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Greta Garbo
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{{short description|Swedish-American actress}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2013}}







factoids
| birth_place = Stockholm, Swedendf=yes04190518}}| death_place = New York City, U.S| resting_place = Skogskyrkogården Cemetery,Stockholm| years active = 1920–1941| occupation = Actresswww.gretagarbo.com}}| signature = File:Garbo_signature.jpg}}Greta Garbo{{efn|{{IPA-sv|²ɡreːta ˈɡarːbʊ|-|sv-Greta Garbo.ogg}}}} (born Greta Lovisa Gustafsson;{{efn|{{IPA-sv|²ɡreːta lʊ²viːsa ²ɡɵsːtafˌsɔn|pron}}}} 18 September 1905 – 15 April 1990) was a Swedish-American film actress during the 1920s and 1930s. Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress, and received an Academy Honorary Award in 1954 for her "luminous and unforgettable screen performances". In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Garbo fifth on their list of the greatest female stars of classic Hollywood cinema.Garbo launched her career with a secondary role in the 1924 Swedish film The Saga of Gösta Berling. Her performance caught the attention of Louis B. Mayer, chief executive of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), who brought her to Hollywood in 1925. She immediately stirred interest with her first American silent film, Torrent (1926); her performance in Flesh and the Devil (1927), her third motion picture, made her an international star.{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=38}}Garbo's first talking film was Anna Christie (1930). MGM marketers enticed the public with the tagline "Garbo talks!". That same year, she starred in Romance. For her performances in these films, she received the first of three Academy Award nominations for Best Actress. (Academy rules at the time allowed for a performer to receive a single nomination for their work in more than one film.)WEB,weblink Session Timeout – Academy Awards® Database – AMPAS, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131103052915weblink">weblink 3 November 2013, dmy-all, In 1932, her success allowed her to dictate the terms of her contract, and she became increasingly selective about her roles. She continued in films such as Mata Hari (1931), Grand Hotel (1932), and Queen Christina (1933). Many critics and film historians consider her performance as the doomed courtesan Marguerite Gautier in Camille (1936) to be her finest. The role gained her a second Academy Award nomination. However, Garbo's career soon declined, and she was one of the many stars labeled "box office poison" in 1938. Her career revived upon her turn to comedy in Ninotchka (1939), which earned her a third Academy Award nomination, but after the failure of Two-Faced Woman (1941), she retired from the screen, at the age of 35, after acting in twenty-eight films.From then on, Garbo declined all opportunities to return to the screen. Shunning publicity, she led a private life. Garbo also became an art collector in her later life; her collection, including works from painters such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pierre Bonnard, and Kees van Dongen,WEB,weblink Garbo's Collection and a van Gogh Are to Be Sold, Reif, Rita, The New York Times, July 19, 1990, October 11, 2015, was worth millions of dollars when she died.

Childhood and youth

File:Greta Garbo, Södermalm.JPG|thumb|200px|Monument on the building which now stands where Greta Garbo was born on SödermalmSödermalmGreta Lovisa Gustafsson was born in Södermalm, Stockholm, Sweden. She was the third, and youngest, child of Anna Lovisa (née Johansson, 1872–1944), a housewife who later worked at a jam factory, and Karl Alfred Gustafsson (1871–1920), a laborer. Garbo had an older brother, Sven Alfred (1898–1967), and an older sister, Alva Maria (1903–1926).Her parents met in Stockholm, where her father had been visiting from Frinnaryd. He moved to Stockholm to become independent, and worked in various odd jobs—street cleaner, grocer, factory worker, and butcher's assistant.{{sfn|Souhami|1994|p=64}} He married Anna, who had recently moved from Högsby."Karl Alfred Gustafsson" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120420061300weblink |date=20 April 2012 }}. Retrieved 7 December 2010.{{sfn|Bainbridge|1955b|p=76}} The Gustafssons were impoverished and lived in a three-bedroom cold-water flat at Blekingegatan No. 32. They brought up their three children in a working-class district regarded as the city's slum. Garbo would later recall:Garbo was a shy daydreamer as a child.BOOK, Liberty,weblink 4 August 2010, 1974, Liberty Library Corporation, 27–31 & 54–57, {{Dead link|date=August 2011}} She hated school,NEWS, Life (magazine), Life, 8 November 1937, After Twelve Years Greta Garbo Wants to Go Home to Sweden, 81,weblink 4 August 2011, and preferred to play alone. Yet, she was an imaginative child and a natural leader{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=25}} who became interested in theatre at an early age. She directed her friends in make-believe games and performances,{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=26}} and dreamed of becoming an actress. Later, she would participate in amateur theatre with her friends and frequent the Mosebacke Theatre.BOOK, Jean Lacouture, Greta Garbo: La Dame aux Caméras,weblink 6 August 2010, 1999, Liana Levi, Paris, French, 978-2-86746-214-6, 22, At the age of 13, Garbo graduated from school,BOOK, Robert Payne, The Great Garbo,weblink 4 August 2010, November 1976, W. H. Allen, London, 978-0-491-01538-7, 22, In June 1919, she left school, and never returned., and, typical of a Swedish working-class girl at that time, she did not attend high school. She later acknowledged a resulting inferiority complex.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=32}}In the winter of 1919, the Spanish flu spread throughout Stockholm, and Garbo's father, to whom she was very close, became ill. He began missing work, and eventually lost his job.BOOK, James Robert, Parish, The Hollywood Book of Extravagance: The Totally Infamous, Mostly Disastrous, and Always Compelling Excesses of America's Film and TV Idols,weblink 4 August 2010, 4 August 2007, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 978-0-470-05205-1, 76, Garbo stayed at home, looking after him and taking him to the hospital for weekly treatments. He died in 1920, when she was 14 years old.{{sfn|Bainbridge|1955b|p=76}}{{sfn|NYTimes|1990}}

Career

Beginnings (1920–1924)

Garbo first worked as a soap-lather girl in a barber's shop, but eventually, on the advice of her friends, she applied for, and accepted, a position in the PUB department store, running errands and working in the millinery department. Before long, she began modeling hats for the store's catalogues, which led to a more lucrative job as a fashion model.{{sfn|Swensen|1997|p=36}} In late 1920, a director of film commercials for the store began casting Garbo in roles advertising women's clothing. Her first commercial premiered on 12 December 1920, and was followed by others the following year."Herrskapet Stockholm ute på inköp (1920)" The Swedish Film Database, Swedish Film Institute. Retrieved 3 April 2012. {{sv}} Thus began Garbo's cinematic career. In 1922, Garbo caught the attention of director Erik Arthur Petschler, who gave her a part in his short comedy, Peter the Tramp.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=34}}File:Greta Garbo in Gösta Berlings Saga 1924 cropped.jpg|left|thumb|Garbo in her first leading role in the Swedish film The Saga of Gösta Berling (1924) with Lars HansonLars HansonFrom 1922 to 1924, she studied at the Royal Dramatic Theatre's Acting School in Stockholm. She was recruited in 1924 by the Finnish director Mauritz Stiller to play a principal part in his film The Saga of Gösta Berling, a dramatization of the famous novel by Nobel Prize winner Selma Lagerlöf, which also featured the actor Lars Hanson. Stiller became her mentor, training her as a film actress and managing all aspects of her nascent career.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=54–61}} She followed her role in Gösta Berling with a starring role in the German film Die freudlose Gasse (Joyless Street or The Street of Sorrow, 1925), directed by G. W. Pabst and co-starring Asta Nielsen.{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=67–69}}Accounts differ on the circumstances of her first contract with Louis B. Mayer, at that time vice president and general manager of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Victor Seastrom, a respected Swedish director at MGM, was a friend of Stiller and encouraged Mayer to meet him on a trip to Berlin. There are two recent versions of what happened next. In one,{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=72–74}} Mayer, always looking for new talent, had done his research and was interested in Stiller. He made an offer, but Stiller demanded that Garbo be part of any contract, convinced that she would be an asset to his career. Mayer balked, but eventually agreed to a private viewing of Gösta Berling. He was immediately struck by Garbo's magnetism and became more interested in her than in Stiller. "It was her eyes", his daughter recalled him saying, "I can make a star out of her." In the second version,{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=80–83}} Mayer had already seen Gösta Berling before his Berlin trip, and Garbo, not Stiller, was his primary interest. On the way to the screening, Mayer said to his daughter: "This director is wonderful, but what we really ought to look at is the girl... The girl, look at the girl!" After the screening, his daughter reported, he was unwavering: "I'll take her without him. I'll take her with him. Number one is the girl."{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=9}}

Silent film stardom (1925–1929)

(File:Portrait photograph of Greta Garbo, 1925.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Portrait photograph of Greta Garbo, 1925)In 1925, Garbo, who was unable to speak English, was brought over from Sweden at the request of Mayer. Both Garbo and Stiller arrived in New York in July 1925, after a 10-day trip on the SS Drottningholm.WEB,weblink Greta Garbo's War on Hollywood, Scott, Reisfeld, September 2007, Scanorama, 8 February 2015, But they remained in New York for more than six months without any word from MGM. They decided to travel to Los Angeles on their own, but another five weeks passed with no contact from the studio.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=84}}{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=85}} On the verge of returning to Sweden, she wrote to her boyfriend back home: "You're quite right when you think I don't feel at home here... Oh, you lovely little Sweden, I promise that when I return to you, my sad face will smile as never before."Sands, Frederick. The Divine Garbo, Grosset & Dunlap (1979) pp. 69–73A Swedish friend in Los Angeles helped out by contacting MGM production boss Irving Thalberg, who agreed to give Garbo a screen test. According to author Frederick Sands, "the result of the test was electrifying. Thalberg was impressed and began grooming the young actress the following day, arranging to fix her teeth, making sure she lost weight, and giving her English lessons."During her rise to stardom, film historian Mark Vieira notes, "Thalberg decreed that henceforth, Garbo would play a young, but worldly wise, woman."Vieira, Mark A. (2010). Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince, Univ. of California Press. pp. 70–71 However, according to Thalberg's actress wife, Norma Shearer, Garbo did not necessarily agree with his ideas:Although she expected to work with Stiller on her first film, she was cast in Torrent (1926), an adaptation of a novel by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, with director Monta Bell. She replaced Aileen Pringle, 10 years her senior, and played a peasant girl turned singer, opposite Ricardo Cortez. Torrent was a hit, and, despite its cool reception by the trade press, Garbo's performance was well received.File:Flesh and the Devil with John Gilbert.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Garbo in Flesh and the Devil (1926) with John Gilbert ]]The reception of Garbo's first American film led Thalberg to cast her in a similar role in The Temptress (1926), based on another Ibáñez novel. After only one film, she was given top billing, playing opposite Antonio Moreno. Her mentor Stiller, who had persuaded her to take the part, was assigned to direct. For both Garbo (who did not want to play another vamp and did not like the script any more than she did the first one) and Stiller, The Temptress was a harrowing experience. Stiller, who spoke little English, had difficulty adapting to the studio system and did not get on with Moreno, was fired by Thalberg and replaced by Fred Niblo. Re-shooting The Temptress was expensive, and even though it became one of the top-grossing films of the 1926–1927 season, it was the only Garbo film of the period to lose money. However, Garbo received rave reviews, and MGM had a new star.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=108}}File:Garbo - Gilbert - publicity.jpg|thumb|right|Garbo with John Gilbert in A Woman of AffairsA Woman of AffairsAfter her lightning ascent, Garbo made eight more silent films, and all were hits.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=568–70}} She starred in three of them with the leading man John Gilbert.{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=124–25}} About their first movie, Flesh and the Devil (1926), silent film expert Kevin Brownlow states that "she gave a more erotic performance than Hollywood had ever seen".VIDEO, Garbo, 2005, Brownlow, Kevin, Kevin Brownlow, Turner Classic Movies, Television production, 13:00–14:00, Their on-screen chemistry soon translated into an off-camera romance, and by the end of the production, they began living together.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=121}} The film also marked a turning point in Garbo's career. Vieira wrote: "Audiences were mesmerized by her beauty and titillated by her love scenes with Gilbert. She was a sensation."{{sfn|Vieira|2009|p=69}} Profits from her third movie with Gilbert, A Woman of Affairs (1928), catapulted her to top Metro star of the 1928–1929 box office season, usurping the long-reigned silent queen Lillian Gish.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=193}} In 1929, reviewer Pierre de Rohan wrote in the New York Telegraph: "She has glamour and fascination for both sexes which have never been equaled on the screen."{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=220}}The impact of Garbo's acting and screen presence quickly established her reputation as one of Hollywood's greatest actresses. Film historian and critic David Denby argues that Garbo introduced a subtlety of expression to the art of silent acting, and that its effect on audiences cannot be exaggerated. She "lowers her head to look calculating or flutters her lips", he says. "Her face darkens with a slight tightening around the eyes and mouth; she registers a passing idea with a contraction of her brows or a drooping of her lids. Worlds turned on her movements."JOURNAL, The Artists,weblink 27 February 2012, David, Denby, David Denby (film critic), The New Yorker, 74–78, 20 October 2012, 0028-792X, During this period, Garbo began to require unusual conditions during the shooting of her scenes. She prohibited visitors—including the studio brass—from her sets, and demanded that black flats or screens surround her to prevent extras and technicians from watching her. When asked about these eccentric requirements, she said: "If I am by myself, my face will do things I cannot do with it otherwise."{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=301–20}}Despite her status as a star of silent films,{{Sfn|Crafton|1999|pp=495–96|ps=, "In December 1929, according to the volume of Photoplay fan mail â€¦ Garbo remained the leading female star."}} the studio feared that her Swedish accent might impair her work in sound, and delayed the shift for as long as possible.{{Sfn|Crafton|1999|p=295}} MGM itself was the last Hollywood studio to convert to sound,{{Sfn|Crafton|1999|pp=206–07}} and Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (1929), was also the studio's.{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=100}} Despite the fears, Garbo became one of the biggest box-office draws of the next decade.

Transition to sound, and continued success (1930–1939)

File:Greta Garbo in a publicity image for "Anna Christie".jpg|thumb|190px|"Garbo talks!" in Anna Christie (1930)]]In late 1929, MGM cast Garbo in Anna Christie (1930), a film adaptation of the 1922 play by Eugene O'Neill, her first speaking role. The screenplay was adapted by Frances Marion, and the film was produced by Irving Thalberg and Paul Bern. Sixteen minutes into the film, she famously utters her first line, "Gimme a whiskey, ginger ale on the side, and don't be stingy, baby." The film premiered in New York City on 21 February 1930, publicized with the catchphrase "Garbo talks!", and was the highest-grossing film of the year.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=111}} Garbo received her first Academy Award for Best Actress nomination for her performance, although she lost to MGM colleague Norma Shearer. Her nomination that year included her performance in Romance (1930). After filming ended, Garbo—along with a different director and cast—filmed a German-language version of Anna Christie that was released in December 1930.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=570}} The film's success certified Garbo's successful transition to talkies. In her follow-up film, Romance (1930), she portrayed an Italian opera star, opposite Lewis Stone. She was paired opposite Robert Montgomery in Inspiration (1931), and her profile was used to boost the career of the relatively unknown Clark Gable in Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) (1931). Although the films did not match Garbo's success with her sound debut, she was ranked as the most popular female star in the United States in 1930 and 1931.Garbo followed with two of her best-remembered roles. She played the World War I German spy in the lavish production of Mata Hari (1931), opposite Ramón Novarro. When the film was released, it "caused panic, with police reserves required to keep the waiting mob in order".{{Sfn|qtd in Swenson|1997|p=266}} The following year, she played a Russian ballerina in Grand Hotel (1932), opposite an ensemble cast, including John Barrymore, Joan Crawford, and Wallace Beery, among others. The film won that year's Academy Award for Best Picture. Both films had been MGM's highest-earning films of 1931 and 1932, respectively, and Garbo was dubbed "the greatest money-making machine ever put on screen".{{sfn|NYTimes|1990}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=244}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=284}}{{Inflation-fn|US}}Garbo's close friend Mercedes de Acosta then penned a screenplay for her to portray Joan of Arc,{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=269–70}} but MGM rebuffed the idea, and the project was shelved. After appearing in As You Desire Me (1932), the first of three films in which Garbo starred opposite Melvyn Douglas, her MGM contract expired, and she returned to Sweden.{{multiple image|direction=vertical|align=left|image1=Greta Garbo - Karenina.jpg|caption1=Garbo and Fredric March in Anna Karenina (1935)|width1 = 200|image2=Garbo & Taylor - Camille 1936.jpg|caption2=Garbo and Robert Taylor in Camille (1936)|width2=200}}After nearly a year of negotiations, Garbo agreed to renew her contract with MGM on the condition that she would star in Queen Christina (1933), and her salary would be increased to $300,000 per film. The film's screenplay had been written by Viertel, and although MGM had been reluctant to make the movie, they relented at Garbo's insistence. For her leading man, MGM suggested Charles Boyer or Laurence Olivier, but Garbo rejected both, preferring her former co-star and lover, John Gilbert. The studio balked at the idea of casting Gilbert, fearing his declining career would hurt the film's box-office, but Garbo prevailed.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=183}}{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=181}}Queen Christina was a lavish production, becoming one of the studio's biggest productions at the time. Publicized as "Garbo returns", the film premiered in December 1933 to positive reviews and box-office triumph, and became the highest-grossing film of the year. The movie, however, met with controversy upon its release; censors objected to the scenes in which Garbo disguised herself as a man and kissed a female co-star.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=572–73}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=316}}Although her domestic popularity was undiminished in the early 1930s, high profits for Garbo's films after Queen Christina depended on the foreign market for their success.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=572–73}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=316}} The type of historical and melodramatic films she began to make on the advice of Viertel were highly successful abroad, but considerably less so in the United States. In the midst of the Great Depression, American screen audiences seemed to favor "home-grown" screen couples, such as Clark Gable and Jean Harlow.David O. Selznick wanted to cast Garbo as the dying heiress in Dark Victory (eventually released in 1939 with other leads), but she chose Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina (1935), in which she played another of her renowned roles.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|pp=207–10}} Her performance won her the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress. The film was successful in international markets, and had better domestic rentals than MGM anticipated.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=172, 571}} Still, its profit was significantly diminished because of Garbo's exorbitant salary.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=216}} Garbo selected George Cukor's romantic drama Camille (1936) as her next project. Thalberg cast her opposite Robert Taylor and former co-star, Lionel Barrymore. Cukor carefully crafted Garbo's portrayal of Marguerite Gautier, a lower-class woman, who becomes the world-renowned mistress Camille. Production was marred, however, by the sudden death of Thalberg, then only thirty-seven, which plunged the Hollywood studios into a "state of profound shock", writes David Bret.{{rp|272}} Garbo had grown close to Thalberg and his wife, Norma Shearer, and had often dropped by their house unannounced. Her grief for Thalberg, some believe, was more profound than for John Gilbert, who died earlier that same year.Bret, David. Greta Garbo: Divine Star, Robson Press (2012){{rp|272}} His death also added to the sombre mood required for the closing scenes of Camille. When the film premiered in New York on 12 December 1936, it became an international success, Garbo's first major success in three years. She won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress for her performance, and she was nominated once more for an Academy Award.File:Modern Screen 1937 Conquest.jpg|thumb|220px|right|Garbo and Charles Boyer in Conquest (1937)]]Garbo's follow-up project was Clarence Brown's lavish production of Conquest (1937), opposite Charles Boyer. The plot was the dramatized romance between Napoleon and Marie Walewska. It was MGM's biggest and most-publicized movie of its year, but upon its release, it lost more than $1 million at the box-office, becoming one of the studio's biggest failures of the decade.{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=316}} Garbo's popularity had declined, and when her contract expired soon thereafter, she returned briefly to Sweden. On 3 May 1938, Garbo was among the many stars—including Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, Luise Rainer, Katharine Hepburn, Mae West, Marlene Dietrich, Fred Astaire, and Dolores del Río, among others—dubbed to be "Box Office Poison" in an article published by Harry Brandt on behalf of the Independent Theatre Owners of America.File:Douglas-Ninotchka.jpg|left|thumb|170px|Garbo and Melvyn Douglas in a scene from NinotchkaNinotchkaAfter the box-office failure of Conquest, MGM decided a change of pace was needed to resurrect Garbo's career. For her next movie, the studio teamed her with producer-director Ernst Lubitsch to film Ninotchka (1939), her first comedy. The film was one of the first Hollywood movies which, under the cover of a satirical, light romance, depicted the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin as being rigid and gray when compared to its pre-war years. Ninotchka premiered in October 1939, publicized with the catchphrase "Garbo laughs!", commenting on the departure of Garbo's serious and melancholy image as she transferred to comedy. Favoured by critics and box-office success in the United States and abroad, it was banned in the Soviet Union.

Last work, and early retirement (1941–1948)

File:twofaced woman.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Garbo and Melvyn DouglasMelvyn DouglasWith George Cukor's Two-Faced Woman (1941), MGM attempted to capitalize on Garbo's success in Ninotchka by re-teaming her with Melvyn Douglas in another romantic comedy which sought to transform her into a chic, modern woman. She played a "double" role that featured her dancing the rhumba, swimming, and skiing. The film was a critical failure, but, contrary to popular belief, it performed reasonably well at the box office.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=573}} Garbo referred to the film as "my grave".{{sfn|Bainbridge|1955c|p=129}} Two-Faced Woman was her last film; she was thirty-six, and had made twenty-eight feature films in 16 years.Although Garbo was humiliated by the negative reviews of Two-Faced Woman, she did not intend to retire at first.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=381}}{{Sfn|Vieira|1994|p=267}} But her films depended on the European market, and when it fell through because of the war, finding a vehicle was problematic for MGM.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=268}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=281}} Garbo signed a one-picture deal in 1942 to make The Girl from Leningrad, but the project quickly dissolved.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=268}} She still thought she would continue when the war was over,{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=268}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=383}} though she was ambivalent and indecisive about returning to the screen. Salka Viertel, Garbo's close friend and collaborator, said in 1945: "Greta is impatient to work. But on the other side, she's afraid of it."{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=270}} Garbo also worried about her age. "Time leaves traces on our small faces and bodies. It's not the same anymore, being able to pull it off."{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=270}} George Cukor, director of Two-Faced Woman, and often blamed for its failure, said: "People often glibly say that the failure of Two-Faced Woman finished Garbo's career. That's a grotesque over-simplification. It certainly threw her, but I think that what really happened was that she just gave up. She didn't want to go on."{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=383}}Still, Garbo signed a contract in 1948 with producer Walter Wanger, who had produced Queen Christina, to shoot a picture based on Balzac's La Duchesse de Langeais. Max Ophüls was slated to adapt and direct. She made several screen tests, learned the script, and arrived in Rome in the summer of 1949 to shoot the picture. However, the financing failed to materialize, and the project was abandoned.{{sfn|Bainbridge|1955c|p=130}} The screen tests—the last time Garbo stepped in front of a movie camera—were thought to have been lost for 41 years until they were re-discovered in 1990 by film historians Leonard Maltin and Jeanine Basinger.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=426}} Parts of the footage were included in the 2005 TCM documentary Garbo.In 1949, she was offered the role of fictional silent-film star Norma Desmond in Sunset Boulevard. However, after a meeting with film producer Charles Brackett, she insisted that she had no interest in the part whatsoever.WEB, Susman, Gary, 'Sunset Blvd.': 15 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About the Hollywood Classic,weblink moviefone, moviefone, 25 February 2019, She was offered many roles both in the 1940s and throughout her retirement years, but rejected all but a few of them. In the few instances when she did accept them, the slightest problem led her to drop out.{{Sfn|Vieira|2005|p=271}} Although she refused to talk to friends about her reasons for retiring throughout her life, four years before her death, she told Swedish biographer Sven Broman: "I was tired of Hollywood. I did not like my work. There were many days when I had to force myself to go to the studio... I really wanted to live another life."{{Sfn|Broman|1990|p=271}}

Public persona

From the early days of her career, Garbo avoided industry social functions, preferring to spend her time alone or with friends. She never signed autographs or answered fan mail, and rarely gave interviews.{{sfn|Bainbridge|1955a|p=12}} Nor did she ever appear at Oscar ceremonies, even when she was nominated.{{Sfn|Krutzen|1992|p=46}} Her aversion to publicity and the press was undeniably genuine,{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=129, 156–57, 243}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=196}} and exasperating to the studio at first. In an interview in 1928, she explained that her desire for privacy began when she was a child, stating, "As early as I can remember, I have wanted to be alone. I detest crowds, don't like many people."Biery, April 1928Because Garbo was suspicious and mistrustful of the media, and often at odds with MGM executives, she spurned Hollywood's publicity rules. She was routinely referred to by the press as the "Swedish Sphinx". Her reticence and fear of strangers perpetuated the mystery and mystique that she projected both on screen and in real life. MGM eventually capitalized on it, for it bolstered the image of the silent and reclusive woman of mystery.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=179}}{{Sfn|Krutzen|1992|p=46}}{{Sfn|Swensen|1997|pp=196–97}} In spite of her strenuous efforts to avoid publicity, Garbo paradoxically became one of the twentieth century's most publicized women in the world.{{sfn|NYTimes|1990}}{{sfn|Barnes|1990}} She is closely associated with a line from Grand Hotel, one which the American Film Institute in 2005 voted the 30th-most memorable movie quote of all time,WEB, AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes,weblink 24 July 2010, "I want to be alone; I just want to be alone." The theme was a running gag that began during the period of her silent movies.{{Harvnb|NYTimes|1990}}. A declaration often attributed to her was, "I want to be alone." Actually, she said, "I want to be let alone."{{efn|For example, in Love (1927), a title card reads, "I like to be alone"; in The Single Standard (1929), her character says: "I am walking alone because I want to be alone"; in the same film, she sails to the South Seas with her lover on a boat called the All Alone; in Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise) (1931), she says to a suitor: "This time, I rise ... and fall ... alone"; in Inspiration (1931), she tells a fickle lover: "I just want to be alone for a little while"; in Mata Hari (1931), she says to her new amour: "I never look ahead. By next spring, I shall probably be ... quite alone." By the early 1930s, the motif had become indelibly linked to Garbo's public and private personae.BOOK, Fred R., Shapiro, The Yale Book of Quotations,weblink 24 July 2010, 2006, Yale University Press, New Haven, 978-0-300-10798-2, 299, It is lampooned in Ninotchka (1939) when emissaries from Russia ask her: "Do you want to be alone, comrade?" "No", she says bluntly. But about her private life, she later remarked: "I never said, 'I want to be alone'; I only said, 'I want to be let alone.' There is a world of difference."}}

Personal life

Retirement

In retirement, Garbo generally led a private life of simplicity and leisure. She made no public appearances and assiduously avoided the publicity which she loathed.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=5, 57, 156–58 passim}} As she had been during her Hollywood years, Garbo, with her innate need for solitude, was often reclusive. Contrary to myth, from the beginning she had many friends and acquaintances with whom she socialized and later traveled.{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=244, 508–09 passim}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994}} Occasionally, she jet-setted with well-known and wealthy personalities, striving to guard her privacy as she had during her career. (File:Greta Garbo in 1950.jpg|thumb|Garbo signing her US citizenship papers in 1950)Still, she often floundered about what to do and how to spend her time ("drifting" was the word she frequently used),{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=417, 445}} always struggling with her many eccentricities,{{Sfn|Paris|1994}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997}} and her life-long melancholy and moodiness.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=8–9, 107–08, 167, 329–30, 506–11 passim}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=87, 91, 115, 143 passim}} As she approached her sixtieth birthday, she told a frequent walking companion: "In a few days, it will be the anniversary of the sorrow that never leaves me, that will never leave me for the rest of my life."{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=526}} To another friend, she said, in 1971, "I suppose I suffer from very deep depression."{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=506}} One biographer claims that she arguably could have been bipolar. "I am very happy one moment, the next there is nothing left for me", she said in 1933.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=506}}Beginning in the 1940s, she became an art collector. Many of the paintings which she purchased were of negligible value, but she did buy paintings by Renoir, Rouault, Kandinsky, Bonnard,{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=426–27, 530}} and Jawlensky.{{sfn|Broman|1990|p=227}} Her art collection was worth millions when she died in 1990.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=344}}On 9 February 1951, she became a naturalized citizen of the United States,BOOK, Who's Who of American Women, 1983–1984,weblink 24 July 2010, December 1983, Marquis Who's Who, Berkeley Heights, NJ, 978-0-8379-0413-9, 279, and in 1953, she bought a seven-room apartment at 450 East 52nd Street in Manhattan, New York City,JOURNAL, Kalins Wise, Dorothy, Appraising the Most Expensive Apartment Houses in the City,weblink 24 July 2010, 20 May 1968, New York (magazine), New York, 1, 7, New York Media, 18, 0028-7369, Norman, McGrath, where she lived for the rest of her life.On 13 November 1963, just nine days before the Assassination of President Kennedy, Garbo was a dinner guest at the White House.BOOK, David, Pitts, Jack and Lem: John F. Kennedy and Lem Billings: The Untold Story of an Extraordinary Friendship, New York, Carroll & Graf, 2007, 205–06, 9780786719891,weblink 123539117, She spent the night at the Washington, D. C., home of philanthropist Florence Mahoney.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=468–69}}{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=519–20}} Garbo's niece Gray Reisfield told museum specialist James Wagner at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, quoted in a 2000 press release: "[Garbo] always spoke of it as a magical evening."WEB,weblink JFK's Missing "Tooth" Found, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum, 10 May 2000, 18 May 2019, Italian motion picture director Luchino Visconti allegedly attempted to bring Garbo back to the screen in 1969 with a small part, Maria Sophia, Queen of Naples, in his adaptation of Proust's Remembrance of Things Past. He exclaimed: "I am very pleased with the idea that this woman, with her severe and authoritarian presence, should figure in the decadent and rarefied climate of the world described by Proust."{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=460}} Claims that Garbo was interested in the part cannot be substantiated.{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=541}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=460}}In 1971, Garbo vacationed with her close friend Baroness Cécile de Rothschild at her summer home in Southern France.{{Sfn|Vickers|2002}} De Rothschild introduced her to Samuel Adams Green, an art collector and curator in New York.NEWS,weblink Sam Green – Obituary, The Daily Telegraph, 18 March 2011, 15 December 2012, Telegraph Media Group Limited, Green, who became an important friend and walking companion, was in the habit of tape-recording all of his telephone calls and, with Garbo's permission, recorded many of his conversations with her. In 1985, Garbo ended the friendship when she was falsely informed that Green had played the tapes to friends.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=526}} In his last will and testament, Green bequeathed all of the tapes in 2011 to the film archives at Wesleyan University.WEB,weblink Sam Green Obituary, warholstars.org, 15 December 2012, The tapes reveal Garbo's personality in later life, her sense of humor, and various eccentricities.Although she became increasingly withdrawn in her final years,{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=506–11}} over time, she became close to her cook and housekeeper, Claire Koger, who worked for her for 31 years. "We were very close—like sisters", the reticent Koger said.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=537–38}}Throughout her life, Garbo was known for taking long, daily walks with companions, or taking them by herself. In retirement, she walked the streets of New York City, dressed casually and wearing large sunglasses. "Garbo-watching" became a sport for photographers, the media, admirers, and curious New Yorkers,{{Sfn|Paris|1994|pp=495–505}} but she maintained her elusive mystique to the end.Garbo was a Lutheran.BOOK,weblink The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s, Kevin, Starr, 28 November 2002, Oxford University Press, Google Books, 326, 9780199923939,

Relationships

Garbo never married, had no children, and lived alone as an adult. Her most famous romance was with her frequent co-star John Gilbert, with whom she lived intermittently in 1926 and 1927.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=122–27, 129–35}} Soon after their romance began, Gilbert began helping her acting on the set, teaching her how to behave like a star, how to socialize at parties, and how to deal with studio bosses.Gross, Michael. New York magazine, "Garbo's Last Days", 21 May 1990, pp. 39–46 They co-starred again in three more hits: Love (1927), A Woman of Affairs (1928), and Queen Christina (1933). Gilbert allegedly proposed to her numerous times, with Garbo agreeing, but backing out at the last minute.{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=38}}{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=125}} "I was in love with him", she said. "But I froze. I was afraid he would tell me what to do and boss me. I always wanted to be the boss."In 1937, she met conductor Leopold Stokowski, with whom she had a highly publicized friendship or romance while traveling throughout Europe the following year.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=368–82}}{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=349–51, 353–55}} In his diary, Erich Maria Remarque discusses a liaison with Garbo in 1941,{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=414–15}} and in his memoir, Cecil Beaton described an affair with her in 1947 and 1948.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=457–60}}{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=404–09}} In 1941, she met the Russian-born millionaire, George Schlee, who was introduced to her by his wife, fashion designer Valentina. Nicholas Turner, Garbo's close friend for 33 years, said that, after she bought an apartment in the same building, "Garbo moved in and took Schlee from Valentina right away". Schlee would split his time between the two, becoming Garbo's close companion and advisor until his death in 1964.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=428–504}}{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=412–552}}Recent biographers and others believe that Garbo was bisexual or lesbian, that she had intimate relationships with women as well as men."Spirit of Garbo". Laramie, Moon (2018). Spirit of Garbo. London: Martin Firrell Company Ltd. {{ISBN|978-1-912622-02-3}}, p. 43.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=249}}{{Sfn|Vickers|1994}}{{sfn|Vieira|2005|pp=134–36 passim}}{{sfn|Schanke|2003|pp=103–13 passim}}NEWS, Daum, Raymond, The Private Garbo,weblink 9 October 2012, The New York Times, 7 May 1995, In 1927, Garbo was introduced to stage and screen actress Lilyan Tashman, and they may have had an affair, according to some writers.{{sfn|Paris|1994|pp=251–55}}{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=26}} Silent film star Louise Brooks stated that she and Garbo had a brief liaison the following year.BOOK, Louise Brooks: Portrait d'une anti star, 978-2-85940-012-5, Louise, Brooks, Louise Brooks, 1976, Phébus, Paris, Roland, Jaccard, French, Louise Brooks: Portrait of an Anti-star, In 1931, Garbo befriended the writer and acknowledged lesbian Mercedes de Acosta,BOOK, That Furious Lesbian: The Story of Mercedes de Acosta, 0-8093-2511-X, Robert, Schanke, 2003, Southern Illinois University Press, introduced to her by her close friend, Salka Viertel, and, according to Garbo's and de Acosta's biographers, began a sporadic and volatile romance. De Acosta was a theosophist interested in esoteric spirituality. According to biographer Moon Laramie, it was the relationship with de Acosta that first prompted Garbo's interest in the theosophical movement and the occult."Spirit of Garbo". Laramie, Moon (2018). Spirit of Garbo. London: Martin Firrell Company Ltd. {{ISBN|978-1-912622-02-3}}, p. 129-132.The two remained friends—with ups and downs—for almost 30 years, during which time Garbo wrote de Acosta 181 letters, cards, and telegrams, now at the Rosenbach Museum & Library in Philadelphia.{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|pp=381, 511}}{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=264}} Garbo's family, which controls her estate,{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=559}} has made only 87 of these items publicly available.NEWS, Smith, Dinitia, Letters Push Garbo Slightly Into View,weblink 7 May 2010, The New York Times, 18 April 2000, In 2005, Mimi Pollak's estate released 60 letters Garbo had written to her in their long correspondence. Several letters suggest she may have had romantic feelings for Pollak for many years. After learning of Pollak's pregnancy in 1930, for example, Garbo wrote "We cannot help our nature, as God has created it. But I have always thought you and I belonged together".NEWS, Lonely Garbo's love secret is exposed,weblink 10 September 2005, Alex Duval, Smith, The Observer, London, 17 November 2011, In 1975, she wrote a poem about not being able to touch the hand of her friend with whom she might have been walking through life.{{Sfn|Swenson|1997|p=542}}(File:Greta Garbo gravestone.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Gravestone of Greta Garbo)

Death

Garbo was successfully treated for breast cancer in 1984.{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=549}}GREG GIBSON>TITLE=IT TAKES A GENOME: HOW A CLASH BETWEEN OUR GENES AND MODERN LIFE IS MAKING US SICKACCESSDATE=24 JULY 2010PUBLISHER=FT PRESSISBN=978-0-13-713746-6QUOTE=THE LIST OF FAMOUS WOMEN WHO HAVE HAD BREAST CANCER..., Towards the end of her life, only Garbo's closest friends knew she was receiving dialysis treatments for six hours three times a week at The Rogosin Institute in New York Hospital. A photograph appeared in the media in early 1990, showing Koger assisting Garbo, who was walking with a cane, into the hospital.Greta Garbo died on 15 April 1990, aged 84, in the hospital, as a result of pneumonia and renal failure.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=541}} Daum later claimed that towards the end, she also suffered from gastrointestinal and periodontal ailments.Garbo was cremated in Manhattan, and her ashes were interred in 1999 at Skogskyrkogården Cemetery just south of her native Stockholm.BOOK, Becky Ohlsen, Stockholm,weblink 24 July 2010, 2004, Lonely Planet, Melbourne, 978-1-74104-172-9, 86, The Unesco World Heritage-listed graveyard Skogskyrkogården ... is also known as the final resting place of Hollywood actress Greta Garbo, Garbo had invested wisely, primarily in stocks and bonds, and left her entire estate, $32,042,429 ($61,887,978 by 2018 rates) to her niece, Gray Reisfield.{{Sfn|Paris|1994|p=540}}

Legacy

Garbo was an international star during the late silent era and the "Golden Age" of Hollywood who became a screen icon.{{sfn|Paris|1994|p=4}}{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=6}} For most of her career, she was the highest-paid actor or actress at MGM, making her for many years its "premier prestige star".{{sfn|Vieira|2005|p=7}}{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=406}} The April 1990 Washington Post obituary said that "at the peak of her popularity, she was a virtual cult figure".{{sfn|Barnes|1990}}Garbo possessed a subtlety and naturalism in her acting that set her apart from other actors and actresses of the period.Vance, Jeffrey (2005). The Mysterious Lady, The Garbo Silents Collection: Audio commentary, DVD; Disk 1/3. (TCM Archives.) About her work in silents, film critic Ty Burr said: "This was a new kind of actor—not the stage actor who had to play to the far seats, but someone who could just look and with her eyes literally go from rage to sorrow in just a close-up."VIDEO, Greta Garbo: A Lone Star, 2001, Cole, Steve (director), American Movie Classics, Television production, 10:57–11:07., Film historian Jeffrey Vance said that Garbo communicated her characters' innermost feelings through her movement, gestures, and, most importantly, her eyes. With the slightest movement of them, he argues, she subtly conveyed complex attitudes and feelings toward other characters and the truth of the situation. "She doesn't act", said Camille co-star Rex O'Malley, "she lives her roles."{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=357}} Director Clarence Brown, who made seven of Garbo's pictures, told an interviewer "Garbo has something behind the eyes that you couldn't see until you photographed it in close-up. You could see thought. If she had to look at one person with jealousy, and another with love, she didn't have to change her expression. You could see it in her eyes as she looked from one to the other. And nobody else has been able to do that on screen."NEWS, A Century After Her Birth, Greta Garbo's Allure Lives On,weblink Chicago Tribune, 27 October 2005, Swanson, Stevenson, 27 September 2013, Director George Sidney adds: "You could call it underplaying, but in underplaying, she overplayed everyone else."VIDEO, Greta Garbo: A Lone Star, 2001, Cole, Steve (director), American Movie Classics, Television production, 11:26–11:30., Many critics have said that few of Garbo's 24 Hollywood films are artistically exceptional, and that many are simply bad.{{sfn|Vieira|2005|pp=6–8}} It has been said, however, that her commanding and magnetic performances usually overcome the weaknesses of plot and dialogue.{{sfn|Vieira|2005|pp=6–8}}{{sfn|Barnes|1990}} As one biographer put it, "All moviegoers demanded of a Garbo production was Greta Garbo."{{sfn|Swenson|1997|p=282}}(File:Greta Garbo - 1936.jpg|thumb|In Camille (1936))She was portrayed by Betty Comden in the 1984 film Garbo Talks. The film concerns a dying Garbo fan (Anne Bancroft) whose last wish is to meet her idol. Her son (played by Ron Silver) sets about trying to get Garbo to visit his mother at the hospital.Garbo is the subject of several documentaries, including four made in the United States between 1990 and 2005:
  • The Divine Garbo (1990), TNT, produced by Ellen M. Krass and Susan F. Walker, narrated by Glenn CloseNEWS, Reviews/Television; A Life of Garbo, Mostly Through Films, John J., O'Connor, 3 December 1990, The New York Times,weblink 19 August 2011,
  • Greta Garbo: The Mysterious Lady (1998), Biography Channel, narrated by Peter GravesWEB, {{-', Biography' Greta Garbo: The Mysterious Lady|publisher=Internet Movie Database|url=https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0411067/combined|accessdate=6 August 2011}}
  • Greta Garbo: A Lone Star (2001), AMCNEWS, 'Garbo' Paints a Full Portrait of Star, Los Angeles Times, 4 September 2011, Steven, Linan,weblink 16 August 2011,
  • Garbo (2005), TCM, directed by Kevin Brownlow, narrated by Julie ChristieNEWS, TCM offers close-up of silent star Garbo, 6 September 2005, Associated Press,weblink 8 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120728122208weblink">weblink 28 July 2012, dmy-all,
{{Quotation|Garbo's contemporaries comment on the actress:Writer, journalist, and film historian Ephraim Katz: "Of all the stars who have ever fired the imaginations of audiences, none has quite projected a magnetism and a mystique equal to Garbo. 'The Divine', the 'dream princess of eternity', the 'Sarah Bernhardt of films', are only a few of the superlatives writers used in describing her over the years... She played heroines that were at once sensual and pure, superficial and profound, suffering and hopeful, world-weary and life-inspiring'".The Film Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Film and the Film IndustryBOOK, Ephraim, Katz, Ephraim Katz, The Film Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Film and the Film Industry, 1979, 1st, Thomas Y. Crowell Co, New York, 465, 978-0-690-01204-0, American film actress Bette Davis: "Her instinct, her mastery over the machine, was pure witchcraft. I cannot analyze this woman's acting. I only know that no one else so effectively worked in front of a camera." BOOK, Bette, Davis, The Lonely Life, 1990, 1962, Berkley Books, New York, 116, 978-0-425-12350-8, American and Mexican film actress Dolores del Río: "The most extraordinary woman (in art) that I have encountered in my life. It was as if she had diamonds in her bones and in her interior light struggled to come out through the pores of her skin." BOOK, Hall, Linda, Dolores del Río: Beauty in Light and Shade, 2013, Stanford University Press, 153, 9780804784078, American film director George Cukor: "She had a talent that few actresses or actors possess. In close-ups, she gave the impression, the illusion of great movement. She would move her head just a little bit, and the whole screen would come alive, like a strong breeze that made itself felt."BOOK, Robert Emmet, Long, George Cukor: Interviews, 2001, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Conversations with Filmmakers, 47, 978-1-57806-387-1, }}

Awards and honors

Garbo was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 1930, a performer could receive a single nomination for their work in more than one film. Garbo received her nomination for her work in both Anna Christie and for Romance.. TheBOOK, Matthew, Kennedy, Marie Dressler: A Biography, With a Listing of Major Stage Performances, a Filmography and a Discography,weblink 25 July 2010, 1999, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 978-0-7864-0520-6, 154, WEB, 1929–30 Academy Awards Winners and History,weblink 23 July 2010, For the first and only time in Academy history, multiple nominations were permitted for individual categories (notice that George Arliss defeated himself in the Best Actor category). [With a change of rules, this would be the last year in which performers could be nominated for roles in more than one film.], She lost out to Irving Thalberg's wife, Norma Shearer, who won for The Divorcee. In 1937, Garbo was nominated for Camille, but Luise Rainer won for The Good Earth. Finally, in 1939, Garbo was nominated for Ninotchka, but again came away empty-handed. Gone With the Wind swept the major awards, including Best Actress, which went to Vivien Leigh.BOOK, Emanuel, Levy, All about Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards,weblink 25 July 2010, 14 January 2003, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York, 978-0-8264-1452-6, 329, BOOK, James Robert, Parish, Don E., Stanke, The Debonairs,weblink 25 July 2010, 1975, Arlington House, New Rochelle, NY, 978-0-87000-293-9, 95, In 1954, however, she was awarded an Academy Honorary Award "for her luminous and unforgettable screen performances".WEB, The Official Academy Awards Database,weblink 13 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090208011732weblink">weblink 8 February 2009, dmy-all, Predictably, Garbo did not show up at the ceremony, and the statuette was mailed to her home address.Garbo twice received the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress: for Anna Karenina in 1935, and for Camille in 1936. She won the National Board of Review Best Acting Award for Camille in 1936; for Ninotchka in 1939; and for Two-Faced Woman in 1941. The Swedish royal medal Litteris et Artibus, which is awarded to people who have made important contributions to culture (especially music, dramatic art, or literature) was presented to Garbo in January 1937.NEWS,weblink 24 July 2010, Time, 11 January 1937, In Council of State King Gustaf of Sweden decorated Cinemactress Greta Garbo with the nation's gold medal litteris et artibus, highest Swedish award for artistic achievement., People, Jan. 11, 1937, In a 1950 Daily Variety opinion poll, Garbo was voted "Best Actress of the Half Century",NEWS, Cinema: Best of the Half-Century,weblink 14 July 2010, Time, 6 March 1950, In 1957, she was awarded The George Eastman Award, given by George Eastman House for distinguished contribution to the art of film."Awards granted by George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120415183637weblink |date=15 April 2012 }}. George Eastman House. Retrieved 30 April 2012.In November 1983, she was made a Commander of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star by order of King Carl XVI Gustaf, the King of Sweden.For her contributions to cinema, in 1960, she was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6901 Hollywood Boulevard.She was once designated the most beautiful woman who ever lived by the Guinness Book of World Records.PETRUCELLI>FIRST=ALAN W.URL=HTTP://WWW.POSTGAZETTE.COM/PG/07252/815281-37.STMNEWSPAPER=PITTSBURGH POST-GAZETTETITLE=GRETA GARBO RETURNSACCESSDATE=25 JULY 2010DATE=2 NOVEMBER 2005ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.IS/20120715161505/HTTP://EN.EPOCHTIMES.COM/NEWS/5-11-2/34045.HTMLDF=DMY-ALL, CALLAHAN>FIRST=DANURL=HTTP://WWW.SLANTMAGAZINE.COM/DVD/REVIEW/GARBO-THE-SIGNATURE-COLLECTION/746NEWSPAPER=SLANT MAGAZINE, 7 September 2005, Garbo appears on a number of postage stamps, and in September 2005, the United States Postal Service and Swedish Posten jointly issued two commemorative stamps bearing her image.NEWS, Healey, Matthew, Arts, Briefly; Another Garbo Role,weblink 17 July 2010, The New York Times, 17 September 2005, PRESS RELEASE, Greta Garbo Has Starring Role on U.S. Postal Stamp, United States Postal Service, 25 June 2012,weblink 30 September 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051017193908weblink">weblink 17 October 2005, ...the U.S. Postal Service and Sweden Post jointly issued two commemorative postage stamps bearing her likeness. Both stamps, issued near what would have been her 100th birthday, are engravings based on a 1932 photograph..., JOURNAL, William J., Gicker, 2006, Greta Garbo 37¢, USA Philatelic, 11, 3, 12, On 6 April 2011, Sveriges Riksbank announced that Garbo's portrait was to be featured on the 100-krona banknote, beginning in 2014–2015.WEB, Sweden's new banknotes and coins,weblink 6 April 2011, Sveriges Riksbank, Stockholm, 6 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927172146weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, dmy-all,

Garbo in Literature

Author Ernest Hemingway provided an imaginary portrayal of Garbo in his 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls:

Filmography{|class"wikitable sortable"|+ Silent films

! scope="col" style="width:4%;"|Year! scope="col" style="width:20%;"|Title! scope="col" style="width:17%;"|Role! scope="col" style="width:12%;"|Director! scope="col" style="width:12%;"|Co-star! class="unsortable" scope="col" style="width:35%;"|Notes|1920|Mr. and Mrs. Stockholm Go Shopping|Elder sister||"Greta Garbo's first performance: a commercial."}}, 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2012. This clip also features other "Garbo commercials" from 1920–21. is often known as How Not to Dress. The commercial premiered on 12 December 1920.THE SAGA OF GOSTA BERLING>URL=HTTP://WWW.KINO.COM/VIDEO/ITEM.PHP?PRODUCT_ID=943MEDIUM=DVDKINO INTERNATIONAL (COMPANY)>KINO INTERNATIONAL738329046927, |location=New York}}|1921The Gay Cavalier
HURLBURT, ROGERURL=HTTP://ARTICLES.SUN-SENTINEL.COM/1990-04-16/NEWS/9001030245_1_GRETA-GARBO-GRETA-LOVISA-GUSTAFSSON-GOSTA-BERLINGNEWSPAPER=SUN-SENTINEL, 14 April 2017, |Garbo played an extra.||1921|Our Daily Bread|Companion|||1922|Peter the Tramp|Greta|||1924|The Saga of Gosta Berling|Elizabeth Dohna|1925|The Joyless Street|Greta Rumfort|1926Torrent (1926 film)>Torrent
|Leonora Morenoaka La Brunna|1926|The Temptress|ElenaIrving Thalberg, who fired him.|1926|Flesh and the Devil|Felicitas|1927Love (1927 American film)>Love|Anna KareninaAnna Karenina by Tolstoy|1928|The Divine Woman|Marianne|1928|The Mysterious Lady|Tania Fedorova|1928|A Woman of Affairs|Diana Merrick FurnessLewis Stone, who, with the exception of Wild Orchids, played secondary roles.|1929Wild Orchids (1929 film)>Wild Orchids|Lillie Sterling|1929A Man's Man (1929 film)>A Man's Man|HerselfJohn Gilbert (actor)>John Gilbert make cameo appearances; this film is lost.|1929|The Single Standard|Arden Stuart Hewlett|1929The Kiss (1929 film)>The Kiss|Irene Guarry{|class="wikitable sortable"|+ Sound films! scope="col" style="width:4%;"|Year! scope="col" style="width:20%;"|Title! scope="col" style="width:17%;"|Role! scope="col" style="width:12%;"|Director! scope="col" style="width:12%;"|Co-star! class="unsortable" scope="col" style="width:35%;"|Notes|1930Anna Christie (1930 English-language film)>Anna Christie|Anna ChristieAcademy Award for Best Actress|1930Romance (1930 film)>Romance|Madame Rita CavalliniAcademy Award for Best Actress|1930Anna Christie (1931 film)>Anna Christie|Anna ChristieAnna Christie was also released in 1930; Salka Viertel, Garbo's close friend, later co-wrote several of her screenplays.|1931Inspiration (1931 film)>Inspiration|Yvonne Valbret|1931|Susan Lenox (Her Fall and Rise)|Susan Lenox|1931Mata Hari (1931 film)>Mata Hari|Mata HariGrand Hotel, Garbo's highest-grossing film|1932Grand Hotel (1932 film)>Grand Hotel|Grusinskaya|1932As You Desire Me (film)>As You Desire Me|Zara aka Marie|1933Queen Christina (film)>Queen ChristinaChristina, Queen of Sweden>Queen Christina|1934The Painted Veil (1934 film)>The Painted Veil|Katrin Koerber Fane|1935Anna Karenina (1935 film)>Anna Karenina|Anna KareninaNew York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress|1936Camille (1936 film)>CamilleThe Lady of the Camellias>Marguerite GautierNew York Film Critics Circle Award for Best ActressNational Board of Review of Motion Pictures>National Board of Review Best Acting AwardNominated – Academy Award for Best Actress|1937Conquest (1937 film)>Conquest|Countess Marie Walewska|1939|Ninotchka|Nina Ivanovna "Ninotchka" YakushovaNational Board of Review Award for Best Actress>National Board of Review Best Acting AwardNominated – Academy Award for Best Actress Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress|1941|Two-Faced Woman|Karin Borg BlakeNational Board of Review>National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Best Acting Award

Public collections

See also

  • (:Category:Cultural depictions of Greta Garbo)
  • (:Category:Images of Greta Garbo)

References

Informational notes{{notelist}}Citations{{Reflist|colwidth=30em|refs={{Harvnb|Biery|1928a|p=}}. When I wasn't thinking, wasn't wondering what it was all about, this living; I was dreaming. Dreaming how I could become a player.{{Harvnb|Biery|1928a|p=}}. I hated school. I hated the bonds they put on me. There were so many things outside. I liked history best, but I was afraid of the map—geography you call it. But I had to go to school like other children. The public school, just as you have in this country.{{Harvnb|Biery|1928a|p=}}. I didn't play much. Except skating and skiing and throwing snowballs. I did most of my playing by thinking. I played a little with my brother and sister, pretending we were in shows. Like other children. But usually, I did my own pretending. I was up and down. Very happy one moment, the next moment – there was nothing left for me.{{Harvnb|Biery|1928a|p=}}. Then I found a theater. I must have been six or seven. Two theaters, really. One was a cabaret; one a regular theater, – across from one another. And there was a back porch to both of them. A long plank on which the actors and actresses walked to get in the back door. I used to go there at seven o'clock in the evening, when they would be coming in, and wait until eight-thirty. Watch them come in; listen to them getting ready. The big back door was always open even in the coldest weather. Listen to their voices doing their parts in the productions. Smell the greasepaint! There is no smell in the world like the smell of the backyard of a theater. No smell that will mean as much to me—ever. Night after night, I sat there dreaming. Dreaming when I would be inside—getting ready.{{Harvnb|Biery|1928c|p=}}. Mr. Stiller is an artist. He does not understand the American factories. He has always made his own pictures in Europe, where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio. He does not understand the American Business. He could speak no English. So he was taken off the picture. It was given to Mr. Niblo. How I was broken to pieces, nobody knows. I was so unhappy I did not think I could go on.BOOK, John Mason, Brown, The worlds of Robert E. Sherwood: Mirror to His Times, 1896–1939,weblink 20 July 2010, 1965, Harper & Row, New York, 978-0-313-20937-6, I want to go on record as saying that Greta Garbo in The Temptress knocked me for a loop. I had seen Miss Garbo once before, in The Torrent. I had been mildly impressed by her visual effectiveness. In The Temptress, however, this effectiveness proves positively devastating. She may not be the best actress on the screen. I am powerless to formulate an opinion on her dramatic technique. But there is no room for argument as to the efficacy of her allure... [She] qualifies herewith as the official Dream Princess of the Silent Drama Department of Life., BOOK, Conway, Michael, McGregor, Dion, Ricci, Markyear=1968location=Secaucus, NJaccessdate=20 July 2010isbn=978-0-86369-552-0, Harriette Underhill in the New York Herald Tribune: 'This is the first time we have seen Miss Garbo and she is a delight to the eyes! We may also add that she is a magnetic woman and a finished actress. In fact, she leaves nothing to be desired. Such a profile, such grace, such poise, and most of all, such eyelashes. They swish the air at least a half-inch beyond her languid orbs. Miss Garbo is not a conventional beauty, yet she makes all other beauties seem a little obvious.{{'-, }}BOOK, D'Amico, Silvio, Enciclopedia dello spettacolo, 1962, Casa editrice Le Maschere, Rome, Italian,weblink 25 July 2010, 901, BOOK, Roland, Flaminiurl=https://books.google.com/?id=A3pZAAAAMAAJdate=22 February 1994location=New York, 978-0-517-58640-2, BOOK, Forrest, Jennifer, Koos, Leonard R., Dead Ringers: The Remake in Theory and Practice, SUNY Series, Cultural Studies in Cinema/Video, 2002, State University of New York Press, Albany, 978-0-7914-5169-4,weblink 25 July 2010, 151–152, BOOK, Furhammar, Leif, Svenska filminstitutet, Filmen i Sverige: en historia i tio kapitel, 1991, Wiken, Höganäs, Swedish, 978-91-7119-517-3,weblink 24 July 2010, 129, BOOK, Eve, Golden, Golden images: 41 essays on silent film stars,weblink 20 July 2010, 2001, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 978-0-7864-0834-4, 106, NEWS, Hall, Hadaunt, A New Swedish Actress,weblink 20 July 2010, The New York Times, 22 February 1926, In this current effort Greta Garbo, a Swedish actress, who is fairly well known in Germany, makes her screen bow to American audiences. As a result of her ability, her undeniable prepossessing appearance and her expensive taste in fur coats, she steals most of the thunder in this vehicle, NEWS, Hall, Morduant, The Temptress Another Ibanez Story,weblink 20 July 2010, The New York Times, 11 October 1926, BOOK, Lea, Jacobs, The Decline of Sentiment: American Film in the 1920s,weblink 20 July 2010, 2 April 2008, University of California Press, Berkeley, 978-0-520-25457-2, 258–9, BOOK, George A., Katchmer, Eighty Silent Film Stars: Biographies and Filmographies of the Obscure to the Well Known,weblink 20 July 2010, 1991, McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 978-0-89950-494-0, 193, BOOK, Kellow, Brian, The Bennetts: An Acting Family, November 2004, University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, 978-0-8131-2329-5,weblink 25 July 2010, 338, BOOK, Richard, Koszarski, An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915–1928, History of the American Cinema,weblink 20 July 2010, 4 May 1994, University of California Press, Berkeley, 978-0-520-08535-0, 253, JOURNAL, Greta Garbo, Lektyr, 17 January 1931, 9, 3, Swedish, BOOK, Limbacher, James L., Four Aspects of the Film, Aspects of film, 1968, Brussel & Brussel, New York, 978-0-405-11138-9,weblink 17 July 2010, 219, {{Harvnb|NYTimes|1936}}. For the first time since she achieved international eminence in the motion-picture world, Miss Garbo granted an interview to the press and received the reporters en masse in the smoking lounge while the ship was at Quarantine.NEWS, Greta Garbo Honored, The New York Times, 17, 3 November 1983,weblink 25 July 2010, Greta Garbo was made a Commander of the Swedish Order of the North Star yesterday by order of King Carl XVI Gustaf, the King of Sweden. The private ceremony in the New York home of Mrs. Jane Gunther was also attended by Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Gruson. The honor, extended only to foreigners, was presented to Miss Garbo by Count Wilhelm Wachtmeister, the Swedish Ambassador to the United States, in recognition of the actress's distinguished service to Sweden. Miss Garbo, born in Stockholm, is now an American citizen., BOOK, Reid, John Howard, Cinemascope 3: Hollywood Takes the Plunge, January 2006, Lulu Press, Morrisville, NC, 978-1-4116-7188-1,weblink 25 July 2010, 44, BOOK, Rafael J., Rivera-Viruet, Max, Resto, Hollywood... Se Habla Español: Hispanics in Hollywood Films ... Yesterday, today and tomorrow,weblink 20 July 2010, 2008, Terramax Entertainment, New York, 978-0-9816650-0-9, 31–37, BOOK, Sjölander, Ture, Garbo,weblink 24 July 2010, 1971, Harper & Row, New York, 978-0-06-013926-1, 12–13, WEB,weblink Garbo: A TCM Original Documentary, Turner Classic Movies, 12 November 2009, 24 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113201856weblink">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, BOOK, Thomsen, Bodil Marie, Filmdivaer: Stjernens figur i Hollywoods melodrama 1920–40, Copenhagen, 978-87-7289-397-6,weblink 20 July 2010, 129, NEWS, The Torrent Review,weblink 20 July 2010, Variety, 1 January 1926, Greta Garbo, making her American debut as a screen star, has everything with looks, acting ability, and personality. When one is a Scandinavian and can put over a Latin characterization with sufficient power to make it most convincing, need there be any more said regarding her ability? She makes The Torrent worthwhile., BOOK, Vieira, Mark A., Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer Prince, 15 November 2009, 67, University of California Press, Berkeley, 978-0-520-26048-1,weblink 22 July 2010, harv, BOOK, Alexander, Walker, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Garbo: A Portrait,weblink 20 July 2010, October 1980, Macmillan, New York, 978-0-02-622950-0, 41, BOOK, Ware, Susan, Braukman, Stacy Lorraine, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary: Completing the Twentieth Century, 2004, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 978-0-674-01488-6,weblink 24 July 2010, 227–228, BOOK, Hans J., Wollstein, Strangers in Hollywood: The History of Scandinavian Actors in American Films from 1910 to World War II,weblink 20 July 2010, 1994, Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, NJ, 978-0-8108-2938-1, 95, BOOK, Zierold, Norman J., Garbo, 1969, Stein and Day, New York, 978-0-8128-1212-1,weblink 20 July 2010, 164, {{-', Greta Garbo vitalizes the name part of this picture. She is the Temptress. Her tall, swaying figure moves Cleopatra-ishly from delirious Paris to the virile Argentine. Her alluring mouth and volcanic, slumbrous eyes enfire men to such passion that friendships collapse.' Dorothy Herzog, New York Mirror (1926):}}}}

Bibliography and further reading

  • BOOK, Bainbridge, John, Garbo, 1955, Doubleday, Garden City, NY, 1st, 1215789,weblink 22 July 2010, 256 pages, y, harv,
    • BOOK, Bainbridge, John, 2, Garbo, 1971, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1st, reissued, 978-0-03-085045-5,weblink 22 July 2010, 320 pages, y, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Bainbridge, John, The Great Garbo, Life (magazine), Life, 10 January 1955a,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Bainbridge, John, The Great Garbo: Part Two: Greta's Haunted Path to Stardom, Life (magazine), Life, 17 January 1955b,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Bainbridge, John, The Great Garbo: Part Three: The Braveness to Be Herself, Life (magazine), Life, 24 January 1955c,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • NEWS, Greta Garbo Dies at Age 84,weblink The Washington Post, 16 April 1990, Bart, Barnes, CITEREFBarnes1990,
  • JOURNAL, Biery, Ruth, The Story of Greta Garbo As Told By her to Ruth Biery, Chapter I, Photoplay, April 1928a,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Biery, Ruth, The Story of Greta Garbo As Told By her to Ruth Biery, Chapter II, Photoplay, May 1928b,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Biery, Ruth, The Story of Greta Garbo As Told By her to Ruth Biery, Chapter III, Photoplay, June 1928c,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • BOOK, Borg, Sven Hugo, Sven Hugo Borg, The Only True Story of Greta Garbo's Private Life
publisher=Amalgamated Pressurl=http://www.greta-garbo.de/private-life-of-greta-garbo-by-sven-hugo-borgref=harv,
  • BOOK, Broman, Sven, Conversations with Greta Garbo, 1990, Viking Press, Penguin Group, New York, 978-0670842773,weblink
  • BOOK, Carr, Larry, Four Fabulous Faces: The Evolution and Metamorphosis of Swanson, Garbo, Crawford and Dietrich, 1970, Doubleday and Company, 0-87000-108-6,
  • BOOK, Chandler, Charlotte, Charlotte Chandler, I Know Where I'm Going: Katharine Hepburn, A Personal Biography, 2010, Simon & Schuster, New York,weblink 978-1-4391-4928-7, 119, 21 August 2011, harv,
  • BOOK, Crafton, Donald, The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926–1931, History of American Cinema, 1999, University of California Press, 978-0-520-22128-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Krutzen, Michaela, The Most Beautiful Woman on the Screen: The Fabrication of the Star Greta Garbo, 1992, Peter Lang, New York, 3-631-42412-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Laramie, Moon, Spirit of Garbo,weblink 20 July 2019, 2018, Martin Firrell Company Ltd, London, 978-1-912622-02-3, harv,
  • NEWS, LaSalle, Mick, Mick LaSalle, 6 July 2005,weblink Interview with John Gilbert's daughter, Leatrice Gilbert Fountain, San Francisco Chronicle,
  • Italo Moscati, "Greta Garbo, diventare star per sempre", Edizioni Sabinae, Roma, 2010.
  • NEWS, Greta Garbo Back – A Bit Less Aloof: Film Star, Still Showing the Effects of Illness, Consents to 10-Minute interview, The New York Times, 4 May 1936,weblink 12 July 2010, CITEREFNYTimes1936,
  • NEWS, Greta Garbo, 84, Screen Icon Who Fled Her Stardom, Dies, The New York Times, 16 April 1990,weblink 22 July 2010, CITEREFNYTimes1990,
  • BOOK, Palmborg, Rilla Page, The Private Life of Greta Garbo, 1931, Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc, Garden City, NY, 978-90-00-00721-9,weblink 22 July 2010, harv,
  • BOOK, Paris, Barry, Garbo, 1994, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 978-0-8166-4182-6, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Ricci, Stefania, Greta Garbo: The Mystery of Style, Milan, Skira Editore, 2010, 978-88-572-0580-9, harv,
  • Sarris, Andrew. (1998). You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet: The American Talking Film – History and Memory, 1927–1949. Oxford University Press. New York, New York. {{ISBN|0-19-513426-5}}
  • BOOK, Schanke, Robert A., 2003, "That Furious Lesbian": The Story of Mercedes de Acosta, Southern Illinois University Press, 0-8093-2511-X,
  • BOOK, Souhami, Diana, Greta and Cecil,weblink 24 July 2010, 1994, Harper, San Francisco, 978-0-06-250829-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Swenson, Karen, Greta Garbo: A life Apart,weblink 1997, Scribner, New York, 978-0-684-80725-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Vickers, Hugo, Loving Garbo: The Story of Greta Garbo, Cecil Beaton, and Mercedes de Acosta, 1994, Random House, New York, 978-0-679-41301-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Vickers, Hugo, Cecil Beaton: The Authorised Biography, 2002, Phoenix Press, London, 978-1-84212-613-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Vieira, Mark A., Irving Thalberg: Boy Wonder to Producer, 2009, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 978-0-520-26048-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Vieira, Mark A., Greta Garbo: A Cinematic Legacy, 2005, Harry A. Abrams, New York, 978-0-8109-5897-5, harv,

External links

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