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Dubai
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{{About|the city}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}{{EngvarB|date=September 2016}}







factoids
List of sovereign states>CountryEmirates of the United Arab Emirates>EmirateUnited Arab Emirates}}Dubai}} DubaiAl Maktoum>Ubaid bin Saeed and Maktum bin Butti Al Maktoum| parts_type = Subdivisions| parts = Towns and villages| p1 = Jebel Ali| p2 = Al Aweer| p3 = Al Lusayli| p4 = MarqabAl Faqa'DUBAI STATISTICS CENTER, GOVERNMENT OF DUBAI URL=HTTPS://WWW.DSC.GOV.AE/PUBLICATION/POPULATION%20BULLETIN%20EMIRATE%20OF%20DUBAI%202015.PDF ACCESS-DATE=5 NOVEMBER 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=7 APRIL 2019 DF=DMY-ALL, | p6 = Ud al-Bayda| p7 = Urqub Juwayza| government_type = Constitutional monarchy| leader_title = Emir| leader_name = Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum| leader_title1 = Crown PrinceHamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum>Hamdan bin Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumEmirates of the United Arab Emirates>"Dubai emirate", includes artificial islands.| area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 4,114| population_total = 3,137,463WEBSITE=WWW.DSC.GOV.AEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180903223709/HTTPS://WWW.DSC.GOV.AE/EN-US/ESERVICES/PAGES/POPULATION-CLOCK.ASPXDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | population_as_of = 8 October 2018| population_metro = ~5,640,000| population_metro_footnotes = Dubaite)| website = Dubai.ae| footnotes = | blank_name = Nominal GDP| blank_info = 2016 estimate| blank1_name = TotalUnited States dollar>USD 108 billionGROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CURRENT PRICES 2016 - EMIRATE OF DUBAI>URL=HTTPS://WWW.DSC.GOV.AE/REPORT/GROSS%20DOMESTIC%20PRODUCT%20AT%20CURRENTS%20PRICES%202016.PDFARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170818173014/HTTPS://WWW.DSC.GOV.AE/REPORT/GROSS%20DOMESTIC%20PRODUCT%20AT%20CURRENTS%20PRICES%202016.PDFDEAD-URL=YES, dmy-all, | blank2_name = Per capitaUnited States dollar>USD 35,000| utc_offset = +4Time in the United Arab Emirates>UAE Standard Time}}{{Contains Arabic text}}Dubai ({{IPAc-en|d|uː|ˈ|b|aɪ}} {{respell|doo|BY}}; {{transl|ar|DIN|Dubay}}, {{small|Gulf Arabic:}} {{IPA-ar|dʊˈbɑj}}) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas, World-gazetteer.com, 31 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825164936weblink">weblink 25 August 2009, On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country.The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157WEB, Federal Supreme Council,weblink uaecabinet.ae, 25 August 2017, no,weblink 9 July 2017, WEB,weblink Where is Dubai and Dubai city?, Thatsdubai.com, 14 June 2007, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130215234701weblink">weblink 15 February 2013, Dubai is a global city and business hub of the Middle East.WEB,weblink The 2008 Global Cities Index, 15 October 2008, Foreign Policy, 20 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100520111037weblink">weblink 20 May 2010, It is also a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo.BOOK, Sand to Silicon, Sampler & Eigner, Motivate, 2008, 9781860632549, UAE, 11, Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, which was already a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil.NEWS,weblink Dubai gets 2% GDP from oil, DiPaola, Anthony, 28 September 2010, Bloomberg, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006205728weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, dmy-all, A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, tourism, aviation, real estate, and financial services.Oil share dips in Dubai GDP {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130926033757weblink |date=26 September 2013 }} AMEInfo (9 June 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.Dubai economy set to treble by 2015 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141103174940weblink |date=3 November 2014 }} ArabianBusiness.com (3 February 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.WEB, Dubai diversifies out of oil,weblink AMEInfo, 7 September 2005, 12 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081219030604weblink">weblink 19 December 2008, WEB,weblink Dubai must tap booming halal travel industry – Khaleej Times, Cornock, Oliver, khaleejtimes.com, 16 December 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220134336weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, no, dmy-all, Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. {{As of|2012}}, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East.WEB, Lucy Barnard,weblink Cost of living in Dubai rising rapidly, The National, Abu Dhabi, 6 March 2013, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130122062758weblink">weblink 22 January 2013, WEB,weblink Oslo, Zürich and Tokyo are most expensive cities, Thepeninsulaqatar.com, 14 September 2012, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink 17 May 2016, In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.WEB,weblink Dubai second-most expensive city to stay in, report says, 30 September 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006120002weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, WEB, Gillian Duncan,weblink Abu Dhabi and Dubai are best places to live in the Middle East, survey says, The National, Abu Dhabi, 8 March 2013, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117071645weblink">weblink 17 January 2013,

Etymology

Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, which was similar to the souq in Ba.JOURNAL, Alkaabi, Alyazya, July 2011, ar:مسميات مناطق دبي قديماً, Old names areas of Dubai, Arabic, Al Jundi, 444, 76, An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai" (), meaning "They came with a lot of money."WEB,weblink Old Dubai, 24 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140203194320weblink">weblink 3 February 2014, According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba () (a past tense derivative of yadub (), which means "to creep"), referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" () due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement.WEB,weblink How Did Dubai, Abu Dhabi and other Cities Get Their Names? Experts Reveal All, 30 March 2007, UAE Interact, 24 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407043402weblink">weblink 7 April 2014, dmy-all,

History

File:Bronze & Iron Dagger, Saruq Al Hadid.jpg|thumb|upright=0.47|Bronze and iron alloy dagger, Saruq Al HadidSaruq Al HadidThe history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, and points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but also as far afield as the Levant.JOURNAL, Weeks, Lloyd, Cable, Charlotte, Franke, Kristina, Newton, Claire, Karacic, Steven, Roberts, James, Stepanov, Ivan, David-Cuny, Hélène, Price, David, 26 April 2017, Recent archaeological research at Saruq al-Hadid, Dubai, UAE, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, en, 28, 1, 39, 10.1111/aae.12082, 0905-7196, Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai, particularly at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al HadidNEWS,weblink Brushing off sands of time at the archaeological site of Saruq al-Hadid, The National, 6 September 2018, en,weblink 29 July 2018, no, dmy-all, show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE. The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, and was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze.NEWS,weblink SHARP – the Saruq al-Hadid Archaeological Research Project, 3 September 2017, Research Plus, 29 July 2018, en-US,weblink 29 July 2018, no, dmy-all, The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline.WEB,weblink History and Traditions of the UAE, 31 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326030609weblink">weblink 26 March 2009, WEB, The old ... turned new,weblink Travel & Culture, 25 October 2001, 15 March 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130621010630weblink">weblink 21 June 2013, Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir (or Bajar).BOOK,weblink United Arab Emirates: A perspective, Ibrahim Al Abed, Peter Hellyer, 2001, Trident Press, 31 July 2009, 978-1-900724-47-0, After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra (Jumeirah) found several artefacts from the Umayyad period.WEB,weblink The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Period in the UAE. King, Geoffrey R., 20 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116151947weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, The earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai (Dibei) for its pearling industry.

Establishment of modern Dubai

Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th centuryBOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Heard-Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1990, 978-0582277281, UK, 238, and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.BOOK, Islands and Maritime Boundaries of the Gulf 1798–1960, Schofield, R, Archive Editions, 1990, 9781852072759, UK, 545, In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty.Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which also led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf. This led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai also – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892.File:Dubai Museum and Al Fahidi Fort.jpg|thumb|left|Al Fahidi FortAl Fahidi FortIn 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira.WEB,weblink Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture. Karim, Luiza, Alshindagah.com, 31 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090930191053weblink">weblink 30 September 2009, In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds. The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been totally destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was caught in the act of starting one such blaze and was subsequently put to death.BOOK, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Lorimer, John, British Government, Bombay, 1915, 750, File:A Round Watchtower (Name Unknown).jpg|thumb|upright|A watchtower in Bur DubaiBur DubaiIn 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and also gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance. These policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh,BOOK, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Lorimer, John, British Government, Bombay, 1915, 2236, but also those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah (which had historical links with Lingeh through the Al Qawasim tribe) to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on,BOOK, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Lorimer, John, British Government, Bombay, 1915, 743, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo.BOOK, Father of Dubai, Wilson, Graeme, Media Prima, 1999, 34, The frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference. Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh 'bids fair to become complete and permanent', and also that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States.BOOK, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf Vol II, Lorimer, John, British Government, Bombay, 1915, 454, The 'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates towards the end of the pearling season that year, resulting in the loss of a dozen boats and over 100 men. The disaster was a major setback for Dubai, with many families losing their breadwinner and merchants facing financial ruin. These losses came at a time when the tribes of the interior were also experiencing poverty. In a letter to the Sultan of Muscat in 1911, Butti laments, 'Misery and poverty are raging among them, with the result that they are struggling, looting and killing among themselves.'BOOK, Father of Dubai, Wilson, Graeme, Media Prima, 1999, 39,

Pre-oil Dubai

Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran made it an important trade location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town. By the beginning of the 20th century, it was an important port. At that time, Dubai consisted of the town of Dubai and the nearby village of Jumeirah, a collection of some 45 areesh, or palm leaf. Dubai was known for its pearl exports until the 1930s; the pearl trade was damaged irreparably by the 1929 Great Depression and the innovation of cultured pearls. With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai fell into a deep depression and many residents lived in poverty or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf.In the early days since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi. In 1947, a border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border escalated into war.WEB,weblink The UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman. Archived Editions. Walker, J, Archiveeditions.co.uk, 18 February 1969, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130505121549weblink">weblink 5 May 2013, Arbitration by the British resulted in a cessation of hostilities.The Middle East and North Africa. Schofield, C. p 175{{multiple image
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}}Despite a lack of oil, Dubai's ruler from 1958, Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, used revenue from trading activities to build infrastructure. Private companies were established to build and operate infrastructure, including electricity, telephone services and both the ports and airport operators.BOOK, From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates, Heard-Bey, Frauke, Longman, 1996, 978-0582277281, London, 260, An airport of sorts (a runway built on salt flats) was established in Dubai in the 1950s and, in 1959, the emirate's first hotel, the Airlines Hotel, was constructed. This was followed by the Ambassador and Carlton Hotels in 1968.BOOK, Father of Dubai, Wilson, Graeme, Media Prima, 1999, 9789948856450, UAE, 126, 1959 saw the establishment of Dubai's first telephone company, 51% owned by IAL (international Aeradio Ltd) and 49% by Sheikh Rashid and local businessmen and in 1961 both the electricity company and telephone company had rolled out operational networks.BOOK, The Trucial States, Donald., Hawley, 1970, Allen & Unwin, 978-0049530058, London, 245, 152680, The water company (Sheikh Rashid was Chairman and majority shareholder) constructed a pipeline from wells at Awir and a series of storage tanks and, by 1968, Dubai had a reliable supply of piped water.On 7 April 1961, the Dubai-based MV Dara, a five thousand ton British flagged vessel that plied the route between Basra (Iraq), Kuwait and Bombay (India), was caught in unusually high winds off Dubai. Early the next morning in heavy seas off Umm al-Quwain, an explosion tore out the second class cabins and started fires. The captain gave the order to abandon ship but two lifeboats capsized and a second explosion occurred. A flotilla of small boats from Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman and Umm al-Quwain picked up survivors but in all 238 lives were lost in the disaster.NEWS,weblink Fifty years on, the tragedy of vessel MV Dara lingers, Reporter, Mariam M. Al Serkal, Staff, 9 April 2011, Gulf News, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203075924weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, Construction of Dubai's first airport was started on the Northern edge of the town in 1959 and the terminal building opened for business in September 1960. The airport was initially serviced by Gulf Aviation (flying Dakotas, Herons and Viscounts) but Iran Air commenced services to Shiraz in 1961.In 1962 the British Political Agent noted that "Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built... the Ruler is determined, against advice [from the British] to press on with the construction of a jet airport... More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright."In 1962, with expenditure on infrastructure projects already approaching levels some thought imprudent, Sheikh Rashid approached his brother in law, the Ruler of Qatar, for a loan to build the first bridge crossing Dubai's creek. This crossing was finished in May 1963 and was paid for by a toll levied on the crossing from the Dubai side of the creek to the Deira side.BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats. However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai Airport was constructed in 1965, opening Dubai to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing for landing rights. In 1970 a new airport terminal building was constructed which included Dubai's first duty-free shops.BOOK, Fly Buy Dubai, Wilson, Graeme, Media Prima, 2008, 9789948859437, UAE, 58, Throughout the 1960s Dubai was the centre of a lively gold trade, with 1968 imports of gold at some £56 million. This gold was, in the vast majority, re-exported - mainly to customers who took delivery in international waters off India. The import of gold to India had been banned and so the trade was characterised as smuggling, although Dubai's merchants were quick to point out that they were making legal deliveries of gold and that it was up to the customer where they took it.NEWS, Gold smuggling boosts Dubai economy, Thomas, Anthony, 3 March 1969, The Times, In 1966, more gold was shipped from London to Dubai than almost anywhere else in the world (Only France and Switzerland took more), at 4 million ounces. Dubai also took delivery of over $15 million-worth of watches and over 5 million ounces of silver. The 1967 price of gold was $35 an ounce but its market price in India was $68 an ounce - a healthy markup. Estimates at the time put the volume of gold imports from Dubai to India at something like 75% of the total market.BOOK, The Trucial States, Donald., Hawley, 1970, Allen & Unwin, 978-0049530058, London, 204, 152680,

Oil era

File:Dubai Water Canal Business Bay.jpg|thumb|View of Business BayBusiness BayAfter years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off Dubai in 1966, albeit in far smaller quantities. The first field was named 'Fateh' or 'good fortune'. This led to an acceleration of Sheikh Rashid's infrastructure development plans and a construction boom that brought a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and Middle easterners. Between 1968 and 1975 the city's population grew by over 300%.WEB,weblink Historic population statistics, 31 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090326030537weblink">weblink 26 March 2009, dmy-all, As part of the infrastructure for pumping and transporting oil from the Fateh field, located offshore of the Jebel Ali area of Dubai, two 500,000 gallon storage tanks were built, known locally as 'Kazzans',WEB,weblink How Chicago Beach got its name...then lost it!, 20 August 2016, Dubai As It Used To Be, Chapman, Len, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160709050015weblink">weblink 9 July 2016, dmy-all, by welding them together on the beach and then digging them out and floating them to drop onto the seabed at the Fateh field. These were constructed by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, which gave the beach its local name (Chicago Beach), which was transferred to the Chicago Beach Hotel, which was demolished and replaced by the Jumeirah Beach Hotel in the late 1990s. The Kazzans were an innovative oil storage solution which meant super-tankers could moor offshore even in bad weather and avoided the need to pipe oil onshore from Fateh, which is some 60 miles out to sea.BOOK, The Trucial States, Donald., Hawley, 1970, Allen & Unwin, 978-0049530058, London, 222, 152680, Dubai had already embarked on a period of infrastructural development and expansion. Oil revenue, flowing from 1969 onwards supported a period of growth with Sheikh Rashid embarking on a policy of building infrastructure and a diversified trading economy before the emirate's limited reserves were depleted. Oil accounted for 24% of GDP in 1990, but had reduced to 7% of GDP by 2004.Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed by British company Halcrow. Originally intended to be a four-berth port, it was extended to sixteen berths as construction was ongoing. The project was an outstanding success, with shipping queuing to access the new facilities. The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built. Port Rashid was to be further expanded in 1975 to add a further 35 berths before the larger port of Jebel Ali was constructed.Port Rashid was the first of a swath of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals.BOOK, Father of Dubai, Wilson, Graeme, Media Prima, 1999, 9789948856450, UAE, 151,

Reaching the UAE's Act of Union

File:Adi with the three rulers of Dubai.jpg|thumb|left|Adi Bitar in a meeting with Sheiks Rashid Al Maktoum, Mohammad Al Maktoum and Maktoum Al Maktoum in Dubai, 1968]]Dubai and the other 'Trucial States' had long been a British protectorate where the British government took care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf, the result of a treaty signed in 1892, the 'Exclusive Agreement'. This was to change with PM Harold Wilson's announcement, on 16 January 1968, that all British troops were to be withdrawn from 'East of Aden'. The decision was to pitch the coastal emirates, together with Qatar and Bahrain, into fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave behind.BOOK, Spirit of the Union, Al Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid, Motivate, 2012, 9781860633300, UAE, 27–39, The principle of union was first agreed between the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, and Sheikh Rashid of Dubai on 18 February 1968 meeting in an encampment at Argoub Al Sedirah, near Al Semeih, a desert stop between the two emirates.BOOK, Spirit of the Union, Maktoum, Mohammed bin Rashid, Motivate, 2012, 9781860633300, UAE, 30, The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar and Bahrain, into the union. Over the next two years, negotiations and meetings of the rulers followed -often stormy- as a form of union was thrashed out. The nine-state union was never to recover from the October 1969 meeting where heavy-handed British intervention resulted in a walk-out by Qatar and Ras Al Khaimah. Bahrain and Qatar dropped out of talks, leaving six of the seven 'trucial' emirates to agree on union on 18 July 1971.BOOK, United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, Al Abed, Ibrahim, Trident Press, 2001, 978-1-900724-47-0,weblink 129–133, On 2 December 1971, Dubai, together with Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain and Fujairah joined in the Act of Union to form the United Arab Emirates. The seventh emirate, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the UAE on 10 February 1972, following Iran's annexation of the RAK-claimed Tunbs islands.BOOK, Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf: The Abu Musa and Tunbs in Strategic Context, Ahmadi, Kourosh, Routledge, 2008, London, 96, In 1973, Dubai joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham. In that same year, the prior monetary union with Qatar was dissolved and the UAE Dirham was introduced throughout the Emirates.WEB,weblink Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates, 11 December 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161203063733weblink">weblink 3 December 2016, yes, dmy-all,

Modern Dubai

(File:Dubai - Palm Jumeirah und Dubai Marina - النخلة جميرا ومرسى دبي - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Dubai Palm Jumeirah and Marina in 2011)During the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war."Beirut Showing Signs of Recovery From Wounds of War". The New York Times. 26 May 1977. pg.2 Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended disagreements.Dubai. Carter, T and Dunston, L. Lonely Planet Publications The Jebel Ali port was established in 1979. JAFZA (Jebel Ali Free Zone) was built around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital.WEB,weblink Free Zones in the UAE, uaefreezones.com, 23 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100225153052weblink">weblink 25 February 2010, Dubai airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow.The Gulf War of 1990 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived. Later in the 1990s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai.Davidson, Christopher, The Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai: Contrasting Roles in the International System. March 2007. Dubai provided refuelling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali Free Zone during the Gulf War, and again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.BOOK, Sand to Silicon: Going Global, Sampler & Eigner, Motivate, 2008, 9781860632549, UAE, 15,

Geography

{{See also|List of communities in Dubai}}(File:Dubai's Rapid Growth.ogv|thumb|This time-lapse video shows the rate of Dubai's growth at one frame per year from 2000 through 2011. In the false-color satellite images making up the video, bare desert is tan, plant-covered land is red, water is black and urban areas are silver.)(File:Dubai - lonely desert - الصحراء وحيدا - panoramio (4).jpg|thumb|Sand dunes in the city outskirts)Dubai is situated on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates and is roughly at sea level ({{convert|16|m|abbr=on|disp=or}} above). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south, Sharjah in the northeast, and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman (in the west) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at {{Coord|25.2697|N|55.3095|E}} and covers an area of {{convert|1588|sqmi|km2|abbr=on}}, which represents a significant expansion beyond its initial {{convert|1500|sqmi|km2|abbr=on}} designation due to land reclamation from the sea.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country.Environmental Development and Protection in the UAE {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303172707weblink |date=3 March 2016 }}. Aspinall, Simon The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha, give way to a north-south running line of dunes. Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide.The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about {{convert|1300|m|0|abbr=off}} in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through. Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes, which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. Seismically, Dubai is in a very stable zone—the nearest seismic fault line, the Zagros Fault, is {{convert|200|km|0|abbr=off}} from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai.Far enough from the fault lines. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120727103103weblink |date=27 July 2012 }} The National, 23 April 2008 Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is minimal because the Persian Gulf waters are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami.File:Dubai Creek Harbour 1.jpg|left|thumb|A view of the Dubai CreekDubai CreekThe sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the date palm and neem as well as imported trees such as the eucalypts grow in Dubai's natural parks. The houbara bustard, striped hyena, caracal, desert fox, falcon and Arabian oryx are common in Dubai's desert. Dubai is on the migration path between Europe, Asia and Africa, and more than 320 migratory bird species pass through the emirate in spring and autumn. The waters of Dubai are home to more than 300 species of fish, including the hammour. The typical marine life off the Dubai coast includes tropical fish, jellyfish, coral, dugong, dolphins, whales and sharks. Various types of turtles can also be found in the area including the hawksbill turtle and green turtle, which are listed as endangered species.Flora and fauna of Dubai {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090702064554weblink |date=2 July 2009 }} gowealthy.comNatural UAE {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100126010401weblink |date=26 January 2010 }} UAE Interact. Retrieved 29 April 2010Dubai Creek runs northeast-southwest through the city. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. The Dubai International Airport is located south of Deira, while the Palm Deira is located north of Deira in the Persian Gulf. Much of Dubai's real-estate boom is concentrated to the west of Dubai Creek, on the Jumeirah coastal belt. Port Rashid, Jebel Ali, Burj Al Arab, the Palm Jumeirah and theme-based free-zone clusters such as Business Bay are all located in this section.WEB,weblink Dubai Floor Plan & Area Map, 16 May 2017,weblink 11 August 2017, no, dmy-all, Dubai is notable for sculpted artificial island complexes including the Palm Islands and The World archipelago.{{clear}}

Climate

Dubai has a hot desert climate. Summers in Dubai are extremely hot, windy, and humid, with an average high around {{convert|41|°C|0|abbr=on}} and overnight lows around {{convert|30|°C|0|abbr=on}} in the hottest month, August. Most days are sunny throughout the year. Winters are comparatively cool with an average high of {{convert|24|°C|0|abbr=on}} and overnight lows of {{convert|14|°C|0|abbr=on}} in January, the coldest month. Precipitation, however, has been increasing in the last few decades, with accumulated rain reaching {{convert|110.7|mm|2|abbr=on}} per year.WEB,weblink Climate in Dubai across the year. Dubai Meteorological office, Dubaiairport.com, 20 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101218070259weblink">weblink 18 December 2010, Dubai summers are also known for the very high humidity level, which can make it very uncomfortable for many with exceptionally high dew points in summer.WEB,weblink Temperature and Humidity in Dubai, Godubai.com, 20 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120319053501weblink">weblink 19 March 2012, The highest recorded temperature in Dubai is {{convert|48.4|°C|0|abbr=on}}, reached in July 1996.WEB,weblink UAE weather: Temperature soars to near record level, The National, Abu Dhabi, 18 May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161118144107weblink">weblink 18 November 2016, {{Weather box| location = Dubai| metric first = yes| single line = yes| Jan record high C = 31.6| Feb record high C = 37.5| Mar record high C = 41.3| Apr record high C = 43.5| May record high C = 47.0| Jun record high C = 46.7| Jul record high C = 49.0| Aug record high C = 48.7| Sep record high C = 45.1| Oct record high C = 42.0| Nov record high C = 41.0| Dec record high C = 35.5| Jan high C = 23.9| Feb high C = 25.4| Mar high C = 28.3| Apr high C = 33.0| May high C = 37.7| Jun high C = 39.5| Jul high C = 40.9| Aug high C = 41.3| Sep high C = 38.9| Oct high C = 35.4| Nov high C = 30.6| Dec high C = 26.2| Jan mean C = 19.1| Feb mean C = 20.5| Mar mean C = 23.0| Apr mean C = 27.0| May mean C = 31.4| Jun mean C = 33.4| Jul mean C = 35.5| Aug mean C = 35.9| Sep mean C = 33.3| Oct mean C = 29.8| Nov mean C = 25.4| Dec mean C = 21.2| Jan low C = 14.3| Feb low C = 15.5| Mar low C = 17.7| Apr low C = 21.0| May low C = 25.1| Jun low C = 27.3| Jul low C = 30.0| Aug low C = 30.4| Sep low C = 27.7| Oct low C = 24.1| Nov low C = 20.1| Dec low C = 16.3| Jan record low C = 1.5| Feb record low C = 6.9| Mar record low C = 9.0| Apr record low C = 13.4| May record low C = 15.1| Jun record low C = 18.2| Jul record low C = 20.4| Aug record low C = 23.1| Sep record low C = 16.5| Oct record low C = 15.0| Nov record low C = 11.8| Dec record low C = 8.2| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 18.8| Feb precipitation mm = 25.0| Mar precipitation mm = 22.1| Apr precipitation mm = 7.2| May precipitation mm = 0.4| Jun precipitation mm = 0.0| Jul precipitation mm = 0.8| Aug precipitation mm = 0.0| Sep precipitation mm = 0.0| Oct precipitation mm = 1.1| Nov precipitation mm = 2.7| Dec precipitation mm = 16.2| Jan precipitation days = 5.5| Feb precipitation days = 4.7| Mar precipitation days = 5.8| Apr precipitation days = 2.6| May precipitation days = 0.3| Jun precipitation days = 0.0| Jul precipitation days = 0.5| Aug precipitation days = 0.5| Sep precipitation days = 0.1| Oct precipitation days = 0.2| Nov precipitation days = 1.3| Dec precipitation days = 3.8| Jan sun = 251| Feb sun = 241| Mar sun = 270| Apr sun = 306| May sun = 350| Jun sun = 345| Jul sun = 332| Aug sun = 326| Sep sun = 309| Oct sun = 307| Nov sun = 279| Dec sun = 254| Jand sun = 8.1| Febd sun = 8.6| Mard sun = 8.7| Aprd sun = 10.2| Mayd sun = 11.3| Jund sun = 11.5| Juld sun = 10.7| Augd sun = 10.5| Sepd sun = 10.3| Octd sun = 9.9| Novd sun = 9.3| Decd sun = 8.2|source 1 = Dubai Meteorological OfficeWEB,weblink Climate (Average Temperatures:1977–2015;Precipitation:1967-2009), 14 February 2019, Dubai Meteorological Office,weblink 4 October 2013, yes, dmy-all,
|source 2 = UAE National Center of MeteorologyWEB,weblink Climate Yearly Report 2003-2018, 14 February 2019, UAE National Center of Meteorology NCM,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190215050649weblink">weblink 15 February 2019, no, dmy-all, }}

Governance and politics

File:Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum at the World Economic Forum Summit on the Global Agenda 2008 2.jpg|thumb|left|Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumMohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumDubai has been ruled by the Al Maktoum family since 1833; the emirate is a constitutional monarchy. Dubai citizens participate in the electoral college to vote representatives to the Federal National Council of the UAE. The ruler, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, is also the Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and member of the Supreme Council of the Union (SCU). Dubai appoints 8 members in two-term periods to the Federal National Council (FNC) of the UAE, the supreme federal legislative body.US Library of Congress – Legislative BranchesThe Dubai Municipality (DM) was established by the then-ruler of Dubai, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, in 1954 for purposes of city planning, citizen services and upkeep of local facilities.Organizational Chart. Dubai Municipality DM is chaired by Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, deputy ruler of Dubai, and comprises several departments such as the Roads Department, Planning and Survey Department, Environment and Public Health Department and Financial Affairs Department. In 2001, Dubai Municipality embarked on an e-Government project with the intention of providing 40 of its city services through its web portal, [dubai.ae]. Thirteen such services were launched by October 2001, while several other services were expected to be operational in the future.Dubai Municipality's e-government initiative. Powerpoint. 2 December 2005 Dubai Municipality is also in charge of the city's sanitation and sewage infrastructure.NEWS, Wheeler, Julia,weblink Raw sewage threat to booming Dubai, BBC News, 13 October 2008, 31 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090103172040weblink">weblink 3 January 2009, The UAE has a Minister of Happiness, appointed by Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. The UAE has also appointed a Minister of Tolerance to promote tolerance as a fundamental value of the UAE, a country filled with a diverse range of faiths and ethnicities,WEB,weblink The UAE now has a Minister of Happiness – What's On Dubai, What's On Dubai, 27 March 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160316124902weblink">weblink 16 March 2016, 11 February 2016, and also a Minister for Youth Affairs.WEB,weblink Members Of The Cabinet, uaecabinet.ae, 2 February 2017, no,weblink 2 February 2017,

Law enforcement

The Dubai Police Force, founded in 1956 in the locality of Naif, has law enforcement jurisdiction over the emirate. The force is under direct command of Mohammed bin Rashid al Maktoum.{{Citation needed|date=November 2016}}File:Dubai Police at work (12385410394).jpg|thumb|Dubai Police operates a fleet of exotic carexotic carDubai and Ras al Khaimah are the only emirates that do not conform to the federal judicial system of the United Arab Emirates.On the United Arab Emirates (UAE) Legal System. Gulf-Law.com The emirate's judicial courts comprise the Court of First Instance, the Court of Appeal, and the Court of Cassation. The Court of First Instance consists of the Civil Court, which hears all civil claims; the Criminal Court, which hears claims originating from police complaints; and Sharia Court, which is responsible for matters between Muslims. Non-Muslims do not appear before the Sharia Court. The Court of Cassation is the supreme court of the emirate and hears disputes on matters of law only.UAE Consulate of the United States

Alcohol laws

Alcohol sale and consumption, though legal, is regulated. Adult non-Muslims are allowed to consume alcohol in licensed venues, typically within hotels, or at home with the possession of an alcohol license. Places other than hotels, clubs, and specially designated areas are typically not permitted to sell alcohol.{{Citation|title = Alcohol / liquor licence and laws in Dubai|url =weblink|deadurl = no|archiveurl =weblink|archivedate = 24 February 2015|df = dmy-all}} As in other parts of the world, drinking and driving is illegal, with 21 being the legal drinking age in the Emirate of Dubai.NEWS,weblink Law gets tough on drunk drivers in Dubai, Reporter, Bassam Za'za', Senior, 16 May 2010, Gulf News, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203081716weblink">weblink 3 February 2017,

Human rights

Companies in Dubai have in the past been criticised for human rights violations against labourers.JOURNAL, Davis, Mike, Mike Davis (scholar), Fear and money in Dubai, New Left Review, II, 41, 47–68, September–October 2006,weblink harv, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160220034223weblink">weblink 20 February 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Job losses hasten property decline in Dubai but medium-long term outlook upbeat, Propertywire.com, 3 December 2008, 14 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090119123812weblink">weblink 19 January 2009, WEB, Mohammad Bin Rashid approves Dubai's budget for 2015,weblink Gulf News, 25 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512084427weblink">weblink 12 May 2015, dmy-all, Some of the 250,000 foreign labourers in the city have been alleged to live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as "less than humane".WEB,weblink Human Rights Watch – Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates, 4 October 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006124105weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, BOOK,weblink Human Rights Watch, Building Towers, Cheating Workers: Exploitation of Migrant Construction Workers in the United Arab Emirates, PDF, 12 February 2016, no,weblink 5 March 2016, NEWS,weblink BBC News, UAE to allow construction unions, 30 March 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060423122628weblink">weblink 23 April 2006, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Dubai fire investigation launched, 19 January 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090929224627weblink">weblink 29 September 2009, The mistreatment of foreign workers was a subject of the difficult-to-make documentary, Slaves in Dubai (2009).WEB,weblink Slaves in Dubai documentary, VICE, 2009, 18 February 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141116012730weblink">weblink 16 November 2014, The Dubai government has denied labour injustices and stated that the watchdog's (Human Rights Watch) accusations were 'misguided'. The filmmaker explained in interviews how it was necessary to go undercover to avoid discovery by the authorities, who impose high fines on reporters attempting to document human rights abuses, including the conditions of construction workers. Towards the end of March 2006, the government had announced steps to allow construction unions. UAE labour minister Ali al-Kaabi said: "Labourers will be allowed to form unions."NEWS,weblink 24 April 2006, BBC News, UAE to allow construction unions, 30 March 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060423122628weblink">weblink 23 April 2006, dmy-all, Freedom of speech in Dubai is limited, with both residents and citizens facing severe sanctions from the government for speaking out against the royal family or local laws and culture.NEWS,weblink UAE ambassador: 'We do not promote idea of press freedom', Middle East Eye, 11 February 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180212005345weblink">weblink 12 February 2018, no, dmy-all, Most of the low paid labours are victims of human trafficking or forced labour while some women are even trafficked into the growing sex trade in Dubai, a centre of human trafficking and prostitution.NEWS,weblink Dubai in United Arab Emirates a centre of human trafficking and prostitution, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160120212511weblink">weblink 20 January 2016, no, dmy-all,

Crime rate

Dubai has one of the world's lowest crime rates,WEB,weblink Dubai among world's safest cities as serious crimes decline, Agarib, Amira, www.khaleejtimes.com, 30 July 2018,weblink 6 June 2018, no, dmy-all, and in 2018 was ranked the eighth-safest city in the world.NEWS,weblink Arab countries score low on crime, highest on safety in world survey, 9 August 2017, Arab News, 30 July 2018, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190416101505weblink">weblink 16 April 2019, no, dmy-all, WEB, Crime Index Rate,weblink Numbeo, 5 August 2018,weblink 5 August 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB, Crime Index Rate,weblink Numbeo, 5 August 2018,weblink 5 August 2018, no, dmy-all, The Security Industry Regulatory Agency classified the crimes into six categories.NEWS,weblink Revealed: Top crimes committed in Dubai, Reporter, Mariam M. Al Serkal, Senior Web, 6 February 2018, GulfNews, 30 July 2018,weblink 30 July 2018, no, dmy-all, These crimes include theft, forced robbery, domestic burglary, fraud, sexual assault and abuse, and criminal damages.As per Gulf News, Dubai Police stated that the crime in Dubai is reduced by fifteen percent during 2017. However the cases of drugs operation increased by eight percent. Major-General Abdullah Khalifa Al Merri, Commander-in-Chief of Dubai Police, hailed the force which solved 86 percent of criminal cases.NEWS,weblink Dubai Police hailed as serious crimes rate falls by 15%, Reporter, Ali Al Shouk, Staff, 13 January 2018, GulfNews, 30 July 2018,weblink 30 July 2018, no, dmy-all, The statistics also indicated that murder crimes dropped from 0.5 in 2016 to 0.3 in 2017 for every 100,000 population, while violent and aggressive crimes in the past 5 years went from 2.2 crimes per 100,000 and dropped to 1.2 by the end of 2017, pointed out Al Mansouri. General crimes have decreased since 2013, registering around 0.2 by the end of 2017. Robberies went from 3.8 in 2013 to 2.1 by the end of last year, while kidnapping cases also dropped from 0.2 in 2013 to 0.1 in 2017.WEB,weblink UAE Tours - Crime and crime rate in Dubai, www.vjcyber.com, en-gb, 30 July 2018,weblink 30 July 2018, no, dmy-all, Vehicle thefts in 2013 were 3.8 per 100,000 population, and fell to 1.7 in 2017. All the stolen vehicles were also recovered after being smuggled to neighboring countries, in cooperation with the competent authorities there. According to the US Bureau of Diplomatic Security, petty theft, pick pocketing, scams, and sexual harassment still occur although they are usually not violent and weapons are not involved.WEB,weblink Common Crimes and Laws in the UAE, www.internations.org, en, 30 July 2018,weblink 30 July 2018, no, dmy-all,

Demographics

{{Historical populations|footnote = c-census; e-estimateLAST=KARINDATE=SEPTEMBER 1999ACCESSDATE=19 APRIL 2010ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100503110831/HTTP://WWW.ALSHINDAGAH.COM/SEPTEMBER99/ARCHITECTURE.HTM1200ARCHIVEDATE=16 FEBRUARY 2010 TITLE=3D MODELLING AND VISUALISATION OF AL BASKITA IN DUBAI IN DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMERITES FIRST=KARIM 10000DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=TOURISM IN DUBAI DF=, |2000038000LAST=LAHMEYERYEAR=2001ACCESSDATE=19 APRIL 2010ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100809185417/HTTP://WWW.POPULSTAT.INFO/ASIA/UNARABET.HTM40000LAST=HEARD-BEYPUBLISHER=UAEINTERACT.COMDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=28 APRIL 2011, |58971PUBLISHER=TEDAD.AE DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=16 MAY 2010, |183000LAST=YOUNESPUBLISHER=ITE.ORGDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=25 FEBRUARY 2011370800674000120400022500002502715}}

Ethnicity and languages

{{See also|Emirati people|Expatriates in the United Arab Emirates}}According to the census conducted by the Statistics Centre of Dubai, the population of the emirate was 1,771,000 {{As of|2009|lc=y}}, which included 1,370,000 males and 401,000 females.WEB,weblink Dubai in Figures 2009. Government of Dubai. Statistical Center, Dsc.gov.ae, 31 October 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100420120936weblink">weblink 20 April 2010, {{As of|June 2017}}, the population is 2,789,000.WEB, Active Individuals’ Movement During Peak Hours* End of the Year - Emirate of Dubai,weblink www.dsc.gov.ae, 25 November 2017,weblink 1 December 2017, no, dmy-all, The region covers {{convert|497.1|mi2|1|abbr=out|order=flip}}. The population density is 408.18/km2 – more than eight times that of the entire country. Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region and 20th most expensive city in the world.WEB,weblink Cost of living â€“ The world's most expensive cities, City Mayors, 12 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081224033730weblink">weblink 24 December 2008, {{As of|2013}}, only about 15% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals,WEB, Dubai population jumps 4.8 per cent to 2.17m,weblink UAE interact, 4 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819034855weblink">weblink 19 August 2014, with the rest comprising expatriates, many of whom either have been in the country for generations or were born in the UAE.NEWS,weblink Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE, Reuters UK, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714171325weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, Reuters, 10 October 2013, WEB,weblink GCC Citizenship Debate: A Place To Call Home, Gulf Business, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140901125525weblink">weblink 1 September 2014, 5 January 2014, Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate's total population) was Asian, chiefly Indian (51%) and Pakistani (16%); other significant Asian groups include Bangladeshis (9%) and Filipinos (3%). There is a sizable community of Somalis numbering around 30,000, as well as other communities of various nationalities."Country and Metropolitan Stats in Brief {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121012143031weblink |date=12 October 2012 }}. MPI Data Hub A quarter of the population (local and foreign) reportedly traces their origins to Iran.NEWS, HASSAN M. FATTAH; Nada El Sawy contributed reporting for this article.,weblink Young Iranians Follow Dreams to Dubai, The New York Times, 4 December 2005, 11 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131005012837weblink">weblink 5 October 2013, In addition, 16% of the population (or 288,000 persons) living in collective labour accommodation were not identified by ethnicity or nationality, but were thought to be primarily Asian.WEB,weblink HSBC Reveals "The Future of Retirement: What the World Wants" Survey Results, 26 April 2006, HSBC, 19 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081204224023weblink">weblink 4 December 2008, There are over 100,000 British expatriates in Dubai, by far the largest group of Western expatriates in the city.NEWS,weblink Dubai leads British exodus overseas, Arabian Business, 21 May 2008, 16 November 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116232224weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, The median age in the emirate was about 27 years. In 2014, there were estimated to be 15.54 births and 1.99 deaths per 1,000 people.WEB, United Arab Emirates Demographics Profile 2014,weblink indexmundi.com, 21 December 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225154722weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, dmy-all, There are other Arab nationals, including GCC nationals.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}Arabic is the national and official language of the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf dialect of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people.BOOK, Christensen, Shane, Frommer's Dubai, 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-71178-1, 174, English is used as a second language. Other major languages spoken in Dubai due to immigration are Malayalam, Hindi-Urdu (or Hindustani), Gujarati, Persian, Sindhi, Tamil, Punjabi, Pashto, Bengali, Balochi, Tulu,WEB,weblink Nama Tuluveru all set to entertain UAE with Rangabhoomi's 'Kaala Chakra', daijiworld.com, 12 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304045706weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, Kannada, Sinhala, Marathi, Telugu, Tagalog and Chinese, in addition to many other languages.WEB,weblink Languages spoken in Dubai, Justlanded.com, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130627204329weblink">weblink 27 June 2013,

Religion

{{See also|Religion in the United Arab Emirates}}{{multiple image
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| image1 = Jumeira Mosque Dubai-2.jpg
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}}Article 7 of the UAE's Provisional Constitution declares Islam the official state religion of the UAE. The government subsidises almost 95% of mosques and employs all Imams; approximately 5% of mosques are entirely private, and several large mosques have large private endowments.Country Profile: United Arab Emirates (UAE) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090326030536weblink |date=26 March 2009 }}. United States Library of Congress All mosques in Dubai are managed by the Islamic Affairs and Charitable Activities Department also known as "Awqaf" under the Government of Dubai and all Imams are appointed by the Government.WEB,weblink Report on International Religious Freedom, U.S. Department of State, 30 September 2014, The Constitution of the United Arab Emirates provides for freedom of religion. Any person held preaching religious hatred or promoting religious extremism is usually jailed and deported.NEWS,weblink UAE to deport expats abusing religions, Staff, 22 July 2015, Emirates 24{{!, 7|access-date=26 May 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170525072642weblink|archivedate=25 May 2017}}Dubai has large Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Bahá'í, Buddhist and other religious communities residing in the city.Religion in Dubai {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100424085123weblink |date=24 April 2010 }}. DubaidreamsNon-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings are allowed to use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – United Arab Emirates, State.gov, 31 July 2009, Non-Muslim religious groups are also permitted to advertise group functions openly and distribute various religious literature. Catholics are served pastorally by the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia. British preacher Reverend Andrew Thompson claimed that the United Arab Emirates is one of the most tolerant places in the world towards Christians, and that it is easier to be a Christian in the UAE, than in the UK.WEB,weblink 'It's easier being Christian in Abu Dhabi than in UK', 23 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161004094524weblink">weblink 4 October 2016,

Economy

One of the world's fastest growing economies,NEWS,weblink Dubai enters top five ranked fastest growing economies, Everington, John, 22 January 2015, The National, 24 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150311081706weblink">weblink 11 March 2015, dmy-all, Dubai's gross domestic product is projected at US$107.1 billion, with a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014.NEWS,weblink Dubai's gross domestic product is expected to reach US$107.1 billion, posting a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014 and exceeding Dubai government's estimates of 5%, according to Citibank., 14 June 2014, Zawya Thomson Reuters, 24 March 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150331161429weblink">weblink 31 March 2015, dmy-all, Although a number of core elements of Dubai's trading infrastructure were built on the back of the oil industry,NEWS,weblink Dubai – Overview, USA Today, 22 July 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808211435weblink">weblink 8 August 2007, revenues from oil and natural gas account for less than 5% of the emirate's revenues. It is estimated that Dubai produces {{convert|50000|to|70000|oilbbl}} of oil a dayWEB,weblink Dubai's oil discovery and Dubai's debt, Moneycontrol.com, 5 February 2010, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530195048weblink">weblink 30 May 2013, and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in the UAE's total gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080705161411weblink">weblink 5 July 2008, UAE Oil and Gas, Uae.gov.ae, 19 June 1999, 31 July 2009, Real estate and construction (22.6%), trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy.Prospects of Dubai Economic Sectors {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080216052206weblink |date=16 February 2008 }}. Dubai Chamber of Commerce. 2003Dubai's non-oil foreign trade stood at $362 billion in 2014. Of the overall trade volumes, imports had the biggest share with a value of $230 billion while exports and re-exports to the emirate stood at $31 billion and $101 billion respectively.NEWS,weblink Dubai's foreign trade steady at Dh1.331 trillion in 2014, 23 March 2015, Emirates 24{{!, 7|access-date = 24 March 2015|deadurl = no|archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150327014004weblink">weblink|archivedate = 27 March 2015|df = dmy-all}}By 2014, China had emerged as Dubai's largest international trading partner, with a total of $47.7 billion in trade flows, up 29% from 2013. India was second among Dubai's key trading partners with a trade of $29.7 billion, followed by the United States at $22.62 billion. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was Dubai's fourth trading partner globally and first in the GCC and Arab world with a total trade value of $14.2 billion. Trade with Germany in 2014 totalled $12.3, Switzerland and Japan both at $11.72 billion and UK trade totalled $10.9 billion.File:Jebel Ali Port 2 Imresolt.jpg|thumb|Port of Jebel AliPort of Jebel AliHistorically, Dubai and its twin across Dubai Creek, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), were important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most of the new city's banking and financial centres were headquartered in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route through the 1970s and 1980s. Dubai has a free trade in gold and, until the 1990s, was the hub of a "brisk smuggling trade"weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130903094953weblink">"Dubayy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008 of gold ingots to India, where gold import was restricted. Dubai's Jebel Ali port, constructed in the 1970s, has the largest man-made harbour in the world and was ranked seventh globally for the volume of container traffic it supports.WEB,weblink World Port Rankings – 2008, American Association of Port Authorities, 15 April 2008, 5 May 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100704163225weblink">weblink 4 July 2010, Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city.WEB,weblink Free Zone Authorities in Dubai, Business-Dubai.com, 15 November 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117021420weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority), is one such enclave, whose members include IT firms such as Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc., Google, EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, Dell and IBM, and media organisations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}File:Dubai Creek from Bur Dubai (5374118618).jpg|thumb|left|Dubai Creek, which separates Deira from Bur DubaiBur DubaiThe government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004 to 2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008.NEWS, Dubai's Palm Jumeirah sees prices fall as crunch moves in,weblink The Daily Telegraph, UK, 20 November 2008, 20 November 2008, Louise, Armitstead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201011113weblink">weblink 1 December 2008, no, dmy-all, The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab.NEWS,weblink World's Tallest Hotel Opens Its Doors, BBC News, 1 December 1999, 31 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090619185856weblink">weblink 19 June 2009, Dubai's property market experienced a major downturn in 2008WEB, Dubai: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly,weblink 17 March 2012, 17 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418063228weblink">weblink 18 April 2012, and 2009 as a result of the slowing economic climate. By early 2009, the situation had worsened with the Great Recession taking a heavy toll on property values, construction and employment."Laid-Off Foreigners Flee as Dubai Spirals Down" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170111092442weblink |date=11 January 2017 }} article by Robert F. Worth in The New York Times 11 February 2009 This has had a major impact on property investors in the region, some of whom were unable to release funds from investments made in property developments.NEWS,weblink JLT owners still waiting for homes promised in 2007, 12 November 2009, Hanif, Nadeem, Gulf News, 10 April 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114053950weblink">weblink 14 November 2012, dmy-all, {{as of|2009|February}}, Dubai's foreign debt was estimated at approximately $80 billion, although this is a tiny fraction of the sovereign debt worldwide.Warner, Jeremy (27 November 2009) Dubai is just a harbinger of things to come for sovereign debt {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100330173433weblink |date=30 March 2010 }}. The Telegraph Dubai real estate and UAE property experts believe that by avoiding the mistakes of the past, Dubai's realty market can achieve stability in the future.WEB,weblink How Dubai real estate can avoid repeating past mistakes | Bayut Blog, Blog.bayut.com, 1 March 2013, 10 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131004235632weblink">weblink 4 October 2013, File:National Bank of Dubai - panoramio.jpg|thumb|National Bank of DubaiNational Bank of DubaiThe Dubai Financial Market (DFM) was established in March 2000 as a secondary market for trading securities and bonds, both local and foreign. As of fourth quarter 2006, its trading volume stood at about 400 billion shares, worth $95 billion in total. The DFM had a market capitalisation of about $87 billion. The other Dubai-based stock exchange is NASDAQ Dubai, which is the international stock exchange in the Middle East. It enables a range of companies, including UAE and regional small and medium-sized enterprises, to trade on an exchange with an international brand name, with access by both regional and international investors.WEB,weblink Nasdaq Dubai {{!, Exchange Overview|website=www.nasdaqdubai.com|access-date=2 February 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170102172348weblink|archivedate=2 January 2017}}DMCC (Dubai Multi Commodities Centre) was established in 2002. It's world's fastest growing free zone and been nominated as "Global Free Zone of the Year 2016" by The Financial Times fDi Magazine.Dubai is also known as the City of Gold, because a major part of the economy is based on gold trades, with Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reaching 580 tonnes, with an average price of US$1,455 per troy ounce.gold-dubai (22 February 2016) WEB,weblink Gold rate in Dubai, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303031957weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, A City Mayors survey ranked Dubai 44th among the world's best financial cities in 2007,WEB,weblink Citgy Mayors: World's best financial cities, Citymayors.com, 10 June 2008, 26 August 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090817144812weblink">weblink 17 August 2009, while another report by City Mayors indicated that Dubai was the world's 27th richest city in 2012, in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).WEB,weblink World's richest cities by purchasing power, City Mayors, 23 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080506064245weblink">weblink 6 May 2008, Dubai is also an international financial centre (IFC) and has been ranked 37th within the top 50 global financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2007),WEB,weblink MW-IndexRpt-CoComm FA.indd, 4 November 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090325052433weblink">weblink 25 March 2009, no, dmy-all, and 1st within the Middle East. Since it opened in September 2004, the Dubai IFC has attracted, as a regional hub, leading international firms and set-up the NASDAQ Dubai which lists equity, derivatives, structured products, Islamic bonds (sukuk) and other bonds. The Dubai IFC model is an independent risk-based regulator with a legislative system consistent with English common law.WEB,weblink Laws & Regulations {{!, Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC)|website=www.difc.ae|access-date=16 October 2016|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226124125weblink|archivedate=26 December 2016}}In 2012, the Global City Competitiveness Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Dubai at No. 40 with a total score of 55.9. According to its 2013 research report on the future competitiveness of cities, in 2025, Dubai will have moved up to 23rd place overall in the Index.WEB,weblink Hot Spots 2025: Dubai Moves Up to 23rd Place Dubai Chronicle, Dubaichronicle.com, 2 July 2013, 10 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131017051658weblink">weblink 17 October 2013, Indians, followed by Britons and Pakistanis are the top foreign investors in Dubai realty.NEWS,weblink Indians top foreign investors in Dubai realty, The Times of India, 10 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130923050205weblink">weblink 23 September 2013, Dubai has launched several major projects to support its economy and develop different sectors. These include Dubai Fashion 2020,WEB,weblink Dubai Fashion 2020 To Be Unveiled Soon Dubai Chronicle, Dubaichronicle.com, 18 June 2013, 10 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131024055620weblink">weblink 24 October 2013, and Dubai Design District, expected to become a home to leading local and international designers. The AED 4 billion first phase of the project will be complete by January 2015.WEB,weblink Construction of 10 buildings in Dubai Design District already underway, Dubaichronicle.com, 9 June 2013, 10 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130820024421weblink">weblink 20 August 2013,

Tourism and retail

{{See also|Tourism in Dubai|List of tourist attractions in Dubai}}File:Dubai Marina The Beach.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Dubai Marina beach in the Jumeirah Beach ResidenceJumeirah Beach ResidenceFile:Atlantis, The Palm Exterior .jpg|thumb|View of Atlantis, The PalmAtlantis, The PalmTourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping,WEB, Bargain-hunting Fashionistas Descend onto Dubai,weblink 17 March 2012, 17 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418063828weblink">weblink 18 April 2012, dmy-all, WEB, Shopping in Dubai,weblink Shopping Galore in Dubai, 17 October 2013, 17 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131017113310weblink">weblink 17 October 2013, but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions.WEB, 104 Attractions in Dubai,weblink 25 September 2017, 27 May 2018,weblink 6 July 2018, no, dmy-all, As of 2018, Dubai is the fourth most-visited city in the world based on the number of international visitors and the fastest growing, increasing by a 10.7% rate.WEB,weblink The 20 most visited cities around the world in 2018, Murray, Tom, Business Insider, 2019-01-17,weblink 19 January 2019, no, dmy-all, The city hosted 14.9 million overnight visitors in 2016, and is expected to reach 20 million tourists by 2020.WEB, 14.9 million overnight visitors for Dubai in 2016,weblink Gulf News, 29 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170529062634weblink">weblink 29 May 2017, File:Burj Khalifa lake - panoramio (1).jpg|thumb|left|The Dubai FountainThe Dubai FountainDubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East".NEWS,weblink Most Visited Cities In The World 2012, forbes, 2 December 2013, Deborah L., Jacobs, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203011132weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping centres, including the world's largest shopping centre, Dubai Mall. Dubai is also known for the historical souk districts located on either side of its creek. Traditionally, dhows from East Asia, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks. Dubai Creek played a vital role in sustaining the life of the community in the city and was the resource which originally drove the economic boom in Dubai.WEB,weblink Dubai History, dubai.ae, 2 December 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203013549weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, {{as of|2013|September}}, Dubai creek has been proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB,weblink Dubai Creek for World Heritage List, Khaleej Times, 2 December 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203004340weblink">weblink 3 December 2013, Many boutiques and jewellery stores are also found in the city. Dubai is also referred to as "the City of Gold" as the Gold Souk in Deira houses nearly 250 gold retail shops.BOOK, Krane, Jim, City of Gold: Dubai and the Dream of Capitalism, St. Martin's Press, September 2009, 978-0-312-53574-2, File:View of the Palm Jumeirah-dubai-2011 (2).jpg|thumb|View of the Palm Jumeirah and Burj Al ArabBurj Al ArabDubai Creek Park in Dubai Creek also plays a vital role in Dubai tourism as it showcase some of the most famous tourist attractions in Dubai such as Dolphinarium, Cable Car, Camel Ride, Horse Carriage and Exotic Birds Shows.WEB,weblink Dubai Creek Park, Capture Dubai, 12 February 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160220210017weblink">weblink 20 February 2016, Dubai has a wide range of parks like Safa park, Mushrif park, Hamriya park etc. Each park is uniquely distinct from the other. Mushrif park showcases different houses around the world. A visitor can check out the architectural features of the outside as well as the inside of each house.Some of the most popular beaches in Dubai are Umm Suqeim Beach, Al Mamzar Beach Park, JBR Open Beach, Kite Beach, Black Palace Beach and Royal Island Beach Club.

Expo 2020

{{See also|Expo 2020}}On 2 November 2011, four cities had their bids for Expo 2020 already lodged, with Dubai making a last-minute entry. The delegation from the Bureau International des Expositions, which visited Dubai in February 2013 to examine the Emirate's readiness for the largest exposition, was impressed by the infrastructure and the level of national support. In May 2013, Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan was revealed.WEB,weblink Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan, dubaichronicle.com, 22 May 2013, 23 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130622152423weblink">weblink 22 June 2013, Dubai then won the right to host Expo 2020 on 27 November 2013.WEB, Kerr, Simeon, Jubilant Dubai wins bid to host 2020 World Expo,weblink Financial Times, 7 March 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140219082238weblink">weblink 19 February 2014, The event will bring huge economic benefits by generating activities worth billions of dirhams and may create over 270,000 jobs.WEB,weblink According to a research from Oxford Economics, Dubai Expo 2020 may create over 270,000 jobs, dubaichronicle.com, 24 May 2013, 23 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130622170350weblink">weblink 22 June 2013, The main site of Dubai Expo 2020 will be a 438-hectare area (1,083 acres), part of the new Dubai Trade Centre Jebel Ali urban development, located midway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi.WEB,weblink EXPO Dubai 2020 – a preview, Inexhibit magazine, 9 February 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160217022200weblink">weblink 17 February 2016, Moreover, the Expo 2020 also created various social enlistment projects and monetary boons to the city targeting the year 2020. Such as initiating the world's largest solar project,WEB,weblink Dubai launches world's largest concentrated solar power project – Gulf Business, 2 June 2016, gulfbusiness.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160602184917weblink">weblink 2 June 2016, the real estate upsurge, to focus on the GDP growth and to make Dubai a "Happy Dubai" for the people of the city.WEB,weblink UAE Gears Up Ahead of Dubai EXPO 2020, shuraa.com, no,weblink 6 August 2016,

Cityscapes

{{wide image|Dubai banner 2.jpg|1600px|alt=Dubai skyline|align-cap=center|Dubai skyline}}{{wide image|Dubai skyscrapers.jpg|1300px|alt=Dubai skyline|align-cap=center|Dubai skyline at dusk}}

Architecture

{{See also|List of tallest buildings in Dubai|Developments in Dubai}}File:Burj Khalifa.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Burj KhalifaBurj KhalifaFile:Dubai, United Arab Emirates (Unsplash pyX20r3Z-1Y).jpg|thumb|Interior of a Dubai MetroDubai MetroDubai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. Many modern interpretations of Islamic architecture can be found here, due to a boom in construction and architectural innovation in the Arab World in general, and in Dubai in particular, supported not only by top Arab or international architectural and engineering design firms such as Al Hashemi and Aedas, but also by top firms of New York and Chicago.Karim, Luiza Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090930191053weblink |date=30 September 2009 }}. AlShindagah, 1999 As a result of this boom, modern Islamic – and world – architecture has literally been taken to new levels in skyscraper building design and technology. Dubai now has more completed or topped-out skyscrapers higher than {{convert|2/3|km|ft|abbr=on}}, {{convert|1/3|km|ft|abbr=on}}, or {{convert|1/4|km|ft|abbr=on}} than any other city. A culmination point was reached in 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower), now by far the world's tallest building at {{convert|829.8|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The Burj Khalifa's design is derived from the patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, with the triple-lobed footprint of the building based on an abstracted version of the desert flower hymenocallis which is native to the Dubai region.WEB,weblink Design of Burj Khalifa, Burjkhalifa.ae, 20 April 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110228235427weblink">weblink 28 February 2011, The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction during the decade of the 2000s, leaves Dubai with the world's tallest skyline {{as of|2010|January|4|lc=y}}.WEB, World's Ten Tallest Cities In 2012, the JW Marriott Marquis Dubai opened and is the World's tallest hotel, standing at 72 stories (1,165 ft)., Ultrapolis Project, 3 November 2010,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100609163127weblink">weblink 9 June 2010, WEB,weblink Calculated Average Height of the Twenty-five Tallest (CAHTT), Ultrapolisproject.com, 4 January 2010, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130502130623weblink">weblink 2 May 2013, At the top, Burj Khalifa, the world's second highest observatory deck after the Shanghai Tower with an outdoor terrace is one of Dubai's most popular tourist attractions, with over 1.87 million visitors in 2013.WEB, Burj Khalifa records over 1.87 million visitors in 2013,weblink khaleejtimes.com, 23 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170224053154weblink">weblink 24 February 2017, {{clear}}

Burj Al Arab

The Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب, Tower of the Arabs), a luxury hotel, is frequently described as "the world's only 7-star", though its management has said it has never made that claim. A Jumeirah Group spokesperson is quoted as saying: "There's not a lot we can do to stop it. We're not encouraging the use of the term. We've never used it in our advertising."NEWS, Hotel star ratings standards long overdue,weblink 10 December 2010, The National (Abu Dhabi), The National, 14 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110116211441weblink">weblink 16 January 2011, The hotel opened in December 1999.

Burj Khalifa

(File:Dubai Police Agusta A-109K-2 in flight at sunset.jpg|thumb|Dubai Police Agusta A-109K-2 in flight near Burj Khalifa)Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a {{convert|828|m|ft}} high"Dubai In Number" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150404074223weblink |date=4 April 2015 }}, go-gulf.ae, 23 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015 skyscraper in Dubai, and the tallest building in the world. The tower was inspired by the structure of the desert flower Hymenocallis. It was constructed by more than 30 contracting companies around the world with workers of a hundred nationalities. It is an architectural icon. The building opened in 2010."Iosif Stalin-2" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150411003129weblink |date=11 April 2015 }}, capturedubai.com, 29 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.

Palm Jumeirah

File:Dubai Wingsuit Flying Trip (7623566780).jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|right|The Palm JumeirahPalm JumeirahThe Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago, created using land reclamation by Nakheel, a company owned by the Dubai government, and designed and developed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands which extend into the Persian Gulf. The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands, and it is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of Dubai. It was built between 2001 and 2006.WEB,weblink Nakheel, The Palm Jumeirah, 2006, 11 February 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070217094653weblink">weblink 17 February 2007,

Dubai Miracle Garden

On 14 February 2013, the Dubai Miracle Garden, a {{convert|72,000|m|ft|adj=mid|abbr=off}} flower garden, opened in Dubailand. It is the world's largest flower garden. The garden has a total of 45 million flowers with re-use of waste water through drip irrigation. During the summer seasons from late May to September when the climate can get extremely hot with an average high of about {{convert|40|°C|0|abbr=on}}, the garden stays closed.WEB,weblink World's Largest Natural Flower Garden Opens in Dubai, 13 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130308110534weblink">weblink 8 March 2013, WEB, The World's most beautiful garden-In Dubai,weblink Xpress, 20 February 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160105043136weblink">weblink 5 January 2016,

Transportation

{{Multiple image|align = right|direction = vertical|header =|header_align = |header_background=|footer =|footer_align = |footer_background=|width = 240|image1 =|width1 = 240|alt1 = Bus stop in Dubai|caption1 = An air-conditioned bus stop|image2 =|width2 = 240|alt2 = Dubai Metro, Opening Day|caption2 = |image3 = Dubai Metro photographed from Dubai Marina station in Dubai United Arab Emirages.png|width3 = 240|alt3 = Dubai Metro|caption3 = Dubai Metro is the first kind of rail transportation in the UAE, and is the Arabian Peninsula's first urban train network |image4 = Palm Jumeirah monoral at dusk in Dubai United Arab Emirates.jpg|width4 = 240|alt4 = Dubai Monorail|caption4 = Palm Jumeirah Monorail|image5 = Dubai - International (DXB - OMDB) AN1204297.jpg|width5 = 240|alt5 = Dubai – International AirportDubai International Airport is ranked the 1st busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2017.HTTP://WWW.ACI.AERO/NEWS/RELEASES/MOST-RECENT/2018/04/09/ACI-WORLD-RELEASES-PRELIMINARY-2017-WORLD-AIRPORT-TRAFFIC-RANKINGS--PASSENGER-TRAFFIC-INDIAN-AND-CHINESE-AIRPORTS-MAJOR-CONTRIBUTORS-TO-GROWTH---AIR-CARGO-VOLUMES-SURGE-AT-MAJOR-HUBS-AS-TRADE-WARS-THREATEN-WEBSITE=WWW.ACI.AEROARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180814121026/HTTP://WWW.ACI.AERO/NEWS/RELEASES/MOST-RECENT/2018/04/09/ACI-WORLD-RELEASES-PRELIMINARY-2017-WORLD-AIRPORT-TRAFFIC-RANKINGS--PASSENGER-TRAFFIC-INDIAN-AND-CHINESE-AIRPORTS-MAJOR-CONTRIBUTORS-TO-GROWTH---AIR-CARGO-VOLUMES-SURGE-AT-MAJOR-HUBS-AS-TRADE-WARS-THREATEN-DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, |image6 =UAE Dubai Marina img2 asv2018-01.jpg|width6 =240|alt6 =Dubai TramDubai Tram is one of the first completely Ground-level power supply>APS-based tram networks in the worldHTTPS://WWW.HIGHWAYS.TODAY/2017/01/12/SYSTRA-AECOM-WIN-DUBAI-TRAM-EXTENSION/>TITLE=SYSTRA AND AECOM WIN THE DUBAI TRAM EXTENSIONWEBSITE=HIGHWAYS TODAYACCESS-DATE=13 JANUARY 2019ARCHIVE-DATE=13 JANUARY 2019DF=DMY-ALL, |image7 = Madinat Jumeirah dhow (3050971546).jpg|width7 = 240|alt7 = Abra on Dubai CreekAbra (boat)>Abras and dhows are traditional modes of waterway transport|image8 = Dubai Bus on 26 December 2007 Pict 4.jpg|width8 = 240|alt8 = Dubai Bus|caption8 = Dubai Bus in Dubai Marina|image9 =Sheikh Zayed Road on 28 December 2007.jpg|width9 =240|alt9 =Dubai TramE 11 road (United Arab Emirates)>E 11 Road}}Transport in Dubai is controlled by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), an agency of the government of Dubai, formed by royal decree in 2005.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 18 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100419010523weblink">weblink 19 April 2010, no, dmy-all, The public transport network has in the past faced congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme has addressed, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million.WEB,weblink Gulfnews: Dubai traffic woes inflict losses of Dh4.6b a year, Gulf News, 14 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825202355weblink">weblink 25 August 2009, In 2009, according to Dubai Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai.WEB,weblink Gulfnews: Public transport regains allure as Car-free Day gets under way, Gulf News, 17 February 2010, 29 April 2010, In January 2010, the number of Dubai residents who use public transport stood at 6%.WEB,weblink Gulfnews: Rta wants 30 of dubai residents on public transport, Gulf News, 21 January 2010, 29 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100124073635weblink">weblink 24 January 2010,

Road

{{See also|List of roads in Dubai|Dubai route numbering system|List of bridges and tunnels in Dubai}}Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road, Dubai-Al Ain Road, or Tahnoun Bin Mohammad Al Nahyan Road)NEWS, Emirates News Agency, WAM, Dubai-Al Ain Road renamed, Gulf News,weblink Al Ain, 2 November 2018, 4 November 2018,weblink 4 November 2018, no, dmy-all, – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road now named as 2 December street), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, Al Shindagha Tunnel, Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge.Completed projects {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100625002211weblink |date=25 June 2010 }}. RTA DubaiThe Public Bus Transport system in Dubai is run by the RTA. The bus system services 140 routes and transported over 109 million people in 2008. By the end of 2010, there will be 2,100 buses in service across the city.WEB,weblink Dubai buses may be privatised – The National Newspaper, The National, Abu Dhabi, 8 June 2009, 14 July 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118040754weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, In 2006, the Transport authority announced the construction of 500 air-conditioned (A/C ) Passenger Bus Shelters, and planned for 1,000 more across the emirates in a move to encourage the use of public buses.WEB,weblink Gulfnews: Air-conditioned bus shelters for Dubai, Gulf News, 6 March 2010, 10 March 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110830071033weblink">weblink 30 August 2011, dmy-all, All taxi services are licensed by the RTA. Dubai licensed taxis are easily identifiable by their cream bodywork colour and varied roof colours identifying the operator. Dubai Taxi Corporation, a division of the RTA, is the largest operator and has taxis with red roofs. There are five private operators: Metro Taxis (orange roofs); Network Taxis (yellow roofs); Cars Taxis (blue roofs); Arabia Taxis (green roofs); and City Taxis (purple roof). In addition, Dubai Taxi Corporation has a Ladies Taxi service, with pink roofs, which caters exclusively for female passengers, using female drivers. The Dubai International Airport taxi concession is operated by Dubai Taxi Corporation. There are more than 3000 taxis operating within the emirate making an average of 192,000 trips every day, carrying about 385,000 persons. In 2009 taxi trips exceeded 70 million trips serving around 140.45 million passengers.WEB,weblink Gulfnews: Dubai Metro gives boost to public transport in city, Gulf News, 6 March 2010, 29 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100412193111weblink">weblink 12 April 2010, WEB,weblink Dubai Taxi Corporation, Dtc.dubai.ae, 29 September 2010, 31 October 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101112164616weblink">weblink 12 November 2010, WEB,weblink Getting Around in Dubai, dubai.com/, 14 September 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110924043220weblink">weblink 24 September 2011,

Air

Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for Emirates, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The airport is the third-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic.WEB, 2008 Annual Report, Dubai Airport, 2009,weblink 28 February 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100111173544weblink">weblink 11 January 2010, In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the sixth-busiest cargo airport in world, handling 2.37 million tons of cargo in 2014.WEB,weblink DXB Takes Over Top Spot for International Passenger Traffic, dubaiairports.ae, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150429044632weblink">weblink 29 April 2015, Emirates is the national airline of Dubai. {{As of|2018}}, it operated internationally serving over 150 destinations in over 70 countries across six continents.WEB,weblink Our Destinations, Emirates,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150512221204weblink">weblink 12 May 2015, no, The development of Al Maktoum International Airport (IATA: DWC) was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened.WEB,weblink Al Maktoum International airport begins operations, 27 June 2010, Gulf News, 28 June 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100630085531weblink">weblink 30 June 2010, When completed, Dubai World Central-Al Maktoum International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.WEB,weblink Al Maktoum International airport receives first flight, 21 June 2010, Gulf News, 21 June 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100623030828weblink">weblink 23 June 2010,

Metro rail

The $3.89 billion Dubai Metro project is operational. It consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the financial and residential areas of the city. The Metro system was partially opened on September 2009.WEB, Dubai RTA – Dubai Metro – Blue Line, 11 September 2009, zawya,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110617052450weblink">weblink 17 June 2011, UK-based international service company Serco is responsible for operating the metro. The metro comprises the Green Line, which has 20 stations (8 underground, 12 elevated) and runs from the Etisalat Station to the Creek Station and the Red Line, the major back bone line, which has 29 stations (4 underground, 24 elevated and 1 at ground level) and runs from Rashidiya Station to UAE Xchange Station Jebel Ali. In July 2016 a contract was awarded to add a branch to the Red Line running to the EXPO 2020 site; this extension is due to open in April 2020. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. The Dubai Metro (Green and Blue Lines) will have {{convert|70|km|1|abbr=on}} of track and 43 stations, 37 above ground and ten underground.WEB,weblink Dubai Municipality signs Dhs12.45 billion Metro contract, 30 May 2005, UAE Interact, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513205740weblink">weblink 13 May 2011, The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.NEWS,weblink Will metro change Dubai car culture?, 11 September 2009, BBC News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090916041627weblink">weblink 16 September 2009, All the trains run without a driver and are based on automatic navigation.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}

Palm Jumeirah Monorail

The Palm Jumeirah Monorail is a monorail line on the Palm Jumeirah. It connects the Palm Jumeirah to the mainland, with a planned further extension to the Red Line of the Dubai Metro.WEB, Middle East's first monorail to start services in Palm Jumeirah by April,weblink Gulf News, 7 August 2008, 11 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090716225656weblink">weblink 16 July 2009, The line opened on 30 April 2009.WEB, Palm monorail tried and tested,weblink Timeoutdubai, 6 May 2009, 29 August 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100115001910weblink">weblink 15 January 2010, It is the first monorail in the Middle East.NEWS,weblink First Monorail system in the Middle East takes first paying passengers., AEC Online, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203075322weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, Two tram systems are expected to be built in Dubai by 2011. The first is the Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System and the second is the Al Sufouh Tram. The Downtown Burj Khalifa Tram System is a {{convert|4.6|km|1|abbr=on}} tram service that is planned to service the area around the Burj Khalifa, and the second tram will run {{convert|14.5|km|1|abbr=on}} along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}

Tram

A tramway located in Al Sufouh, Dubai, will run for {{convert|14.5|km|mi|1|abbr=off}} along Al Sufouh Road from Dubai Marina to the Burj Al Arab and the Mall of the Emirates with two interchanges with Dubai Metro's Red Line. The first section, a 10.6-kilometer (6.6 mi) long tram line which serves 11 stations, was opened on 11 November 2014, by H.H. Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, The Vice-President and Prime Minister of UAE and Ruler of Dubai, with the line opening to the public at 6 am on 12 November 2014.WEB,weblink About, The Dubai Tram, 12 February 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160215035242weblink">weblink 15 February 2016, dmy-all,

High speed rail

Dubai has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high-speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf) and then possibly Europe. The High Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.WEB, GCC Rail Network,weblink zawya projects, 14 April 2010, 25 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110617080242weblink">weblink 17 June 2011,

Waterways

There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Port Jebel Ali. Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East,WEB, Port of Jebel Ali,weblink worldportsource.com, 14 August 2008, 25 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100416070712weblink">weblink 16 April 2010, and the 7th-busiest port in the world. One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai to Deira is by abras, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai Creek, between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road.Abra-services {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100817012451weblink |date=17 August 2010 }} dubai-online The Marine Transport Agency has also implemented the Dubai Water Bus System. Water bus is a fully air conditioned boat service across selected destinations across the creek. One can also avail oneself of the tourist water bus facility in Dubai. Latest addition to the water transport system is the Water Taxi.WEB, RTA launches Water Bus System on Dubai Creek,weblink AMEinfo, 16 July 2007, 25 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100602074607weblink">weblink 2 June 2010,

Culture

{{further|Culture of the United Arab Emirates}}File:Vibrant Spices.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|left|Traditional Middle Eastern spices at the Dubai Spice SoukDubai Spice SoukThe UAE culture mainly revolves around traditional Arab culture. The influence of Arab and Islamic culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine, and lifestyle is very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday and Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday and Sunday.WEB, Jonathan Sheikh-Miller,weblink UAE Weekend Switchover, AMEinfo, 22 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110212191741weblink">weblink 12 February 2011, Prior to 2006, the weekend was Thursday-Friday.Because of the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence, and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance.Luxury Fashion Branding: Trends, Tactics, Techniques – Page 80, Uché Okonkwo – 2007Dubai – Page 100, Terry Carter – 2009Introduction to Sociology – Page 14, George Ritzer – 2012 Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai Shopping FestivalDubai Shopping Festival 2011 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110106131951weblink |date=6 January 2011 }} More Details (DSF) and Dubai Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.DSF Milestones {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100317124602weblink |date=17 March 2010 }}. DubaicityguideWEB,weblink Sales will account for 8% of Dubai's GDP, Gulf News, 3 May 2009, 20 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130508235712weblink">weblink 8 May 2013, (File:Meydan Beach Club, Dubai (8668492594).jpg|thumb|Meydan Beach Club, Jumeirah)Dubai is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels because of liquor laws. The New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".NEWS,weblink Clubs Bloom in the Desert, Sherwood, Seth, 9 December 2007, The New York Times, 23 April 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017084536weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogeneous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s. In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai was foreign-born, about half of them from India.Major holidays in Dubai include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates.WEB,weblink Gulf News Community, 11 December 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220102503weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, The International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA), the world's leading events trade association, has crowned Dubai as IFEA World Festival and Event City, 2012 in the cities category with a population of more than one million.WEB,weblink Dubai is world's festival city, 23 September 2012, khaleejtimes.com, 30 September 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120924032330weblink">weblink 24 September 2012, WEB,weblink Dubai crowned World Festival and Event City by IFEA, 23 September 2012, news.definitelydubai.com, 30 September 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120928152914weblink">weblink 28 September 2012, Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City Centre, Mirdiff City Centre, BurJuman, Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall (the world's largest) and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional Dubai Gold Souk and other souks attract shoppers from the region.NEWS,weblink Top 7 Places to go Shopping in Dubai – Dubai Expats Guide, 29 September 2013, Dubai Expats Guide, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202234802weblink">weblink 2 February 2017,

Cuisine

{{See also|Emirati cuisine}}Arabic cuisine is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports.Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080226222518weblink |date=26 February 2008 }}. GAIN Report. United States Department of Agriculture Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels.Dubai Culture {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100306150956weblink |date=6 March 2010 }} dubai-livethedream.com Shisha and qahwa boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Biryani is also a popular cuisine across Dubai with being the most popular among Indians and Pakistanis present in Dubai.WEB,weblink Biryani in Dubai, zomato.com, yes,weblink 7 February 2016, The inaugural Dubai Food Festival was held between 21 February to 15 March 2014.WEB,weblink Dubai Food Festival, Dubai Food Festival, 20 November 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141115191601weblink">weblink 15 November 2014, According to Vision magazine, the event was aimed at enhancing and celebrating Dubai's position as the gastronomic capital of the region. The festival was designed to showcase the variety of flavours and cuisines on offer in Dubai featuring the cuisines of over 200 nationalities at the festival.WEB,weblink Taste of culture: Dubai Food Festival, Vision.ae, February 2014, 20 November 2014, East, Ben, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141030181910weblink">weblink 30 October 2014, The next food festival was held between 23 February 2017 to 11 March 2017.WEB,weblink Dubai Food Festival 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161010012413weblink">weblink 10 October 2016,

Entertainment

{{See also|Music of the United Arab Emirates}}File:DubaiOpera.jpg|thumb|Dubai OperaDubai OperaArabic movies are popular in Dubai and the UAE. Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai International Film Festival which serves as a showcase for Arab and Middle Eastern film making talent.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822190629weblink">weblink 22 August 2008, About Dubai Film Festival (DFF), 7th Dubai International Film Festival, 23 April 2010, The Dubai Desert Rock Festival was also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists but is no longer held in Dubai.One of the lesser known sides of Dubai is the importance of its young contemporary art gallery scene. Since 2008, the leading contemporary art galleries such as Carbon 12 Dubai,WEB,weblink Carbon 12's website, Carbon12dubai.com, 18 January 2013, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130331144906weblink">weblink 31 March 2013, Green Art, gallery Isabelle van den Eynde, and The Third Line have brought the city onto the international art map. Art Dubai, the growing and reputable art fair of the region is as well a major contributor of the contemporary art scene's development.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}

Media

{{See also|List of media outlets in Dubai Media City|Radio and television channels of Dubai}}Many international news agencies such as Reuters, APTN, Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) operate in Dubai Media City and Dubai Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. Dar Al Khaleej, Al Bayan and Al Ittihad are the city's largest circulating Arabic language newspapers,Largest-Circulation Arabic Newspapers {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110614232009weblink |date=14 June 2011 }}. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Arab Reform Bulletin, December 2004 while Gulf News, Khaleej Times, Khaleej Mag and 7days are the largest circulating English newspapers.weblink" title="archive.today/20130210023747weblink">Gulf News continues to lead the way. zawya. February 2010File:Dubai Media City - panoramio.jpg|thumb|View of Dubai Media CityDubai Media CityEtisalat, the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links.WEB,weblink Etisalat ramps up UAE bandwidth, 11 June 2006, arabianbusiness.com, 3 May 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812064751weblink">weblink 12 August 2011, Dubai houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2).WEB,weblink UAEnicat a Glance, Hashim, Abdulla, 5 May 2005, isoc.org, 21 April 2010, yes,weblink 11 March 2010, dmy-all, Censorship is common in Dubai and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates.United Arab Emirates {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080909194905weblink |date=9 September 2008 }}. OpenNet Interactive. 2008 Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.NEWS,weblink Geraldine Bedell's novel banned in Dubai because of gay character, Jack, Malvern, 16 February 2009, The Times, UK, 22 April 2010, Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; and sites originating from Israel.WEB,weblink Internet Filtering in the United Arab Emirates in 2004–2005: A Country Study, 5 May 2005, OpenNet Initiative, 9 June 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611125850weblink">weblink 11 June 2010, Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that {{as of|2002|lc=y}}, 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services.WEB,weblink Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law No.2/2002, Dubai Technology and Media Free Zone Authority, 9 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110531152539weblink">weblink 31 May 2011, The penal code contains official provisions that prohibit digital access to pornography; however, it does not address cyber crime or data protection.WEB,weblink Silenced – United Arab Emirates, Privacyinternational.org, 21 September 2003, 20 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100903044652weblink">weblink 3 September 2010,

Sports

{{See also|Traditional sports in the United Arab Emirates}}File:DTC1.jpg|thumb|Dubai Tennis Stadium ]]Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. Three teams (Al Wasl FC, Shabab Al-Ahli Dubai FC and Al Nasr SC) represent Dubai in UAE Pro-League. Al-Wasl have the second-most number of championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Dubai also hosts both the annual Dubai Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai Desert Classic golf tournament and the DP World Tour Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai World Cup, a thoroughbred horse race, is held annually at the Meydan Racecourse. Dubai also hosts the traditional rugby union tournament Dubai Sevens, part of the Sevens World Series Event pictures of Rugby 7 Dubai 2015. In 2009, Dubai hosted the 2009 Rugby World Cup Sevens. Auto racing is also a big sport in Dubai, the Dubai Autodrome is home to many auto racing events throughout the year. It also features a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor Kartdrome, popular among racing enthusiasts and recreational riders.

Dress code

The Emirati attire is typical of several countries in the Arabian Peninsula. Women usually wear the "abaya", a long black robe with a hijab (the head-scarf which covers the neck and part of the head). Some women may add a niqab which cover the mouth and nose and only leaves the eyes exposed. Men wear the "kandurah" also referred to as "dishdasha" or even "thawb" (long white robe) and the headscarf (ghotrah). The UAE traditional ghotrah is white and is held in place by an accessory called "egal", which resembles a black cord. The younger Emiratis prefer to wear red and white ghotras and tie it round their head like a turban.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}The above dress code is never compulsory and many people wear western or other eastern clothing without any problems; but prohibitions on wearing "indecent clothing" or revealing too much skin are aspects of the UAE to which Dubai's visitors are expected to conform, and are encoded in Dubai's criminal law.WEB,weblink Criminal Law of Dubai, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006095228weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, 23 October 2012, The UAE has enforced decency regulations in most public places, aside from waterparks, beaches, clubs, and bars.NEWS,weblink UAE laws you must know to stay out of trouble, Leijen, Majorie van, Emirates 24{{!, 7|access-date=2 February 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161228163649weblink|archivedate=28 December 2016}}

Education

{{See also|List of universities and colleges in Dubai}}The school system in Dubai follows that of the United Arab Emirates. {{As of|2009}}, there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 145 private schools. The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.NEWS, Mansell, Warwick, Expat guide to the UAE: schools,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, 30 April 2010, no,weblink 23 October 2015, More than 15 schools offer an international education using the one or more of the four International Baccalaureate Programmes for students aged 3–19.WEB,weblink Middle East International Baccalaureate Association (MEIBA) of Schools, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150213034114weblink">weblink 13 February 2015, Several schools have introduced the new IB Career-related Programme that can be combined with a vocational qualification such as a BTEC.WEB,weblink Welcome to BTEC, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150507104945weblink">weblink 7 May 2015, The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).WEB,weblink ADEC signs a protocol agreement with the International Baccalaureate Organization today, ADEC, 12 February 2016, no,weblink 5 January 2016, Additionally a number of schools offer either a CBSE or an Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. The Indian High School, DPS, DMHS are some examples. Similarly, there are also several reputable Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children in Dubai.{{citation needed|date=November 2016}}A number of schools also offer British primary education up to the age of eleven. British style eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels include Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, English Language School Pvt. Some schools, such as The American School of Dubai, also offer the curriculum of the United States.WEB,weblink List of schools in Dubai, Dubai school finder, Dubaifaqs.com, 5 June 2012, 20 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130428081000weblink">weblink 28 April 2013, The most well-known universities in Dubai are American University in Dubai, Hult International Business School, Al Ghurair University, The American College of Dubai, University of Wollongong in Dubai, British University in Dubai offering courses in Business Administration, Engineering, Architecture and Interior Design. American University in Dubai is one of the six UAE universities featured in QS World University Rankings 2014/2015.WEB, QS World University Rankings® 2014/15,weblink topuniversities.com, 12 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160205025004weblink">weblink 5 February 2016, 11 September 2014, In 2013 Synergy University Dubai CampusWEB,weblink Synergy University Dubai Campus – Home Page, Synergy University Dubai Campus, Synergy University Dubai Campus, 12 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160220053929weblink">weblink 20 February 2016, opened its campus in Jumeirah Lakes Towers being a first University in Dubai to be located outside of Educational Zones (Knowledge Village or Academic City).WEB,weblink Synergy University, Dubai Educational Guide, DEG, 12 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304025904weblink">weblink 4 March 2016,

Healthcare

Healthcare in Dubai can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. There are now 28 hospitals in Dubai, 6 public and 22 private, with 3 more major hospitals scheduled to be built by 2025.NEWS,weblink UAE Expo 2020 bid in good health: Dubai gets new hospitals, 19 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623003659weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, By the end of 2012, there were also a total of 1,348 medical clinics, 97% of which are operated privately.WEB, Dubai Healthcare Overview,weblink Colliers, 22 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623013727weblink">weblink 23 June 2015, no, dmy-all, In 2015, Dubai phased in mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants, thereby leading to increased demand for medical services.NEWS, Dubai's mandatory health insurance law comes into force,weblink The National, 15 February 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150623010249weblink">weblink 23 June 2015,

Notable people

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Asia#United Arab Emirates .28UAE.29|l1=List of twin towns and sister cities in UAE}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Dubai is twinned with the following cities:{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Syed Ali. Dubai: Gilded Cage (Yale University Press; 2010) 240 pages. Focuses on the Arab emirate's treatment of foreign workers.
  • Heiko Schmid: Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Chicago as Themed Urban Landscapes, Berlin, Stuttgart 2009, {{ISBN|978-3-443-37014-5}}.
  • John M. Smith: Dubai The Maktoum Story, Norderstedt 2007, {{ISBN|3-8334-4660-9}}.

External links

{{Sister project links|Dubai}}
  • {{Wikivoyage-inline|Dubai}}
  • www.dubai.ae – The Official Portal of Dubai Government
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171017165519weblink">www.dm.gov.ae – Dubai Municipality website
{{Geographic location|Centre=Dubai|North =|Northeast=Sharjah (emirate)>Sharjah|Southeast=Abu Dhabi (emirate)>Abu Dhabi|Southwest=|West =|Northwest=Persian Gulf}}{{Dubai topics|state=collapsed}}{{Neighborhoods in Dubai}}{{Dubai landmarks}}{{Developments in Dubai}}{{Rulers of Dubai}}{{UAE cities}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}{{Use British English|date=September 2010}}{{Authority control}}

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