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{{short description|Prominent person or group who commands some degree of public fascination and appears in the media}}{{other uses}}{{merge from|Celebrity privacy|discuss=Talk:Celebrity#Proposed merge with Celebrity Privacy|date=November 2018}}{{tone|date=December 2018}}{{use mdy dates|date=October 2012}}File:Andy Warhol 1975.jpg|thumb|Andy Warhol coined the phrase "15 minutes of fame15 minutes of fameCelebrity is the fame and public attention accorded by the mass media to individuals or groups or, occasionally, animals, but is usually applied to the persons or groups of people (celebrity couples, families, etc.) themselves who receive such a status of fame and attention. Celebrity status is often associated with wealth (commonly referred to as fame and fortune), while fame often provides opportunities to earn revenue.Successful careers in sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status,NEWS, I want to be famous,weblink Celebbuzz, April 17, 2010, November 17, 2011, London, Emma, Brockes, NEWS, Western world kids want to grow up to be famous,weblink News1130, November 28, 2011, December 25, 2011, Vancouver, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2012, mdy, while political leaders often become celebrities. People may also become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person.


Athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, and received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement.BOOK, Ancient Greek Athletics, Miller, Stephen, Yale University Press, 2004, 0-300-11529-6, Ancient Rome similarly lauded actors and notorious gladiators, and Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime (a departure from the usual depiction of battles and divine lineage).WEB,weblink A brief history of celebrity, April 4, 2003, June 8, 2014, BBC News, BBC, In the early 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years. In a pattern often repeated, what started out as an explosion of popularity (often referred to with the suffix 'mania') turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became instantly fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films.The cult of personality (particularly in the west) can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century,BOOK, A Short History of Celebrity, Inglis, Fred, Princeton University Press, 2010, 9780691135625, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation. The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example, London and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns WEB,weblink Concise History of the British Newspaper in the Nineteenth Century, British Library, and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity.The movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and with it the now familiar concept of the instantly recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting out as a medium. As Paul McDonald states in The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries."BOOK, The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities, McDonald, Paul, Wallflower, 2000, 978-1-903364-02-4, Great Britain, 15, Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of movie stars and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of Elizabeth Taylor and in Bollywood the affairs of Raj Kapoor in the 1950s.The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by Elvis Presley and the Beatles, respectively. John Lennon's highly controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than Jesus now,"NEWS,weblink London Evening Standard, 1966, Cleave, Maureen, How does a beatle live, which he later insisted was not a boast, and that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ,{{sfn|Miles|1997|p=295}} gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors; for example, presenters, talk show hosts, and news readers. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, and only a few such as Oprah Winfrey, Jerry Springer, or David Frost could be said to have broken through into wider stardom.In the '60s and early '70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing. In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would then be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows.BOOK, Another Life: A Memoir of Other People, Korda, Michael, Simon & Schuster, 9780679456599,

Regional and cultural implications

File:Lydia Canaan in Concert.jpg|right|thumb|Lydia Canaan, first rock star of the Middle EastMiddle EastCultures and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, which is French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television, movie and music celebrities. A person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another. Some nationwide celebrities might command some attention outside their own nation; for example, the singer Lara Fabian is widely known in the French-speaking world, but only had a couple of Billboard hits in the U.S., whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States.Regions within a country, or cultural communities (linguistic, ethnic, or religious) can also have their own celebrity systems, especially in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, newscasters, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities.In politics, certain politicians are recognizable to many people, usually the head of state and the Prime Minister. Yet only heads of state who play a major role in international politics have a good chance of becoming famous outside their country's borders, since they are constantly featured in mass media. The President of the United States, for instance, is famous by name and face to millions of people around the world. Since World War II the U.S. Presidential elections are followed closely all across the globe, making the elected candidate instantly world-famous as a result. In contrast, both the Pope and The Dalai Lama are far more famous under their official title than under their actual names. Usually when politicians leave active politics their recognizability tends to diminish among general audiences, as other politicians replace them in their official political functions. Certain politicians, however, are still famous today, even decades or centuries after they were in power. They owe their fame to historical deeds which are kept in memory in history classes, for instance people like Julius Caesar, Genghis Khan, Napoleon Bonaparte, Abraham Lincoln and Mao Zedong. Scandal can also unwillingly make certain politicians famous, even among those who are not particularly interested in politics.English-speaking media commentators and journalists will sometimes refer to celebrities as belonging to the A-List or state that a certain actor belongs to the B-List, the latter being a disparaging context. These informal rankings indicate a placing within a hierarchy. However, due to differing levels of celebrity in different regions, it is difficult to place people within one bracket. A Brazilian actor might be a B-list action film actor in the U.S., but an A-list star in Portugal.Some elements are associated with fame, such as appearing on the cover of Time, being spoofed in Mad, having a wax statue in Madame Tussauds, or receiving a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Certain people are known even to people unfamiliar with the area in which they assembled their fame. If one has to name a famous boxer, they are more likely to name Muhammad Ali or Mike Tyson, since their fame expanded beyond the sport itself and appealed not just to followers of the sport but also outsiders to the area. Pablo Picasso's style and name are known even to people who are not interested in art; likewise many know that Harry Houdini was an illusionist, Tiger Woods a golfer, Richard Branson and Bill Gates are entrepreneurs, Albert Einstein a scientist; Mozart and Beethoven classical composers; Luciano Pavarotti an opera singer, Bruce Lee a martial artist, William Shakespeare a playwright, Walt Disney an animator and Yuri Gagarin and Neil Armstrong astronauts though they did not all excel in the same area.Criminals can also become world-famous if the media cover their crimes, arrest, trial and possible punishment extensively and/or if the crime itself is sensational enough. Assassins of high-profile celebrities can become famous, like Brutus who is remembered for murdering Julius Caesar. People who commit extremely gruesome crimes can also achieve infamy, such as Nazi doctor Josef Mengele. Certain criminals have achieved lasting fame thanks to romanticization in popular culture, such as Guy Fawkes, Blackbeard, Billy the Kid and Bonnie & Clyde. Others owe their fame to never being identified or caught, like Jack the Ripper, or by regularly being interviewed in jail, like Charles Manson. However, certain criminals are covered far less extensively in media and, as such, do not become very famous at all. In other cases the huge media coverage disappears after the conclusion of their trial, causing them to fade in obscurity again. This has even happened to people who commit high-profile crimes, like François Ravaillac whose murder of Henry IV of France in 1610 is nowadays only remembered by people with historic knowledge. In some cases people who've been acquitted of certain crimes are still remembered as being guilty today, like Lizzie Borden, showing that the sensation occasionally overshadows the actual facts.

Fictional implications

The same phenomenon is true for fictional characters. Sherlock Holmes, Dracula, Frankenstein's Monster and James Bond continue to be portrayed in film, television and literature decades after the original stories were published. Superman, Spider-Man, The Hulk, Wonder Woman, and Batman represent super heroes to a far wider audience than that of the comics and graphic novels in which they appear. The same can be said about other comics characters which enjoy international distribution and syndication such as Popeye, Tintin, Snoopy, Astérix, Garfield and Astro Boy. Disney have theme parks around the world which rely on the fame of its creations headed by Mickey Mouse. Thanks to the global reach of film and television characters like King Kong, Godzilla, The Flintstones, The Muppets and The Simpsons are instantly recognizable to millions. Certain fictional characters known from TV series have become so famous that their names are more well known than those of the actors who perform them. A good example is Larry Hagman who played J.R. Ewing on the TV series Dallas. When his character was shot during a cliffhanger episode without the viewers knowing who was the killer, it caused a media hype around the question: Who Shot J.R.?. By the time the answer was given in the first episode of the next season millions of people instantly recognized Hagman's face as J.R. rather than that of himself. Some characters from video and computer games have developed a celebrity life beyond these media, such as Mario, Lara Croft and Pikachu. Certain advertising characters have also become iconic thanks to decades of constant merchandising, such as Ronald McDonald, Bibendum and Hello Kitty.

Becoming a celebrity

File:The Chief Guest and renowned actor Shahrukh Khan addressing at the inauguration of the 38th International Film Festival of India (IFFI-2007) at Panaji, Goa on November 23, 2007.jpg|alt=|thumb|Shah Rukh KhanShah Rukh KhanPeople may become celebrities in a wide range of ways; from their professions, following appearances in the media, or by complete accident. The term "instant celebrity" describes someone who becomes a celebrity in a very short period of time. Someone who achieves a small amount of transient fame (through, say, hype or mass media) may become labeled a "B-grade celebrity". Often, the generalization extends to someone who falls short of mainstream or persistent fame but who seeks to extend or exploit it.


There are, of course, no guarantees of success for an individual to become a celebrity. Though celebrities come from many different working fields, most celebrities are typically associated with the fields of sports and entertainment, or a person may be a public figure who is commonly recognizable in mass media with commercial and critical acclaim.Though glamour and wealth may certainly play a role for only famous celebrities, most people in the sports and entertainments spheres, be it music, film, television, radio, modelling, comedy, literature etc. live in obscurity and only a small percentage achieve fame and fortune.WEB, Book of Odds (View Profile),weblink Odds of Becoming a YouTube Celebrity, DivineCaroline, 2011-12-27, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 2, 2012, mdy, NEWS, Boxall, Natalie,weblink Making it in the music industry | Money, The Guardian, May 30, 2007, 2011-12-27, London, NEWS, White, Alison,weblink Live Q&A: Career options in the music industry | Guardian careers |,, 2011-07-30, 2011-12-27, London, WEB,weblink Chances of Making it to the NHL,, 2002-04-01, 2011-12-27, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 19, 2011, mdy, Outside of the sports and entertainment sphere, the top inventors, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and scientists, etc. are unlikely to become celebrities even if they are enormously successful in their field due to society's disinterest in science, invention, medicine, and courtroom law which is not fictional. American microbiologist Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other medical scientist of the 20th century.NEWS, Maurice R. Hilleman, 85; Scientist Developed Many Vaccines That Saved Millions of Lives, Maugh, Thomas H. II, Los Angeles Times, 2005-04-13,weblink 2010-10-20, After Hilleman's death Ralph Nader wrote, "Yet almost no one knew about him, saw him on television, or read about him in newspapers or magazines. His anonymity, in comparison with Madonna, Michael Jackson, Jose Canseco, or an assortment of grade B actors, tells something about our society's and media's concepts of celebrity; much less of the heroic."NEWS,weblink 2009-11-13, 2005-04-16, Nader, Ralph, Scientists or celebrities?, Counterpunch,


File:David Letterman 2.jpg|thumb|David Letterman, comedian and former American late night talk show host]]A number of athletes who are unable to turn professional take a second job or even sometimes abandon their athletic aspirations in order to make ends meet. A small percentage of entertainers and athletes are able to make a decent living but a vast majority will spend their careers toiling from hard work, determination, rejection, and frequent unemployment. For minor league to amateur athletes, earnings are usually on the lower end of the pay-scale. Many of them take second jobs on the side or even venture into other occupations within the field of sports such as coaching, general management, refereeing, or recruiting and scouting up-and-coming athletes.WEB, E. James Beale,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, February 25, 2013, What Does It Take to Make the NBA? :: Cover Story :: Article :: Philadelphia City Paper,, 2011-12-27, mdy-all,

Becoming a celebrity in the U.S.

The Screen Actors Guild, a union representing actors and actresses throughout Hollywood reports that the average television and film actor earns less than US$50,000 annually; the median hourly wage for actors was $18.80 in May 2015.NEWS, Actors,weblink U.S. Bureau of Labor Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2015 Edition, May 4, 2016, WEB,weblink An Actor's Life,, 2011-12-12, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2012, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Career Information – Actors, Producers, and Directors,, 2011-12-12, Actors sometimes alternate between theater, television, and film or even branch into other occupations within the entertainment industry such as becoming a singer, comedian, producer, or a television host in order to be monetarily diversified, as doing one gig pays comparatively very little. For instance, David Letterman is well known for branching into late night television as a talk show host while honing his skills as a stand-up comedian, Barbra Streisand ventured into acting while operating as a singer, or Clint Eastwood, who achieved even greater fame in Hollywood for being a film director and a producer than for his acting credentials.According to American entertainment magnate Master P, entertainers and professional athletes make up less than 1% of all millionaires in the entire world.WEB,weblink P. Miller, Formerly Master P, Says: "If You Have a Computer and $500, I Can Show You How to Make Millions", Marketwire, October 22, 2008, 30 July 2013, Less than 1% of all runway models are known to make more than US$1000 for every fashion showcase. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median wage for commercial and print models was only $11.22 per hour in 2006 and was also listed one of the top ten worst jobs in the United States.NEWS, Mantell, Ruth, The 10 worst jobs in America: Low pay, no benefits put these workers in a tough spot, MarketWatch, Dow Jones, November 1, 2007,weblink 2008-01-31,


Forbes Celebrity 100

Forbes Magazine releases an annual Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the highest paid celebrities in the world. The total earnings for all top celebrity 100 earners totaled $4.5 billion over the course of 2010 alone.For instance, Forbes ranked media mogul and talk show host, Oprah Winfrey as the top earner "Forbes magazine’s annual ranking of the most powerful celebrities", with earnings of $290 million in the past year. Forbes cites that Lady Gaga reportedly earned over $90 million in 2010.NEWS, Lady Gaga Tops Celebrity 100 List,weblink Forbes, May 16, 2011, November 17, 2011, Dorothy, Pomerantz, In 2010, golfer Tiger Woods was one of highest-earning celebrity athletes, with an income of $75 million and is consistently ranked one of the highest paid athletes in the world. In 2013, Madonna was ranked as the fifth most powerful and the highest earning celebrity of the year with earnings of $125 million. She has consistently been among the most powerful and highest earning celebrities in the world, occupying the third place in Forbes Celebrity 100 2009 with $110 million of earnings, and getting the tenth place in the 2010 edition of the list with annual earnings equal to $58 million.NEWS, Madonna highest earning celebrity of 2013,weblink Forbes, August 26, 2013, October 13, 2013, Dorothy, Pomerantz,

Entrepreneurship and endorsements

File:LeBron James (1).jpg|thumb|LeBron James has endorsement contracts with Nike, Sprite, Glacéau, Bubblicious, Upper Deck, McDonald's and State FarmState FarmCelebrity endorsements have proven very successful around the world where, due to increasing consumerism, an individual is considered to own a status symbol when they purchase a celebrity-endorsed product{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}}. Although it has become commonplace for celebrities to place their name with endorsements onto products just for quick money, some celebrities have gone beyond merely using their names and have put their entrepreneurial spirit to work by becoming entrepreneurs by attaching themselves in the business aspects of entertainment and building their own business brand beyond their traditional salaried activities. Along with investing their salaried wages into growing business endeavors, a number of celebrities have become innovative business leaders in their respective industries, gaining the admiration of their peers and contributing to the country's economy.Numerous celebrities have ventured into becoming business moguls and established themselves as entrepreneurs, idolizing many well known American business leaders such as Bill Gates and Warren Buffett. For instance, basketball legend Michael Jordan became an active entrepreneur involved with many sports related ventures including investing a minority stake in the Charlotte Bobcats, Paul Newman started his own salad dressing business after leaving behind a distinguished acting career, and rap musician Birdman started his own record label, clothing line, and an oil business while maintaining a career as a rap artist. Brazilian football legend and World Cup winner Ronaldo became the majority owner of La Liga club Real Valladolid in 2018.NEWS, Ronaldo: Former Brazil striker buys controlling stake in Real Valladolid,weblink 6 September 2018, BBC, Other celebrities such as Tyler Perry, George Lucas, and Steven Spielberg have become successful entrepreneurs through starting their own film production companies and running their own movie studios beyond their traditional activities of screenwriting, directing, animating, producing, and acting.NEWS, Paul Newman Donates Salad Dressing Ownership To Charity,weblink Look to the Stars, June 11, 2008, November 17, 2011, Various examples of celebrity turned entrepreneurs included in the table below are:{| class="wikitable sortable"! Celebrity !! Net worth (2013–14) US$ !! Sources of wealth
Oprah Winfrey > {{gain}} US$2.9 billionHTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/PROFILE/OPRAH-WINFREY >TITLE=OPRAH WINFREY – THE FORBES 400 RICHEST AMERICANS WORK=FORBES, Main sources are television, radio, and film. Additional business holdings in Harpo Productions and the Oprah Winfrey Network (U.S. TV channel) with interests in film, television, magazines, books, motivational speaking, and publishing.AUTHORLINK= TITLE=OPRAH TOPS LIST OF HIGHEST PAID TV STARS QUOTE=OPRAH WINFREY, HOST AND SUPERVISING PRODUCER OF "THE OPRAH WINFREY SHOW," EARNS AN ESTIMATED $260 MILLION A YEAR, ACCORDING TO A LIST IN TV GUIDE MAGAZINE'S JULY 23 ISSUE. ACCESSDATE=2009-08-22 DATE=2008-08-05, Toronto Star,
Madonna (entertainer)>Madonna data-sort-value=2900 | {{gain}} US$1 billionNEWS, More than a Material Girl! Madonna joins the billionaires' club thanks to lucrative MDNA world tour and savvy investments,weblink 29 March 2013, London PUBLISHER=STARPULSE.COM ACCESSDATE=13 APRIL 2014, Main sources of wealth include royalties and proceeds from music, fashion, music touring, film-making, and record production. She founded her own record label, Maverick Records established in the 1990s. Guinness World Records name her as the Best-selling female recording artist of all time selling over 300 million albums in her career. Total record sales of 500,000,000 (over 300,000,000 albums and 200,000,000 singles) also add to her net worth along with her Sticky and Sweet Tour which is the highest grossing solo tour of all time achieving a gross of $408,000,000. The MDNA Tour which is the second highest-grossing tour by any female artist behind Madonna's own Sticky and Sweet tour attracted more than 2.2 million fans and grossed $305 million in ticket sales and an additional $75 million in merchandise sales, adding a lot to her net worth. In the year 2012, she also earned $10 million in TV and DVD rights, $60 million from her perfume line Truth or Dare and made $11 million from the $2 million investment in Vita Coco.
50 Cent > {{gain}} US$140 million>URL=HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/ZACKOMALLEYGREENBURG/2013/03/27/THE-FORBES-FIVE-HIP-HOPS-WEALTHIEST-ARTISTS-2013/ WORK=FORBES ACCESSDATE=2013-10-29, Main sources include music, film, and television. Various external ventures include sports endorsements with Reebok and his clothing company, the G-Unit Clothing Company video games, record labels: G-Unit Records and G-Note Records. Additional holdings in consumer electronics such as SMS Audio headphones, dietary supplements, condoms and Pure 50 RGX Body Spray as a joint venture with Right Guard, beverages that include his Vitamin water drink venture with Glacéau and Street King (drink), fragrances and cosmetics, fashion designing and clothing, video games that (50 Cent: Bulletproof), books, radio, music publishing, television and film production (Cheetah Vision), talent management that includes 50 Cent#Boxing promotion>boxing promotion, real estate investing, and other investments.50 CENT WORK=INTERVIEW MAGAZINE ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 17, 2011,
Jay-Z > {{gain}} US$1 billionARTIST, ICON, BILLIONAIRE: HOW JAY-Z CREATED HIS $1 BILLION FORTUNE>URL=HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/ZACKOMALLEYGREENBURG/2019/06/03/JAY-Z-BILLIONAIRE-WORTH/ACCESSDATE=JULY 1, 2019Roc Nation, Carol's Daughter, the Brooklyn Nets, and more significantly, the Barclays Center itself—while adding new partnerships with the likes of Duracell, Budweiser and Bacardi's D’ussé Cognac.bars and nightclubs, books, clothing line Rocawear, real estate development which includes the Barclay's Center, to which sold his 1.5 million stake in September 2013,HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/MIKEOZANIAN/2013/09/17/JAY-Z-SET-TO-GET-1-5-MILLON-FOR-HIS-BARCLAYS-CENTER-STAKE/ MAGAZINE=FORBES ACCESSDATE=30 OCTOBER 2013 touring (band)>touring, music publishing, casinos, advertising, other investments within his conglomerate (Gain Global Investments LLC).
Sean Combs > {{gain}} US$700 millionHTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/PICTURES/EEEL45EJKJL/1-SEAN-DIDDY-COMBS-700-MILLION// > WORK=1. SEAN "DIDDY" COMBS ($700 MILLION) |Main sources mainly in television, film, and music. Other holdings include the record label Bad Boy Records, fashion designing and the Sean John Clothing Line, namely his deal with Diageo's Ciroc, restaurants, vodka, television production, business education, and fragrances. Combs also has a major equity stake in Revolt TV, a newly launched television network.NEWS, Greenburg, Zack O'Malley, The Forbes Five: Hip-Hop's Wealthiest Artists 2013, April 15, 2013, Forbes, Forbes Publishing,weblink October 25, 2013,
Martha Stewart > {{gain}} US$970 millionMartha Stewart Forbes profile Main sources mainly in radio, television, film, and her conglomerate (company) Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, which includes interests in television production, magazines, cookbooks, and household cooking products. Other products include cookbooks, books and instructional manuals for the home decorator. Remaining sources include internet related ventures, satellite radio show, blogging, publishing, books, and retail merchandising.FROM MODEL TO MOGUL: MARTHA STEWART'S 1956 UNILEVER AD RESURFACES ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WAYBACK.ARCHIVE-IT.ORG/ALL/20121119002959/HTTP://WWW.DAILYMAIL.CO.UK/FEMAIL/ARTICLE-2007906/FROM-MODEL-MOGUL-MARTHA-STEWARTS-1956-UNILEVER-AD-RESURFACES-DOMESTIC-DIVA-REMEMBERS-KICK-STARTING-CAREER-VOGUE.HTML ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 19, 2012 DATE=JUNE 28, 2011 LOCATION=LONDON LAST=MADISON, mdy-all,
Magic Johnson > {{gain}} US$700 millionMILLER >FIRST=MATTHEW TITLE=IN PICTURES: THE WEALTHIEST BLACK AMERICANS – EARVIN "MAGIC" JOHNSON, JR. DATE= URL=HTTPS://WWW.FORBES.COM/SITES/KURTBADENHAUSEN/2010/09/23/AMERICAS-RICHEST-ATHLETES/ WORK=FORBES ACCESSDATE=2011-12-12, Main sources primarily in television and sports. Other holdings include the promotion and theater chain Magic Johnson Theatres, movie studios, food services, sports teams (minority stake in the LA Lakers), and motivational speaking.MAGIC JOHNSON CINEMA BECOMES THE NEW RAVE >ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120126125128/HTTP://WWW.WAVENEWSPAPERS.COM/NEWS/LOCAL/WEST-EDITION/MAGIC-JOHNSON-CINEMA-BECOMES-THE-NEW-RAVE-124680059.HTMLDEAD-URL=YESPUBLISHER=WAVE ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 17, 2011,
Arnold Schwarzenegger > {{gain}} US$100 million–800 millionWILLIAMS >FIRST=LANCE DATE=AUGUST 17, 2003 WORK=SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE URL=HTTP://EXTRATV.WARNERBROS.COM/2011/05/ARNOLD_AND_MARIAS_SURPRISE_SPLIT_HOW_MUCH_IS_AT_STAKE_IN_DIVORCE.PHP PUBLISHER=EXTRATV.WARNERBROS.COM ACCESSDATE=2011-10-09, MATTHEWS >FIRST=MARK TITLE=GOV. SCHWARZENEGGER'S TAX RETURNS RELEASEDDATE=2006-04-15 |Main sources include films and bodybuilding. Minor holdings in various global businesses, restaurants, real estate, Planet Hollywood, and other investments.
Tabloid magazines and talk TV shows bestow a great deal of attention on celebrities. To stay in the public eye and build wealth in addition to their salaried labor, numerous celebrities have participating and branching into various business ventures and endorsements. Many celebrities have participated in many different endorsement opportunities that include: animation, publishing, fashion designing, cosmetics, consumer electronics, household items and appliances, cigarettes, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, hair care, hairdressing, jewelry design, fast food, credit cards, video games, writing, and toys.NEWS, Best And Worst Celebrity Side Businesses,weblink Forbes, July 22, 2009, November 17, 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 18, 2012, mdy-all, In addition to various endorsements, a number of celebrities have been involved with some business and investment related ventures also include: and toddler related items, sports team ownership, fashion retailing, establishments such as restaurants, cafes, hotels, and casinos, movie theaters, advertising and event planning, management related ventures such as sports management, financial services, model management, and talent management, record labels, film production, television production, publishing such as book and music publishing, massage therapy, salons, health and fitness, and real estate.Although some celebrities have achieved additional financial success from various business ventures, the vast majority of celebrities are not successful businesspeople and still rely on salaried labored wages in order to earn a living. Most businesses and investments are well known to have a 90 to 95 percent failure rate within the first five years of operation. Not all celebrities eventually succeed with their own businesses and other related side ventures. Some celebrities either went (wikt:broke|broke) or filed for bankruptcy as result of dabbling with such side businesses or endorsements. Though some might question such a validity since celebrities themselves are already well known, have mass appeal, and are well exposed to the general public. The average entrepreneur who is not well known and reputable to general public does not the same marketing flexibility and status-quo as most celebrities allow and have. Therefore, compared to the average person who starts a business, celebrities already have all the cards and odds stacked in their favor. This means they can have an unfair advantage to expose their business ventures and endorsements and can easily capture a more significant amount of market share than the average entrepreneur.NEWS, 7 Most Embarrassing Celebrity Business Failures,weblink Growthink, 2007, November 17, 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 2, 2011, mdy,

As a mass media phenomenon

File:Kim Kardashian 2017 (cropped).png|thumb|Kim KardashianKim KardashianCelebrities often have fame comparable to royalty. As a result, there is a strong public curiosity about their private affairs. The release of Kim Kardashian's sex tape with rapper Ray J in 2003 brought her to a new level of fame, leading to magazine covers, book deals, and reality TV series.JOURNAL, "Kim Kardashian Superstar Featuring Ray J" 18 U.S.C. 2257 Compliance Records, Hirsch, S, Vivid Entertainment LLC. – 18 U.S.C. 2257 Compliance Records, 2007, WEB,weblink Vivid Entertainment Spends $1-Million To Acquire Notorious Video 'Starring' Sexy Socialite Kim Kardashian And Hip Hop Star Ray J, 2008-10-06, Vivid Entertainment, 2007-02-07, Hip Hop Press, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2008, mdy-all, Celebrities may be resented for their accolades, and the public may have a love/hate relationship with celebrities. Due to the high visibility of celebrities' private lives, their successes and shortcomings are often made very public. Celebrities are alternately portrayed as glowing examples of perfection, when they garner awards, or as decadent or immoral if they become associated with a scandal. When seen in a positive light, celebrities are frequently portrayed as possessing skills and abilities beyond average people; for example, celebrity actors are routinely celebrated for acquiring new skills necessary for filming a role within a very brief time, and to a level that amazes the professionals who train them. Similarly, some celebrities with very little formal education can sometimes be portrayed as experts on complicated issues. Some celebrities have been very vocal with their political views. For example, Matt Damon expressed his displeasure with 2008 US vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin, as well as with the 2011 United States debt-ceiling crisis.NEWS,weblink Matt Damon: Sarah Palin Presidency Would Be Like a 'Really Bad Disney Movie', Fox News, 2008-09-08, 2011-12-27, NEWS, Young, Kevin,weblink Election 2010: Political celebrities – then and now, BBC News, 2010-04-20, 2011-12-27,

Famous for being famous

File:Paris Hilton 2009.jpg|thumb|American socialite Paris Hilton was one of the first celebrities to be described as 'famous for being famous', she has since expanded her brand into a multibillion-dollar empire]]Famous for being famous, in popular culture terminology, refers to someone who attains celebrity status for no particular identifiable reason, or who achieves fame through association with a celebrity.BOOK, Jenkins, Joe, Contemporary moral issues, Heinemann, 2002, 4, illustrated, Examining Religions, 178, 978-0-435-30309-9, The term is a pejorative, suggesting that the individual has no particular talents or abilities.BOOK, Jones, Jen, Being Famous, Capstone Press, 2007, Snap Books: 10 Things You Need to Know about, 20, 978-1-4296-0126-9, Even when their fame arises from a particular talent or action on their part, the term will sometimes still apply if their fame is perceived as disproportionate to what they earned through their own talent or work.{{citation needed|date=November 2014}}The coinages "famesque" and "celebutante" are of similar pejorative gist.

Internet celebrities

Also known as being internet famous, contemporary fame does not always involve a physical red carpet.

Online fame in Asia

A report by BBC highlighted a longtime trend of Asian internet celebrities such as Chinese celebrity Wang Hong (birth name Ling Ling)."Wang Hong: China's online stars making real cash" BBC News. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017. According to BBC, there are two kinds of online celebrities in China—those who create original content, such as Papi Jiang, who is regularly censored by Chinese authorities for cussing in her videos, and those such as Wang Hong and Zhang Dayi, who fall under the second category, as they have clothing and cosmetics businesses on Taobao, China's equivalent of Amazon.

Social networking and video hosting

Most high-profile celebrities participate in social networking and photo or video hosting platforms such as YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat.Murad, Ahmed "The 50 most popular celebs on Twitter", The Sunday Times, February 2, 2009 Social networking sites allow celebrities to communicate directly with their fans, removing the middle-man known as traditional media. Social media humanizes celebrities in a way that arouses public fascination as evident by the success of magazines such as Us Weekly and People Weekly. Celebrity blogging have also spawned stars such as Perez Hilton who is well known for not only blogging, but also outing celebrities.JOURNAL, Peterson, Anne, Spring 2007, Celebrity juice, not from concentrate: Perez Hilton, gossip blogs, and the new star production,weblink Jump Cut, 49, Social media and the rise of the smartphone has changed how celebrities are treated and how people gain the platform of fame. Not everything is as concealed as it was back in old Hollywood because now everything is put out on the internet by fans or even the celebrity themselves. Websites like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube allow people to become a celebrity overnight. For example, Justin Bieber got his start on YouTube by posting videos of him singing and got discovered. All of his fans got direct contact to his content and were able to interact with him on several social media platforms. Social media has substantially changed what it means to be a celebrity. Instagram and YouTube gives regular people an opportunity to become rich and famous all from inside their home. It also gives fans the opportunity to connect with their favorite celebrity without ever meeting them in person. Everything is being shared on social media so it makes it harder for celebrities to live private lives.WEB,weblink How social media has changed what it means to be a celebrity,, 2019-08-08, Social media sites have also contributed to the fame of some celebrities, such as Tila Tequila who became known through MySpace.Trebay, Guy "She's Famous (and So Can You)", The New York Times, October 28, 2007


Another example of celebrity is a family that has notable ancestors or is known for its wealth. In some cases, a well-known family is associated with a particular field. For example, the Kennedy family is associated with US politics; The House of Windsor with royalty; The Hilton and Rothschild families with business; the Jackson family with popular music; and the Osbourne, Chaplin, Kardashian, Baldwin, and Barrymore families with television and film.

Restricted access

Access to celebrities is strictly controlled by their entourage of staff which includes managers, publicists, agents, personal assistants, and bodyguards. Even journalists find it difficult to access celebrities for interviews. An interview with writer and actor Michael Musto cites:Celebrities often hire one or more bodyguards (or close protection officer) to protect themselves and their families from threats ranging from the mundane (intrusive paparazzi photographers or autograph-seeking fans) to serious (assault, kidnapping, assassination, or stalking). The bodyguard travels with the celebrity during professional activities (movie shoots or concerts) and personal activities such as recreation and errands.Celebrities also typically have security staff at their home, to protect them from similar threats.International Association of Close Protection OfficersNEWS, Celebrity-stalking has common threads,weblink ABC, March 26, 2009, November 17, 2011,

Cult of celebrity

15 minutes of fame

{{see also|15 minutes of fame|One-hit wonder}}Andy Warhol famously coined the phrase "15 minutes of fame" in reference to a short-lived publicity. Certain "15 minutes of fame" celebrities can be average people seen with an A-list celebrity, who are sometimes noticed on entertainment news channels such as E! News. These persons are ordinary people becoming celebrities, often based on the ridiculous things they do. "In fact, many reality show contestants fall into this category: the only thing that qualifies them to be on TV is that they're real."Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs of Life in the USA. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006.Certain people are only remembered today because of a movie portrayal, certain story or urban legend surrounding their life and less for their accomplishments. Antonio Salieri was a famous and well-known 18th-century composer, but his fictional portrayal as an antagonist (for example, in the musical and film Amadeus) has been more famous than his music since the end of the 20th century. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and O. J. Simpson are more notorious for their association with murder trials than for their respective movie and sports careers. Centuries after his death, Andrea Mantegna is now better known as the mentor of Leonardo da Vinci than for his own paintings.

Health implications

John Cleese said being famous offers some advantages such as financial wealth and easier access to things that are more difficult for non-famous people to access, such as the ability to more easily meet other famous or powerful people, but that being famous also often comes with the disadvantage of creating the conditions in which the celebrity finds themselves acting, at least temporarily (although sometimes over extended periods of time), in a superficial, inauthentic fashion.John Cleese Speaking at the American School in London (beginning at about 44:25 into the video)Common threats such as stalking have spawned celebrity worship syndrome where a person becomes overly involved with the details of a celebrity's personal life.Schumaker, John F., 'Star Struck' New Internationalist; Issue 363, p34-35, 2p, December 2003 Psychologists have indicated that though many people obsess over glamorous film, television, sport and music stars, the disparity in salaries in society seems to value professional athletes and entertainment industry based professionals.NEWS, Horovitz, Bruce, The good, bad and ugly of America's celeb obsession,weblink USA Today, May 5, 2012, December 19, 2003, WEB, America's Obsession with Celebrities,weblink June 4th 2007,, May 5, 2012, One study found that singers, musicians, actors and athletes die younger on average than writers, composers, academics, politicians and businesspeople, with a greater incidence of cancer and especially lung cancer. However, it was remarked that the reasons for this remained unclear, with theories including innate tendencies towards risk-taking as well as the pressure or opportunities of particular types of fame.NEWS, BBC News,weblink Fame may 'lead to a shorter life', April 18, 2013, November 11, 2013, Furthermore, some have said fame might have negative psychological effects, and may lead to increasingly selfish tendencies and psychopathy.weblink{{vague|date=March 2019}}{{better source|date=March 2019}}Recently, there has been more attention toward the impact celebrities have on health decisions of the population at large.S.J. Hoffman, C. Tan. 2015. “Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors,” Archives of Public Health 73(3): 1-11. {{doi|10.1186/2049-3258-73-3}} It is believed that the public will follow celebrities' health advice to some extent.S.J. Hoffman, C. Tan. 2013. “Why Do So Many People Follow Celebrities’ Medical Advice? A Meta-Narrative Review,” British Medical Journal 347: f7151. {{doi|10.1136/bmj.f7151}}. This can have positive impacts when the celebrities give solid, evidence informed health advice, however it can also have detrimental affects if the health advice is not accurate enough.

See also

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  • Goldman, Jonathan (2011) Modernism Is the Literature of Celebrity. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011. {{ISBN|978-0-292-72339-9}}
  • Grinin, Leonid (2009) "weblink" title="">'People of Celebrity' as a New Social Stratum and Elite". In Hierarchy and Power in the History of Civilizations: Cultural Dimensions (pp. 183–206). Ed. by Leonid E. Grinin and Andrey V. Korotayev. Moscow: KRASAND/Editorial URSS, 2009.
  • BOOK, Miles, Barry, Barry Miles, Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now, 1997, Henry Holt & Company, 978-0-436-28022-1, {{SfnRef, Miles, 1997, }}
  • Schikel, Richard. Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity. New York: Doubleday, 1985. {{ISBN|0-385-12336-1}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Marcus, Sharon, 2019, The Drama of Celebrity,weblink Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 9780691177595, 1059270781, 29 July 2019, . On the history of Sarah Bernhardt, one of the first "global superstars", and her celebrity.,

External links

  • {{commons category-inline|Celebrities}}

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