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West Side Story
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{{short description|Stage musical with a book by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim}}{{About|the stage musical|the 1961 film adaptation|West Side Story (1961 film)|the 2020 film adaptation|West Side Story (2020 film)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2013}}







factoids
West Side Story is a musical with book by Arthur Laurents, music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim.West Side Story, SondheimGuide.com, accessed October 15, 2016 It was inspired by William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet.The story is set in the Upper West Side neighborhood in New York City in the mid 1950s, an ethnic, blue-collar neighborhood (in the early 1960s, much of the neighborhood was cleared in an urban renewal project for Lincoln Center, which changed the neighborhood's character).Sarah Waxman. "The History of the Upper West Side", ny.com"About Lincoln Center", City Realty.com, accessed October 15, 2016 The musical explores the rivalry between the Jets and the Sharks, two teenage street gangs of different ethnic backgrounds. The members of the Sharks, from Puerto Rico, are taunted by the Jets, a white gang."'West Side Story'' plot and production listing", guidetomusicaltheatre.com, accessed August 18, 2011 The young protagonist, Tony, a former member of the Jets and best friend of the gang's leader, Riff, falls in love with Maria, the sister of Bernardo, the leader of the Sharks. The dark theme, sophisticated music, extended dance scenes, and focus on social problems marked a turning point in American musical theatre. Bernstein's score for the musical includes "Jet Song", "Something's Coming", "Maria", "Tonight", "America", "Cool", "One Hand, One Heart", "I Feel Pretty", "Somewhere", "Gee, Officer Krupke" and "A Boy Like That".The original 1957 Broadway production, conceived, directed and choreographed by Jerome Robbins and produced by Robert E. Griffith and Harold Prince, marked Sondheim's Broadway debut. It ran for 732 performances before going on tour. The production was nominated for six Tony Awards including Best Musical in 1957," West Side Story Broadway" IBDB.com, accessed October 15, 2016 but the award for Best Musical went to Meredith Willson's The Music Man. Robbins won the Tony Award for his choreography and Oliver Smith won for his scenic designs. The show had an even longer-running London production, a number of revivals and international productions. A 1961 musical film adaptation, directed by Robert Wise and Robbins, starred Natalie Wood, Richard Beymer, Rita Moreno, George Chakiris and Russ Tamblyn. The film was nominated for eleven Academy Awards and won ten, including George Chakiris for Supporting Actor, Rita Moreno for Supporting Actress, and Best Picture.

Background

File:I Feel Pretty from West Side Story 1957.JPG|thumb|275px|L-R: Elizabeth Taylor, Carmen Guitterez, Marilyn Cooper, and Carol Lawrence from the original Broadway cast sing "I Feel PrettyI Feel Pretty

Genesis

In 1947, Jerome Robbins approached Leonard Bernstein and Arthur Laurents about collaborating on a contemporary musical adaptation of Romeo and Juliet. He proposed that the plot focus on the conflict between an Irish Catholic family and a Jewish family living on the Lower East Side of Manhattan,Long, Robert Emmet. "West Side Story", Broadway, The Golden Years:Jerome Robbins and The Great Choreographer-Directors : 1940 to the present, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003, {{ISBN|0-8264-1462-1}}, p. 96 during the Easter–Passover season. The girl has survived the Holocaust and emigrated from Israel; the conflict was to be centered around anti-Semitism of the Catholic "Jets" towards the Jewish "Emeralds" (a name that made its way into the script as a reference).Information from a Leonard Bernstein.com {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120325072207weblink |date=March 25, 2012 }} Eager to write his first musical, Laurents immediately agreed. Bernstein wanted to present the material in operatic form, but Robbins and Laurents resisted the suggestion. They described the project as "lyric theater", and Laurents wrote a first draft he called East Side Story. Only after he completed it did the group realize it was little more than a musicalization of themes that had already been covered in plays like Abie's Irish Rose. When Robbins opted to drop out, the three men went their separate ways, and the piece was shelved for almost five years.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=329–330}}"Excerpts from Bernstein's West Side Log, see 1949 and 1955" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110917184804weblink |date=September 17, 2011 }}, WestSideStory.com, originally published in 1957, accessed August 18, 2011In 1955, theatrical producer Martin Gabel was working on a stage adaptation of the James M. Cain novel Serenade, about an opera singer who comes to the realization he is homosexual, and he invited Laurents to write the book. Laurents accepted and suggested Bernstein and Robbins join the creative team. Robbins felt if the three were going to join forces, they should return to East Side Story, and Bernstein agreed. Laurents, however, was committed to Gabel, who introduced him to the young composer/lyricist Stephen Sondheim. Sondheim auditioned by playing the score for Saturday Night, his musical that was scheduled to open in the fall. Laurents liked the lyrics but was not impressed with the music. Sondheim did not care for Laurents' opinion. Serenade ultimately was shelved.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|p=334}}Laurents was soon hired to write the screenplay for a remake of the 1934 Greta Garbo film The Painted Veil for Ava Gardner. While in Hollywood, he contacted Bernstein, who was in town conducting at the Hollywood Bowl. The two met at The Beverly Hills Hotel, and the conversation turned to juvenile delinquent gangs, a fairly recent social phenomenon that had received major coverage on the front pages of the morning newspapers due to a Chicano turf war. Bernstein suggested they rework East Side Story and set it in Los Angeles, but Laurents felt he was more familiar with Puerto Ricans in the United States and Harlem than he was with Mexican Americans and Olvera Street. The two contacted Robbins, who was enthusiastic about a musical with a Latin beat. He arrived in Hollywood to choreograph the dance sequences for The King and I, and he and Laurents began developing the musical while working on their respective projects, keeping in touch with Bernstein, who had returned to New York. When the producer of The Painted Veil replaced Gardner with Eleanor Parker and asked Laurents to revise his script with her in mind, he backed out of the film, freeing him to devote all his time to the stage musical.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=336–43}}

Collaboration and development

In New York City, Laurents went to the opening night party for a new play by Ugo Betti. There he met Sondheim, who had heard that East Side Story, now retitled West Side Story, was back on track. Bernstein had decided he needed to concentrate solely on the music, and he and Robbins had invited Betty Comden and Adolph Green to write the lyrics, but the team opted to work on Peter Pan instead. Laurents asked Sondheim if he would be interested in tackling the task. Initially he resisted, because he was determined to write the full score for his next project (Saturday Night had been aborted). But Oscar Hammerstein convinced him that he would benefit from the experience, and he accepted.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=346–47}} Meanwhile, Laurents had written a new draft of the book changing the characters' backgrounds: Anton, once an Irish American, was now of Polish and Irish descent, and the formerly Jewish Maria had become a Puerto Rican.Gottlieb, Jack (Guide and Commentary). "'West Side Story' Fact Sheet" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081201100213weblink |date=December 1, 2008 }}, WestSideStory.com, 2001, accessed August 18, 2011The original book Laurents wrote closely adhered to Romeo and Juliet, but the characters based on Rosaline and the parents of the doomed lovers were eliminated early on. Later the scenes related to Juliet's faking her death and committing suicide also were deleted. Language posed a problem; four-letter curse words were uncommon in the theater at the time, and slang expressions were avoided for fear they would be dated by the time the production opened. Laurents ultimately invented what sounded like real street talk but actually was not: "cut the frabba-jabba", for example.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|p=349}} Sondheim converted long passages of dialogue, and sometimes just a simple phrase like "A boy like that would kill your brother", into lyrics. With the help of Oscar Hammerstein, Laurents convinced Bernstein and Sondheim to move "One Hand, One Heart", which he considered too pristine for the balcony scene, to the scene set in the bridal shop, and as a result "Tonight" was written to replace it. Laurents felt that the building tension needed to be alleviated in order to increase the impact of the play's tragic outcome, so comic relief in the form of Officer Krupke was added to the second act. He was outvoted on other issues: he felt the lyrics to "America" and "I Feel Pretty" were too witty for the characters singing them, but they stayed in the score and proved to be audience favorites. Another song, "Kid Stuff", was added and quickly removed during the Washington, D.C. tryout when Laurents convinced the others it was helping tip the balance of the show into typical musical comedy.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=350–51}}Bernstein composed West Side Story and Candide concurrently, which led to some switches of material between the two works.Some of the music Bernstein wrote for West Side Story, but that was not used in the production, was later integrated into the Chichester Psalms. Tony and Maria's duet, "One Hand, One Heart", was originally intended for Cunegonde in Candide. The music of "Gee, Officer Krupke" was pulled from the Venice scene in Candide.Burton, Humphrey. "Leonard Bernstein by Humphrey Burton, Chapter 26" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081017184521weblink |date=October 17, 2008 }}, WestSideStory.com, 1994, accessed August 18, 2011. Laurents explained the style that the creative team finally decided on:}}The show was nearly complete in the fall of 1956, but almost everyone on the creative team needed to fulfill other commitments first. Robbins was involved with Bells Are Ringing, then Bernstein with Candide, and in January 1957 A Clearing in the Woods, Laurents' latest play, opened and quickly closed.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=351–52}} When a backers' audition failed to raise any money for West Side Story late in the spring of 1957, only two months before the show was to begin rehearsals, producer Cheryl Crawford pulled out of the project.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=326–28}} Every other producer had already turned down the show, deeming it too dark and depressing. Bernstein was despondent, but Sondheim convinced his friend Hal Prince, who was in Boston overseeing the out-of-town tryout of the new George Abbott musical New Girl in Town, to read the script. He liked it but decided to ask Abbott, his longtime mentor, for his opinion, and Abbott advised him to turn it down. Prince, aware that Abbott was the primary reason New Girl was in trouble, decided to ignore him, and he and his producing partner Robert Griffith flew to New York to hear the score.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|p=354}} In his memoirs, Prince recalled, "Sondheim and Bernstein sat at the piano playing through the music, and soon I was singing along with them."

Production period

File:Larry Kert as Tony West Side Story 1957.JPG|thumb|upright|Larry KertLarry Kert(File:Balcony scene West Side Story.JPG|thumb|upright|Kert and Lawrence in the balcony scene (1957))Prince began cutting the budget and raising money. Robbins then announced he did not want to choreograph the show, but changed his mind when Prince agreed to an eight-week dance rehearsal period (instead of the customary four), since there was to be more dancing in West Side Story than in any previous Broadway show, and allowed Robbins to hire Peter Gennaro as his assistant.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=354–56}} Originally, when considering the cast, Laurents wanted James Dean for the lead role of Tony, but the actor soon died. Sondheim found Larry Kert and Chita Rivera, who created the roles of Tony and Anita, respectively. Getting the work on stage was still not easy. Bernstein said:}}Throughout the rehearsal period, the New York newspapers were filled with articles about gang warfare, keeping the show's plot timely. Robbins kept the cast members playing the Sharks and the Jets separate in order to discourage them from socializing with each other and reminded everyone of the reality of gang violence by posting news stories on the bulletin board backstage.JOURNAL, Roberts, Terri, Winter 2003, West Side Story: 'We were all very young',weblink The Sondheim Review, 9, 3, 28–29, 1076-450X, Robbins wanted a gritty realism from his sneaker- and jeans-clad cast. He gave the ensemble more freedom than Broadway dancers had previously been given to interpret their roles, and the dancers were thrilled to be treated like actors instead of just choreographed bodies.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=357–58}} As the rehearsals wore on, Bernstein fought to keep his score together, as other members of the team called on him to cut out more and more of the sweeping or complex "operatic" passages. Columbia Records initially declined to record the cast album, saying the score was too depressing and too difficult.There were problems with Oliver Smith's designs. His painted backdrops were stunning, but the sets were, for the most part, either shabby looking or too stylized. Prince refused to spend money on new construction, and Smith was obliged to improve what he had as best he could with very little money to do it.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=360–61}} The pre-Broadway run in Washington, D.C. was a critical and commercial success, although none of the reviews mentioned Sondheim, listed as co-lyricist, who was overshadowed by the better-known Bernstein. Bernstein magnanimously removed his name as co-author of the lyrics, although Sondheim was uncertain he wanted to receive sole credit for what he considered to be overly florid contributions by Bernstein. Robbins demanded and received a "Conceived by" credit, and used it to justify his making major decisions regarding changes in the show without consulting the others. As a result, by opening night on Broadway, none of his collaborators were talking to him.{{sfn|Laurents|2000|pp=362–65}}It has been rumored that while Bernstein was off trying to fix the musical Candide, Sondheim wrote some of the music for West Side Story, and that Bernstein's co-lyricist billing mysteriously disappeared from the credits of West Side Story during the tryout, presumably as a trade-off.Suskin, Steven (1990). Opening Night on Broadway: A Critical Quotebook of the Golden Era of the Musical Theatre. New York: Schirmer Books, p. 697. {{ISBN|0-02-872625-1}}. However, Suskin writes in Show Tunes that "As the writing progressed and the extent of Bernstein's lyric contributions became less, the composer agreed to rescind his credit...Contrary to rumor, Sondheim did not write music for the show; his only contribution came on "Something's Coming", where he developed the main strain of the chorus from music Bernstein wrote for the verse.Suskin, Steven (2010). Show Tunes: The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadway's Major Composers (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press US, p. 206. {{ISBN|0-19-531407-7}}.)

Synopsis

Act 1

Two rival teenage gangs, the Jets (White Americans) and the Sharks (Puerto Rican Americans), struggle for control of their neighborhood on the Upper West Side of New York City (Prologue). They are warned by police officers Krupke and Lt. Schrank to stop fighting on their beat. The police chase the Sharks off, and then the Jets plan how they can assure their continued dominance of the street. The Jets' leader, Riff, suggests setting up a rumble with the Sharks. He plans to make the challenge to Bernardo, the Sharks' leader, that night at the neighborhood dance. Riff wants to convince his friend and former member of the Jets, Tony, to meet the Jets at the dance. Some of the Jets are unsure of his loyalty, but Riff is adamant that Tony is still one of them ("Jet Song"). Riff meets Tony while he's working at Doc's Drugstore to persuade him to come. Tony initially refuses, but Riff wins him over. Tony is convinced that something important is round the corner ("Something's Coming").Maria works in a bridal shop with Anita, the girlfriend of her brother, Bernardo. Maria has just arrived from Puerto Rico for her arranged marriage to Chino, a friend of Bernardo's. Maria confesses to Anita that she is not in love with Chino. Anita makes Maria a dress to wear to the neighborhood dance.File:The Shark girls extol the virtues of America.jpg|thumb|The Shark girls extol the virtues of "America" in Portland Center StagePortland Center StageAt the dance, after introductions, the teenagers begin to dance; soon a challenge dance is called ("Dance at the Gym"), during which Tony and Maria (who aren't taking part in the challenge dance) see each other across the room and are drawn to each other. They dance together, forgetting the tension in the room, and fall in love, but Bernardo pulls his sister from Tony and sends her home. Riff and Bernardo agree to meet for a War Council at Doc's, a drug store which is considered neutral ground, but meanwhile, an infatuated and happy Tony finds Maria's building and serenades her outside her bedroom ("Maria"). She appears on her fire escape, and the two profess their love for one another ("Tonight"). Meanwhile, Anita, Rosalia, and the other Shark girls discuss the differences between the territory of Puerto Rico and the mainland United States of America, with Anita defending America, and Rosalia yearning for Puerto Rico ("America").The Jets get antsy while waiting for the Sharks inside Doc's Drugstore. Riff helps them let out their aggression ("Cool"). The Sharks arrive to discuss weapons to use in the rumble. Tony suggests "a fair fight" (fists only), which the leaders agree to, despite the other members' protests. Bernardo believes that he will fight Tony, but must settle for fighting Diesel, Riff's second-in-command, instead. This is followed by a monologue by the ineffective Lt. Schrank trying to find out the location of the rumble. Tony tells Doc about Maria. Doc is worried for them while Tony is convinced that nothing can go wrong; he is in love.(File:The Rumble from West Side Story 1957.JPG|thumb|left|Tony stabs Bernardo in the 1957 Broadway production.)The next day, Maria is in a very happy mood at the bridal shop, as she anticipates seeing Tony again. However, she learns about the upcoming rumble from Anita and is dismayed. When Tony arrives, Maria asks him to stop the fight altogether, which he agrees to do. Before he goes, they dream of their wedding ("One Hand, One Heart"). Tony, Maria, Anita, Bernardo and the Sharks, and Riff and the Jets all anticipate the events to come that night ("Tonight Quintet"). The gangs meet under the highway and, as the fight between Bernardo and Diesel begins, Tony arrives and tries to stop it. Though Bernardo taunts and provokes Tony, ridiculing his attempt to make peace, Tony keeps his composure. When Bernardo pushes Tony, Riff punches him in Tony's defense. The two draw their switchblades and get in a fight ("The Rumble"). Tony attempts to intervene, inadvertently leading to Riff being fatally stabbed by Bernardo. Tony kills Bernardo in a fit of rage, which in turn provokes an all-out fight like the fight in the Prologue. The sound of approaching police sirens is heard, and everyone scatters, except Tony, who stands in shock at what he has done. The tomboy Anybodys, who stubbornly wishes that she could become a Jet, tells Tony to flee from the scene at the last moment and flees with the knives. Only the bodies of Riff and Bernardo remain.{{clear|left}}

Act 2

File:Tony&MariaWestSideStory.jpg|thumb|150px|Tony (Justin Gordon) and Maria (Erica Racz) in a Pacific Repertory TheatrePacific Repertory TheatreBlissfully unaware of the gangs' plans for that night, Maria daydreams with her friends, Rosalia, Consuelo, Teresita and Francisca, about seeing Tony ("I Feel Pretty"). Later, as Maria dances on the roof happily because she has seen Tony and believes he went to stop the rumble, Chino brings the news that Tony has killed Bernardo. Maria flees to her bedroom, praying that Chino is lying. Tony arrives to see Maria and she initially pounds on his chest with rage, but she still loves him. They plan to run away together. As the walls of Maria's bedroom disappear, they find themselves in a dreamlike world of peace ("Somewhere").Two of the Jets, A-Rab and Baby John, are set on by Officer Krupke, but they manage to escape him. They meet the rest of the gang. To cheer themselves up, they lampoon Officer Krupke, and the other adults who don't understand them ("Gee, Officer Krupke"). Anybodys arrives and tells the Jets she has been spying on the Puerto Ricans; she has discovered that Chino is looking for Tony with a gun. The gang separates to find Tony. Action has taken charge; he accepts Anybodys into the Jets and includes her in the search.A grieving Anita arrives at Maria's apartment. As Tony leaves, he tells Maria to meet him at Doc's so they can run away to the country. In spite of her attempts to conceal it, Anita sees that Tony has been with Maria, and launches an angry tirade against him ("A Boy Like That"). Maria counters by telling Anita how powerful love is ("I Have a Love"), and Anita realizes that Maria loves Tony as much as she had loved Bernardo. She admits that Chino has a gun and is looking for Tony. Lt. Schrank arrives to question Maria about her brother's death, and Anita agrees to go to Doc's to tell Tony to wait. Unfortunately, the Jets, who have found Tony, have congregated at Doc's, and they taunt Anita with racist slurs and eventually simulate rape. Doc arrives and stops them. Anita is furious, and in anger spitefully delivers the wrong message, telling the Jets that Chino has shot Maria dead.Doc relates the news to Tony, who has been dreaming of heading to the countryside to have children with Maria. Feeling there is no longer anything to live for, Tony leaves to find Chino, begging for him to shoot him as well. Just as Tony sees Maria alive, Chino arrives and shoots Tony. The Jets, Sharks, and adults flock around the lovers. Maria holds Tony in her arms (and sings a quiet, brief reprise of "Somewhere") as he dies. Angry at the death of another friend, the Jets move towards the Sharks but Maria takes Chino's gun and tells everyone that "all of [them]" killed Tony and the others because of their hate for each other, and, "Now I can kill too, because now I have hate!" she yells. However, she is unable to bring herself to fire the gun and drops it, crying in grief. Gradually, all the members of both gangs assemble on either side of Tony's body, showing that the feud is over. The Jets and Sharks form a procession, and together carry Tony away, with Maria the last one in the procession.

Characters

(File:Gee Officer Krupke West Side Story.JPG|thumb|275px|"Gee, Officer Krupke" sung by the Jets, original Broadway cast (1957) ){{col-begin}}The Jets
  • Riff, the leader
  • Tony, Riff's best friend
  • Diesel (Ice in film), Riff's lieutenant
  • Action, A-Rab, Baby John, Big Deal, Gee-Tar, Mouthpiece, Snowboy, Tiger and Anybodys
The Jet Girls
  • Velma, Riff's girlfriend
  • Graziella, Diesel's girlfriend
  • Minnie, Clarice and Pauline
The Sharks
  • Bernardo, the leader
  • Chino, his best friend
  • Pepe, second-in-command
  • Indio, Luis, Anxious, Nibbles, Juano, Toro and Moose
The Shark Girls
  • Maria, Bernardo's sister
  • Anita, Bernardo's girlfriend
  • Rosalia, Consuelo, Teresita, Francisca, Estella and Marguerita
The Adults
  • Doc, owner of the local drugstore/soda shop.
  • Schrank, racist local police lieutenant.
  • Krupke, neighborhood cop and Schrank's right hand man.
  • Glad Hand, well meaning social worker in charge of the dance.
{{col-end}}

Casts{| class"wikitable" style"width:10; text-align:center;"

! style="width:10%;" | Character! style="width:10%;" | Original Broadway Cast 1957! style="width:10%;" | Original West End 1958! style="width:10%;" | Broadway Revival 1980! style="width:10%;" | Broadway Revival 2009! Tony Larry Kert Don McKay Ken Marshall Matt Cavenaugh! Maria Carol Lawrence Marlys Watters Josie de Guzman Josefina Scaglione! Riff Michael Callan George Chakiris James J. Mellon Cody Green! Bernardo Ken LeRoy Héctor Jaime Mercado George Akram! Anita Chita Rivera Debbie Allen Karen Olivo! Lt. Schrank Arch Johnson Ted Gunther Arch Johnson Steve Bassett! Doc Art Smith David Bauer Sammy Smith Greg Vinkler! Krupke William Bramley Hal Galili John Bentley Lee Sellars

Musical numbers

{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}

Act 1

  • "Prologue" – Orchestra, danced by Jets & Sharks
  • "Sharks Lament"- Bernardo & Sharks
  • "Jet Song" – Riff & Jets
  • "Something's Coming" – Tony
  • "The Dance at the Gym" – Jets & Sharks
  • "Maria" – Tony
  • "Tonight" – Tony & Maria
  • "America" – Anita, Rosalia, & Shark Girls
  • "Cool" – Riff & Jets
  • "One Hand, One Heart" – Tony & Maria
  • "Tonight (Quintet & Chorus)" – Company
  • "The Rumble" – Orchestra, danced by Riff, Bernardo, Sharks & Jets
{{col-break}}

Act 2

  • "I Feel Pretty" – Maria, Rosalia, Estella, & Consuelo
  • "What Now"- Pepe, Chino, Sharks
  • "Somewhere" – Consuelo, danced by Company
  • "Gee, Officer Krupke" – Action, Snowboy & Jets
  • "A Boy Like That" – Anita & Maria
  • "I Have a Love" – Anita & Maria
  • "Finale" – Company
{{col-end}}Notes
  • In the 1964 and 1980 revivals, "Somewhere" was sung by Francisca rather than Consuelo.
  • In the 2009 revival, "Cool" was performed by Riff, the Jets, and the Jet Girls. "I Feel Pretty" was sung in Spanish as "" and "A Boy Like That" was sung in Spanish as "". "Somewhere" was sung by Kiddo, a young Jet.

Productions

Original Broadway production

After tryouts in Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia beginning in August 1957, the original Broadway production opened at the Winter Garden Theatre on September 26, 1957, to positive reviews. The production was directed and choreographed by Jerome Robbins, orchestrated by Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal, and produced by Robert E. Griffith and Harold Prince, with lighting designed by Jean Rosenthal. The cast starred Larry Kert as Tony, Carol Lawrence as Maria, Chita Rivera as Anita and David Winters as Baby John.West Side Story, Playbill (vault), accessed November 30, 2016 The other notable cast members in the original production were: Riff: Michael Callan, A-Rab: Tony Mordente, Big Deal: Martin Charnin, Gee-Tar: Tommy Abbott, Chino: Jamie Sanchez, Rosalia: Marilyn Cooper, Consuela{{sic}}: Reri Grist and Doc: Art Smith."West Side Story – Cast", Playbill (vault), accessed November 30, 2016 The production closed on June 27, 1959, after 732 performances. Robbins won the Tony Award for Best Choreographer, and Oliver Smith won the Tony for Best Scenic Designer. Also nominated were Carol Lawrence as Best Actress in a Supporting Role in a Musical, Max Goberman as Best Musical Director and Conductor, and Irene Sharaff for Best Costume Design. Carol Lawrence received the 1958 Theatre World Award.The production's national tour was launched on July 1, 1959, in Denver and then played in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Detroit, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Boston. It returned to the Winter Garden Theater in New York in April 1960 for another 249 performance engagement, closing in December.West Side Story, Internet Broadway Database, accessed November 30, 2016

UK productions

A 1958 production at the Manchester Opera House transferred to London, where it opened at Her Majesty's Theatre in the West End on December 12, 1958, and ran until June 1961 with a total of 1,039 performances. Robbins directed and choreographed, and it was co-choreographed by Peter Gennaro, with scenery by Oliver Smith. Featured performers were George Chakiris, who won an Academy Award as Bernardo in the 1961 film version, as Riff, Marlys Watters as Maria, Don McKay as Tony, and Chita Rivera reprising her Broadway role as Anita."'West Side Story' London Production, 1958", Broadwayworld.com, accessed August 18, 2011 David Holliday, who had been playing Gladhand since the London opening, took over as Tony.A 1984 London production originated at Leicester Haymarket Theatre and transferred on May 16, 1984 to Her Majesty’s Theatre. It closed September 28, 1985. The 1980 Broadway production was recreated by Tom Abbott. The cast starred Steven Pacey as Tony and Jan Hartley as Maria. Maxine Gordon was Anybodys.Hutchins, Michael H. "The Sondheim Reference Guide: West Side Story Productions", SondheimGuide.com, accessed June 13, 2018A UK national tour started in 1997 and starred David Habbin as Tony, Katie Knight Adams as Maria and Anna-Jane Casey as Anita. The production transferred to London's West End opening at the Prince Edward Theatre in October 1998, transferring to the Prince of Wales Theatre where it closed in January 2000. The production subsequently toured the UK for a second time.albemarle-london "Archive Page, 'West Side Story'" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081207084319weblink |date=December 7, 2008 }}, albemarle-london.com, accessed August 18, 2011

1980 Broadway revival

A Broadway revival opened at the Minskoff Theatre on February 14, 1980 and closed on November 30, 1980, after 333 performances. It was directed and choreographed by Robbins, with the book scenes co-directed by Gerald Freedman; produced by Gladys Nederlander and Tom Abbott and Lee Becker Theodore assisted the choreography reproduction.WEB, West Side Story,weblink The Playbill Vault, Playbill, May 24, 2018, The original scenic, lighting, and costume designs were used. It starred Ken Marshall as Tony, Josie de Guzman as Maria and Debbie Allen as Anita. Both de Guzman and Allen received Tony Award nominations as Best Featured Actress in a Musical, and the musical was nominated as Best Reproduction (Play or Musical). Allen won the Drama Desk Award as Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical. Other notable cast members in the revival included Brent Barrett as Diesel, Harolyn Blackwell as Francisca, Stephen Bogardus as Mouth Piece and Reed Jones as Big Deal.The Minskoff production subsequently opened the Nervi Festival in Genoa, Italy, in July 1981 with Josie de Guzman as Maria and Brent Barrett as Tony.Tedeschi, Rubens (9 July 1981). "Broadway s'addice ai «guerrieri della notte»" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140426201912weblink |date=April 26, 2014 }}, l'Unità. Retrieved 26 April 2014 {{it}}.

2009 Broadway revival

In 2007, Arthur Laurents stated, "I've come up with a way of doing [West Side Story] that will make it absolutely contemporary without changing a word or a note."Riedel, Michael. "Director's Cut – At 90, Playwright Still Vibrant, Vicious", New York Post, July 27, 2007, p. 55 He directed a pre-Broadway production of West Side Story at the National Theatre in Washington, D.C. that ran from December 15, 2008, through January 17, 2009. The Broadway revival began previews at the Palace Theatre on February 23, 2009, and opened on March 19, 2009.Gans, Andrew. "Laurents-Directed West Side Story Sets Broadway Preview Date" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080526170256weblink |date=May 26, 2008 }}, Playbill.com, May 23, 2008Gans, Andrew and Jones, Kenneth. "West Side Story Revival, Directed by Laurents, Sets Broadway Opening Date" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080809124436weblink |date=August 9, 2008 }}, Playbill.com, August 8, 2008 The production wove Spanish lyrics and dialogue into the English libretto. The translations are by Tony Award winner Lin-Manuel Miranda. Laurents stated, "The musical theatre and cultural conventions of 1957 made it next to impossible for the characters to have authenticity. Every member of both gangs was always a potential killer even then. Now they actually will be. Only Tony and Maria try to live in a different world".Jones, Kenneth. "West Side Story, This Time with Bilingual Approach" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080907052633weblink |date=September 7, 2008 }}, Playbill.com, July 16, 2008Gans, Andrew and Jones, Kenneth. "Broadway-Bound West Side Story Revival Launches" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081218033401weblink |date=December 18, 2008 }}, Playbill.com, December 15, 2008NEWS, Marks, Peter,weblink The Director's Route Back To 'West Side{{'-, | work = The Washington Post | date = December 14, 2008}} In August 2009, some of the lyrics for "A Boy Like That" ("Un Hombre Asi") and "I Feel Pretty" ("Me Siento Hermosa"), which were previously sung in Spanish in the revival, were changed back to the original English. However, the Spanish lyrics sung by the Sharks in the "Tonight" (Quintet) remained in Spanish.Gans, Andrew. "A Song Like That: Collaborators Reconsider Spanish Lyrics in 'West Side Story'" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090828011523weblink |date=August 28, 2009 }}, Playbill.com, August 25, 2009The cast featured Matt Cavenaugh as Tony, Josefina Scaglione as Maria and Karen Olivo as Anita.Gans, Andrew. "Cavenaugh, Scaglione, Olivo, Green and Akram to Lead Cast of 'West Side Story' Revival" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081101024832weblink |date=November 1, 2008 }}, Playbill.com, October 28, 2008 Olivo won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress, while Scaglione was nominated for the award for Leading Actress.Jones, Kenneth. "Billy Elliot, Norman Conquests, Hair, God of Carnage Are Tony Award Winners" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090612021316weblink |date=June 12, 2009 }}, Playbill.com, June 8, 2009Gans, Andrew and Jones, Kenneth. "Nominations for 2009 Tony Awards Announced; Billy Elliot Earns 15 Nominations" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090508055902weblink |date=May 8, 2009 }}, Playbill.com, May 5, 2009 The cast recording won the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album.Jones, Kenneth. "West Side Story Cast Album Wins Grammy Award", Playbill, January 31, 2010, accessed October 7, 2018 In July 2010, the producers reduced the size of the orchestra, replacing five musicians with an off-stage synthesizer.NEWS, Woodiel, Paul, Gee, Officer Krupke, I Need Those Violins, The New York Times, July 10, 2010,weblink December 17, 2010, The production closed on January 2, 2011 after 748 performances and 27 previews.Gans, Andrew. Broadway "Revival of West Side Story to Close in January; Olivo Will Not Return" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100918223037weblink |date=September 18, 2010 }}, Playbill.com, September 15, 2010 The revival sold 1,074,462 tickets on Broadway over the course of nearly two years."Cumulative Broadway Grosses by Show" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110917084820weblink |date=September 17, 2011 }}, Broadwayworld.com, accessed August 18, 2011

2019 Broadway revival

A Broadway revival of West Side Story is scheduled to begin previews on December 10, 2019, and officially open on February 6, 2020, at The Broadway Theatre.Rooney, David. "West Side Story Broadway Revival Cast Unveiled", The Hollywood Reporter, July 10, 2019 It is set to be directed by Ivo van Hove, with choreography by Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker.NEWS, McPhee, Ryan, West Side Story Will Return to Broadway, Directed by Ivo van Hove,weblink July 12, 2018, Playbill, March 25, 2019, It is being produced by Scott Rudin, Barry Diller and David Geffen. The cast is set to include Shereen Pimentel as Maria, Isaac Cole Powell as Tony, Amar Ramasar as Bernardo, Thomas Jay Ryan as Lt. Schrank, Yesenia Ayala as Anita and Ben Cook as Riff; the latter two are also set to appear in the upcoming film remake. Scenic and lighting design are by Jan Versweyveld, with costumes by An d'Huys.

Other notable US productions and tours

The New York City Center Light Opera Company production played for a limited engagement of 31 performances from April 8, 1964 to May 3, 1964. The cast featured Don McKay (Tony), Julia Migenes (Maria) and Luba Lisa (Anita). It was staged by Gerald Freedman with choreography re-mounted by Tom Abbott."West Side Story, 1964" Playbill vault, retrieved May 17, 2018 The Musical Theater of Lincoln Center and Richard Rodgers production opened at the New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, in June 1968 and closed in September 1968 after 89 performances. Direction and choreography were reproduced by Lee Theodore, and scenery was by Oliver Smith. Tony was played by Kurt Peterson, with Victoria Mallory as Maria.WEB,weblink West Side Story: Birth of a Classic, www.loc.gov, March 30, 2017, A 1987 U.S. tour starred Jack Wagner as Tony, with Valarie Pettiford as Anita and was directed by Alan Johnson.NEWS, Frank, Leah,weblink Theater Review; 'West Side Story': Staging At Its Best, The New York Times, August 30, 1987, A national tour, directed by Alan Johnson, was produced in 2002.Information from the WestSideStory.com "2002 West Side Story tour archives" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081229193102weblink |date=December 29, 2008 }}, Westsidestory.com A national tour of the 2009 Broadway revival began in October 2010 at the Fisher Theatre in Detroit, Michigan, and toured for two seasons.Gans, Andrew. " 'West Side Story' National Tour to Launch in October" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100312015015weblink |date=March 12, 2010}}, Playbill, February 5, 2010WEB,weblink Ross Lekites, Evy Ortiz Join Cast of West Side Story National Tour, Broadwayworld.com, October 3, 2011, February 4, 2012, ; and WEB,weblink Photo Flash: New Cast Joins West Side Story National Tour!, Broadwayworld.com, October 28, 2011, February 4, 2012, The cast featured Kyle Harris as Tony and Ali Ewoldt as Maria."Grammy Award-Winning Smash Hit 'West Side Story' Launches National Tour at Detroit's Fisher Theatre" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110708094816weblink |date=July 8, 2011 }}, broadwayindetroit.com, September 16, 2010, accessed August 18, 2011The musical has also been adapted to be performed as Deaf Side Story using both English and American Sign Language, with deaf Sharks and hearing Jets.Mark Rigney. Deaf Side Story: Deaf Sharks, Hearing Jets, and a Classic American Musical. Book description

International productions

The original Australian production opened in October 1960 at the Princess Theatre in Melbourne, before touring to the Tivoli Theatre in Sydney in February 1961. Subsequent Australian tours have been staged in 1983, 1994, 2010 and 2019.WEB,weblink AusStage – West Side Story, www.ausstage.edu.au, 2017-09-21, James, Erin. ''West Side Story in 2019", Aussietheatre.com.au, July 20, 2018, accessed September 20, 2019In 1961, a tour of Israel, Africa and the Near East was mounted. In February 1962, the West End (H. M. Tennent) production launched a five-month Scandinavian tour opening in Copenhagen, continuing to Oslo, Gothenburg, Stockholm and Helsinki. Robert Jeffrey took over from David Holliday as Tony and Jill Martin played Maria. In 1977, Amor Sin Barreras was produced in Mexico City by Alfonso Rosas Prigo, & Ruben Boido, Direction by Ruben Boido, presented at the Hidalgo Theater. Gualberto Castro played the part of Tony; Maria Medina was Maria, among other cast members was Macaria. From 1982–1984 a tour of South America, Israel and Europe was mounted with talent from New York. The Director/Choreographers for that production were Jay Norman and Lee Theodore, veterans of the original Broadway cast. The Japanese Takarazuka Revue has performed the show twice. It was produced by the Moon Troupe in 1998 and again in 1999 by the Star Troupe. A Hong Kong production was produced in 2000 with Cantonese lyrics, featuring Hong Kong rock star Paul Wong as Tony. It was staged at the outdoor plaza of Hong Kong Cultural Centre. Canada's Stratford Shakespeare Festival performed West Side Story in 1999, starring Tyley Ross as Tony and Ma-Anne Dionisio as Maria, and again in 2009,NEWS,weblink Toronto, The Star, Richard, Ouzounian, This Story achieves greatness, June 8, 2009, The Austrian Bregenz Festival presented West Side Story in a German translation by Marcel Prawy in 2003 and 2004, directed by Francesca Zambello, followed by a German tour."West Side Story News, Bregenz Festival" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110805051830weblink |date=August 5, 2011 }}, westsidestory.com, accessed August 18, 2011 A French language adaptation, translated by Philippe Gobeille, opened in Montreal, Quebec, in March 2008.Information about the translation (in French only) westsidestory08.com, {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080926180941weblink |date=September 26, 2008 }} A Philippine version played in 2008 at the Meralco Theater. It featured Christian Bautista as Tony, Karylle and Joanna Ampil as Maria."West Side Story at the Meralco Theater this September" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080905065700weblink |date=September 5, 2008 }}, Thefilipinoweb, July 2, 2008, accessed August 18, 2011An international tour (2005–2010), directed and choreographed by Joey McKneely played in Tokyo, Paris, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Singapore, São Paulo, France, Taiwan, China, Italy, Rotterdam and Madrid.NEWS, Lash, Larry,weblink West Side Story, Variety, November 12, 2007, August 17, 2008, Loveridge, Lizzie. " 'West Side Story' 50th Anniversary Production", Curtain Up, August 1, 2008, accessed August 17, 2008 The Novosibirsk Globus Theatre staged the musical in Russia in 2007 under the leadership of conductor Keith Clark, a former pupil of Bernstein's, who also conducted the 2010 Moscow production.NEWS, New West Side Story Debuts in Moscow, The Moscow Times, June 30, 2010, In 2011, a Lima production was produced by "Preludio Asociación Cultural" with Marco Zunino as Tony, Rossana Fernández-Maldonado as Maria, Jesús Neyra as Bernardo, Tati Alcántara as Anita and Joaquín de Orbegoso as Riff.Marco Zunino y Rossana Fernández Maldonado protagonizan Amor sin barreras La República Perú, accessed June 1, 2011

Critical reaction

The creators' innovations in dance, music and theatrical style drew enthusiastic reactions from the critics. Walter Kerr wrote in the New York Herald Tribune on September 27, 1957:NEWS, Kerr, Walter,weblink {{-', West Side Story{{'-}} | work = New York Herald Tribune | date = September 27, 1957 | access-date = August 19, 2011 | archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110926222813weblink">weblink | archive-date = September 26, 2011 | url-status = dead | df = mdy-all }}The other reviews generally joined in speculation about how the new work would influence the course of musical theater. Typical was John Chapman's review in the New York Daily News on September 27, 1957, headed: "West Side Story a Splendid and Super-Modern Musical Drama".Time magazine found the dance and gang warfare more compelling than the love story and noted that the show's "putting choreography foremost, may prove a milestone in musical-drama history"."Theater: New Musical in Manhattan (West Side Story)", Time, October 7, 1957 One writer noted: "The story appealed to society's undercurrent of rebellion from authority that surfaced in 1950s films like Rebel Without a Cause. ... Robbins' energetic choreography and Bernstein's grand score accentuated the satiric, hard-edged lyrics of Sondheim, and Laurents' capture of the angry voice of urban youth. The play was criticized for glamorizing gangs, and its portrayal of Puerto Ricans and lack of authentic Latin casting were weaknesses.WEB, Gianoulis, Tina,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120710084133weblink">weblink dead, July 10, 2012, West Side Story, St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture, January 29, 2002, August 19, 2011, Yet, the same writer commented, the song "America" shows the triumph of the spirit over the obstacles often faced by immigrants. The musical also made points in its description of troubled youth and the devastating effects of poverty and racism. Juvenile delinquency is seen as an ailment of society: "No one wants a fella with a social disease!" The writer concluded: "On the cusp of the 1960s, American society, still recovering from the enormous upheaval of World War II, was seeking stability and control."

Score

Bernstein’s score for West Side Story blends "jazz, Latin rhythms, symphonic sweep and musical-comedy conventions in groundbreaking ways for Broadway."Misha Berson, Misha. "60-plus years later, West Side Story endures and thrives, including a new production at 5th Avenue Theatre", The Seattle Times, May 24, 2019 It was orchestrated by Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal following detailed instructions from Bernstein, who then wrote revisions on their manuscript (the original, heavily annotated by Ramin, Kostal and Bernstein himself is in the Rare Books and Manuscripts Library at Columbia University).See Simeone, Nigel (2009) "Leonard Bernstein: West Side Story", pp. 85–92: 'Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal: Orchestrating the Show' Ramin, Kostal and Bernstein are billed as orchestrators for the show. The original orchestra consisted of 31 players: a large Broadway pit orchestra enhanced to include 5 percussionists, a guitarist and a piano/celesta player.BOOK, Simeone, Nigel, Leonard Bernstein, West Side Story, 2009, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 0754664848, In 1961, Bernstein prepared a suite of orchestral music from the show, titled Symphonic Dances from West Side Story. It consists of nine movements: Prologue (Allegro Moderato), "Somewhere" (Adagio), Scherzo (Vivace e Leggiero), Mambo (Meno Presto), Cha-Cha (Andantino Con Grazia), Meeting Scene (Meno Mosso), "Cool", Fugue (Allegretto), Rumble (Molto Allegro), Finale (Adagio). The suite is included as bonus tracks on the 1957 original Broadway cast recording.

Analysis of the book

{{expand section|date=May 2019}}As in Romeo and Juliet, the love between members of two rival groups in West Side Story leads to violent confrontations "and a tragic ending with an underlying message: Violence breeds violence, so make peace and learn to share turf." Among the social themes explored in the musical are "bigotry, cultural misunderstanding and the social failure to fully integrate and empower young people in constructive ways."

Recordings

{{refimprove|section|date=September 2017}}Recordings of West Side Story include the following:

Films

{{Further|West Side Story (1961 film)}}The 1961 film adaptation of the musical received praise from critics and the public, and became the second highest-grossing film of the year in the United States. The film won ten Academy Awards in its eleven nominated categories, including Best Picture. It received the most Academy Awards (10 wins) of any musical film, including Best Picture. Rita Moreno (Anita) was the first Latina actress ever to win an Oscar.BOOK, Tatum, Charles M., Encyclopedia of Latino Culture: From Calaveras to Quinceañeras, 2014, ABC-CLIO, 1440800995, 741,weblink 24 December 2017, The soundtrack album won a Grammy Award and was ranked No. 1 on the Billboard chart for a record 54 weeks.{{sfn|Berson|2011|p=182}} Differences in the film from the stage version include that "Tonight" is moved to follow "America", and Bernardo sings a line in "America" instead of Rosalia, with changes in the lyrics. Diesel is renamed Ice. "Gee, Officer Krupke" is moved before "Cool" and is sung by Riff instead of Action, and "Cool" is sung by Ice instead of Riff. After Riff is killed, Ice takes control of the Jets, rather than Action.{{sfn|Berson|2011|p=155 et. seq}}{{Further|West Side Story (2020 film)}}A 2020 film adaptation, written by Tony Kushner, directed by Steven Spielberg and choreographed by Justin Peck, began production in 2019.WEB,weblink West Side Story: First Look at the Jets & The Sharks In Steven Spielberg’s Musical Update, Wiseman, Andreas, June 17, 2019, Deadline, June 17, 2019, WEB,weblink 'West Side Story' Remake For Steven Spielberg In Works At Fox – Deadline, Mike Fleming Jr, Deadline Hollywood, Penske Media Corporation, Penske Business Media, LLC, Kushner plans to keep the story closer to the original Broadway musical than the 1961 film, stating that "[T]here are aspects of urban life in ‘57, ‘58, ‘59 that weren’t touched on in the 1961 movie that we are focusing on."NEWS, Chi, Paul, Steven Spielberg’s West Side Story Will Go Back to Basics,weblink November 15, 2018, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, Condé Nast, October 23, 2018, Ansel Elgort has been cast as Tony, and Rachel Zegler has been cast as Maria.NEWS,weblink West Side Story: High school student cast as Maria in Spielberg remake, January 15, 2019, BBC, February 2, 2019, WEB,weblink West Side Story remake finds its Maria, CNN, Lisa Respers France, CNN, 2019-01-15,

References in popular culture

The television show Curb Your Enthusiasm extensively referenced West Side Story in the season seven episode "Officer Krupke"."Curb Your Enthusiasm, Season 7, Episode 68, 'Officer Krupke'", HBO.com, accessed August 19, 2011 In the third season of the series Glee, three episodes feature characters auditioning, rehearsing and performing a school production of West Side Story.Futterman, Erica. "Glee Recap: West Side Story Auditions and the Return of Shelby Corcoran", Rolling Stone, September 28, 2011, accessed October 4, 2016Cerasaro, Pat. "World Premiere Exclusive: Glee Takes On West Side Story's 'Something's Coming' With Darren Criss", BroadwayWorld.com, September 26, 2011, accessed October 4, 2016In film, Pixar animator Aaron Hartline used the first meeting between Tony and Maria as inspiration for the moment when Ken meets Barbie in Toy Story 3.Hartline, Aaron. "Ken meets Barbie – A Toy Side Story", aaronhartline.blogspot.com (blog), accessed August 19, 2011 The 2005 short musical comedy film West Bank Story, which won the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film, concerns a love story between a Jew and a Palestinian and parodies several aspects of West Side Story.Norris, Michele. "West Bank Story Tells Tale of Star-Crossed Lovers", NPR, February 26, 2007, accessed October 15, 2017In 1963, the magazine Mad published "East Side Story" which was set at the United Nations building on the East Side of Manhattan, a parody of the Cold War, with the two rival gangs led by John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev, by writer Frank Jacobs and illustrator Mort Drucker.Cohen, Randy. "Children of Mad: Completely Mad", Los Angeles Times, December 1, 1991, accessed January 26, 2017 From 1973 to 2004, Wild Side Story, a camp parody musical, based loosely on West Side Story and adapting parts of the musical's music and lyrics, was performed a total of more than 500 times in Miami Beach, Florida, Stockholm, Gran Canaria and Los Angeles. The show lampoons the musical's tragic love story, and also lip-synching and drag shows.Ekemar, Kim. "Wild Side Story at Showcase Alexandra's Stockholm", theatre playbill, January 6, 1976, p. 8; Stevens, Rob. "West Side Story Goes Wild", Data Boy Pacific Southwest, West Hollywood, California, October 26, 1979, p. 76; Kearns, Michael. "L.A. Life Talk of the Town", San Diego Update, November 30, 1979, p. 13; Norlén, Eva. "Åtta handplockade artister lovar en helvild kväll", Aftonbladet, July 21, 1997, p. 37; "Wild Side Story at Anfi del Mar", Island Connections, Los Cristianos, April 7, 2000, p. 2; Romanus, Linda. "Wild side story till gamla stan", Tidningen Södermalm, Stockholm, July 24, 2000, p. 22; and City of Stockholm Visitor's Board, "Don't Miss Wild Side Story in English", What's On weekly, July, 2004, p. 12

Awards and nominations

">

Original Broadway production{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%;"

! style="width:5%;"| Year! style="width:20%;" | Award ceremony! style="width:45%;"| Category! style="width:20%;"| Nominee! style="width:10%;"| Result 1958 Theatre World Award| Carol Lawrence| {{won}} Tony Award Best Musical| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical>Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Role in a Musical| Carol Lawrence| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Choreography>Best Choreography| Jerome Robbins| {{won}}Tony Award for Best Scenic Design>Best Scenic DesignOliver Smith (designer)>Oliver Smith| {{won}}Tony Award for Best Costume Design>Best Costume Design| Irene Sharaff| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Conductor and Musical Director>Best Conductor and Musical Director| Max Goberman| {{nom}}">

1964 Broadway revival{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%;"

! style="width:5%;"| Year! style="width:20%;" | Award ceremony! style="width:45%;"| Category! style="width:20%;"| Nominee! style="width:10%;"| Result 1964 Tony AwardTony Award>Best Producer of a MusicalNew York City Center>City Center Light Opera Company| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Conductor and Musical Director>Best Conductor and Musical Director| Charles Jaffe| {{nom}}">

1980 Broadway revival{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%;"

! style="width:5%;"| Year! style="width:20%;" | Award ceremony! style="width:45%;"| Category! style="width:20%;"| Nominee! style="width:10%;"| Result 1980| Drama Desk AwardDrama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical>Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical| Debbie Allen| {{won}} Tony Award Best Revival| {{nom}} Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Role in a Musical| Josie de Guzman| {{nom}}| Debbie Allen| {{nom}}">

2008 West End revival{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%;"

! style="width:5%;"| Year! style="width:20%;" | Award ceremony! style="width:45%;"| Category! style="width:20%;"| Nominee! style="width:10%;"| Result 2009 Laurence Olivier Award Best Musical Revival| {{nom}}Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Musical>Best Actress in a Musical| Sofia Escobar| {{nom}}">

2009 Broadway revival{| class"wikitable" style"width:95%;"

! style="width:5%;"| Year! style="width:20%;" | Award ceremony! style="width:45%;"| Category! style="width:20%;"| Nominee! style="width:10%;"| Result 2009 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical>Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role in a Musical| Josefina Scaglione| {{nom}}Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical>Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Role in a Musical| Karen Olivo| {{won}}Tony Award for Best Lighting Design>Best Lighting Design| Howell Binkley| {{nom}} Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical| {{nom}}Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical>Outstanding Featured Actress in a Musical| Karen Olivo| {{nom}} Theatre World Award| Josefina Scaglione| {{won}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Laurents, Arthur, Original story by: a memoir of Broadway and Hollywood, 2000, Knopf, New York, 0-375-40055-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Berson, Misha, Misha Berson, Something's Coming, Something Good: West Side Story and the American Imagination, 2011, Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, 9781557837660, harv,

Further reading

  • Acevedo-Munoz, Ernesto R. (2013) "West Side Story" as Cinema: The Making and Impact of an American Masterpiece, University Press of Kansas
  • Bauch, Marc A. (2013) Europäische Einflüsse im amerikanischen Musical, Marburg, Germany: Tectum Verlag, {{ISBN|978-3-8288-3209-1}}
  • BOOK, Laurents, Arthur, Arthur Laurents, Mainly on directing: Gypsy, West Side Story, and other musicals, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2009, 978-0-307-27088-7,weblink
  • Simeone, Nigel (2009) Leonard Bernstein: West Side Story, Ashgate, Farnham, {{ISBN|0-7546-6484-8}}
  • Vaill, A. (2006) Somewhere: The Life of Jerome Robbins, Broadway Books, New York, {{ISBN|0-7679-0420-6}}
  • Wells, Elizabeth A. (2010) West Side Story: Cultural Perspectives on an American Musical, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, {{ISBN|978-0-8108-7666-8}}
  • Williams, Mary E. (editor) (2001) Readings on West Side Story, Greenhaven Press, San Diego, California, {{ISBN|0-7377-0694-5}}

External links

{{commons category|West Side Story}} {{Romeo and Juliet}}{{West Side Story}}{{Stephen Sondheim}}{{Arthur Laurents}}{{Leonard Bernstein}}{{Authority control}}

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