered with such plants.NEWS
, K.
, Lakshmi
,
, Indigenous flora in city wetlands under threat
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 20 January 2019
,weblink
, 3 February 2019,

Environment conservation

Chennai has three rivers and many lakes spread across the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage of water bodies and wetlands.NEWS,weblink Vanishing wetlands, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, The quantity of wetlands in the city has decreased from 650 to only 27 currently.NEWS, Next time by water,weblink The Economist, 2015-12-11, 0013-0613, The Chennai River Restoration trust set up by the government is working on the restoration of Adyar river.NEWS,weblink Muck in Chennai rivers to turn into manure, Times of India, 12 October 2015, Environmentalist Foundation of India is a volunteering group working towards wildlife conservation and habitat restoration.NEWS,weblink More citizens initiative for restoring water bodies, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Water security mission to watch out for city's needs, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, The encroachment of urban development on wetlands has gravely hampered the city's sustainability, and contributed both to the city's floods in 2015 and water scarcity crisis in 2019.WEB,weblink Living without water in Chennai, V, Jinoy Jose P. & NARAYANAN, @businessline, en, 2019-06-19,

Climate

Chennai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). The city lies on the thermal equatorWEB, About Chennai,weblink 1, 28 December 2012, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil,NEWS, Ramakrishnan, T, Hot spell may continue for some more weeks in the Statedate=18 May 2005,weblink3540F}}. The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around {{convert–C13.9°FURL=HTTP://WWW.IMDPUNE.GOV.IN/TEMP_EXTREMES/HISTEXT2010.PDF PAGE=67 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=21 MAY 2013 45°F140inACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012INDIAN METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121121080418/HTTP://WWW.IMDCHENNAI.GOV.IN/RDWR.HTMDEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north–east monsoon winds, from mid–October to mid–December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is {{convert|257|cm|in|abbr=on}} in 2005.NEWS, Ramakrishnan, T, Entering 2006, city's reservoirs filled to the brim, The Hindu, 3 January 2006,weblink 28 December 2012, Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and OctoberWEB,weblink NASA climate data visualised, Classzone.com, 28 December 2012, and north-easterly during the rest of the year. Historically, Chennai has relied on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area.WEB,weblink Northeast Monsoon, India Meteorological Department Regional Meteorological Centre: Chennai, 19 March 2016, Chennai has a water table at 2 metres for 60 percent of the year.NEWS, Ayyappan, V., Metro dips under historic Cooum, The Times of India, 22 March 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, {{#section:Geography of Chennai|weatherbox}}

NE monsoon

The city of Chennai is located on the east coast of India, which is also known as the Coromandel Coast.Chennai is largely dependent on NE monsoon, since 65% of rains are received in this season. Cyclones and depressions are common features during the season. Cyclones, in particular, are really unpredictable. They can even move towards Orissa, west Bengal, Bangladesh, and also Myanmar. The season between October and December is referred as the NE monsoon periodweblink Floods are common during this period. In 2015 Chennai received record-breaking rains since 1918, which caused massive floods.The entire east coast is vulnerable to cyclones during the monsoon period. For example, in 2007 a major cyclone named "Cyclone Sidr" skipped Chennai and headed towards Bangladesh. The result was a failure of NE monsoon in Chennai, that particular year. Even in the past, there has been many occasions where Cyclones had a great influence on the monsoon.

Land usage

As of 2018, the city had a green cover of 14.9 percent, against the World Health Organization recommendation of 9 square meters of green cover per capita in cities. The city had a built-up area of 71 percent. Waterbodies cover an estimated 6 percent of the total area, and at least 8 percent of the area has classified as open space.NEWS
, Lopez
, Aloysius Xavier
, A Rs.228-cr. project to take city’s green cover to 20%
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 4
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 31 August 2018
,weblink
, 2 September 2018, As of 2017, the total volume of water harvested was 339 mcft and groundwater recharge was 170 mcft.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
, The vanishing waterbodies of Chennai
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 2
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 1 April 2018
,weblink
, 21 October 2018,

Administration

missing image!
- Chennai District.png -
Divisions of Chennai district.
File:Ripon building, Chennai 2.jpg|thumb|The Ripon Building, commissioned in 1913, houses the Chennai CorporationChennai CorporationChennai city is governed by the Greater Chennai Corporation (formerly "Corporation of Madras"), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest surviving municipal corporation in India and the second oldest surviving corporation in the world.BOOK, S.Muthiah, Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India, Volume 1, 217, 2008, Association of British Scholars (India). Chennai Chapter, Palaniappa Brothers, 978-81-8379-468-8,weblink NEWS, Chennai Corporation to celebrate 320 years,weblink Kannal, Achutan, 23 September 2008, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation was expanded from {{convert|174|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} to an area of {{convert|426|km2| mi2|abbr=on}},NEWS,weblink Scope of digital mapping exercise in city likely to be enlarged, The Hindu, 24 December 2011, 28 December 2012, dividing into three regions—North, South and Central, which covers 200 wards.NEWS,weblink Expanded Chennai Corporationto be divided into 3 regions, The Hindu, 25 November 2011, 28 December 2012, WEB, Wards Committee,weblink PDF, Chennai Corporation, 12 September 2011, 28 December 2012, The corporation is headed by a mayor, an office presently occupied by Saidai Sa. Duraisamy.WEB,weblink Chennai Corp. Council, Chennai Corporation, 12 October 2015, NEWS,weblink Saidai Sa. Duraisamy is mayor, The Hindu, 12 October 2015, The Mayor and councillors of the city are elected through a popular vote by the residents.WEB, Executive Chart,weblink About COC;Corporation of Chennai, 28 December 2012, While the city limit was expanded in 2011, the revised population is yet to be officially announced.The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and development of Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is spread over an area of {{convert|1189|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}},NEWS, Srivathsan, A, Indecisiveness keeps urban projects on hold, The Hindu pages = publisher = The Hindu, 19 September 2013,weblinkChennai district and parts of Tiruvallur district>Tiruvallur and Kanchipuram district districts. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called Panchayati Raj>panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 Parliament of India and 28 Member of the Legislative Assembly (India)>assembly constituencies.ABOUT CORPORATION OF CHENNAI>URL=HTTP://WWW.CHENNAICORPORATION.GOV.IN/ABOUT-CHENNAI-CORPORATION/ABOUTCOC.HTMACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, CHENNAI METROPOLITAN AREA â€“ PROFILE>WORK=CHENNAI METROPOLITAN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITYACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, The CMDA has drafted an additional Comprehensive planning that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. The city's contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumbudur>Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam, Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west.HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2007/04/12/STORIES/2007041204230100.HTM>TITLE=3 SATELLITE TOWNS PROPOSED FOR CHENNAIACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, 12 April 2007, Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.WEB,weblink Government of Tamil Nadu: Home Department: Department of Justice, Official website of the Government of Tamil Nadu, 19 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120124011527weblink">weblink 24 January 2012, Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and elects 24 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.WEB,weblink List of TN Assembly constituencies, Assembly.tn.gov.in, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120614070155weblink">weblink 14 June 2012, dmy,

Law and order

File:Chennai High Court.jpg|thumb|Madras High CourtMadras High CourtThe Greater Chennai Police is the main law enforcement agency in the city, with a jurisdiction of over {{convert|745|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} catering to over 8.5 million people. It consists of 121 police stations and is headed by a commissioner of police. The Greater Chennai Police is a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, and the administrative control lies with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry.NEWS,weblink City police await notification on extending Commissionerate's jurisdiction, K.T. Sangameswaran, 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 24 February 2005, Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP) is responsible for the traffic management in the city. The metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police, headed by the Chennai Police Commissionerate, and the outer district areas of the CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments.WEB,weblink Chennai Metro Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, WEB,weblink Kanchipuram Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011142636weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, WEB,weblink Thiruvallur Police, Tamil Nadu Police, 12 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011143503weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, (File:Gcp patrol car.jpg|thumb|left|A police patrol car){{As of|2011}} (prior to the expansion of Chennai Corporation area), Chennai city has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel. With a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman for every 413 people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4,093 police personnel and a ratio of 1:1,222.NEWS,weblink Despite rising population, number of police, The Times of India, 7 April 2011, 28 December 2012, In 2010, the crime rate in the city was 169.2 per 100,000 people, as against an average of 341.9 in the 35 major cities of India.WEB,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, Crimes in Mega Cities, Govt. of India, National Crime Records Bureau, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130826215533weblink">weblink 26 August 2013, In 2011, North Chennai zone had 30 police stations and 3 police out posts, Central Chennai zone had 28 police stations and 3 police out posts, and South Chennai zone had 30 police stations.NEWS, Selvaraj title = Triplicane police station gets bigger with more area, men location = Chennai url =weblink 3 December 2013, In 2009, Madras Central Prison, one of the oldest prisons in India, built over {{convert|11|acres|0|abbr=on}} of land, was demolished; the prisoners were moved to Puzhal Central Prison.NEWS, 150-yr-old Central prison closed for good,weblink The Times of India, 19 January 2009, 28 December 2012,

Politics

Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages, which dominated the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil nationalism gained prominence. This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and across the state. However, the post-Independence re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the 1960s played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu Congress party in the 1967 elections and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu politics.NEWS,weblink Language issue again: the need for a clear-headed policy, S. Viswanathan, The Hindu, 7 December 2009, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100120072025weblink">weblink 20 January 2010, no, File:Fort St. George, Chennai 2.jpg|thumb|Tamil Nadu legislative assembly ]]Being the capital of the Madras Province that covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai remained the centre of politics in the southern region of India during the British colonial era. After Independence, it remained the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the birthplace of the idea of the Indian National Congress, commonly known as the Congress Party. Founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume,Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress, Bevir, Mark, University of California, Berkeley, Publication Date: 1 January 2003 s. 14–18. Original Citation: Mark Bevir, "Theosophy and the Origins of the Indian National Congress", International Journal of Hindu Studies 7 (2003), 99–115. E.g., "Theosophical Society provided the framework for action within which some of its Indian and British members worked to form the Indian National Congress.", "1884 annual convention of the Theosophical Society. At this convention, Rao argued that the Society should start formally to discuss the political situation in India as well as more strictly religious matters. Although Rao did not get his way, he did arrange a meeting of sympathetic theosophists to be held at his home. Those who attended this meeting with Rao included Aiyar, Ananda Charlu, and M. Viraraghavachariar. They formed the Madras Mahajana Sabha," "meeting to coincide with the next annual convention of the Theosophical Society. This meeting would promote their idea of an all-India body." "Hume was probably the single most important individual for the formation of the Indian National Congress." the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in the city in December 1884.Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version During the first 50 years of the Indian National Congress, the city played host to its conferences seven times in 1887, 1894, 1898, 1903, 1908, 1914 and 1927, becoming one of the strong bases for the Indian independence movement. After independence, the city hosted the Congress in 1955 in its suburb of Avadi.BOOK, Political and Social Conflict in South India; The non-Brahmin movement and Tamil Separatism, 1916–1929, Irschick, Eugene F., 1969, harv, 249254802, University of California Press,weblink 23 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304001539weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, Chennai is also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in 1916, which later came to be known as the Justice Party, which was the main opposition party to the Indian National Congress in the state.{{Harvnb|Rajaraman|1988| loc=ch. 4 (Ideology, Organisation and Programme of the Justice Party)}}{{Harvnb|Irschick|1969| pp=172–178}} In 1944, the party was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) by E. V. Ramasami (popularly known as 'Periyar'). The party was a non-political party that demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.BOOK, Taylor, Richard Warren, Religion and Society: The First Twenty-five Years, 1953–1978, Christian Literature Society (for the Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore), 1982, 9007066, 242, However, due to the differences between its two leaders Periyar and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter into politics in 1956.

Utility services

{{See also|Water management in Chennai}}The city's water supply and sewage treatment are managed by the Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board. Water is drawn from Red Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam Lake, the primary water reservoirs of the city,BOOK, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, 157–159,weblink 28 December 2012, and treated at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, ChembarambakkamWEB, Water Supply System,weblink Chennai Metro Water, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131015122930weblink">weblink 15 October 2013, dmy, and supplied to the city through 27 water distribution stations.BOOK, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, 163,weblink 28 December 2012, The city receives 530 million liters per day (mld) of water from Krishna River through Telugu Ganga project, 180 mld of water from the Veeranam lake project and 100 mld of water from the Minjur desalination plant, the country's largest sea water desalination plant.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100803150810weblink">weblink 2010-08-03, India's biggest desalination plant opens in Chennai, Hindustan Times, 1 August 2010, 28 December 2012, NEWS, IVRCL to set up desalination plant near Chennai, The Hindu, 12 August 2005,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090213183507weblink">weblink 13 February 2009, NEWS, Radhakrishnan, R.K., Preliminary work on desalination plant to be completed by December-end, The Hindu, 4 September 2007,weblink 28 December 2012, However, Chennai is predicted to face a huge deficit of 713 mld in 2026 as the demand is projected at 2,248 mld and supply estimated at only 1,535 mld.NEWS,weblink Chennai worst in saving water, Deccan Chronicle, 6 May 2011, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011034707weblink">weblink 11 October 2012, The city's sewer system was designed in 1910, with some modifications in 1958.NEWS, Ann, Ekatha, Rain opens city's filthy underbelly, The Times of India, Chennai, 22 October 2014,weblink 26 October 2014, There are 714 public toilets in the city managed by the city corporation,NEWS,weblink No response from firms to build toilets, The Times of India, 24 September 2012, 28 December 2012, and 2,000 more have been planned by the corporation.NEWS, From Feb 24, use public toilets for free, says mayor, The Times of India, Chennai, 31 October 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The corporation also owns 52 community halls across the city.NEWS, Residents to soon have free use of community halls, The Hindu, Chennai, 31 October 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The Corporation of Chennai provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company,NEWS,weblink New firm to begin conservancy work next week, 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 4 January 2012, while the Corporation looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others,NEWS,weblink New garbage collection, street cleaning mechanism, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, 27 January 2012, with a superintendent engineer managing the channels. {{As of|2011}}, 8 transfer stations exist within the city for treating the waste.WEB,weblink Soild Waste Management, Corporation of Chennai, 28 December 2012, Garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur and another in Pallikaranai, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai marshland.NEWS,weblink Cluster-based solid waste mgmt may ease pressure on dump yards, The Times of India, 7 April 2012, Madhavan, D., In market areas, the conservancy work is done during the night.NEWS,weblink SMS fillip for garbage collection, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, Deepa H, Ramakrishnan, 25 January 2012, Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board.WEB, Emergency and Utility Services Contact Details at Chennai, Govt. of Tamil Nadu,weblink 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930014904weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, yes, dmy-all, Fire services are handled by the Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Services.WEB,weblink Contact us, Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service, 28 December 2012, The city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations.WEB,weblink List of fire stations, Tamil Nadu Fire and Rescue Service, 28 December 2012, The Chennai City Region has 568 post offices, of which nearly 460 operate from rented premises.NEWS
, Lakshmi
, K.
, Iconic General Post Office to finally get a makeover
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, The Hindu
, 28 June 2018
,weblink
, 15 July 2018,

Architecture

{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Chennai|Heritage structures in Chennai}}File:Parrys Corner, Chennai, India.jpg|thumb|Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with alt=a multi-storeyed building, with road in the foregroundWith the history of many neighbourhoods of the city such as Mylapore, Triplicane, and Tiruvanmiyur antedating that of the city, the architecture of Chennai ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore and the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas, the Cholas, and the Vijayanagara empires. The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas.NEWS, Sujatha, R., Agraharam – time virtually stands still here, The Hindu, Chennai, 29 April 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120705142259weblink">weblink 5 July 2012, NEWS, Iyer, Aruna V., Chennai's vanishing agraharams, The Hindu, Chennai, 7 October 2011,weblink 28 December 2012, The heritage temples at Mamallapuram at the outskirts of the city are some of the examples of the Pallava architecture. Chennai ranks second to Kolkata of Indian heritage buildings.NEWS, Ravishankar, Sandhya, No fire safety norms at Chennai heritage buildings, IBN Live, Chennai, CNN IBN, 6 September 2007weblink > accessdate = 28 December 2012, With the advent of the Mugals and the British, the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu, Islamic and Gothic revival styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style.JOURNAL, Metcalfe
, Thomas R., A Tradition Created: Indo-Saracenic Architecture under the Raj, History Today, 32
, 9,weblink 28 December 2012, harv, The architecture for several early institutions such as banking and commerce, railways, press and education, chiefly through the colonial rule, followed the earlier directions of the Neo-Classical and the Indo-Saracenic. The Chepauk Palace in the city, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic building in India.WEB, Indo-saracenic Architecture, Henry Irwin, Architect in India, 1841–1922, higman.de
,weblink 28 December 2012, Since then, many of the colonial-era buildings in the city were designed in this style of architecture, which is most apparent around the Fort St. George built in 1640. Most of these were designed by English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court (built in 1892), Southern Railway headquarters, Ripon Building, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering.WEB
, Jeyaraj, George J., Indo Saracenic Architecture in Channai, CMDA,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue, at the Marina Beach is an important landmark of Chennai.BOOK, The History of Indian Art, saraswati publication, 2013,
(File:Chennai LabourStatue Closeup.jpg|thumb|Triumph of Labour)File:Southern Railway HQ.jpg|thumb|Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the city]]The construction of the National Art Gallery in Madras was completed in 1909. The new building, with a stunning façade, was built of pink sandstone brought from Sathyavedu, and formed part of the Madras Museum campus. It was opened, on 23 January 1909, by the Governor of Fort St. George, Sir Arthur Lawley, and called the Victoria Memorial Hall after the Queen-Empress Victoria."New for Old". Frontline. Volume 20 – Issue 14, 5 to 18 July 2003. India's National Magazine from publishers of the Hindu.Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, Chapter 6. Catastrophe, Conspiracy, Celebration. The Benefits of Empire. Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBooksSir Arthur Lawley's Photo Album, Empire and Commonwealth Museum The residential architecture in the city was based on the bungalow or the continuous row house prototypes. Gothic revival style buildings include the Chennai Central and Chennai Egmore railway stations. The Santhome Church, which was originally built by the Portuguese in 1523 and is believed to house the remains of the apostle St. Thomas, was rebuilt in 1893 in neo-Gothic style.WEB, A day in Chennai, Chennai Magic,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130708171802weblink">weblink 8 July 2013, By the early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city's urban landscape. From the 1930s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including the United India building (presently housing LIC) and the Burma Shell building (presently the Chennai House), both built in the 1930s, and the Dare House, built in 1940. Other examples include the Bombay Mutual building (presently housing LIC) and the South Indian Chamber of Commerce building.NEWS
, Sitalakshmi, K. R., Art Deco buildings in Chennai, The Hindu, Chennai, 5 August 2006,weblink 28 December 2012,
After Independence, the city witnessed a rise in the Modernism style of architecture. The completion of the LIC Building in 1959, the tallest building in the country at that time,NEWS, Srivathsan, A., Reaching the sky, The Hindu, Chennai, 14 July 2007,weblink
, 28 December 2012, marked the transition from lime-and-brick construction to concrete columns in the region.NEWS, Kannan, Shanthi, GREEN buildings, The Hindu, Chennai
, 19 March 2005,weblink 28 December 2012, The presence of the weather radar at the Chennai Port, however, prohibited the construction of buildings taller than 60 m around a radius of 10 km for several decades that followed.NEWS, Koshy
, Jacob P.
, Doppler radar may put cap on building heights
, Livemint.com
, New Delhi
, 13 December 2007
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, In addition, the floor-area ratio (FAR) in the central business district is also 1.5, much less than that of smaller cities of the country. This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction of buildings up to 60 floors.

Demographics

Population

{{IndiaCensusPop|title= Population of Chennai city|state=|1639=7000|1646=19000|1670=40000|1681=200000|1685=300000|1691=400000|1715=100000|1726=100000|1733=100000|1791=300000|1871=367552|1881= 405848|1891= 452518|1901= 509346|1911=518660|1921=526911|1931=647232|1941=777481|1951=1416056|1961=1729141|1971=2469449|1981=3266034|1991=3841396|2001=4343645|2011=7088000AUTHOR=H. D. LOVEPAGE=557, * 1871–1901:IMPERIAL GAZETTER OF INDIA, VOLUME 16>YEAR=1908PUBLISHER=INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESSISBN=978-0-253-35223-1 FIRST=S. AUTHORLINK=S. MUTHIAH ISBN=81-88661-24-4PUBLISHER=ANMOL PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTDISBN=978-81-261-1992-9 URL=HTTP://WWW.CHENNAI.TN.NIC.IN/SHB-PDF/SHB001%20-%20AREA%20POPULATION.PDFPUBLISHER=DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION, CHENNAIARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130830215520/HTTP://WWW.CHENNAI.TN.NIC.IN/SHB-PDF/SHB001%20-%20AREA%20POPULATION.PDF#DEAD-URL=YESPUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIANEWSPAPER=THE HINDU, January 31, 2016, }}A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite.NEWS, Chennaite to represent India at Abilympics,weblink 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 2 March 2007, BOOK, Lakshmi, C. S., The Unhurried City: Writings on Chennai,weblink 1 January 2004, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-303026-3, 11, BOOK, Bergman, Introduction to Geography,weblink 2003, Pearson Education, 978-81-317-0210-9, 485, According to 2011 census, the city had a population of 4,646,732, within the area administered by the Municipal Corporation;WEB,weblink Smart Cities Mission, Government of India, that had 11 lakh households, with 51% of them living in rented houses.NEWS, Aloysius Xavier Lopez, Half of city lives in rented homes,weblink 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 28 March 2012, The city's limits were expanded later in 2011 and its population reached 7,088,000 with Chennai Municipal Corporation being renamed as Greater Chennai Corporation.As of 2019, 712,000 families live below poverty line, which is about 40 percent of the 1.788 million families in the city.NEWS
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,
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, Number of people below the poverty line to increase in city
, The Hindu
, Chennai
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, Kasturi & Sons
, 13 May 2019
,weblink
, 20 May 2019,

Languages

Tamils form the majority of Chennai's population. English is spoken largely by white-collar workers,BOOK, Siddique, Zahra, 2008, Ethnicity, Race and Gender in the Labor Market, ProQuest, 30,weblink 978-0-549-50781-9, often mixed into Tamil.BOOK, Joseph Getter, B.Balasubrahmaniyan, Mark, Slobin, Global Soundtracks: Worlds of Film Music, Wesleyan University Press,weblink 29 September 2008, 119, Tamil Film Music: Sound and Significance, 978-0-8195-6882-3, NEWS,weblink Kannadigas outnumber Malayalis 2:1 in Tamil Nadu, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, 15 April 2008, In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8% of its population) in the city, 61.5% were from other parts of the state, 33.8% were from rest of India and 3.7% were from outside the country.WEB, Demography, Second Master Plan, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, As per the 2001 census, the number of speakers mother tongue wise are as follows, Tamil is spoken by 3,424,107 (78.8%), followed by Telugu by 419,209 (9.7%), Urdu by 180,245 (4.1%), Malayalam by 113,828 (2.6%), Hindi by 104,084 (2.4%), and Kannada by 22,250 (0.5%).WEB,weblink Welcome to Census of India: Census India Library, www.censusindia.gov.in, 2016-04-27, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160315050316weblink">weblink 15 March 2016, dmy, Korean, Japanese, French, Mandarin Chinese, Russian, German and Spanish are some of the languages spoken by the 250,000 foreign expatriates residing in the city."K and the city: Why are more and more Chennaiites learning Korean - The Hindu""How Mandarin has become crucial in Chennai - The Hindu""How many tongues can you speak? - The New Indian Express""Guten Morgen! - Times of India""Konnichiwa! - Business Line"

Religion and ethnicity

{{bar box|title=Religions in Chennai|titlebar=#Fcd116|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|80.7}}{{bar percent|Islam|green|9.5}}{{bar percent|Christianity|red|7.7}}{{bar percent|Others|grey|2.1}}}}Chennai, along with Bengaluru, Mumbai and Delhi, is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities.NEWS,weblink The magic of melting pot called Chennai, The Hindu, 19 December 2011, 29 December 2012, Minorities include Telugus, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Parsis,NEWS,weblink The Parsi Arrival, The Hindu, 10 March 2008, 29 December 2012, JOURNAL,weblink The Parsis of Madras, Madras Musings, 15 October 2008, XVIII, 12, 29 December 2012, Sindhis,NEWS,weblink Sindhis to usher in new year with fanfare, The Times of India, 24 March 2012, 29 December 2012, NEWS,weblink Catholic in outlook, The Hindu, 3 April 2003, 29 December 2012, Odias,NEWS,weblink Why Oriyas find Chennai warm and hospitable, The Times of India, 12 May 2012, 29 December 2012, Goans,NEWS,weblink Goan spirit in Chennai, The Hindu, 18 December 2000, 29 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140318134242weblink">weblink 18 March 2014, Kannadigas,NEWS,weblink Chennai's Kannadigas not complaining, The Times of India, 5 April 2008, 29 December 2012, Anglo-Indians,JOURNAL,weblink The Anglo-Indians of Chennai, Madras Musings, XX, 12, 15 October 2010, 29 December 2012, Bengalis,NEWS,weblink A slice of Bengal in Chennai, The Times of India, 22 October 2012, 29 December 2012, Punjabi,JOURNAL,weblink Madhu, B.R., The Punjabis of Chennai, Madras Musings, XX, 12, 16 September 2009, 29 December 2012, and Malayalees. As per the religious census of 2011, Chennai's population was 80.7% Hindu, 9.5% Muslim, 7.7% Christian, 1.1% Jain, 0.1% Sikh, 0.1% Buddhist, .NEWS,weblink Massive afforestation drive to begin in Chennai, The Times of India, 9 May 2011, 28 December 2012, Janardhanan, Arun, This enables birding. The seven zones of the old corporation limits have about 260 parks, many of which suffer poor maintenance.NEWS,weblink More parks, but Chennai needs green thumb, The Times of India, 24 August 2012, 28 December 2012, Philip, Christin Mathew, The city has a per capita park space of 0.41 sq m, which is the least among all metros in India. The eight zones in the newly added areas of the city have about 265 locations that have been identified for development of new parks.NEWS, Lopez, Aloysius Xavier, More green relief for Chennai soon, The Hindu, Chennai, 30 March 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The largest park is the 358-acre Tholkappia Poonga, developed to restore the fragile ecosystem of the Adyar estuary.NEWS, A., Srivathsan, J. Malarvizhi, Eco-park will cover entire 358-acre expanse of the Adyar Creek, The Hindu, Chennai, 30 March 2007,weblink 28 December 2012, The horticulture department-owned Semmozhi Poonga is a 20-acre downtown botanical garden.NEWS, Sivan, Jayraj, Collector refutes MK's charge, says property on Cathedral Rd not govt's, The Times of India, Chennai, 11 October 2011,weblink 28 December 2012, Chennai houses several theme parks, namely MGM Dizzee World and Queen's Land.NEWS, Water, water, everywhere ...,weblink Madhavan, T, 12 May 2012, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120726154458weblink">weblink 26 July 2012, NEWS, Amusement parks: a preferred destination,weblink Madhavan, T, 16 June 2012, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, However, several fatal accidents have occurred in the theme parks.NEWS, Do amusement parks ride roughshod over safety?,weblink 30 January 2008, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, Wonderla plans to open an amusement park in 2017.NEWS, New Amusement park for chennai ...,weblink Pradeesh, Chandran, 10 Sep 2015, The Hindu, Chennai, 13 September 2015, Other important recreation centres include Madras Boat Club, which is over 140 years old, and Gymkhana Club, which is famous for its 18-hole golf courses. Built in 1867, Madras Boat Club is the second-oldest surviving Indian rowing club.WEB, Rowing Federation of India, Rowing federation,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121121023906weblink">weblink 21 November 2012,

Shopping

{{See also|Shopping in Chennai}}Chennai is home to several malls, due to its status as an IT hub.NEWS, No market for malls?,weblink 4 December 2004, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, NEWS, More malls to Chennai's skyline,weblink 3 April 2011, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, NEWS, Mall activity picks up in Chennai IT hubs,weblink Nina, Varghese, 7 August 2006, Business Line, Chennai, 28 December 2012, Major ones include Express Avenue (EA), Citi Centre, Abirami mega mall, Spencer Plaza, Ampa Skywalk, Phoenix Market City and Forum Vijaya Mall.NEWS, Phoenix Market City in Chennai,weblink 25 January 2013, The Hindu, Chennai, 25 January 2013, Chennai is an important gold market in India contributing to 45 percent of the 800-tonne annual national gold uptake.NEWS, Varghese, Nina, T.Nagar: Shop till you drop, and then shop some more, Business Line, Chennai, 29 August 2006,weblink 14 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120926000130weblink">weblink 26 September 2012, yes, dmy-all, The city is also the base to the World Gold Council's India operations. The city's retail industry is majorly concentrated in T. Nagar which accounts for major share jewellery and clothes sold in Chennai. According to the 2012 report by property consultant Cushman & Wakefield, Main Streets Across the World, Khader Nawaz Khan Road at Nungambakkam ranked 10th position in the list of 'Top 10 Global Highest Retail Rental Growth Markets 2012', with 36.7 percent jump in rents.NEWS, Mumbai records maximum growth in retail rent globally, Samay Live, saharansamay.com, 19 November 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121126061555weblink">weblink 26 November 2012, dmy-all,

Economy

(File:Dare House,Chennai.jpg|thumb|Corporate Headquarters of $ 10 billion Murugappa Group in Chennai)(File:India Land Tech Park,Ambattur.JPG|left|thumb|India Land Tech Park, Ambattur)File:Infosys Mcity, Building number 5.jpg|thumb|Infosys at Mahindra World City, Chennai]]File:ALCOB Ashok Leyland Corporate Building in Guindy, Chennai.jpg|thumb|Ashok LeylandAshok LeylandFile:TCS-Siruseri-Building.jpg|left|thumb|TATA Consultancy Services, Chennai]](File:Ramco Systems Headquarters.jpg|thumb|left|Headquarters of Ramco Systems in Chennai)File:Cognizant's Delivery Center in Chennai -TCO.jpg|thumb|CognizantCognizantRecent estimates of the economy of the entire Chennai Metropolitan Area range from $78.6 to $86 billion (PPP GDP), ranking it from fourth- to sixth-most productive metro area of India.WEB,weblink Global city GDP 2014, Brookings Institution, 8 May 2015, WEB,weblink Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, PwC, 16 December 2009,weblink 4 May 2011, MAGAZINE,weblink The Most Dynamic Cities of 2025, Foreign Policy, 24 August 2012, Chennai has a broad industrial base in the automobile, computer, technology, hardware manufacturing and healthcare sectors. {{As of|2012}}, the city is India's second-largest exporter of information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) services.WEB, Chennai activities,weblink NASSCOM, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121116141448weblink">weblink 16 November 2012, dmy-all, NEWS, Chennai emerging as India's Silicon Valley?work=The Economic Timesaccessdate=28 December 2012last=Chandramouli, A major part of India's automobile industry is located in and around the city thus earning it the nickname "Detroit of India".BUSINESS AMERICA>DATE=1997PAGE=14LANGUAGE=EN, CHRIS DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS>TITLE=DOING BUSINESS IN INDIAPUBLISHER=SPRINGER SCIENCE+BUSINESS MEDIA>ISBN=978-3-642-27617-0URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=AIX9E5I9LB8C&PG=PA218, U.S. INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION>TITLE=COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS FOR FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN INDIA, STAFF RESEARCH STUDY #30PUBLISHER=DIANE PUBLISHINGPAGES=2–10YEAR=2004ISSUE=8361–8364URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=MHJQAAAAIAAJYEAR=2000ISBN=978-81-250-1378-5URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=BW2VDG2FTRMC&PG=PA66&LPG=PA66, and is the third-most visited city in India by international tourists according to Euromonitor. The city also serves as the location of the Madras Stock Exchange, India's fourth stock exchange, one of four permanently recognised by SEBI, and India's third-largest by trading volume, ranked behind the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India.HTTP://WWW.MADRASSTOCKEXCHANGE.IN>TITLE=MADRAS STOCK EXCHANGEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160216110236/HTTP://WWW.MADRASSTOCKEXCHANGE.IN/DEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, Industrialisation in the city dates back to the 16th century, when textile mills manufactured goods which were exported to British during its war with France. According to Forbes magazine, Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and is rated in the "Forbes-Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the World".NEWS,weblink In pictures: the next decade's fastest-growing cities â€“ Chennai, India, Forbes, 28 December 2012, It is ranked 4th in hosting the maximum number of Fortune 500 companies of India, next only to Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. It also is home to 24 Indian companies having a net worth of more than US$1 billion. {{As of|2012}}, the city has about 34,260 identified companies in its 15 zones, of which 5,196 companies have a paid-up the capital of over {{INR}} 50 lakh.NEWS
, Company tax upped, capped at ₹ 30,000
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 30 October 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012,
(File:Zoho headquarters in chennai.jpg|thumb|Zoho Headquarters in Chennai)Chennai has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries. According to the Confederation of Indian Industry, Chennai is estimated to grow to a US$100–billion economy, 2.5 times its present size, by the year 2025.NEWS,weblink Seminar to focus on Chennai's growth potential, The Hindu, 21 August 2008, 28 December 2012, {{As of|2012}}, with {{INR}} 1 lakh crore investment in the pipeline over 5 years, the city is poised for major industrial investment.NEWS,weblink Chennai tops in occupancy level in hospitality sector, MagicBricks.com, 5 October 2012, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121213070307weblink">weblink 13 December 2012, Chennai is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of BetaWEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2010, Lboro.ac.uk, 2011-09-14, 2014-04-06, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131010004859weblink">weblink 10 October 2013, dmy, based on the extent of global reach and financial influence.BOOK,weblink 23, Tourism and the branded city: film and identity on the Pacific Rim, Ashgate publishing Ltd., 978-0-7546-4829-1, 6 November 2007, It is estimated that about 400 financial industry businesses are headquartered in the city.NEWS, Shivakumar, C.,weblink Chennai Finance City taking shape, Express Publications, 28 February 2018, 17 March 2019, The city is base to around 40 percent of India's automobile industry and 45 percent of auto components industry.NEWS,weblink Chennai: The next global auto manufacturing hub?, CNBC-TV18, 28 December 2012, 27 April 2011, CNBC, A large number of automotive companies including Royal enfield, Hyundai, Renault, Robert Bosch, Nissan Motors, Ashok Leyland, Yamaha Motor, Daimler AG, Caterpillar Inc., Komatsu Limited, BharatBenz, Ford, BMW and Mitsubishi have manufacturing plants in Chennai.NEWS, Chennai will be world's largest auto-manufacturing hub: Stalin,weblink The Economic Times, 10 February 2011, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110213073608weblink">weblink 13 February 2011, The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi produces military vehicles, including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT.NEWS,weblink Trials of Arjun mark II start in Pokhran, 28 December 2012, 25 June 2012, The Times of India, Jaisalmer, Bhatia, Vikram, The Integral Coach Factory manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways.WEB, Profile, Integral Coach Factory,weblink 28 December 2012, The Ambattur–Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers, and a special economic zone (SEZ) for apparel and footwear manufacturing has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city.NEWS, Ravi Kumar, N, Mahindra City, a world of its own, The Hindu, 3 December 2004,weblink 28 December 2012, Chennai contributes more than 50 percent of India's leather exports.DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR CHENNAI METROPOLITAN AREA>PUBLISHER=GOVT. OF INDIAURL=HTTP://WWW.JNNURM.NIC.IN/TOOLKIT/CDP_CHENNAI.PDFACCESSDATE = 28 DECEMBER 2012ARCHIVEDATE=26 FEBRUARY 2008, Many software and software services companies have development centres in Chennai, which contributed 14 percent of India's total software exports of {{INR}} 14,42,140 lakh during 2006–07, making it the second largest Indian city software exporter following Bangalore. The Tidel Park in Chennai was billed as Asia's largest IT park when it was built.NEWS, Ford's Rs. 200-cr. IT hub in Chennai,weblink 2 November 2000, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, WEB,weblink Work ethics: How Indian cities fare, 28 December 2012, Rediff, Major software companies have their offices set up here, with some of them making Chennai their largest base.File:Tid.jpg|thumb|Tidel ParkTidel ParkProminent financial institutions, including the World Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, Bank of America, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Goldman Sachs, Barclays, HSBC, ING Group, Allianz, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Asian Development Bank, Credit Suisse, BNP Paribas Fortis, Irevna, Deutsche Bank and Citibank have back office and development centre operations in the city.NEWS, J, Padmapriya, RBS may set up a facility in Chennai,weblink 28 December 2012, The Economic Times, 4 April 2009, Chennai is home to the national level commercial banks Indian BankWEB,weblink Indian Bank Head Office, Indian Bank, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070801224238weblink">weblink 1 August 2007, and Indian Overseas BankNEWS, Muthiah, S, The bank in a 'palace' grounds, The Hindu, 1 October 2003,weblink 28 December 2012, WEB, Branch Network, Bharat Overseas Bank Bank,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120306084711weblink">weblink 6 March 2012, and many state level co–operative banks, finance and insurance companies. Telecom and Electronics manufacturers based in and around Chennai include Samsung, Nokia Siemens, Motorola, Lenovo, Dell, Force10, Wipro, Flextronics and Siemens among others. Chennai is currently the largest electronics hardware exporter in India, accounting for 45% of the total exports in 2010–11.JOURNAL, Electronics Hardware Export 2010–11,weblink PDF, ECSIndia, 9 November 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140102191958weblink">weblink 2 January 2014, dmy-all, Telecom giants Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent, pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai. The TICEL bio–tech park at TaramaniWEB, List of clients, TICEL Bio Park,weblink 28 December 2012, and Golden Jubilee bio–tech park at SiruseriWEB, Existing units, Golden Jubilee Biotech Park for Women Society,weblink 2 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120519024701weblink">weblink 19 May 2012, houses biotechnology companies and laboratories. Chennai has a stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.NEWS, Investors told to go in for long term investment, index funds,weblink 25 March 2012, The Hindu, Trichy, 28 December 2012, WEB,weblink The Organisation, Madras Stock Exchange, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120906061853weblink">weblink 6 September 2012, yes, dmy-all, A study conducted by the National Housing Bank on the residential price index of Indian cities showed that Chennai experienced the highest growth after the 2008–2012 global financial crisis.NEWS,weblink High-rise Market, The Times of India, 7 April 2012, 28 December 2012, Sivan, Jayaraj, Medical tourism is an important part of Chennai's economy with 45 percent of total medical tourists to India making to Chennai.BOOK, Medical Tourism,weblink 71, Connell, John, 978-1-84593-660-0, 2011, The Tamil film industryJOURNAL, Annual report 2011,weblink PDF, Central Board of Film Certification, harv, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130124081428weblink">weblink 24 January 2013, and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai's economy. The city also has a permanent exhibition complex in Nandambakkam called the Chennai Trade Centre.WEB, Chennai Trade Centre{{snd, A Profile |publisher=India Trade Promotion Organisation |url=http://www.indiatradefair.com/corp/channai.asp.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061021233344weblink |dead-url=yes |archive-date=21 October 2006 |accessdate=28 December 2012 }} With 385 ultra-rich living in the city as of 2013, Chennai is positioned in the sixth place among Indian cities that are home to the country's super-rich.NEWS, Karthiyayini, Chennai comes sixth among India's super-rich cities, TruthDive, Chennai, 18 October 2013,weblink 19 October 2013, usurped,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131020061802weblink">weblink 20 October 2013, The city is the third largest market in India for luxury cars.NEWS
, Aravind
, Indulekha
, Chennai swank
, Business Standard
, Bangalore
, 26 October 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012,

Communication

(File:Chennai.jpg|thumb|Office of IT company in Chennai)Chennai is one of four Indian cities connected to the rest of the world by undersea fibre-optic cables, the other three being Mumbai, Kochi, and Tuticorin. The city is the landing point of major submarine telecommunication cable networks such as SMW4 (connecting India with Western Europe, Middle East and Southeast Asia), i2i (connecting India with Singapore), TIC (connecting India with Singapore), and BRICS (connecting India with Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa). The 3,175-km-long, 8-fiber-paired i2i has the world's largest design capacity of 8.4 terabits per second.NEWS
, Bharti, SingTel announce pact for submarine cable – Chennai-Mumbai-Singapore link to cost Rs $650m
, Business Line
, New Delhi
, 25 October 2000
,weblink
,weblink" title="archive.is/20130125163249weblink">weblink
, yes
, 25 January 2013
, 28 December 2012, NEWS
, India's 1st undersea cable network ready
, The Economic Times
, Singapore
, 8 April 2002
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, WEB
, VSNL completes Singapore's first Indian-owned undersea fiber-optic cable
, Tata.com
, 3 November 2004
,weblink
, 28 December 2012
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130928232230weblink">weblink
, 28 September 2013
,
, WEB
, BRICS Cable Unveiled for Direct and Cohesive Communications Services Between Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
, BRICS Cable News
, BRICS Cable
, 16 April 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012,
{{As of|2013}}, eight mobile phone service companies operate seven GSM networks including Airtel, Aircel, BSNL, Vodafone, Tata Docomo GSM, Idea, Reliance GSM and three CDMA networks including MTS, Relaince CDMA, Tata Docomo CDMA in the city. 2G Mobile internet connections are provided by all the operators and 4G, 3G mobile broadband are provided by few operators in the city. There are four land line companies PRESS RELEASE, Information note to the Press (Press Release No.71/2007), Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 24 August 2007,weblink PDF, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120515114849weblink">weblink 15 May 2012, Annexure lists these six entities as the licensed cellular operators for the Chennai circle. The CDMA Development Group's official website lists Tata Teleservices and Reliance Communications as the only operators to have deployed CDMA on cellular systems in India. WEB, CDMA Worldwide: Deployment search â€“ Asia-Pacific, CDMA Development Group,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011073228weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, dmy-all, NEWS, Narayanan, R.Y., Touchtel arrives in Coimbatore, The Hindu, 5 September 2002,weblinkWi-Fi internet access in a widespread manner.HTTP://ARTICLES.TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/2009-06-15/CHENNAI/28210956_1_WI-FI-SERVICES-WI-FI-INTERNET-ROUTERWORK=THE TIMES OF INDIADATE=15 JUNE 2009, {{As of|2010}}, there were 9.8 million mobile phone users in Chennai.NEWS
, Narayanan
, Vivek
, Chennai ranks third among metros in surfing internet on cellphones
, The Times of India
, 20 December 2010
,weblink
, 28 December 2012
, harv, In 2010, Chennai had the fourth highest number of active Internet users in India, with 2.2 million users.NEWS
, India's Internet users top 100 m in Sept
, Business Line
, 7 November 2011
,weblink
, 28 December 2012
, harv, As of 2018, the city topped in broadband speed among Indian cities, with a recorded download speed of 32.67 Mbit/s.NEWS
, City tops in broadband speed
, The Hindu
, 14 March 2018
,weblink
, 17 March 2018
, harv,

Power

Major power plants in the city include North Chennai Thermal Power Station, GMR Vasavi Diesel Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Power Station, Basin Bridge Gas Turbine Power Station, Madras Atomic Power Station and Vallur Thermal Power Project. According to the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited (TANGEDCO), {{As of|2013|lc=y}}, the city consumes about 20 percent of the electricity in the state of Tamil Nadu. The peak evening demand of the city is 1,500 MW which is about 50 percent of the state's peak evening demand of 3,000 megawatt. This includes 37 percent consumption by the industrial sector, 30 percent by the domestic sector, 18 percent by the agricultural sector, and 11.5 percent by the commercial sector. The peak power consumption is for four months between May and August, with the city consuming the highest during June because it is when the summer peaks. On 20 June 2013, the city consumed the highest of 52,785 MU.NEWS, Srikanth, R., Chennai consumes 20% of the power of the State, The Hindu, Chennai, 22 April 2014,weblink 24 April 2014, {{As of|2014}}, the city consumes around 3.83 crore units of power a day or 1,400 crore units annually. Hourly consumption of power in the city is about 2,000 to 3,000 MW.NEWS, Metro rail sets up units to power trains, stations to meet year-end deadline to start services, The Times of India, Chennai, 15 April 2014,weblink 18 Apr 2014, Availability of power in the city has become a concern in recent years due to increasing demand and slow paced addition of power plants, due to which scheduled power cuts have become increasingly common. However, this situation was eradicated by the end of 2014.WEB, PTI,weblink No power cuts in Tamil Nadu from this year end, says Jaya, The Times of India, 10 June 2013, WEB, Padmini Sivarajah, TNN 5 Feb 2013, 05.28AM IST,weblink Power crisis improving in southern Tamil Nadu, The Times of India, 5 February 2013, 10 June 2013, {{As of|2016}}, the total electricity consumption by the street lamps in the city is 27 MW, costing about {{INR}} {{formatnum:60000000}} per month.WEB, Electrical{{snd, Consumption and Cost|publisher=Corporation of Chennai | url =weblink | access-date = 21 November 2016}} The 426 sq km of the city has over 248,000 streetlights, including 88,000 in the newly expanded areas.NEWS, LED lights on roads in added city areas soon, The Hindu, Chennai, 3 February 2013,weblink 3 February 2013,

Banking and finance

(File:World Bank Office in Taramani, Chennai.jpg|thumb|right|World Bank Office in Chennai)The Reserve Bank of India ranked Chennai as third-largest deposit centre and third-largest credit centre nationwide as of June 2012. Prior to the advent of modern commercial banks, the banking services in the city were offered to the public by Nattukottai Chettiars or Nagarathars, chiefly in and around the neighbourhood of George Town, who offered loans as well as accepted money deposits from the public, in addition to offering loans to the agricultural labourers. Even today, many of the banking offices are housed in heritage structures belonging to the colonial era that are chiefly clustered around Rajaji road in George Town.NEWS, Suresh, S., The Banking Heritage of Madras, Times of India, Chennai, 3 November 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, Chennai is home to the first European-style banking system in India with the establishment of the 'Madras Bank' on 21 June 1683, almost a century before the establishment of the first commercial banks, such as the Bank of Hindustan and the General Bank of India, which were established in 1770 and 1786, respectively.NEWS, Mukund, Kanakalatha, Insight into the progress of banking, The Hindu, Chennai, 3 April 2007,weblink 28 December 2012, Upon the recommendation of the British Finance Committee on the formation of a government bank, the Madras Bank, then known as the 'Government Bank', started functioning again from 1806. In 1843, the bank merged with the Carnatic Bank (1788), the British Bank of Madras (1795) and the Asiatic Bank (1804) and became the Bank of Madras, which was one of the three Presidency banks of India, the other two being the Bank of Bengal and the Bank of Bombay. In 1921, the three Presidency banks merged to form the Imperial Bank of India, which later became the State Bank of India in 1955.NEWS, Kumar, Shiv, 200 years and going strong, The Tribune, 26 June 2005,weblink 28 December 2012, Chennai is the headquarters of the Indian Bank, the Indian Overseas Bank and the erstwhile Bharat Overseas Bank, which merged with the Indian Overseas Bank in 2007.NEWS, IOB set to takeover Bharat Overseas Bank, Rediff Business, Rediff.com, 28 January 2006,weblink 28 December 2012, The city is home to the south zonal office of the Reserve Bank of India, the country's central bank, along with its zonal training centre and Reserve Bank Staff College, one of the two colleges of the bank.WEB, About Us, RBI, Reserve Bank of India,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130111101938weblink">weblink 11 January 2013, dmy, The city also houses the permanent back office of the World Bank, which is one of the largest buildings owned by the bank outside its headquarters in Washington, DC.NEWS, Radhakrishnan, R.K., World Bank decides to locate back office in Chennai, The Hindu, Chennai, 26 May 2009,weblink 28 December 2012, The Chennai office handles corporate financial, accounting, administrative and IT services of the bank, in addition to several value-added operations of the bank that were earlier handled only in its Washington, DC office, including the bank's analytical work in bond valuation which is estimated to be US$100 billion.NEWS, World Bank may ramp up Chennai BPO operations, Business Standard, Chennai, 17 November 2003,weblink 28 December 2012, Several foreign banks have established their branches in the city. The first Sri Lankan Bank in India was established when the Bank of Ceylon opened its branch in Madras on 31 October 1995.WEB, About Us{{snd, India, Chennai|publisher = Sri Lanka Deputy High Commission in Southern India|url=http://www.sldhcchennai.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=47&Itemid=28|access-date=6 January 2013}}

Health care

(File:GH Chennai.JPG|thumb|Government General Hospital)Chennai has world-class medical facilities, including both government-run and private hospitals. The government-aided hospitals include General Hospital, Adyar Cancer Institute, TB Sanatorium, and National Institute of Siddha. The National Institute of Siddha is one of the seven apex national-level educational institutions that promote excellence in Indian system of medicine and Ayurveda.BOOK, De, Barun Kumar,weblink Public System Management, 81-224-1767-1, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, 2006, 39, Major hospitals in Chennai include Apollo Hospitals, Apollo Speciality Hospital, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chettinad Health City, MIOT Hospitals, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Fortis Malar Hospital, Lifeline Hospitals, Vasan Healthcare, Dr Mehta Hospitals, Global Hospitals & Health City, Sankara Nethralaya and Vijaya Medical & Educational Trust.WEB, National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers, NABH Accredited Hospitals, NABH, March 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723105839weblink">weblink 23 July 2012, Chennai attracts about 45 percent of health tourists from abroad and 30 percent to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. The city has been termed India's health capital.WEB, National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers, Chennai â€“ India's Health Capital, India Health Visit,weblink 28 December 2012, NEWS, Hamid, Zubeda, The medical capital's place in history, The Hindu, Chennai, 20 August 2012,weblink 28 December 2012, The city has more than 12,500 beds in its hospitals,NEWS, Country's med capital to get 3,000 more beds, The Times of India, Chennai, 16 July 2011,weblink 28 December 2012, including about 5,000 in multi-specialty hospitals in the private sector and over 6,000 beds in the public sector.NEWS, Kannan, Ramya, What the new hospital and college mean for Chennai, The Hindu, Chennai, 20 August 2011,weblink 28 December 2012, This works to 2.1 beds per 1,000 population against the national average of less than one bed per 1,000 population and the World Health Organization's norms of three beds per 1,000 persons, higher than any other city in the country.

Waste management

The city generates 4,500 tonnes of garbage every day of which 429 tonnes are plastic waste.NEWS
, Ramkumar
, Pratiksha
, Chennai stares at a plastic disaster
, The Times of India
, Chennai
, 4 April 2013
,weblink
, 6 April 2013, The city has three dumpyards, one each at Perungudi, Kodungaiyur, and Pallikaranai. The corporation has planned to close these yards and create four new dumpyards at Malaipattu, Minjur, Vallur and Kuthambakkam villages, ranging in size from {{convert|20|acres|0|abbr=on}} to {{convert|100|acres|0|abbr=on}}.NEWS
, City to finally be free of garbage dumps
, The Times of India
, Chennai
, 30 October 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, NEWS
, Corpn plans to move dump yards; residents breathe easy
, The Times of India
, Chennai
, 30 October 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, The civic body also spends {{INR}} 400 crore a year on solid-waste management.NEWS
, Philip
, Christin Mathew
, Don't dump waste on others: Experts
, The Times of India
, Chennai
, 3 November 2012
,weblink
, 28 December 2012,

Transport

{{Multiple image| direction = vertical| image1 =Chennai airport view 4.jpeg| alt1 =| caption1 = Chennai International Airport| image2 = Chennai train station.jpg| alt2 =Chennai Central Railway Station>Chennai Central Station| image3 = Chennai Metro Rail at Koyambedu.JPG| alt3 =| caption3 = Chennai Metro Rail| image4 = Chennai Kathipara bridge.jpg| alt4 =| caption4 = Cloverleaf interchange at Kathipara Junction| image5 = Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus.jpg| alt5 =| caption5 = Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus| image6 = MTC Bus 21G.JPG| alt6 =Metropolitan Transport Corporation (Chennai)>MTC| image7 = Chennai Port Container terminal.JPG| alt7 =| caption7 = Chennai Port view from the Marina Beach}}

Air

The Chennai International Airport is the fourth-busiest in India in terms of passenger traffic behind New Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru. It handled about 15.2 million passengers in 2013–2014;BOOK, World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Marshall Cavendish Corporation,weblink 442, 978-0-7614-7645-0, 2007, WEB, Traffic Statistics – Passengers,weblink Airports Authority of India, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518081740weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, dmy-all, WEB, Traffic Statistics – Aircraft Movements,weblink Airports Authority of India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120617013457weblink">weblink 17 June 2012, dmy-all, in terms of international passengers, Chennai is the third-busiest airport behind Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi, and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai.WEB, Annexure-IIIA Traffic Statistics – International Passengers, "www.aai.aero",weblink 30 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140606212421weblink">weblink 6 June 2014, yes, dmy-all, Chennai handles 400 flights a day, again placing it fourth among Indian airports. The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers.NEWS,weblink Hoax bomb threat at Chennai airport, The Times of India, 10 June 2011, 28 December 2012, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}The existing airport is undergoing modernisation and expansion with an addition of {{convert|1069.99|acres|2|abbr=on}}, while a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of {{INR}} 2,000 crore in Sriperumbudur on {{convert|4200|acre|km2|abbr=on}} of land.NEWS, New greenfield airport to be set up near Chennai, The Hindu,weblink 22 May 2007, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121026105518weblink">weblink 26 October 2012, The new airport is said to be likely to handle cargo spillover traffic from the existing one.NEWS, Chennai's aero dreams take wing,weblink 3 May 2012, Arun Janardhanan, V Ayyappan, The Times of India, Chennai, 25 November 2013,

Rail

Chennai hosts the headquarters of the Southern Railway. The city has four main railway terminals. Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Chennai Beach and Tambaram. Chennai Central station, the city's largest, provides nationwide access,NEWS,weblink Central station to shut down on December 13, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, 2 December 2009, whereas Chennai Egmore provides access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few inter–state trains. A fifth terminal has been proposed to decongest Chennai Central.NEWS, 35 trains to run at higher speed, 27 August 2004work=The HinduChennai suburban railway network, one of the oldest in the country, facilitates transportation within the city. It consists of four Indian gauge>broad-gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. While three sectors are operated on-grade, the fourth sector is primarily an elevated corridor, linking Chennai Beach to Velachery and is connected with the rest of the rail network.

Metro rail

Chennai Metro is a rapid-transit system serving the city and was partially commenced on 29 June 2015. To improve the city's public transportation system and prepare the city for the future commuting needs, the Chennai Metro was planned and approved by the state cabinet during 2007 for which construction began on 2009.NEWS,weblink 3 Corridors in Chennai Metro Rail May be Extended by 35 Km, The New Indian Express, 2017-03-14, Phase I of the Chennai Metro network consists of the Blue Line and the Green Line covering a length of 45.1 kilometres (28.0 mi) consisting of 40 stations with Alandur and Chennai Central serving as interchanges. 55% of the corridors in Phase I are underground and the rest are elevated. The first stretch of Phase I, covering seven stations from Koyambedu to Alandur over a distance of {{convert|10|km|mi}}, began operation on 29 June 2015. As of March 2019, the entire Phase 1 stretching from Chennai Central to Alandur on the Green line and Washermanpet to Chennai International Airport on Blue line are commercially operational, bringing the total operational network over 45 km. With this, the entirety of Phase I is operational. In December 2016, it was announced by Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL) that Phase-2 of Chennai Metro is set to be for a length of 104 km consisting of 104 stations which was subject to approval from the State and Central governments. The Phase 2 was subsequently approved in late 2018, with certain provisos, and soil testing for the various stations are in full swing with construction set to begin in late 2019/ early 2020.NEWS,weblink 104 km, 104 stations: Unveiling Phase II of Metro, Sekar, Sunitha, The Hindu, 2017-03-14, en, As of April 2019 ridership has risen considerably to around 100,000 daily commuters, post the inaugural of the entire Phase I.NEWS,weblink Chennai Metro ridership reaches peak in April, The Hindu Businessline, 2019-05-15, en, Phase I-A, which is an extension of the Blue line from Washermanpet to Thiruvottiyur is expected to be inaugurated by June 2020.NEWS,weblink 9-km north Chennai metro line may open by June 2020, The Times of India, 2019-06-15, en,

Road

Chennai is connected by the Golden Quadrilateral system of National Highways.NEWS, Hitches on the highways,weblink Sandeep, Joshi, 7 April 2012, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, It is connected to other Indian cities by four major National Highways (NH) that originate in the city. They are NH 4 to Mumbai (via Bangalore and Pune), NH 5 to Kolkata (linked via NH 6) (via Visakhapatnam and Bhubaneswar), NH 45 to Theni (via Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli and Dindigul) and NH 205 to Madanapalle (via Tirupati). Chennai is connected to other parts of the state and the Union Territory of Puducherry by state highways.WEB, GIS database for Chennai city roads and strategies for improvement,weblink Geospatial World, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120717045706weblink">weblink 17 July 2012, The government has constructed grade separators and flyovers at major intersections, and built Inner Ring Road and Outer Ring Road.NEWS, Bridge across time Skyline,weblink The Hindu, Srivathsan, A, 29 September 2007, 28 December 2012, The Gemini flyover, built in 1973, crosses over the arterial road, and eases the traffic movements towards Anna Salai and towards the Kathipara Flyover. {{As of|2011}}, according to the Transport Department, there were 25.8 lakh two–wheelers and 5.6 lakh four–wheelers in the city, and the Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) bus fleet were 3,421, equaling 0.1% of all vehicles in the city.NEWS, Great demand for better public transport,weblink The Times of India, 20 May 2011, 28 December 2012, When opened, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT) was the largest bus station in Asia.NEWS, Koyambedu bus terminus gets ISO certification,weblink Dorairaj, S, 28 December 2005, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, It is the main intercity bus station of Chennai,NEWS, Clogged way to filthy Koyambedu bus terminus,weblink The Times of India, 22 May 2011, 28 December 2012, administered by seven government-owned transport corporations, which operate intercity and interstate bus services. There are many private bus companies. The MTC provides an exclusive intracity bus service, consisting of 3,421 buses on 724 routes, which provides transportation to 55.2 lakh passengers daily.NEWS, MTC website to help keep track of buses,weblink The Hindu, 21 October 2010, 28 December 2012, NEWS, More buses coming but no new routes,weblink The Times of India, 8 January 2012, 28 December 2012, The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates Volvo air-conditioned services from Chennai to nearby Pondicherry, Vellore, Hosur and Trichy.NEWS, A boon to Kancheepuram unit of TNSTC,weblink Venkatasubramanian, V, 19 February 2010, The Hindu, Kancheepuram, 28 December 2012, The other means of road transport in the city include vans, regionally known as Maxi Cabs, auto rickshaws, on-call metered taxis and tourist taxis.NEWS, Airport taxis, a law unto themselves,weblink 8 September 2012, The Hindu, Chennai, 28 December 2012, Chennai outer ring road is 62.3 km long connecting NH 45 (GST Road) at Perungalathur, NH 4 (GWT Road) at Nazarathpet, NH 205 (CTH Road) at Nemilicherry(Thiruninravur), NH 5 (GNT Road) at Nallur and TPP road at Minjur under the process by Chennai Metropolitan Area.

Sea

The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port, one of the largest artificial ports in India, and Ennore Port. Chennai Port is the largest in the Bay of Bengal, with an annual cargo tonnage of 6.146 crore (2010–2011), and the second-largest container-hub in India, with an annual container volume of 15.23 lakh TEUs (2010–2011). The port handles transportation of automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo. The Ennore Port with an annual cargo tonnage of 1.101 crore (2010–2011), handles coal, ore and other bulk and rock mineral products.NEWS
,weblink
, Government of Tamil Nadu
, Ennoreport.gov.in
, Traffic handled
, 7 September 2011
, 28 December 2012
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130727212512weblink">weblink
, 27 July 2013
, dmy-all
, Royapuram fishing harbour is used by fishing boats and Kattupalli Shipyard near Ennore Port was inaugurated in January 2013.NEWS, Jayalalithaa inaugurates Kattupalli port, The Hindu, Chennai, 31 December 2013,weblink 31 Dec 2013, WEB,weblink PDF, Shipyard Cum Captive Port Complex in the Kattupalli Village, Government of Tamil Nadu, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120604140228weblink">weblink 4 June 2012,

Media

{{See also|List of Tamil-language television channels|Broadcasting in Chennai}}Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier, in 1785.WEB,weblink Govt. of Tamil Nadu, Historical Events at a Glance, District Profile, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730180830weblink">weblink 30 July 2013, yes, dmy-all, It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazette and The Government Gazette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853.NEWS, Muthiah, S,weblink 3 February 2003, The Hindu, A landmark's last vestiges vanish, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060527125255weblink">weblink 27 May 2006, The first Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, was launched in 1899. First Telugu journal printed from Madras was Satya Doota in 1835 and Andhra Patrika found in 1908 was the most successful Telugu newspaper from Madras.BOOK,weblink Studies in the history of Telugu journalism: presented to V. R. Narla on the occasion of his shashtyabdapurti, Veṅkaṭēśvararāvu, Nārla, Committee, Narla Shashtyabdapurti Celebration, 1968, Narla Shashtyabdapurti Celebration Committee; [distributors: Andhra Pradesh Book Distributors, Secunderabad, en, BOOK,weblink Classical Telugu Poetry: An Anthology, N_r_ya_ar_vu, V_lc_ru, Rao, Velcheru Narayana, Shulman, David, 2002, Univ of California Press, 9780520225985, en, The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India and many more. The evening dailies are, The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. {{As of|2004}}, The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of 267,349.NEWS, Shankaran, Sanjiv,weblink rediff.com, How Deccan Chronicle stormed Chennaiaccessdate = 28 December 2012, The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times, The Hindu Business Line, Business Standard, ''Mint (newspaper) and The Financial Express (India)>The Financial Express. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Malar, The Hindu (Tamil)'',HTTP://TAMIL.THEHINDU.COM/WORK=THE HINDUACCESSDATE = 7 OCT 2013, Tamil Murasu, Makkal Kural and Malai Malar. Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi are the major Malayalam dailies while major Telugu dailies include Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi and Sakshi.HTTP://RNI.NIC.IN/RECEPTION_MAIN1.ASP >TITLE=PUBLICATION PLACE WISE-REGISTRATION ACCESSDATE=28 DECEMBER 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070113125550/HTTP://RNI.NIC.IN/RECEPTION_MAIN1.ASP Chennai in the input box and submits, the list is displayed. The one and only Hindi Newspaper published from Chennai is the Rajasthan Patrika.RAJASTHAN PATRIKA TO LAUNCH CHENNAI EDITIONNEWSPAPER=DECCAN HERALDARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141028105910/HTTP://ARCHIVE.DECCANHERALD.COM/DECCANHERALD/JAN302004/N14.ASPDEAD-URL=YESLAST=NEWSPAPERWEBSITE=WWW.LOCALNEWSPAPER.INThe Shopping Express.HTTP://THESHOPPINGEXPRESS.IN/EPAPER/ISSUE1/WORK=THE SHOPPINGEXPRESSACCESSDATE = 9 MAR 2012, Magazines published from Chennai include Ananda Vikatan, Kumudam, ''Kalki (Tamil magazine), Kungumam, Puthiya Thalaimurai,Thuglak, Frontline magazine>Frontline and Sportstar''File:SUN network office.JPG|thumb|Headquarters of Sun NetworkSun NetworkDoordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in 1974. Private Tamil satellite television networks such as Sun TV, Raj TV, Zee Tamizh, Star Vijay, Jaya TV, Makkal TV, Vasanth TV, Kalaignar TV, Captain TV and PuthiyaThalaimurai TV broadcast out of Chennai. The Sun Network one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. While the cable TV service is entirely controlled by the state government,NEWS, Arasu Cable to launch operations from September 2,weblink 28 December 2012, The Hindu, 30 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120721012917weblink">weblink 21 July 2012, direct–to–home (DTH) is available via DD Direct Plus, Dish TV, Tata Sky, Videocon DTH, Sun direct DTH, Reliance Big TV and Digital TV.NEWS,weblink Dish TV launches 'One Alliance' bouquet, The Hindu, 13 June 2006, 28 December 2012, NEWS,weblink DTH companies come up with offers for World Cup, The Hindu, 4 March 2007, 28 December 2012, Chennai is the first city in India to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television.NEWS,weblink 28 December 2012, 6 December 2003, Conditional Access System in South Delhi from December 15, The Hindu, Radio broadcasting began in 1924 by the Madras Presidency Radio Club.NEWS
, Muthiah
, S.
, AIR Chennai’s 80-year journey
, The Hindu
, Chennai
,
,
, Kasturi & Sons
, 21 May 2018
,weblink
, 28 July 2018, The radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex was founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio in 1938. The city has 4 AM and 11 FM radio stations operated by All India Radio, Anna University and Suryan FM, Radio Mirchi, BIG FM, Hello FM, Radio City, Radio One among others.BOOK, Gilbert, Sean, (World Radio TV Handbook, World Radio TV Handbook 2007: The Directory of International Broadcasting), WRTH Publications Ltd., 2006, London, 237–242, 0-8230-5997-9,

Education

{{See also|Schools in Chennai|Education in India}}File:Inside madras law college old building, Sep 2013.jpg|left|thumb|Government law college, Chennai ]]File:IITMmensa.jpg|thumb|Indian Institute of Technology, Madras is a premier engineering institute in India]]File:Anna university Chennai.jpg|left|thumb|College of Engineering, GuindyCollege of Engineering, GuindyFile:Senate House (University of Madras).jpg|thumb|University of MadrasUniversity of MadrasFile:Loyola College Chennai entrance.jpg|thumb|Loyola College, ChennaiLoyola College, ChennaiChennai is home to some of the best educational institutions in the country.NEWS, City home to some of the best educational institutions in India, The Hindu, Chennai, 9 April 2019,weblinkPUBLISHER=IN.FINANCE.YAHOO.COM ACCESSDATE=2014-04-06, Chennai has a mix of public and private schools, some of which also receive financial support from the government.The public school system is managed by the Chennai Corporation with an enrolment of 142,387 students in over 330 schools. Tamil and English are the primary medium of instruction, though some schools also use Telugu and Urdu as medium of instruction in their schools.WEB,weblink History of the Education Department, Corporation of Chennai, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121215070057weblink">weblink 15 December 2012, Public schools run by the Chennai Corporation are all affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board, while private schools may be affiliated with either of the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).NEWS,weblink Balancing uniformity and diversity, The Hindu, 20 November 2006author2=Srinivasan, MeeraCouncil for the Indian School Certificate Examinations,INDIAN CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION SCHOOLS ACHIEVE 100% PASS PERCENTAGEDATE=21 MAY 2012THE TIMES OF INDIA>LOCATION=CHENNAINational Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) board or the Montessori>Montessori system. Education in Chennai starts with two years of Kindergarten from age three onward and then follows the Indian 10+2+3 plan, ten years of school, two years of higher secondary education, and three years of undergraduate education.WEB
,weblink
, Educational structure
, Government of Tamil Nadu
, 28 December 2012
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130704025650weblink">weblink
, 4 July 2013
,
, WEB,weblink Educational system in Tamil Nadu, Government of Tamil Nadu, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120907203053weblink">weblink 7 September 2012, dmy-all, English is the medium of instruction in the majority of institutions for higher education. The University of Madras, founded in 1857, is one of India's first three modern universitiesweblink Colleges for science, arts, and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras, which has six campuses in the cityweblink The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) and the College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University are two well-known centres for engineering education in the city. The Indian Army's Officers Training Academy is also headquartered in the city.File:அண்ணா நூற்றாண்டு நினைவு நூலகம் படம் 2.JPG|thumb|leftChennai has a plethora of libraries, including British Council Library, American Library, Connemara Public Library, and Anna Centenary Library. The Connemara Public Library is one of four National Depository Centres in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in the country.NEWS,weblink Connemara library's online catalogue launched, The Hindu, 28 December 2012, 23 April 2010, BOOK, Singh, Sahib,weblink Library and Literacy Movement for National Development, 81-8069-065-2, Concept, New Delhi, 2004, The Anna Centenary Library is the largest library in Asia.WEB,weblink Venkatsh, M. R., Chennai now boasts South Asia's largest library, Deccan Herald, 15 September 2010, 28 December 2012, WEB, G.C. Shekhar,weblink Largest library to turn into hospital, Telegraphindia.com, 2011-11-03, 2014-04-06, Chennai has two CSIR research institutions namely Central Leather Research Institute and Structural Engineering Research Centre. Chennai Book Fair, an annual book fair organised in Chennai by the Booksellers and Publishers Association of South India (BAPASI), is the largest exhibition for Tamil book publishers to display their books. The fair is typically held for about 10 days between the last week of December and the third week of January.BOOK, Chennai, Rina, Kamath, 105, Orient Blackswan, 2000, 81-250-1378-4, The forty-first edition of the fair was held in 2018. Chennai also has Indian Maritime University to impart quality education in maritime management, engineering, and different pre-sea courses. This is the only central university, headquartered in Chennai to impart maritime education in India.

Sports and recreation

File:Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Chennai panorama.jpg|thumb|Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium multipurpose stadium]]File:Ma ChidambaramStadium panaroma.jpg|thumb|M. A. Chidambaram StadiumM. A. Chidambaram StadiumCricket is the most popular sport in Chennai.BOOK, India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic,weblink 618, 978-0-313-37462-3, Kaminsky, Arnold P, Long, Roger D, 2011, It was introduced in 1864 with the foundation of the Madras Cricket Club.BOOK, The Geography of India:Sacred and Historic Places,weblink 184, 978-1-61530-142-3, Pletcher, Kenneth, 2010, The M.A. Chidambaram Stadium established in 1916 is among the oldest cricket stadium in India.NEWS, MA Chidambaram stadium,weblink Hindustan Times, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121228112548weblink">weblink 28 December 2012, The stadium was also one of the venues of the 1987,1996 and 2011 ICC Cricket World Cups. Chemplast Cricket Ground located at the IIT Madras campus is another important venue for cricket matches. Prominent cricketers from the city include former cricket captains S. Venkataraghavan and Kris Srikkanth.WEB, Srinivas Venkataraghavan,weblink ESPNcricinfo, Ramchand, Partab, 28 December 2012, WEB, Kris Srikkanth,weblink ESPNcricinfo, Ramchand, Partab, 28 December 2012, A cricket fast bowling academy called the MRF Pace Foundation, whose coaches include T. A. Sekhar and Glenn Mcgrath, is based in Chennai.HOWARD VISITS MRF PACE FOUNDATION>URL=HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2006/03/09/STORIES/2006030908432000.HTMNEWSPAPER=THE HINDUDATE=20 FEBRUARY 2004ARCHIVEURL =HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070311232922/HTTP://IN.NEWS.YAHOO.COM/040220/43/2BLJJ.HTML AGENCY=INDO-ASIAN NEWS SERVICEIndian Premier League (IPL) cricket team Chennai Super Kings, the city hosted the finals of the IPL's Indian premier league 2011>2011 and 2012 Indian Premier League series.RCB VS CSK: CHENNAI SUPER KINGS BEAT ROYAL CHALLENGERS BANGALORE TO REACH IPL 4 FINALDATE=24 MAY 2011ACCESS-DATE=28 DECEMBER 2012, CHENNAI HOME TO IPL FINAL AGAIN IN 2012>URL=HTTP://ARTICLES.TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/2011-05-30/NEWS/29599428_1_IPL-CSK-DECCAN-CHARGERSNEWSPAPER=THE TIMES OF INDIA, 28 December 2012, The city's football team Chennaiyin FC competes in the Indian Super League, the country's association football league associated with Asian Football Federation and recognized by FIFA. The club uses the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium nicknamed the Marina Arena as their home ground and are champions of the Indian Super League in 2015 and 2018.Chennai was the venue of the 1995 South Asian Games.NEWS, Thyagarajan, S, On the road to restoration,weblink The Hindu, 4 December 2003, 28 December 2012, Chennai is home to a World Series Hockey (WSH) team, the Chennai Cheetahs. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is associated with hockey and was venue for the international hockey tournament the 2005 Men's Champions Trophy and the 2007 Men's Asia Cup. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is associated for hosting Football and athletic competitions, it also houses a multi–purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex. Tennis sport is popularising among the city youths, Since 1997 Chennai has been host to the only ATP World Tour event held in India, the Chennai OpenWEB, About the venue,weblink International Management Group, 28 December 2012, which has been shifted to Pune as Maharashtra Open from 2017. Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi Ramesh Krishnan and Somdev Devvarman are tennis players from Chennai.NEWS, Off-court ace,weblink Basu, Arundhati, The Telegraph, 19 March 2005, 28 December 2012, Chennai is home to Chennai Slam,UBA Pro Basketball League: Delhi Capitals, Chennai Slam set up final clash Indian Sports News, 31 March 2016. Accessed 5 May 2017. two-time national champion of India's top professional basketball division, the UBA Pro Basketball League.File:Nungambakkam SDAT Tennis Stadium floodlit match panorama.jpg|thumb|Chennai Open match at the SDAT Tennis StadiumSDAT Tennis StadiumFile:VishyAnand09.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Viswanathan Anand, former World Chess ChampionWorld Chess ChampionMadras Boat Club (founded in 1846) and the Royal Madras Yacht Club (founded by Sir Francis Spring in 1911) promote the sailing sports in Chennai, and organise national and international sailing events. Automobile racing in India has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur,NEWS, Thyagarajan, S, On the right track, 22 August 2002,weblink The Hindu, 28 December 2012, which has also been the venue for several international competitions.NEWS, Chennai on right track, 5 February 1998,weblink The Indian Express, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011195517weblink">weblink 11 October 2012, dmy, Formula One driver Karun Chandhok was born in Chennai.NEWS,weblink Karthikeyan to race for HRT in 2012, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120206111058weblink">weblink 6 February 2012, NEWS,weblink Karun Chandhok goes the Endurance way, The Times of India, 28 December 2012, Horse racing is held at the Guindy Race Course, while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club. The city has two 18–hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club, both established in the late nineteenth century. The city has a rugby union team called the Chennai Cheetahs.NEWS, Chennai Cheetahs lifts title, 16 April 2007,weblink The Hindu, 28 December 2012, Previous world chess champion Viswanathan Anand grew up in Chennai.NEWS, Brijnath, Rohit,weblink India's most consistent champion, The Hindu, 6 October 2007, 28 December 2012, Other sports persons of repute from Chennai include table tennis players Sharath Kamal and two–time world carrom champion, Maria Irudayam.NEWS, Srinivasan, Meera,weblink Four Chennai teachers have a reason to rejoice, The Hindu, 7 September 2007, 28 December 2012, WEB,weblink Govt. of India, Indian Teams in International Competitions, 28 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927012135weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, Chennai was the host of the World Chess Championship 2013 match between Viswanathan Anand and Magnus Carlsen.NEWS, Fide offers 2013 World Chess C'ship to Chennai,weblink Hari Hara, Nandanan, 21 August 2011, The Times of India, Chennai, 28 December 2012, NEWS, world chess championship 2013 at chennai,weblink The Hindu,

City based teams{| class"wikitable"

! Club !! Sport !! League !! Home Stadium !! Founded| Chennai Super Kings| Cricket| Indian Premier League| M.A. Chidambaram Stadium| 2008| Chennaiyin FCAssociation football>Football| Indian Super League| Marina Arena| 2013| Chennai Smashers| Badminton| Premier Badminton LeagueGachibowli Indoor StadiumHTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/SPORT/OTHER-SPORTS/PREMIER-BADMINTON-LEAGUE-CHENNAI-SMASHERS-LATCH-ON-TO-CSK-IDENTITY/ARTICLE8026304.ECENEWSPAPER=THE HINDUDue to 2015 South Indian floods, the team played their home matches in Hyderabad, India>Hyderabad}}| 2015 Tamil ThalaivasHTTPS://WWW.PROKABADDI.COM/TEAMS/29-TAMIL-THALAIVAS-TEAMPROFILE>TITLE=TAMIL THALAIVASWORK=PROKABBADI, | Kabaddi| Pro Kabaddi League|Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium| 2017| Chennai Slam| Basketball| UBA Pro Basketball League| Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium| 2015LAST=DATE=2017-08-20ACCESS-DATE=2017-08-26, en, | Cue Sports| Indian Cue Masters League| N/A| 2017| Chepauk Super Gillies| Cricket| Tamil Nadu Premier League| M.A. Chidambaram Stadium| 2016{{notelist}}

International relations

Foreign missions

(File:USConsulateChennai BuildingExterior.jpg|thumb|right|The American consulate in Chennai.){{See also|List of diplomatic missions in Chennai}}The consular presence in the city dates back to 1794, when William Abbott was appointed US consular agent for South India.WEB
, History
, US Consulate Chennai
,weblink
, 28 December 2012
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130213213744weblink">weblink
, 13 February 2013
,
, WEB
, Clark
, Mike
, Abbott Family Genealogy
, mikesclark.com
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, NEWS
, An Abbott of Teynampet
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 30 April 2007
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, {{As of|2012}}, there were 43 foreign representations in Chennai, including consulates general, deputy high commissions and honorary consulates.WEB
, Did you know that ...
, Embassy Pages
,weblink
, 28 December 2012, The American Consulate in Chennai is one of the top adjudication posts in the world and the number one in processing employment-based visas. It was ranked among the top globally in issuing 'L' and 'H' category visas for workers and professionals and was ranked eighth globally in terms of all category of visas being issued.NEWS
, U.S. Consulate in Chennai among top 10 visa issuers
, The Hindu
, Chennai
, 9 July 2010
,weblink
, 28 December 2012,
The Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO), which is the office of the field officers in charge of immigration and registration activities in the city, is located at Shastri Bhavan at Haddows Road.WEB
, Foreigners Regional Registration Office, Chennai
, Bureau of Immigration, Ministry of Home Affairs, India
,weblink
, 5 January 2013
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130122092643weblink">weblink
, 22 January 2013
,
,

Twin towns – Sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in India}}Chennai has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world:{| class="wikitable"! City! Country! State/Region! Since! Ref. style="background:#ffffef;"25px) VolgogradRUS}} Russiaborder|23px) Volgograd Oblast| 1966 WORK=THE MOSCOW TIMES ACCESSDATE = 28 DECEMBER 2012, style="background:#ffffcf;"25px) DenverUSA}} United Statesborder|23px) Colorado| 1984 PUBLISHER=DENVERSISTERCITIES.ORG ARCHIVEURL =HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20080605045557/HTTP://WWW.DENVERSISTERCITIES.ORG/CHENNAI.PHP, 5 June 2008, style="background:#ffffef;"25px) San AntonioUSA}} United Statesborder|23px) Texas| 2008 PUBLISHER=OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF THE CITY OF SAN ANTONIO, 28 December 2012, style="background:#ffffcf;"25px) Kuala LumpurMAS}} MalaysiaborderFederal Territory (Malaysia)>Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur| 2010 DATE = 26 NOVEMBER 2010 ACCESSDATE = 28 DECEMBER 2012, style="background:#ffffef;"25px) ChongqingPRC}} ChinaPRC}} Municipality of Chongqing| 2015DATE=15 MAY 2015ACCESS-DATE=15 MAY 2015, style="background:#ffffcf;"25px) UlsanROK}} South KoreaROK}} Yeongnam| 2016DATE=3 AUGUST 2016THE HINDU >ACCESS-DATE=3 AUGUST 2016,

See also

References

{{Reflist|25em}}

External links

{hide}Geographic location
|Centre = Chennai
|North = Andhra PradeshKarnataka
|East = Indian Ocean
|South = Indian Ocean
|West = Kerala
{edih}{{Navboxes|title = Articles Related to Chennai|list ={{Chennai Topics|state=uncollapsed}}{{Neighbourhoods of Chennai}}{{Rapid Transit in Chennai}}{{State and Union Territory capitals of India}}{{Million-plus cities in India}}{{Municipal corporations of Tamil Nadu}}{{Tamil Nadu}}{{World's most populated urban areas}}}}{{Subject bar |book=Chennai |portal1=Chennai |portal2=Geography |portal4=South Asia |portal5=India |commons=yes |commons-search=Category:Chennai |n=yes |n-search=Category:Chennai |wikt=yes |b=yes |q=yes |s=yes |v=yes |voy=yes |d=yes |d-search=Q1352}} {{Authority control}}

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